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INTRODUCTION

Chocolate comprises of a number of raw and processed foods that originate from the seed of tropical cacao tree .It is common ingredient in many kinds of confection such as chocolate bars,candy,ice cream, cookies, cakes, etc.It is one of the most popular flavors in the world . Chocolate was created by the MESOAMERICAN civilization,from cacao beans and cultivated by pre-Columbian civilizations such as the Maya and Aztec ,who used it as the basic components in a variety of sauces and beverages. The cocoa beans were ground and mixed with water to produced to produce a variety of beverages.Chocolates are made from the fermented , roasted and ground beans taken from the pod of the tropical cacao . today chocolates commonly refers to bars made from the combination of cocoa solids , fats, sugar and other ingredients.

TYPES OF CHOCOLATES
Baking chocolates pure cocoa liquor with nothing
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Semi sweet chocolate Milk chocolate White chocolate 2 . cocoa butter with sugar and milk.Added Cocoa powder cocoa beans solid.sugar and milk solids. cocoa liquor Pressed to remove the cocoa Butter pure cocoa liquor with extra cocoa Butter and some sugar pure cocoa liquor with extra cocoa butter .

chocolate makers and chocolatiers. Cocoa growers object to allowing the resulting food to be called "chocolate". In the UK. according to the World Cocoa Foundation. 3 . mold and package to their own design. A cacao tree with fruit pods in various stages of ripening Roughly two-thirds of the entire world's cocoa is produced in Western Africa. Chocolate makers use harvested cacao beans and other ingredients to produce couverture chocolate. There are two main jobs associated with creating chocolate candy.Production Production See also: Children in cocoa production Chocolate is created from the cocoa bean. most chocolatiers purchase their chocolate from them. to melt. due to the risk of lower demand for their crops. some 50 million people around the world depend on cocoa as a source of livelihood. Production costs can be decreased by reducing cocoa solid content or by substituting cocoa butter with a non-cocoa fat. Chocolatiers use the finished couverture to make chocolate candies .

and graded. Climate and weather permitting.Processing Cacao pods are harvested by cutting the pods from the tree using a machete. the beans will have a low cocoa butter content. roasted. After fermentation. this is done by spreading the beans out in the sun from 5 to 7 days. The dried beans are then transported to a chocolate manufacturing facility. the beans must be quickly dried to prevent mold growth. resulting in pure chocolate in fluid form: chocolate liquor. resulting in a weak flavor. Next the shells are removed to extract the nib. Blending Chocolate made with enough cocoa butter flows gently over a chocolate fountain to serve dessert fondue. stones. It is important to harvest the pods when they are fully ripe because if the pod is unripe. 4 . Finally. The beans are cleaned (removing twigs. and other debris). The liquor can be further processed into two components: cocoa solids and cocoa butter. The beans with their surrounding pulp are removed from the pods and placed in piles or bins to ferment. the nibs are ground and liquefied. or there will be insufficient sugars in the white pulp for fermentation. The fermentation process is what gives the beans their familiar chocolate taste. or by knocking them off the tree using a stick.

cocoa butter. an emulsifying agent such as soy lecithin is added. The texture is also heavily influenced by processing. cocoa liquor. and vanilla White chocolate: sugar. are as follows: • • • Dark chocolate: sugar. though a few manufacturers prefer to exclude this ingredient for purity reasons and to remain GMO free. Some manufacturers are now using PGPR. milk or milk powder. cocoa liquor. and vanilla Usually. regardless of whether emulsifying agents are added. sometimes at the cost of a perfectly smooth texture. milk or milk powder. and (sometimes) vanilla Milk chocolate: sugar. an artificial emulsifier derived from castor oil that allows them to reduce the amount of cocoa butter while maintaining the same mouthfeel. The more expensive chocolate tends to be processed longer and thus have a smoother texture and "feel" on the tongue. specifically conching (see below). The basic blends of ingredients for the various types of chocolate (in order of highest quantity of cocoa liquor first).Chocolate liquor is blended with the cocoa butter in varying quantities to make different types of chocolate or couvertures. 5 . Different manufacturers develop their own "signature" blends based on the above formulas. but varying proportions of the different constituents are used. cocoa butter. cocoa butter.

After the process is complete. The six different crystal forms have different properties. lesser grades about four to six hours. The refined and blended chocolate mass is kept in a liquid state by frictional heat. Uncontrolled crystallization of cocoa butter typically results in crystals of varying size. some or all large enough to be clearly seen with the naked eye. The length of the conching process determines the final smoothness and quality of the chocolate. Crystal Melting temp. A conche is a container filled with metal beads.[44] The uniform sheen and crisp bite of properly processed chocolate are the result of consistently small cocoa butter crystals produced by the tempering process. High-quality chocolate is conched for about 72 hours. the chocolate mass is stored in tanks heated to approximately 45–50 °C (113–122 °F) until final processing. Tempering The final process is called tempering. 6 Notes . Chocolate prior to conching has an uneven and gritty texture. hence the smooth feel in the mouth. The conching process produces cocoa and sugar particles smaller than the tongue can detect.[44] The primary purpose of tempering is to assure that only the best form is present. which act as grinders. This causes the surface of the chocolate to appear mottled and matte.Conching The penultimate process is called conching. The fats in cocoa butter can crystallize in six different forms (polymorphous crystallization). and causes the chocolate to crumble rather than snap when broken.

firm. best snap. takes weeks to form. Firm. melts too easily. melts near body temperature (37 °C).I II III IV V VI 17 °C (63 °F) 21 °C (70 °F) 26 °C (78 °F) 28 °C (82 °F) 34 °C (94 °F) 36 °C (97 °F) Soft. Two classic ways of manually tempering chocolate are: • Working the molten chocolate on a heat-absorbing surface. the chocolate is then gently warmed to working temperature. Soft. Glossy. Hard. good snap. melts too easily. crumbly. Firm. melts too easily. melts too easily. until thickening indicates the presence of sufficient crystal "seeds". crumbly. Stirring solid chocolate into molten chocolate to "inoculate" the liquid chocolate with crystals. 7 . such as a stone slab. poor snap.

Chocolate is generally stored away from other foods as it can absorb different aromas. Medical application 1. the result of fat or sugar crystals rising to the surface. can result in an oily texture. Moving chocolate from one temperature extreme to another. with a relative humidity of less than 50%. chocolates are packed or wrapped.coughing 8 .Storage Molten chocolate and a piece of a chocolate bar Chocolate is very sensitive to temperature and humidity. such as from a refrigerator on a hot day. Additionally chocolate is frequently stored in a dark place or protected from light by wrapping paper. Ideally. If refrigerated or frozen without containment. Various types of "blooming" effects can occur if chocolate is stored or served improperly. chocolate suffering from bloom is perfectly safe for consumption. Although visually unappealing. chocolate can absorb enough moisture to cause a whitish discoloration. Ideal storage temperatures are between 15 and 17 °C (59 to 63 °F). and placed in proper storage with the correct humidity and temperature.

diarrhea Cocoa is used to treat diarrhea for hundreds of years 3. Pure chocolate contains anti oxidants which aid better skin complexion. acne There is a popular belief that the consumption of chocolate can cause acne. Chocolate bars with milk content may contribute to acne Major chocolate brands 9 . The ingredients theobromine was found to be almost 1/3 more effective than codeine . The chocolate also appears to soothe and moisten the throat. 2.the leading cough medicine.Research indicates that chocolate may be effective at preventing persistent cough.

Test 10 .

a coenzyme carrying a two carbon atom group.capric :decanoic acid 5.caproic :hexanoic acid 3.lauric:dodecanoic acid CHEMICAL TESTS FOR FATTY ACIDS Chocolate(sol)+Na2CO3 then Fatty acids are present If CO2 gas evolves CHEMICAL TESTS FOR CARBOHYDRATES 11 . which either satyrated or unsaturated. A fatty acid is a carboxylic acid often with a long unbranched aliphatic chain . Most commonly occurring saturated fatty acids are 1.caprylic :octanoic acid 4.because their biosynthesis involves acetyl-COA.butyric butanoic acid 2. Most of the natural fatty acids have an even number of carbon atoms.Detection of the presence of various components in different brands of chocolate.

H2SO4 IF PURPLED COLORED RING IS FORMED THEN CARBO HYDRATE IS PRESENT OBSERVATION 12 .Molisch’s Test: MOLISCH REAGENT :10% ALCHOLIC SOLUTION OF ALPHA –NAPHTHOL CHOCOLATE (2ML SOLUTION IN WATER)+MOLISCH’S REAGENT (2-3 DROPS)+ CONC.

Component/brand 5 star Dairy milk Demolino Kit kat Lord Munch Safari Tofi luk Top Fatty acid Carbohydrate RESULT 13 .

YAHOO. WIKIPEDIA.COM 2. THE GREAT BOOK OF CHOCOLATE BY DAVID LEBOVITY 14 .HOWSTUFFWORKS.BIBLIOGRAPHY 1. WWW.COM 3.COM 4. WWW. WWW.

UNDER GUIDANCE OF : 15 .