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Microorganisms And Their Effects On Living Things >> Understand the classification of microorganisms

2. The classification of microorganisms. Five groups of microorganisms

Virus * The smallest of all microorganisms. * Different type of viruses have different shapes (rod-shaped, spherical, cubic or tadpole-shaped). * Every virus has a strand of genetic material, either deoxyribonucleic acid(DNA) or ribonucleic acid (RNA), surrounded by a protein coat.

* Viruses are non-living things because they do not feed, respire, excrete, respond to stimuli or grow. * Viruses are parasitic because they use the materials in the living cells of organisms to reproduce. * Viruses live in the living cells of bacteria, protozoa, fungi, algae, plants and animals. Bacteria * Bacteria are very tiny unicellular organisms. * Bacteria are named and classified according to their shapes. * Bacteria are classified as living things. * Different types of bacteria obtain nutrients in different ways ( autotrophic, parasitic and saprophytic). * Bacteria can reproduce either asexually by binary fission in which a parent cell divides into two identical daughter cells or sexually by conjugation in which DNA is transferred from one bacterium to another through the conjugation tube. * Bacteria are able to survive unfavourable environmental conditions such as extreme temperatures, drought and scarcity of food by forming spores. * Bacteria live in the air, water, soil or food such as living organisms and decaying organic matter. Protozoa * Protozoa are unicellular organisms. * Most protozoa can be seen under the lower powers of a microscope. * Protozoa are of various shapes (round, spherical or spindle-shaped). * Most protozoa are parasitic and feed on other living things. * Most protozoa reproduce only asexually by binary fission, however some reproduce sexually through conjugation (paramecium). * Most protozoa live inside the bodies of other living things, however some live in the sea, fresh water and damp soil. Algae * Algae are microorganisms. * Some algae are unicellular (chlamydomonas) and others are multicellular (seaweeds). * Algae are of various shapes (round, filamentous or colonial). * Algae make their own food by photosynthesis using their chlorophyll. * Algae reproduce asexually by binary fission, fragmentation and spore formation and sexually by conjugation. * Algae live in fresh water, sea water, damp soil and on the barks of trees. Fungi * Fungi can be unicellular (yeast) or multicellular (mushroom). * Fungi are of various shapes, sizes and colours. * A fungal cell is made up of a nucleus containing DNA, a cell wall made of chitin, a cell membrane, cytoplasm and food stores of glycogen granules and oil droplets. * There are two basic structural forms of fungi (multicellular ? fine branching filaments and unicellular ? spherical). * Fungi do not have chlophyll and cannot make their own food and have to feed on other organisms ( saprophytes or parasites). * Fungi reproduce asexually by releasing microscopic spores and by budding and also sexually by conjugation.

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1. Understand the classification of microorganisms 2. The factors that affect the growth of microorganisms 3. Useful microorganisms 4. The harmful effects of microorganisms 5. Understand how diseases spread 6. Ways to prevent infection caused by microorganisms - Note 1 (Form 5) 7. Ways to prevent infection caused by microorganisms - Note 2 (Form 5) 8. Ways to prevent infection caused by microorganisms - Note 3 (Form 5) 9. How diseases caused by microorganisms are treated. 10. Effects of Microorganism on Human Beings and the Balance Nature

3. The factors that affect the growth of microorganisms

. Useful microorganisms

5. The harmful effects of microorganisms.

. Understand how diseases spread

6.1 DISEASES CAUSED BY VIRUS Common cold Dengue fever Hepatitis A, B AIDS 6.2 DISEASES CAUSED BY BACTERIA * Tuberculosis-caused by bacillus bacteria which enter our body through mouth and nose * Cholera-caused by vibrio bacteria * Sexually transmitted diseases:- Syphilis(caused by spryllium bacteria) and gonorrhea(caused by cocus bacteria) 6.3 DISEASES CAUSED BY FUNGI * Pityriasis versicolor * Ringworm * Athlete?s foot * Oral thrush 6.4 DISEASES CAUSED BY PROTOZOA * Malaria * Dysentery * Sleeping sickness . Ways to prevent infection caused by microorganisms.

7.1 Control of Vectors * Vectors are insects or animals that transmit pathogen to human * Control of vectors is an effective way to control the spreading of diseases * Examples of vectors: mosquito, housefly 7.1.1 Control of Mosquitoes * Understanding the life cycle of the Mosquito * Ways to control Mosquito 7.1.1 Control of Mosquitoes * Understanding the life cycle of the Mosquito * Ways to control Mosquito

7.1.2 Control of Houseflies * Understanding the life cycle of the Housefly * Ways to control Housefly

7.2 Sterilization * A process to destroy all form of microorganisms (pathogens and their spores)

* Ensures all things or apparatus free from microorganisms

7.3 Immunisation * Immunity is the ability of one?s body to resist infection caused by pathogen * Immunisation is the process of getting and increasing the immunity

7.3.1 The similarities and differences between Active Immunity and Passive Immunity * Similarity The ability of one?s body to prevent infection * Difference

7.4 Importance of Immunity * Enables humans to protect themselves from infection * Artificial passive immunity is used to treat patients before the disease becomes serious * Vaccination prevents disease to become epidemic * Babies and toddlers are protected from harmful diseases through vaccination

Microorganisms And Their Effects On Living Things >> How diseases caused by microorganisms are treated.

Two ways medical treatment - traditional or modern.

8.1 MODERN TREATMENT * Antibiotic is a chemical substances extracted from living organisms such as streptomycin to treat tuberculosis. Acromycin or tetracyclin can use to treat cholerra. * Synthethic medicine is a chemical substances can be synthesis in the lab. * Antiserum can giving additional antibody for patient * Surgery 8.2 Traditional Treatment * Herbal treatment * Acupuncture and * Yoga or meditation.

Microorganisms And Their Effects On Living Things >> Effects of Microorganism on Human Beings and the Balance Nature

9.0 Effects of Microorganism on Human Beings and the Balance Nature