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SDH

October 2009

SDH OSN 2000

The synchronous digital hierarchy The multiplexer The network Synchronization

SDH

The synchronous digital hierarchy Presentation The frame structure The overhead, the pointers and the virtual container

Overview : Concept
SDH : Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

Concept approved by the ITU-T in November 1988

Implementation in all national and international networks

High transmission rate

Answer to telephone and internet growing markets

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SDH TRAINING

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Overview : Concept Needs : Increase the capacity Network flexibility Adapted to the evolution of new services New maintenance & exploitation approach Develop new normalisation for interconnection 6 SDH TRAINING 6 .

Overview : Before… PDH : Plesiochronous Digital Hierarchy E4 E3 E2 E1 SDH : Synchronous Digital Hierarchy E1/E3/E4 STM-N E1/E3/E4 STM-N Customer 7 SDH TRAINING 7 .

Application Area In a power distribution network Telemetry Front End Terminal Power Management Multiplexer Multiplexer Multiplexer Subscriber PABX Telemetry Telecommunication Management Multiplexer Protection RTU Telemetry 8 SDH TRAINING 8 .

SDH The synchronous digital hierarchy Presentation The frame structure The overhead. the pointers and the virtual container .

Frame Structure : Multiplexing & Components ITU-T defines the frames of STM-N as rectangle block frame structure in unit of byte… 270 columns / 9 rows : 2430 octets Frame Frequency : 8000 Frames/s (125µs) N-STM1 Frequency : 8000 Frames/s STM1 Transmission Speed : 155.520 Mbit/s • STM4 = 4 x STM1 • STM16 = 4 x STM4 • STM64 = 4 x STM16 10 SDH TRAINING 10 .

Frame Structure : Contents The frame is divided into 3 zones : Information Payload : 150.336 Mbits Section OverHead (RSOH & MSOH) Administrative Unit Pointers 270 x N Columns 9xN 261 x N SOH Au Pointers SOH STM-N Payload 9 Rows 11 SDH TRAINING 11 .

the pointers and the virtual container .SDH OSN 2000 The synchronous digital hierarchy Presentation The frame structure The overhead.

Frame Structure: Payload Multiplexing SOH PTR POH POH STM1 x4 x1 AUG C4 AU4 C4 PTR C4 x3 POH POH 139264 Kbit/s High Order VC4 STM4 SOH x16 TUG3 x7 x1 C3 TU3 C3 VC3 C3 44736 Kbit/s 34368 Kbit/s STM16 SOH x64 TUG2 PTR x3 POH POH C12 C12 VC12 POH C12 2048 Kbit/s Low Order STM64 SOH Mapping Aligning Multiplexing TU12 C11 VC11 C11 1544 Kbit/s 13 SDH TRAINING 13 .

Frame Structure : Some definitions Container : Basic package unit for PDH signal Path Over Head : Information added to manage the associated container Virtual Container : A container with an Over Head for alarms. performance and management Pointer : Localization of the VC in the STM payload Tributary Unit : A transport unit where are mapped the VC12 or VC3 Tributary Unit Group : Collection of several TUs Administrative Unit : A transport unit where are mapped the VC4 Administrative Unit Group : Multiplexing of several AUs 14 SDH TRAINING 14 .

Over Heads & Pointers : Path and Section Definition Regenerator Section Regenerator Section Multiplex Section VC-n Mux VC-4 Mux STM-n Mux Repeater Repeater STM-n Mux VC-4 Mux VC-n Mux Regenerator Section Multiplex Section Higher Order Path Lower Order Path 15 SDH TRAINING 15 .

Over Heads & Pointers : Section OverHead A1 B1 D1 A1 A1 A2 E1 A2 A2 J0 F1 D3 RSOH D2 Au Pointer STM-N Payload B2 D4 D7 D10 S1 B2 B2 K1 D5 D8 D11 K2 D6 D9 D12 M1 E2 MSOH 16 SDH TRAINING 16 .

Data communication at 192 Kbit/s. even parity of order 8 of the preceding scrambled frame. : EOW. . BIP-8. 17 BB 1 1 E1 E1 FF 1 1 D1 to D3 D1 to D3 17 SDH TRAINING .Over Heads & Pointers : RSOH 9 x N Columns A1 B1 3 Rows D1 A1 A1 A2 E1 A2 A2 J0 3 Rows F1 D3 RSOH D2 Au Pointers MSOH STM-N Payload AA. DCCr Data Communication Channel RSOH. : : Data communication at 192 Kbit/s. They make up the frame alignment word. : : Service channel(data and speech). : EOW. DCCr == Data Communication Channel RSOH. even parity of order 8 of the preceding scrambled frame. User channel (audio). : Regeneration section trace (identifier of a section access point ) : Regeneration section trace (identifier of a section access point ) : : BIP-8. A 1 A2 1 2 JJ 0 0 : : They make up the frame alignment word. User channel (audio). Service channel(data and speech).

DCCM : Data Communication Channel MSOH. Return of the remote B2 MS_REI (MS_FEBE). 2 18 . .Over Heads & Pointers : MSOH RSOH Au Pointers B2 D4 D7 D10 S1 B2 B2 K1 D5 D8 D11 K2 D6 D9 5 Rows D12 M1 E2 STM-N Payload MSOH BB 2 2 KK K2 1 K 1 2 D4 to D12: : D4 to D12 SS 1 1 EE 2 2 M1 M 18 SDH TRAINING 1 : : BIP-24. DCCM : Data Communication Channel MSOH. User channel (audio). Informs of the remote equipment ’s synchronization status. Data communication at 576 Kbit/s. MS_REI (MS_FEBE). : : Informs of the remote equipment ’s synchronization status. Assigned to the multiplexing section protection protocol (MSP). BIP-24. : : User channel (audio). : : Data communication at 576 Kbit/s. : : Return of the remote B. : : Assigned to the multiplexing section protection protocol (MSP). even parity of order 24 of the preceding unscrambled frame (without RSOH). even parity of order 24 of the preceding unscrambled frame (without RSOH).

The Container 125µs E1 2 048 bit/s C12 POH 125µs POH C12 Offset : (+/-) 50 ppm C12 VC12 19 SDH TRAINING 19 .

The Virtual Container VCn Level 261 x N Columns SOH Au Pointers SOH P O H Cn VCn 9 Rows STM-N Payload 20 SDH TRAINING 20 .

The Administrative Unit Pointer AU4 Level Location of J1 byte SOH Au Pointers C4 SOH POH C4 POH SOH Au Pointers SOH C4 C4 21 SDH TRAINING 21 .

The Tributary Unit Pointer TU3 Level SOH Au Pointers 0 0 0 Pointers Payload SOH 84 84 84 P O H V C 3 # 1 VV CC 33 ## 23 Stuffing bytes SOH Au Pointers 0 0 0 SOH C4 P O H V C 3 # 1 VV CC 33 ## 23 680 763 22 SDH TRAINING 22 .

with : L M addressing.The Tributary Unit Pointer TU12 Level 10 19 1 81 63 1 270 SOH Au Pointers P O Stuffing bytes H SOH TUG-3 #1 TUG-3 #2 TUG-3 #3 TUG-2 #1 TUG-2 #2 TUG-2 #7 TU-12 #1 KK L M addressing. with : KK = TUG-3 # = TUG-3 # LL = TUG-2 # = TUG-2 # M = TU-12 # M = TU-12 # In this example : K=1 L=1 M=1 23 SDH TRAINING 23 .

G1 Path status of the opposite terminal.(64-byte character string or one 16-byte frame repeated string or one 16-byte frame repeated four times). ItIt is used to check the path connection is used to check the path connection with the transmitter is maintained (16 bytes with the transmitter is maintained (16 bytes or 64 bytes).Path OverHeads J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1 C4 J1 : Path trace. C2 : : Indicates the composition of C4 (Signal label). 24 SDH TRAINING 24 .(64-byte character or 64 bytes). B3 : : BIP-8. four times). even parity of order 8 of the preceding VC4 B3 BIP-8. C2 Indicates the composition of C4 (Signal label). J1 : Path trace. G1 : : Path status of the opposite terminal. before scrambling. even parity of order 8 of the preceding VC4 before scrambling.

SDH The synchronous digital hierarchy The multiplexer The network Synchronization .

SDH The multiplexer The different types The interfaces The multiplexer management .

NE Type Terminal Multiplexer (TM) Add/Drop Multiplexer (ADM) Multiple Add/Drop Multiplexer (MADM) Regenerator (REG) 27 SDH TRAINING 27 .

SDH OSN 2000 The multiplexer The different types The interfaces The multiplexer management .

1. L-1.2 STM-1 electrical interface Ethernet FE interface: 10/100BASE-T.Interfaces PDH 75 /120 75 E1 electrical interface E3/T3 electrical interface SDH STM-1 optical interface: S-1. L-4.2 STM-4 optical interface: S-4.1. 100BASE-FX GE interface: 1000BASE-SX/LX/ZX Administration and Auxiliary Asynchronous data signals (RS-232) 64 Kbit/s (G. L-4.703) Ethernet NM Orderwire phone External clock Alarm 29 SDH TRAINING 29 .1. L-1.1.

SDH OSN 2000 The multiplexer The different types The interfaces The multiplexer management .

Managing the equipment F Craft terminal NE SDH Network DCC NE 31 SDH TRAINING 31 .

SDH OSN 2000 The synchronous digital hierarchy The multiplexer The network Synchronization OSN 2000 .

SDH OSN 2000 The network The topologies The protection schemes The management .

SDH Networks Chain Ring Legends: 34 SDH TRAINING 34 .

SDH Networks Tangent rings Intersecting rings Legends: 35 SDH TRAINING 35 .

SDH Networks Ring with chain Dual node interconnection (DNI) Legends: 36 SDH TRAINING 36 .

SDH Networks Hub Mesh Legends: 37 SDH TRAINING 37 .

SDH OSN 2000 The network The topologies The protection schemes The management .

Protection : Concepts Unidirectional Bidirectional Passtrough 39 SDH TRAINING 39 .

Protection : SNCP Node Network 40 SDH TRAINING 40 .

Protection : SNCP Switching ≤ 50ms Capacity reduced 41 SDH TRAINING 41 .

Protection : MSP Shared Working → Protection 1→ 9 2→10 3→11 4→12 5→13 6→14 7→15 8→16 42 SDH TRAINING 42 .

Protection : MSP Shared Time slots can be reused High network capacity Half capacity of AU4 is used for protection Switching in 50ms 43 SDH TRAINING 43 .

R-LOF. 44 SDH TRAINING 44 . AU-LOP R-LOS. B2-SD Idle A D Idle Idle B C Idle Switch A D Pass trough Wait to Restore A D Pass trough Switch B C Pass trough Wait to Restore B C Pass trough The APS controller is responsible for generating and terminating theAPS The APS controller is responsible for generating and terminating theAPS information carried in the K1K2 bytes and implementing the APS algorithm. AU-LOP B2-EXC.Protection : MSP. MS-AIS. MS-AIS. information carried in the K1K2 bytes and implementing the APS algorithm. B2-SD B2-EXC. APS Controller Status 44status : : status aIdle aIdle aSwitch aSwitch aPasstrough aPasstrough aWait to Restore aWait to Restore Switch on : : Switch on R-LOS. R-LOF.

SDH OSN 2000 The network The topologies The protection schemes The management .

The network management Q3 Network management Gateway: GNE F Craft terminal SDH Network DCC F Craft terminal NE 46 SDH TRAINING 46 .

SDH OSN 2000 The synchronous digital hierarchy The multiplexer The network Synchronization OSN 2000 .

SDH OSN 2000 Synchronization Some definitions The SSM algorithm Network synchronization .

Pseudo-synchronous mode A mode where all clocks have a long-term frequency accuracy compliant with a primary reference clock as specified in Recommendation G. Synchronous network A network where all clocks have the same long-term accuracy under normal operating conditions 49 SDH TRAINING 49 . Not all clocks in the network will have timing traceable to the same PRC.Synchronisation : Definitions Asynchronous mode A mode where clocks are intended to operate in free running mode. Master slave mode A mode where a designated master clock is used as a frequency standard which is disseminated to all other clocks which are slaved to the master clock.811 under normal operating conditions.

The output is bounded to the input.811 NE is synchronized to an external source.811 G. x Free Running : The Hold over mode is used up SET The NE provides its own clock.812 The data stored during locked mode is used to control phase and frequency variation. x Hold Over : Takes place when external sources are no longer available G.812 G.Synchronisation : NE Synchronisation mode x Locked : Normal mode G. SET 50 SDH TRAINING 50 .

812: Holdover mode: Transit node: 5 x 10-10.81s): Holdover mode: 5 x 10-8 5 x 10-7 / day frequency drift 51 SDH TRAINING 51 . 10-9 / day frequency drift Local node: 10-8. 2 x 10-8 / day frequency drift SEC SDH Equipment Clock G.Synchronisation : Sources Primary Reference Clock G.811: 10-11 : Rubidium clock or GPS (10-13 Caesium) PRC SSU Synchronisation Supply Unit G.813 (G.

SDH OSN 2000 Synchronization Some definitions The SSM algorithm Network synchronization .

703 External input source Clock interface S1 = SSM value Source available ? Highest quality ? SETS Highest priority ? S1 = SSM value S1 = SSM value SDH Frame SDH interface S1 = SSM value SDH Frame SDH interface SETG 53 SDH TRAINING 53 .The mechanism G.

Synchronisation : SSM byte SSM: Synchronization Status Message Value 0000 0010 0100 1000 1011 1111 Quality G.811 G.812 SEC/SETS not used Element Unknown PRC Synchronization Transit node SSU Local node SSU Internal 54 SDH TRAINING 54 .812 G.

SDH OSN 2000 Synchronization Some definitions The SSM algorithm Network synchronization .

Example 56 SDH TRAINING 56 .

SDH OSN 2000 The synchronous digital hierarchy The multiplexer The network Synchronization OSN 2000 .