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Katrina Marie Taracatac, Camile Vargas, Deric Vengua, Camille Rose Villegas, Howard William Wong Group 9, 2D-Pharmacy, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Santo Tomas
Organic compounds are members of a large class of gaseous, liquid and solid chemical compounds whose molecules contain the element carbon. These exclude carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonates, cyanides, cyanates, carbides, and thiocyanates, which are still considered inorganic. Organic compounds are classified into two categories, namely hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon derivatives. The objective of this experiment was to differentiate various organic compounds in terms of some of their intrinsic physical properties, solubility and their behaviour towards ignition through the use of some tests. Physical properties such as the state, color, and odor of seven different organic compounds were identified, also their solubility in distilled water, 5% sodium hydroxide and 5% hydrochloric acid. The basicity or acidity of these compounds were also found out through testing their reaction with litmus paper. Lastly, an ignition test was performed to classify the samples as to be inflammable, or flammable. Flammable samples were further more classified as to give off a nonluminous flame, luminous flame, or flames which gave off soot. As a result, the group concluded that different forms of organic compounds exhibit different properties compared to one another.
Introduction Organic chemistry dates back to the late 1700s when it was used to be described as the chemistry of compounds found in living organisms (McMurry, 2010) Little was known during that time about this type of chemistry. This definition was a bit vague, but since then it has evolved through the help of modern technologic research and such. Organic chemistry is chemistry concerned with the structure, properties, and reactions of compounds that contain carbon. Almost all carbon compounds are organic except for a few which are still considered inorganic. These inorganic carbon compounds include the oxides of carbon, the bicarbonates and carbonates of metal ions, the metal cyanides, and a few others. Organic compounds are found all around us. They comprise of the materials that make up our food, the different medicines that treat our illnesses, protect our crops, clean our clothes, and a lot more. Organic compounds may be further be classified into being aliphatic or aromatic, and
hydrocarbons or hydrocarbon derivatives (Bayquen, et. Al., 2009) Aliphatic compounds are compounds wherein the carbon atoms are joined together in linear chains, linear-branched chains and nonaromatic rings. Aromatic compounds are compounds in which the carbon atoms are formed in a ring, which is conjugated so it may be stabilized by resonance. These compounds must also follow the Huckel’s rule (McMurry, 2010) They are compounds mainly based on benzene rings. Hydrocarbons are the simplest organic compounds. They are compounds which purely contain only hydrogen and carbon atoms which may be linear, branched, or cyclic. Hydrocarbon derivatives, on the other hand, are hydrocarbon compounds in which there is a substitution of one or more of the hydrogen atoms by a specific functional group. Organic compounds under this have conveniently been classified based on the substituent element or group of highest priority to the hydrocarbon.
ethyl acetate. DCM. physical state in room temperature. or insoluble. These were distilled water (H2O).Organic compounds have different properties. and their behaviour towards ignition. and 5% HCl as the solvents. and finally with a wafting motion. Using a dry and calibrated dropper pipette. The maximum amount of the solvent used was only up to 3 mL. If the sample is liquid. dichloromethane. evaporating dishes. benzoic acid. FIGURE 1. This report will be tackling the results given off by samples cyclohexane. or immiscible. which are characteristics of the class in which they belong in. ethanol. Ethanol. benzoic acid. Benzoic Acid. such as cyclohexane. slightly miscible. and 5% hydrochloric acid (HCl). litmus paper. ethanol. phenol. slightly soluble. soluble. and ethyl amine to the various tests performed on them. Samples of organic compounds. the solid sample was described as very soluble. the odors of the samples were described. solubility. phenol. 5% sodium hydroxide (NaOH). each of the solvents were added drop wise to the samples. dropper pipettes. and a pinch amount of the sold sample was placed in these individual test tubes. The number of drops was taken into account. and ethyl amine were used to perform the experiment. Different solvents were also used to perform the solubility tests. Materials and Methods Materials This experiment made use of basic laboratory apparatuses such as test tubes. ethyl acetate. polarity and solubility. Color changes in the samples were also noted. These include properties such as odor. Ethyl Acetate. The physical states at room temperature of all the samples were identified. . and Ethyl Amine) Method There were four parts to this experiment: First was to identify the physical properties of the given samples. the solubility was described as miscible. acidity or basicity. 5% NaOH. The main objective of this experiment was to differentiate the sample organic compounds in terms of their intrinsic physical properties.0 Samples used for the experiment (Top – Bottom. Four drops of each liquid sample. Based on the amount of solvent added. All in all there were twenty four test tubes used. Second was to perform a solubility test to all the samples using distilled water. Then the color was noted. and matches. Phenol. color. Left – Right: Cyclohexane. dichloromethane (DCM).
producing flames with or without the presence of soot. Cyclohexane represented the hydrocarbons among the samples.0 represents the data gathered during the duration of the experiment. Chromophore is a part of a molecule that is responsible for its color. while solids are purified by recrystallization (Shriner. and 3-5 drops of each liquid sample were placed on an evaporating dish. The physical state or phase of a given compound is important because it relates to the solubility and volatility of a given compound. Lastly ethyl amine is from the group of amines. Results and Discussion The samples used for this experiment represented hydrocarbon and some groups or classes of hydrocarbon derivatives. besides phenol. but some basic facts about their odors are well known based on their classes COMPOUND Cyclohexane DCM Ethanol Phenol Benzoic Acid Ethyl Acetate COLOR Clear colorless Clear colorless Clear colorless Clear red orange White crystalline Clear colorless Clear yellowish ODOR Fruity Odorless Alcohollike Paste-like Odorless Plastic balloonlike Ammonialike Ethyl Amine Liquid . an ignition test was performed on all the given samples. These factors aid in choosing the proper purification method for the given samples. Being the only solid sample. Phenol is one example of this. Among all the given samples. Through observation using the senses. benzoic acid was the only one which was solid. which was clear and yellowish in color. the physical state. Samples were introduced to them. and then the color changes on the litmus paper were noted.0 Intrinsic Properties of the Samples PHYSICAL STATE Liquid Liquid Liquid Liquid Solid Liquid Table 1. Most of the liquid samples were clear and colorless. et. A pinch amount of the solid sample. Odors of certain compounds cannot be easily and precisely identified. but upon oxidation because of the exposure to air and sunlight. which was a clear red orange liquid. Benzoic acid is from the group of carboxylic acids. it becomes red orange or pinkish in color. producing luminous or non-luminous flame. The rest were in their respective liquid forms. color. Liquids are usually purified through the use of distillation or gas chromatography. while ethyl acetate is an example of an ester. Blue and red litmus paper were placed on a watch glass.Third was to identify if the samples were basic. or neutral by testing them with litmus paper. Pure phenol is a colorless crystalline deliquescent solid. Al. acidic. The odors of the samples mostly differed from one another as seen on the table. and ethyl amine.. They were lit using a match. TABLE 1. Ethanol and phenol both come from the class of alcohols. benzoic acid was the only sample to be identified as a white crystalline powder. Dichloromethane represented the alkyl halides. Many liquids and solids are colored due to the presence of chromophoric groups in the molecule. and odor of the samples were all noted. 1998) The color of some compounds is due to impurities. Lastly. The color arises when a molecule absorbs certain wavelengths of visible light and transmits or reflects others. The reactions were noted: whether flammable or inflammable.
TABLE 2. while cyclohexane. It is important to know these because an increased solubility in either one of these solvents indicate a positive result to know whether an acidic or basic functional group is present in the compound. the compounds all reacted differently when the solvents were added. so a single fact alone that an unknown is partially soluble or miscible in water proves that a polar functional group is present in the unknown substance. Lastly. and ethyl amine were all basic. Benzaldehydes. Ethanol. but are far less pronounced. 1998) Amines usually have a distinct fishy smell. while carboxylic acids usually have noxious odors. A number of information may be known about an unknown compound by its solubility in certain solvents. certain deductions on the molecular size and COMPOUND Cyclohexane DCM Ethanol Phenol Benzoic Acid Ethyl Acetate Ethyl Amine Table 2. the solubility of certain compounds in different solvents often lead to more specific information about the compound's functional group. As seen in the table. which is a type of hydrocarbon. and 5% HCl. while ethanol and ethyl amine were miscible in all the solvents. Thiols and organic sulfides have rotten egg-like odor.0 is a summary of the results of the samples when reacted with blue and red litmus papers. Cyclohexane was miscible with all the solvents used. et.0 Solubility/Miscibility of the Samples in H2O. and benzonitrile compounds have odors which are generally said to be “cherrylike”. Hydrocarbons can have very different smells from one another. ethyl acetate. and most often characterized as fruity.. phenol. Besides using the usual test with litmus paper. Al. Hydrocarbons are insoluble or immiscible in water. while 5% HCl is an example of an acidic solvent. et. The solubility of the samples to the solvent is related to the polarity of the two substances and the intermolecular forces of attraction during the solution process. First. 1998) An example may be cylohexane. Though this we found out which of the test samples were acidic and basic. and benzoic acid were all found to be acidic. on the other hand. this may also be done to determine the acidity or basicity of a substance. have odors identified to be pleasant. its molecules or ions become distributed more or less randomly among those of the solvent used. nitrobenzenes. The other classes of compounds have somewhat distinguishable odors.0 shows the summary of the reactions of the samples when reacted with distilled water. The solvent 5% NaOH used in the experiment is an example of a basic solvent. Second.0 Acidity/Basicity of the Samples COMPOUND Cyclohexane DCM Ethanol Phenol Benzoic Acid Ethyl Acetate Ethyl Amine ACIDITY/BASICITY basic basic acidic acidic acidic basic basic . 5% NaOH. the presence of a functional group may be indicated (Shriner. Esters. DCM. NaOH and HCl DISTILLED H2O immiscible immiscible miscible miscible insoluble miscible miscible 5% NaOH immiscible immiscible miscible miscible soluble miscible miscible 5% HCl immiscible miscible miscible immiscible insoluble immiscible miscible Table 3. The rest differed with each solvent used on them. When a solute dissolves. TABLE 3.. Al.(Shriner.
The flame produced by a compound becomes clearer or blue as the oxygen content in the compound increases (Shriner.. K. In order to know that nature of the compound or to know the functional groups present within it. Aliphatic hydrocarbons on the other hand.cliffsnotes.. (2009) Laboratory Manual in Organic Chemistry McMurry. K.org/3659/orgc hem/ (2005) http://www. 1998) In conclusion. Lampa.thinkquest...edu/~chm/vchem book/500hydrocarbons.0 Flammability of the Samples COMPOUND Cyclohexane DCM Ethanol Phenol Benzoic Acid Ethyl Acetate Ethyl Amine identify the content and composition of these compounds..0 shows the summary of the results obtained from the test. (2010) Foundations of Organic Chemistry NATURE OF FLAME Yellow (luminous) Inflammable Blue (non-luminous) Inflammable Inflammable Blue (non-luminous) Blue (non-luminous) The last test conducted in the experiment was the ignition test.topicArticleId8741. D.) Internet: http://www.. Peck.org/dictionary/Organic_co mpound (2009) http://hyperphysics. burn with a yellow sooty flame. all the samples were lit by a match and the nature of their flame was noted. Morrill.. M. F. L. Table 4. G. Y.. Cruz. de Guia. Pena.phyastr.biologyonline. R. Hermann. & Fuson. (1998) The Systemic Identification of Organic Compounds (7th Ed. R. C.edu/hbase/organic/hydro carbon. & Stanley. (2010) Chemistry (9th Ed. organic compounds have different properties respectively. the physical intrinsic properties..) Whitten. burn with yellow flames but are much less-sooty compared to the fore mentioned one. et. Here. Compounds usually burn with a specific characteristic flame when ignited. J. Al.html (2011) http://www. Aromatic hydrocarbons. and acidity or basicity must be taken into account. C.gsu. The differences between the organic compounds found all around us are evident. but there are also similarities between them. These types of flame aid in determining the nature of the compound.html (2003) .com/study_guid e/OrganicCompounds.compositions of the compound may sometimes be made. A.. which have a relatively high content of carbon. R. P. C. solubility.articleId-8584.elmhurst. G. Sarile. These factors may aid us and make it easier for us to Shriner. TABLE 4. and whether they were flammable or inflammable.html (2005) http://library.. Curtin.. & Torres. Davis. T. C. References Books: Bayquen. A. R. F.
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