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Electrics And Information And Communication Technology (ICT) >> Waves

In this chapter, you are expected to; * Understand radio waves * Analyse radio communication * Understand satellite communication * Be ware of the importance of using ICT for the benefit of mankind 1.0 Waves * Waves exist in different forms but they carry energy. * Waves are produced by vibrations or oscillations.

Electrics And Information And Communication Technology (ICT) >> Characteristics of waves - Note 1 (Form 5)

1.1 Characteristics of waves * Amplitude, A - is the maximum displacement of a wave particle fromits equilibrium. The SI unit is the metre, m.

* Wavelength - is the distance between two successive crests or two successive troughs on the transverse wave. * Frequency - is the number of crests or troughs that passes a point per second

Electrics And Information And Communication Technology (ICT) >> Characteristics of waves - Note 2 (Form 5)

1.2 Radio waves * Part of the electromagnetic spectrum, at one end of it. * All electromagnetic waves travel at the same velocity. * Radio waves have the longest wavelength with the lowest frequency in the electromagnetic spectrum. * Radio waves are suitable to be used in communication because they; - can travel faster - can travel through a vacuum or empty space. - travels through air, similar to the speed of light. - little absorption by air. - not dispersed by obstructing objects. - can transmit sound waves to great distances. 1.3 Electromagnetic Spectrum - is part of a larger spectrum of the visible light. - all electromagnetic waves; * are transverse waves * can travel in a vacuum at a speed of 300000000m/s. * ca travel through other materials such as water, air and glass but at slower speeds of less than 300000000m/s. * obey the laws of reflection and refraction * exhibit wave properties such as diffraction and interference. * Follow the wave equation. 1.4 Waves Applied in Communication * TV and Radio broadcasting * Wireless telegraph * Hand phone * Radar * Space communication

Electrics And Information And Communication Technology (ICT) >> Characteristics of waves - Note 3 (Form 5)

Electrics And Information And Communication Technology (ICT) >> Radio Communication

2.1 Radio Communication System a) The radio communication system consist of two system: I. The radio transmission system II. The radio receiver system b) The receiver system receive modulated radio waves,next the system will separate the radio signal from the radio waves and changed the radio signals into sound. c) Radio waves do not carry sound and cannot be transmitted very far,because of this ,sound wave need to be changes into audio signals and combined with radio waves to enable radio waves to be transmitted further d) In radio transmission system,sound waves are collected through the microphones and are converted to audio signals. e) The combination of radio waves and audio signals is called modulation f) In radio broadcasting two type of modulation are use amplitude modulation (AM) and frequency modulation (FM) g) Carrier are a set of waves that carry audio signals. 2.1.1 The radio transmission system * Sound wave is detected by microphone which charges it to audio signals. * Amplifier works to strengthens audio signals * Radiowaves is generated through an oscillator.It carries audio signals. * Modulator works to combine audio signal with radiowave. * The modulation of audio signal with radiowave is done either through Amplitude Modulation (AM) or Frequency Modulation (FM) * Modulated wave is further strengthened by an amplifier which connects it to aerial.

2.1.2. The radio receiver system * Radiowave from different stations is received by aerial. * Tuning circuit consist of variable capacitor,diode,inductor.Tuning circuit is used to detect the desired radio station. * The selection of radio station is done by adjusting tuning knob. * Identification circuit which consist of diod will separate audio signal from radio wave.This is a demodulation process. * Amplifier strengthen separated audio signals. * Speaker is used to convert audio signal to sound.

Electrics And Information And Communication Technology (ICT) >> Satellite Communication

3.0 Satellite Communication * Communication satellite station is placed on earth orbit is geostastionary. * Geostationary period is 24 hours. * Communication satellite is seen stationary to earth rotation. * In stationary position is important so that they face each other for receiving and transmitting signals. * In world communication,three satellite are needed. * Communication

3.1 Satellite Communication System * communication satellites are often placed in a high orbit above the Earth”s equator. * The orbit for communication satellites is called a geosynchronous or geostationary orbit. 3.2 Advantages of Using Satellite to Transmit Information * can transmit signals to all over the world * very resistant to corruption by noise and interference * cost is lower than that of using other means of communications * allow information or events to be transmitted ?live? or instantly. 3.3. Others uses of Satellite * Navigation - use the global positioning system (GPS) * Exploration - Hubble space telescope explore other planets in the solar system. * Surveillance - used to locate the positions of objects or to monitor the movements of machines and living things including humans. * Weather - used to monitor both local and global weather conditions. 3.4 APPLICATION OF SATELLITE COMMUNICATION 1. Able to watch live tv programmes from over the world such as world cup 2006 in Germany. 2. Communication much esier from one to another around the world through internet and e-mail. 3. Banking matters can be done using a handphone without having one to step into the bank.

Electrics And Information And Communication Technology (ICT) >> The Importance of using ICT for the benefit of mankind.

4.0 The Importance of using ICT for the benefit of mankind. * Enable humans to communicate over long distances in the shortest possible time. Examples: telegraph, telephone, radio, television. * Allows to communicate with one another or in groups. * Gather information from internet as text, images and sounds.