Chapter I INTRODUCTION

Engineering science is the science devoted to the investigation, study and solution of engineering and environmental problems, which may arise as the result of the interaction between geological, and the activities of people, as well as for the prediction of and development of measures for the prevention or remediation of geological hazards. Engineering geology is thus one of the most interesting and useful subject for the layman and the knowledgeable people alike.It is only the only subject which gives information about the earth. Studies of geological history reveal periodical occurrence of large-scale catastrophic phenomena like orogeny, eperiogeny, intense volcanic activity and glaciations. These distinguish the beginning or end of geological era, which is relatively calm and flourishing with life. Thus engineering geology is a broad subject, which can only be understood by doing extensive observation in the field-through hills and mountains, valley and gorges and along dense forest and terrains. The civil engineering structures as are erected on the earth, so the geology of earth i.e. features, properties and behavior of ground are very essential to be studied. The field study will help to be acquainted with the properties of rocks, its chemical alterations and deviations in properties with respect to time, external forces, agents, geological hazards, function of mass movement, debris flow, etc. can be known through our eye in the field trip. Malekhu area, its panoramic view impressed all of us with its greenery as well as the river flowing there, as if they want to unfold the mystery of Malekhu by striking on different places and exposing boulders, rocks, soil, etc. there. This Malekhu bearing cool climate and consisting of nearly all geological cases to study proves to be the best place for site visit for the students of Engineering and Geology. As an Engineering student we were there to learn about Malekhu‟s wonderful geological diversities and almost all types of the rocks, structures and geological factors like rivers, hills, slopes, sedimentation, etc. We have chosen this Malekhu area but not other area because Malekhu is the only place where we can unfold the geology of the entire country through the small area here. Also as Malekhu helps us to study the various probable causes of geological failure of civil engineering construction, as we have to study different types of mass movement activities like slope failure, landslides; we chose this Malekhu area. Malekhu consists of geological structures like Benighat Slate, Malekhu Limestone, Robang Formation, their lithology, boundary condition and exposure places. Also the Raduwa formation, Bhaise Dhovan Marble attitudes can be studied there. Fold, fault, joints, veins, thrust formed during rock formation significances provide a challenging situation not only to the geologist but also we dreaming to be civil engineers. We thus, the student of engineering geology, the branch of science devoted to the investigation, study and solutions of engineering and environmental problems which may arise as the result of interaction between geology and the works and activities of people, as well as for the prediction and development of measures for the prevention or remediation of geological hazards; are very lucky to be participated on a three day geological trip in Malekhu organized by our college, Kathmandu Engineering College. 1

OBJECTIVES
The main objectives of our field visit were: Measurement of dip and strike, Study of bedding, foliation, Handling of compass for documentation of Engineering geological data, Study of mass movement activities, Study of morphology of river channel, Rock identification in the field, Identification of geological units of the Lesser Himalaya and Kathmandu Nappe, Engineering geological studies along the large scale geological discontinuity (The Mahabharata Thrust) and Study different types of rocks.

INSTRUMENTS
The various instruments used in the field study were as follows: (i) Hammer

A hammer was used to test the hardness of rock in the field. It was performed by striking the tip of hammer and the surface of the rock whose hardness was to be determined. (ii) Geological Compass

A geological compass was used to measure the attitudes of the geological structures. The compass was mainly used for measuring the bearing of object with respect to north, to measure attitudes of geological structures such as strike and dip of planes, plunge and trend of lines, to measure slope orientation. The commonly used geological compass during the field visit was Clinometer and Brunten Compass. The main operation of geological compass consists of opening the compass carefully, leveling the spirit level and placing the compass on the planer feature to take the measurement. (iii) Measuring Tape

A measuring tape was used to measure the distances between different discontinuities such as in the outcrop of rock strata. (iv) Dilute Acid Bottle

An acid bottle was used to test whether the studied sample contained calcite as its main mineral or not. If the sample rock gets reacted with acid then the rock was considered as the calcite containing rock.

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Chapter II

STUDY OF MASS MOVEMENT ACTIVITIES AND SOLUTION MEASURES
Mass Movement
Disintegrated and Fragmented rock materials due to mechanism of weathering processes i.e. mechanical, chemical and biological are called rock wastes. The movement of rock waste down the hill slope is called mass movement. Mass movement is the detachment and down slope transport of soil and rock material under the influence of gravity. The sliding of these materials is due to their position and gravitational forces. But mass movement is accelerated by presence of mainly water. The movement of rock waste depends on the ration of shearing resistance of material to the magnitude of shearing force, which is called factor of safety (Fs). Here, Fs = (Shearing resistance of Material)/(Magnitude of Shearing Force) If Fs < 1, mass movement occurs If Fs > 1, stable condition of slope If Fs = 1, equilibrium condition of slope

a) Types of Mass Movements:
In general, mass movement has been classified into main thee types i.e. slope failure, debris flow and landslide. i) Slope Failure: It is the movement of weathered surface rock/soil layer of steep slope in small dimension and rapid movement. In this there may be absence of slip surface. Steep slopes, loose soil, excavation of rock on downhill side are the main causes of slope failure. ii) Debris Flow: It is the movement of deposited or eroded sediments along the stream. It is the rapid movement of large amount of viscous soil and boulders either separately or mixed together, and occurs mostly along river valley side. The difference of debris flow, earth flow and mudflow is related to size of particles and amount of water. Debris flow ------------- Earth flow --------------- Mudflow (Increases Water Content) Debris flow ------------- Earth flow --------------- Mudflow (Decreases Size of Particles) In case of debris flow 20-80% of particles are coarser than sand sizes but in case of earth and mudflow more than 80% of particles are mud and sand. iii) Landslides: It is the movement of large sediment mass of soil and rock material along a slip surface under the influence of gravitational force. It is also the mass movement which has a clear sliding surface with large dimension, occurs in gentle slope and moves slowly and continuously basically due to influence of water and gravity. On the basis of movements and materials, Varnes (1978) classified landslides, which are as follows:

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rock and soil weathering conditions. which cause failure. mass movements on more or less planar surface. porosity.a) Falls: Falls are abrupt movement of the slope material that separates form steep slopes and cliffs. jointing. weathered rocks and soils. it may be called rock fall. such as those caused by earthquake are responsible for this phenomenon. They may be rock topples. natural slope conditions. topples. slab of rock and debris. and subsequently bounce and roll down the slope. loose. Factors Causing Landslides: There are several factors that directly or indirectly cause slope instability. These external and internal factors. Rapid ground motions. Depending upon the slope materials involved. f) Complex failure: There are slides in which failure occurs due to combination of fall. ii) Translational: This type of slide involves non-rotational block slide i. They generally occur on unconsolidated soils. presence or absence of gullies. fall on the slope. etc. There are two types of slides: i) Rotational: This type of slide involves sliding movements on the circular or near circular surface. cohesion less sediments are transformed into a liquid state. with multiple slip surfaces. strength. mudflow. debris fall and soil or earth fall. shale. and rock flow depending upon the nature of material involved in movements. These are debris flow. soil depth. e) Flows: Flows are rapid movement of material as a viscous mass where inter-granular movements predominate over shear surface movement. c) Slides: These are movements caused by finite shear failure along one or more rupture surfaces. intensity of precipitation. d) Spread: These failures are caused by liquefaction whereby saturated. 4 . In stable condition shearing resistance of material is higher than magnitude of shearing force but it is modified by various internal and external factors and so the shearing resistance of material is less than magnitude of shearing force. debris topples and soil topples. spread. slide. land use. foliation. streams and rivers and ground water conditions are the secondary causes of failure. b) Topples: Topples are blocks of rock that tilt forward on a pivot and then separate from the main mass. rock type and soil type are the primary causes of failure and seismicity. They generally occur on slopes of homogeneous clay. bedding). hence landslide occurs. are primary causes of failure and secondary causes of failure. faulting. flow. rock structure (folding. permeability.e. which are visible or whose presence can be inferred. Force of gravity.

etc. following are the types of retaining wall:  Gabion Wall – Made by filling stones in wire net  Stone Masonry Wall – Made by stones jointed by cement  Concrete Masonry Wall – Made by mixtures of aggregates and cement Retaining wall is constructed to resist the thrust due to soil sliding.Preventive Measures For Landslide: The preventive measures for landslides are construction of retaining structures. spurs. These methods are applied when landslide occurs in particular place. 2 3 Corrective Methods for Maintaining Stability of Landslide: The corrective method includes the reduction of pore water pressure. which anchors the sliding soil mass to the bedrock.e. surface water should be drained out to prevent infiltration from precipitation into the sliding mass. flexible structures such as gabion wall should be adopted as retaining structure. This method is also widely used because of its reliable and immediate effect and sometimes is combined with soils removal work at the head of landslide. the necessary treatments and stabilization measures are also different for each. This work is used in very urgent and important locations. According to construction material. slope may become steep and unstable. slope reformation and erosion protection. Slope failure. piling works for reinforcing ground and anchor works. landslides. Also the complex types are also present which make the problem more complex. revetment work. The flow of ground water is high in the landslide area. 5 . armoring. In such cases prevention of erosion at toe part of the landslide mass or steam bed is important through the construction of structures like check dams. 3 A Loading Embankment Work: It is made at the top of the landslide to balance the sliding force with the additional loading force. dike. The soil removal after trimming of slope is main function for correction. Pile Works: Steel Piles of 200-600 mm are driven through the sliding surface to control landslide movement directly. 2 Slope Reformation: Due to landslide. 4 Protection From Erosion: Landslides are caused due to the degrading of streambed or toe erosion caused by meandering of stream. One end of the wire is fixed to the bedrock and other end is fastened to a bearing plate on the sliding mass. debris flow and creep are the major mass movement phenomena. therefore. As the mechanism of the mass movement differs. It is usually applied in combination with other methods since it is very difficult to prevent a landslide with retaining structures only. Mass movement is the most challenging slope process related to the potential energy developed due to the gravitational stress may or may not influence by the pore water pressure. This can be done by constructing surface and sub-surface water drainage system and prevention of water infiltration by application of bioengineering techniques i. Mass movement is the movement of the superficial surface of the land by leaving their original positions abruptly of extremely slowly and starts either a downgrade movement or vertically downward sinking. 1 Retaining Wall: Retaining walls are relatively rigid walls used for supporting the soil mass laterally so that the soil can be retained at different levels on the two sides. Sliding force can be reduced through the partial or entire removal of the sliding mass from crown side of the landslide. 1 Reduction of Pore Water Pressure: It can be reduced by improving of surface and sub-surface water drainage. This method is used to prevent smallscale landslides having small thrust. Anchor Works: An anchor is applied to prevent a landslide through the tensile strength of steel wire or steel bar.

bamboos were planted at critical places. For this purpose. we also add protection measures such as 6 . first we have to build the breast walls taking in the account of the factor of safety (factor of safety = resisting force/driving force). retaining wall (gabion wall) etc. some of the consequences followed them such as the traffic interruption during monsoon season.5 otherwise other solution measurements has to be taken such as building stabilizing structures which is called stabilization measures such as rock bolt. economic loss as we had to rebuild the road or the construction site after the landslide has done the damage. To stop further mass movement. which occurred during the monsoon season. The factor of safety in our case should always be greater than 1.b) CASE STUDIES LOCATION 1 CASE 1 : Jhyaple Khola (Chainage: 15+200) In this place. Even after the building of the stabilizing structures. The movement of the rock has occurred in slow but steady condition. the rainwater had flown in the area weakening the rocks by flowing inside the cracks and the steep slope further added in the rupture of the hill site. Due to these problems in the site. Geological material present there was also of low load bearing capacity due to the presence of the fractured rock. So as safety measurements were taken by building the breast walls around the region where the mass movement has occurred. anchoring in the soil. During the monsoon season. Thus we have to take some preventive measures in order to minimize the consequences as far as possible. Dynamic load due to the moving vehicles further increased the danger of failure of the site. we found that there was certain ground mass movement towards downward direction.

Whatever the solution measures are taken it is never 100% appropriate because they won't be able to prevent the movement for long period of time. friction angle (slope angle). the slope failure. The concentration of the nearby water seepage in this region must have eventually resulted into this failure. The protection measure is applicable only for the falling material but not for the equilibrium structure. 7 .surface drain. and vegetation such as herb are planted which is now called bioengineering. Notable whip holes were also observed in the wall. It includes the mass wasting of hill slopes process in which pre-dominancy of P. Further. a toe wall has been constructed about 15 meters from the failure so that debris due to further erosion would not obstruct the highway and get accumulated within the wall. Causing Factors: 1 2 3 4 5 Slope steepness Constituent materials with low strength Increase in water pressure during monsoon Uncontrolled flow of surface water Contrasting behavior of clay in slope surface CASE 2 : Jhyaple khola [Chainage: 15+300] In this site we observed a medium scale failure with the exposure of a scarp which is human induced slope failure.E. We could observe a winter water stream that had more or less presumed the shape of a small gully. the self-weight of the gabion wall hampers the equilibrium of the material and the structure. has been disturbed by shifting the position of mass. Considering the precaution measure.

Juge Khola. mentioned above. Mahesh Khola. The picture clearly showed that the region is an example of fragile geology because within an area of a couple of kms. which can be determined by the methods. Just above these slides. Sandwiched between the two old scarps was a rather newer slide. flowed in west direction. Altogether five scarps occurred out of which three of them just above the river were old ones. Observing the older scarps we could conclude that in one way the region was gradually getting stabilized due to these failures.LOCATION 2 CASE 3 : Far bank of Mahesh Khola at Juge Khola Bazaar In this site we observed a big portion of hill slope by the left of which a small downstream. Nearly midway of the site we could observe a gully comprising of Debris. Nearly at the tip of the region we did observe human inhabitance. This type of landslide is known to be complex landslide. 8 . was flowing in the south direction and just at the base of the slope another river a bit larger than the earlier. There might be presence of slip surface just below the scarps of the system of slides above the Mahesh Khola. large number of scarps old and new appeared which indicated the region itself to be quite unstable. At the extreme left corner appeared the other newer slide. But the most interesting thing was that just below the region there were some scarps and further erosion if occurs in the same region may lead into human exodus resulting chaotic scenario on the whole. there was the other new slide.

If the slope is more than 60 degree i. had reached at that height during some period. It is due to the absence of enough knowledge about the river behavior. but this site seems to be stable.e. Near these site remains of the old bridge is also seen. 9 . it is stable. which shows that river. All steep slopes are also not stable. Water can easily pass through coarser layer but water is not permeable through finer layer. So the bridge collapsed because it must have been built below the flood plain. There is not any sort of failure of cracks in the foundation of the bridge. which is vertical. So failure of the bridge is not the engineering failure. Thus considering these facts a new bridge has been built in that area quite above the reach of the river even in the high potential time. This is because exposed soil is of red colour and the soil becomes red when it is exposed for a long period of time. If slope is of 35-60 degree then the slope is unstable. We should also estimate the debris potentiality of the river while constructing a bridge and we should build it above the flood plain of the river. So due to the permeability contrast there is seepage in that layer and due to the presence of moisture in that layer growth of vegetation occurred. the slope is vertical. This is because of the permeability contrast. The picture below explains how the positioning of the old bridge failed. From the surroundings we can see pebbles and boulders at a great height. A layer of coarser and finer grain is also seen in the cliff.LOCATION 3 CASE 4 : Confluence of Belkhu Khola and Trishuli River This site consists of a cliff. Different beds are seen in that cliff. Vegetation is also seen along a line in the cliff. The freehand sketch of the field is also attached herewith. There is presence of human inhabitance along the river banks which is not so safe regarding the potentiality of the river and in the near future it may result into human casualties during the next winter in case if the flow exceeds its current boundary.

At this particular site. There is presence of vegetation on both sides of the mass movement site. there was a small example of Bioengineering to prevent further landslide. The retaining structure has also suffered some damage. At the very near to the roadside drainage there was a long gabion wall which was playing a great role to prevent the flow of failure mass over the road. the less quality materials were used.LOCATION 4 CASE 5 : 4 Km from Gajuri (42 Km. along Prithvi Highway) The picture shows the mass movement occurred probably due to the flow of water into the mass from the topside of the mass through cracks. stone masonry wall and a special type of surface drainage system which is called „Cascade Drain‟ was introduce here. During the construction phase. 10 . Further possibility of mass movement at this area is prevented by erecting gabion wall. s on the roadside by which water entered the road.

Due to the intersection of these three planes.LOCATION 5 CASE 6 : Malekhu Rockslide (Chainage 43+000) In above picture. we can clearly see that there are three different planes at the same site. there we can see the broken pieces of rocks have wedge shaped structure. Due to the presence of there intersecting planes. pieces of rock are sliding down to the roadside. 11 . This type of failure is known as wedge failure.

Chapter III ROCK EXPOSURES AND MEASUREMENTS: a) Planner features at the rock outcrops The features preserved in the rock. which are responsible to form the plane surface.C. c) Measurement of the Attitudes of Planner Features at the Rock Outcrops using Geological Compass Handling of geological compass A geological compass is an instrument used to measure the attitudes of the geological structures. to measure attitudes of geological structures such as strike and dip of planar features. Clinometer compass 2. Bedding plane generally follow the deposition plane. the compass used in the field was the Brunten's compass. plunge and trend of lines and to measure orientation of slope. Brunten Compass 3. Clark compass 4. b) Attitudes of the geological Structures  Linear features  Planner features Orientation of linear features Trend: The orientation of horizontal projection of the linear feature measured with respect to the north is called Trend. Digital geological compass in combination to P. The commonly used geological compasses during the field visit are as follows: 1. Plunge: The angle of inclination measured of its own linear feature horizontally is called plunge. 12 . are called planner features. Out of these. inclination) Dip amount: The angle of maximum inclination plane with respect to its own horizontal projection. The compass is mainly used for measuring the bearing of structures with respect to north. Bedding plane in a sedimentary rock is an example of planner features. Digital compass 5. Planner features Strike: The line of intersection of an incline plane with its own horizontal projection is called strike line and the orientation of the strike line is called Strike with respect to the universal North (bearing of the strike line) Dip Direction: The orientation of the maximum inclination of a planner surface with reference to universal North (bearing of max.

v) The leveling should be done accurately. ii) Measurement of the dip direction and dip angle should be done as mentioned above.e.e. it can be used as both compass and clinometer. the main part should be made horizontal by centering the spirit level in it. Measurement of the bearing (Dip direction): The face with the mirror should be placed parallel to the planar surface along its maximum inclination. iii) The rotation of the compass parts should be done carefully in such a way that the minimum force is applied. 13 . iv) While using the compass for the accurate measurements. i. main part. If necessary the mirror can be used. Then folding the other part. Procedures to handle the compass i) The compass should be opened carefully.Brunten's compass: This compass can be used to measure both the bearing and inclination of the planar structures i. the reading can be taken at two or more places in the same planar features. Then leveling the bubble in the centre of the tube the angle of the structure was seen which the dip angle is. The compass consists of two parts held together by a screw. the compass should be aligned in the direction of the maximum inclination. One part consists of the mirror and the other part consists of the needle and the spirit levels. Measurement of inclination (Dip Angle): The edge of the compass should be aligned in the direction of maximum slope. vi) For more accurate data. Then the reading/bearing shown by the needle should be recorded as the dip direction of the planar feature. the main.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 Dip direction (00 – 3600) 1740 730 1690 2520 1790 1680 2750 1680 2690 1670 1730 1710 1670 1620 2750 1690 1650 1670 2740 2610 Dip amount (00 – 900) 850 810 810 620 850 810 640 810 630 830 810 820 760 810 640 810 810 830 650 660 Remarks B B B J B B J B J B B B B B J B B B J J 14 . N.Observation in Malekhu Bank (Dip direction and Dip amount of beds and joint sets) S.

The topography of the area is characterized by steep relief. ii) iii) b) Landforms Developed By The Rivers: a) Ox-bow Lake: This type of feature is developed by the meandering river. in one stage the both banks meet each other. the erosion rate is intensely higher than the deposition of the sediments. Due to such phenomenon. Braided River: In this type of river. transportation and deposition of sediments. Meandering River: This type of river follows a zigzag path. In meandering river. the erosion rate and the deposition rate of sediments is comparatively equal. The gradient of the river path is also high causing flow velocity of water high. b) Fan: When sediments flow down from high gradient tributaries on the low relief. which is known as Ox-bow Lake. The topography of the area is characterized by low relief. the fan is known as alluvial fan. Since the deposit is due to water. The gradient of the river path is so moderate that the river strikes in one end and returns in the other direction making the zigzag path. The gradient of the river path is so low and the river area is wider and flows with low velocity. Since the energy level of such river is high. which is called fan deposit. The side cutting by the river is higher than the deep scouring along the river path. the river follows the straight path leaving the curved stagnant water body. then the deposit is called debris fan. 15 .Chapter IV RIVER CHANNEL MORPHOLOGY River is a mass of water that flows along a path high to low gradient carrying different materials and responsible for different geological actions. The river is wider and flows with lower velocity than that of Straight River. Braided rivers are dominantly occurred in the Terai Region. Since the energy level of such river is medium. The topography of the area is characterized by moderate relief. the sediments gets accumulated forming a fan shaped deposit. Deep scouring along the river path is higher than the side cutting. Since the energy level of such river is low. sometimes the condition becomes such that due to the intense erosion on two striking banks. If the materials are dominantly composed of large angular fragments. such as erosion. the depositional rate of sediments is intensely higher than the erosion rate. a) Types of River Channels i) Straight River: This type of river follows a straight path. Meandering rivers are dominantly occurred in the midlands and lesser Himalayan regions. Straight rivers are dominantly occurred in the higher Himalayan regions. a single river path is diverted into several paths and may converge to single later.

There is construction material on the flood plane but of low quality. Rivers take sediments along with it and on the flat land. Picture at Location 2 (about 200m towards Dhading Besi) 16 . At Thopal-Trishul Confluence there is an island formed due to presence of hard rock. the sediments spread. The Thopal Khola flows form N to S and meets the Trishuli towards S-W.c) Delta: This feature is common on the confluence of river and sea. so the deposit is called Delta. The middle terrace had been cultivated. which is in the process of weathering and vegetation. The sediment deposits the Greek letter „Delta‟. c) River Channel Morphology at the Trishuli-Thopal Confluence The Trishuli River flows almost East to West. The Trishuli is much wider in comparison to Thopal Khola.

In Malekhu.Chapter V IDENTIFICATION OF ROCKS IN THE FIELD Rock is defined as the naturally forming. it looses heat and becomes crystal by crystallization. It is used in architectural and massive construction. as columns and steps in buildings. cementation and consolidation of sediments formed by the weathering of old rocks either Igneous of Metamorphic. But the bedding planes formed in these rocks may be regular or irregular. 5 Digenesis : Cementation. These rocks are identified in the field by their distinct strata (beddings). 2 Lithification : Change of loose sediments into rock. If the cleavage plane is smooth with no minerals such plane is called slaty cleavage. Broadly sedimentation includes: 1 Compaction : Decrease in volume by weight of overlaying sediments. Sedimentation: It is process of accumulation. compaction. compaction and finally growth of new minerals. 17 . as it is an intrusive rock. Metamorphism: It is the natural process by which the existing rocks are modified into new rocks under the influence of pressure. This directional arrangement develops the linear or planar features in the rock called cleavage. The most commonly found igneous rock in Nepal is Granite. 4 Cementation : Joining of sediments with fine materials. 3 Petrification : Matter converted into massive and hard. Magmatism: The process of rock forming by the cooling and solidification of molten mobile material magma by the crystallization is called magmatism. temperature and chemical reaction. In metamorphic rock there is preferred orientation or directional arrangement of the minerals. c) Sedimentary Rock: Those rocks formed by the process of sedimentation are called sedimentary rocks. b) Metamorphic Rock: Those rocks formed from the alternation of pre-existing rocks (sedimentary or igneous) by the process of metamorphism are called metamorphic rocks. Volcanic rock is not found in Nepal. hard and compact solid aggregates or assemblage of minerals forming crust of the earth. Igneous rocks are formed by random orientation of minerals interlocked with each other. it was found at a distance 3025m south along the stream from the highway. According to mode of formation and properties they can be classified into three types as follows: a) Igneous Rock: Those rocks that are formed by the process of magmatism are known as Igneous Rock. In this process magma looses its heat gradually on upward movement. Other types of cleavages observed in metamorphic rocks are Schistosity and Gneissosity. Generally Igneous Rocks are large rocks and can be easily distinguished from other rocks. Granite is the light-colored plutonic igneous rock. It is also used in monuments and memorial.

Slates are mainly made up of mica and quartz and other minerals are biotite. it splits easily into very thin sheets or slabs of uniform thickness and considerable size. Slate is very dense looking and extremely fine grained. This is the cause of slaty cleavage character. argillaceous metamorphic rock. Slates usually exhibit uniform color. bases and various turned or shaped parts. Location L4 Slate: Slate is a dense. Slate is a bad conductor of electricity. Generally they are black or dark grayish black. Limestone are typical non-clastic rocks that are formed either chemically. Foliation is clearly visible though the constituent minerals are fine and unrecognizable. fine grained. muscovite. talc.d) Major Rock Types of the Field Study Area Location L1 Limestone: Limestones are common and abundant among sedimentary rock. 18 . Its softness. They react vigorously with cold and dilute acid. due to precipitation of CaCO3 from surface water or organically due to the accumulation of hard parts of organism. chlorite and feldspar. By virtue of its cleavage cleavage character. It has unique characteristics of slaty cleavage. It is formed due to dynamic or regional metamorphism of shale. fine grain size and easy workability enable it to be used in the electrical industry as switchboard. They are suitable as road metal as construction material but may not be very durable.

The dolomite is of impure limestone & Mg coated. Cleavage of foliations of light and dark colors is called Gniessosity. 19 . The compositions of dolomite are SiO2. CaO minerals. The appearance of limestone is in different form. The main property of dolomite is that it reacts with acid in powder form by giving efflorescence. there are eye shaped structures called augen and this bolder is called augen gneiss. Due to weathering they are found in elephant skin color. The appearance of dolomite is exactly with limestone. Ferrous iron is present in small proportions in some varieties. LOCATION L6 Bolder of gneiss It consists of band of light colours and separated by dark colors. The rock so formed is called gneiss. This process is called dolomitization. like white in which dolomite are formed by the alternation of limestone in which part of calcium is replaced by magnesium. Gypsum also makes appearance in some dolomites.Location L5 DOLOMITE: Dolomite is a carbonate rock of sedimentary origin and is made up chieflymore than 50 percent of the mineral dolomite which is a double carbonate of calcium and magnesium with a formula of CaMg(CO3)2. In another bolder of gneiss. It has more shear strength.

It consists of small pieces of metamorphic rock with sandy color called xenolith formed due to the variation of PTX. slates successively give rise to phyllites.LOCATION L7 Rock bolder of granite: It is a Plutonic rock. 20 . K-feldspar (60%). Location L8 PHYLLITE: It is similar to slate in appearance and represents slate itself. crystalline. orthoclase. Thus. consisting of quartz (20%). Under higher grades of metamorphism. Xenolith has the more strength than the intrusive rock. schist and gneisses. Xenolith is the relict of country rock preserved in the intrusive rock. They absorb chemicals such as potassium and change over to micaceous minerals. plagioclase (15%). no glass content. shales recrystalline with mica and quartz as the predominant constituents.

They are in general considered weak. But by virtue of its very high hard minerals. kyanite. magnetite. dense and compact. staurolite. incompetent.Location L9 QUARTZITE Quartzite is a typical example of a parametamorphic rock. chlorite. Location L10 SCHIST: Schist is very common metamorphic rock and it is a general name given to all metamorphic rocks bearing a particular structure called schistose structure or schistocity. generally white or pale color but red. hornblende.etc. epidote. the workability or dressing becomes very difficult. The minerals which occur commonly in schist are. quartz. chlorite schist is dark in color. garnet. muscovite. It is strong. Quartzite rocks are highly suitable as road metal. biotite schist is black in color. and durable and has a pleasing color. brown. garnet.g. Other minerals which may occur are mica. They are also useful in the manufacture of silica bricks. It is siliceous in composition and is formed out of dynamic or of thermal or dynamothermal Uniform color metamorphism sandstone. feldspar. e. Quartz is essential constituent. Different schist shows different color. green and other colors may also occur. Grain sizes are variable. some are fine grained while others may be coarse grained. hard. chlorite. pyroxene. talc. etc. It is crystalline. Its structure is Granulose. tourmaline. etc. throughout the rock. etc. sillimatnite. kyanite. biotite. grey. concrete aggregates. paving blocks. harmful and undesirable rocks from the civil engineering point of view. mica schist (muscovite) is silvery in color. 21 .

Pure marble is milky white in color. Mica. medium or coarse grained. it is most valuable rock occurring in nature. It‟s valuable due to its pleasant color. Graphite. Though it is not very hard or strong or durable. Garnet.Location L11 MARBLE It is a calcareous metamorphic rock formed out of the thermal metamorphism of limestone. Marbles react vigorously with cold and dilute acids and scratched by hammer. Olivine. Fine. easily workable. 22 . Calcite. etc. and the ability to take brilliant polish. Pyrite. but the size is equigranular. charming translucency. are the minerals found in marble. Talc. good appearance.

b) Recognition of geological units in the field Geological unit is the geological boundary found between two types of different rocks.It is also of two types as follows: a. Attitude of bedding plane: Strike Dip Direction Dip Amount : : : E-W S 860 23 . which is not exposed or seen by naked eyes. Inferred boundary -The boundary. Near Malekhu. The region also lies in the range of Mahabharata Thrust. This formation consists of grey to black slate. to define. Thopal and Trishuli rivers are also there which are flowing from north to south and east to west respectively. thick is also observed in some places. southwest of the Kathmandu valley accessible from the Prithvi Highway. This formation is about 500-3000m thick. Confirmed boundary -The boundary that is exposed . b. Following geological units were observed in the field: i) Benighat Slate (bg): The name is derived from the village “Benghat” at the confluence of Budhi-Gandaki and Trishuli River. 2. Lying between the Hilly and the Terai region of Nepal in the Mahabharata range. So far. as there is a presence of soft rocks at the lower level and hard rocks while going upstream. Intercalation of quartz vein 2-4 cm. neither hot nor cold lies in the latitude between 27 o 45‟ and 27o 52‟ and the longitude between 84o 58‟ and 84o 59‟. The lowest altitude is the confluence of Malekhu River flowing from south to north. Also it is calcareous and dolomitic at the lower part. different rivers are flowing. it is a part of Dhading District of Bagmati Zone which is 72 km. the highest area of the place has been recorded 1036 m. They are of two types: 1.Chapter VI GEOLOGY OF THE STUDY AREA a) Geology of the Malekhu area Malekhu area bearing cool climate. Transitional-quantity of one type of rock is increasing and another type of rock is decreasing. The beds are not thicker than 5-7 cm in this formation. Thus. In some places it is highly carbonaceous (graphitic). Malekhu has the altitude of about 400m from the sea level. Sharp -one type of rock is immediately disappeared and another type of rock is continued soon.

crystalline and massive. The fault plane composed of mylonite bressia. The average thickness of this formation is about 800 m. ii) Malekhu Limestone (ml): The name was derived from the village “Malekhu” along Prithvi Highway. which is fine-grained yellowish gray in color and highly fractured and jointed. Nearly 200m from the fault plane. Along Malekhu Khola towards upstream: About 400m far from the bridge over the Malekhu Khola. It is composed of light yellow colored siliceous limestone of fine grained to dense. calcareous beds of Benighat slate is observed.Along Thopal Khola and Dhading road: After 300m from suspension bridge over Trishuli River. Attitude of bedding plane: Strike Dip Direction Dip Amount : : : N 850 E. Left side of the fault plane composed of limestone of whitish yellow color and the right side of the fault plane composed of grayish white phyllitic limestone.S 850 W N 50 W 750 The difference in attitude in the Benighat slates indicates that these may be fault in this formation. Weathered rock is blakish in color and fresh exposure is brown in color. Drag fold at the top of this formation on the left bank of the Malekhu Khola is observed. In the middle and top part of this formation. The Malekhu limestone has a transitional contact with Benighat Slate near the suspension bridge along Malekhu Dhading road on right bank of Trishuli River. Attitude of the bedding plane Strike Dip Direction Dip Amount : : : N 700 E – S 700 W S 200 E 750 About 200 m from the previous location along Malekhu Khola towards upstream we observed a fault plane. which shows contemporary pressure-temperature conditions. there is a transitional contact between Malekhu limestone and Robang formation. we observe nearly vertical beds of dolomitic limestone of grayish white of elephant skin color. Attitude of the Bed Strike : Dip direction : Dip amount : N 700E – S 700 W S 200 E 900 24 . the dolomitic limestone is observed. bounding structure in quartz veins is also observed in limestone.

Some phyllite beds are black in colour due to graphite. a metamorphic product of basic intrusive rock-dolerite. Main lithology is phyllite and yellowish quartzite called “Dunga Quartzite” which is highly jointed. Phyllite is gradually replaced by massive yellowish quartzite towards south. Attitude of Bedding Plane: Strike Dip direction Dip amount : : : N 80º E – S 80º W S 10º E 75º About 100m far from the contact. a metabasic rock is observed which is weathered and is olive and muddy in colour with contact of metabasic rock and quartzite is observed. It may be Dunga Quartzite. amphibolite. The thickness of this formation is about 200-1000m.iii) Robang Formation (rb): The name is derived from the village “Robang” in Dhading District. Attitude of bedding plane at Dunga Quartzite: Strike Dip direction Dip amount : : : N 85º E – S 85º W S 5º E 85º 25 . we observed Amphibolites. on the right bank about 500 m from the Prithvi Highway near Malekhu Bazaar contact between dolomitic limestone and dark green phyllite of Robang formation was observed from where. the contact between Robang Formation and Malekhu Limestone is found which is transitional contact. Nearly middle part of the formation. Along Malekhu Khola. Attitude of the bedding Plane: Strike Dip Direction Dip amount : : : N 550 E – S 550 W S 350 E 500 Attitude of bed at Dunga Quartzite: N 800 E – S 800 W S 100E 900 Along Prithvi Highway Towards Gajuri: About 500m far from the Malekhu Bridge. river bends sharply.

It has quite low strength and its excavation loss is high.The contact between Raduwa Formation and Bhainsedovan Marble is more or less sharp. The metamorphic equivalent of limestone is marble. Folds were observed as secondary structures. v) Bhaise Dhovan Marble The formation is named after the village “Bhainsedovan” on the Tribhuvan highway. A highly fractured zone of Mahabharat Thrust exposed at right bank of Malekhu Khola. It has micro fissures. produces metallic sound when hammered. Well-exposed marble is observed in front of Dharapani. The main rock type of this formation is mica-schist of coarse-crystalline of dark grey colour due to predominant micaceous minerals. crystalline in texture associated with pyrite mineral. Attitudes of Beds: Strike Dip direction Dip amount : : : N 70º E – S 70º W S 20º E 70º 26 . which is dominant lithology of that area and is white in colour. It is about 800m thick. Exposure is highly weathered and reacts well with dilute HCl and the crystal calcite is well developed and parallel laminations are also observed.iv) Raduwa formation The name is derived from the village "Raduwa" in Dhading District. even fine grey to black mylonite is observed.

also known as inter-limb angle. These geological structures can be categorized mainly as follows: a) Fold: Folds are deformational structure on the rock strata formed due to compressive forces. Angle of fold : Acute angle formed by intersection of lines extended from the respective limbs. Core : Innermost part of fold. Limb : It is a side of the fold. Axial Plane : Imaginary plane formed by joining all hinge lines and divides folds as symmetrically as possible.Chapter VII RECOGNITION OF GEOLOGICAL STRUCTURES IN THE FIELD Due to the distribution of stress generated through various geological processes. Components of Fold: 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Crest and Trough : Convex and concave portions of wavy undulation. 27 . different types of deformation of rock or earth‟s crust takes place forming different geological structures. They are ductile deformation. Axis : Line of intersection of the axial plane and the ground surface. Hinge line : Line running through the point of maximum curvature of fold.

the ground water potential is higher but in anticlinal condition. then the presence of fold can be predicted. quarries. Due to folding of rock strata. Some important effects of folding are: 1 2 3 4 For construction of dam foundation on large fold. there is possibility of rupture. then the stress is exerted more on side than crown. due to action of further stress. there is more ground water problem. while in anticline condition. Fault is result of brittle deformation due to tension and compression. so special consideration must be taken during the construction of infrastructure on them. the flank dipping toward downstream is unfavorable and the one dipping upstream is comparably safer. Stresses due to convection current induced due to the heat supplied by the lower hot part of the earth. Block which rests above the fault plane. In syncline condition. Parts of Faults: Fault Plane Hanging Wall Foot Wall Slip : : : : Plane along which relative movement takes places. The displacement that occurs during the faulting. b) Fault A fault is a failure in rock along which there has been a relative displacement of the two sides parallel to the fracture plane. Stresses induced due to shrinkage of earth. Causes of Faulting 1 2 3 4 5 Application of shearing stresses that causes sliding action. Effects of Folding and their Engineering Importance: Folded rocks are high strained zone. Repetition of Strata: In regional geological mapping. if there exists repeated strata in the cyclic order. In synclinal aquifer. 28 . In folded area. The displacement may vary from a few centimeters to many kilometers depending upon the nature and magnitude of stresses and resistance offered by rocks. or tunnel passage through syncline. Block which lies below the fault plane. Brittle nature of rock. In case of tunneling.Identification of Fold: 1 2 3 By direct observation: Bending of rock strata can be directly observed in mountain. deep cutting and trenches. tensional fracture may be developed on the crown causing over break. it is adverse. cliff. Attitudes of beds: Opposite dip of the beds also indicate the presence of fold.

due to which intense pressure and temperature occur resulting mineralization of high P/T minerals. unconsolidated material consisting of pulverized rock. there exists repetition and omission of strata.  Fault Gauge: These are fine-grained. the presence of fault can be predicted. mostly of black color and occur on the either or both sides of the fault plane or may form a zone. 29 .  Fault Breccia: These are angular unconsolidated material consisting of fragments of rocks. Orientation of the grooves indicates the direction of movement.Evidences of Faulting 1 Direct Evidence:  Slickensides: These are parallel grooves formed due to frictional sliding on a flat. 2 Indirect Evidence:  Repetition and Omission of Strata: If in the regional geological map.  Mineralization: The fault zone is the region of high stress.  Physiographic Features: Different physiographic features like topographic variations also show the presence of faulting. If high P/T minerals like Kynite and Sillimanite are frequently shown then the presence of fault can be predicted. polished looking surface. The garnet found in schist of Raduwa Formation in Malekhu Area also indicated that Mahabharat Thrust passes through the area. This is the most stressed zone.  Abrupt Termination: Abrupt termination of any geological structure also indicates the presence of fault.

Field Recognition and Observations of Joints: Joints were observed at various rock outcrops and exposures. Joints are the result of brittle deformation due to tensile or shearing stresses. 4 Joint System: Combination of two or more sets of joints. during the construction. Joints are always to be considered as a source of weakness of the rock and as pathways for the leakage of water through the rock. 5 Open Joint: Joints in which the blocks have been opened up for small distances in the direction perpendicular to fracture planes. d) Veins It is the type of intrusion of one mineral in the other one due to which the strength of the rock can either increase or decrease. Thus. 8 Discontinuous Joint: Joints disappearing at shorter depth. 7 Continuous Joint: Joint running up to prominent distance. 30 . 3 Conjugate Joints: Two perpendicular sets of joints. They appeared as planes of failures along which the fractured masses of rocks had no relative displacement. Engineering significance They are significant in the field of engineering as the presence of strong mineral inside a weak one would strengthen the mineral and vice versa. Engineering significance and considerations: Joints influence many engineering operations. Terminologies: 1 Master Joint: More prominent continuous joint. 2 Joint Set: Group of joints occurring in the same altitude. The selection of site for dams and reservoirs and alignments for highway and tunnels through rocks will require very thorough investigations of joints for arriving at safe and economic designs. If there is vein of other weaker mineral in stronger one then its strength will definitely decrease. we should not look superficially but should at least excavate up to some depth so as to confirm the presence or absence of such features otherwise there would be danger failure of our structure. Both there properties of joints destroy the inherent soundness of the rock to a great extent They bring about great reduction of shearing strength of rocks and if cut slope is made through them there is always a chance of potential failure and immediate failure considering set of joints. 6 Close Joint: Joints in which blocks have no separation.c) Joints Joints are the fractures along which there has been no relative displacement along the fracture plane.

g) Engineering Geological significance of Geological Structures: They are significant structures in case of engineering studies as they signify the strength of the rock. which differ notably in age. Life of any engineering structures constructed over any geological structures is governed by the number and natures of above-mentioned structures. it is called unconformity. Angular or Non-conformity. On the other hand. they are said to be a set of a conformable beds and this phenomenon is called conformity. They are common in folded mountains and originate from the process of adjustment of the rocks imposed to stresses.e) Thrust Low angle (10o-15o) reverse fault is thrust. With more thrust the rock strength would definitely be weakened and thus the construction in those areas would be dangerous. 31 . before the implementation any projects on those particular cases. unconformity is a plane of discontinuity that separates two rock sequences. when depositional gap or break occurs between the two conformable sequences. the detailed study of these structures is must for the better lifespan of the project. All beds in a set of conformable sequence possesses same attitude. Hence. It is the case in which the hanging wall has actually been moved up relative to the footwall. So. f) UNCONFORMITY When rocks are formed continuously or regularly one after another without any major break. Unconformity may be Parallel.

These materials typically have low shear strength. Factors effecting spacing of discontinuities may be lithology. It may be tight or open and the space may be empty. partially filled or completely filled. Based on intensity of water flow. v) Seepage: Water pressure reduces the stability of slope by reducing the resisting force of potential failure surface. higher will be the frictional angle. A set of discontinuity or intersection of discontinuity sets may cause rock instability according to the relation with hill slope. Even the strongest intact rock is reduced to one of little strength when closely spaced discontinuities encountered. So. depth. there may be plane. The presence of infilling material may have a profound influence on the strength of a jointed rock mass. the pore water pressure increases the driving force causing more instability. joints. etc. slit. c) Characteristics of Discontinuities in Rock Mass: i) Orientation: Orientation of discontinuities is confirmed by measuring attitude of the plane. foliation.Chapter VIII ENGINEERING GEOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE ROCK OUTCROP: a) Rock Mass: It is a mass of rock interrupted by discontinuities with each constituent discrete block having intact rock properties. iii) Aperture: It is widening distance between two discontinuities. the seepage may be categorized as follows: Dry--------Damp------Wet------Dripping------Flowing (Increasing in the intensity of water flow) vi) Infilling Materials: They may be clay. tectonic stresses. iv) Roughness: The surface of discontinuity may be smooth or very rough. faults and fault zones. wedge or toppling failure in the rock mass. resulting from depositional filling. Discontinuities having same attitude are referred as a set of joints. in rock mass there may be one or more set of joints. faulting or wall rock weathering. Rock masses are heterogeneous because of differing rock types. The friction angle of rock depends upon the degree of roughness. According to the relation between joint sets and hill slopes. random or clustered distribution. 32 . ii) Spacing: It is the perpendicular distance between the discontinuities planes with its adjacently parallel another discontinuity plane. Spacing may be even. b) Discontinuities: Different forms of discontinuities are bedding planes. The spacing of discontinuities effects overall rock mass strength or quality. Intact Rock: It is the term applied to rock containing no discontinuities. In the rainy season. Higher the degree of roughness. presence of discontinuities and varying degree of weathering. sand or coarse fragmental material or mixture of them.

good rock. Bieniawski’s Geomechanics Classification: In 1976. For this. he has made significant modifications in the ratings assigned to the different parameters. geometric and design/engineering parameters in arriving at a qualitative value of their rock mass quality. Different rating system or classifications are developed and adopted each giving different emphases to various parameters. From the beginning to 1989. In the field visit. Following six parameters are used to classify a rock mass using RMR system: 1 Intact Rock Strength 2 RQD 3 Spacing of Discontinuities 4 Orientation of Discontinuities 5 Condition of Discontinuities 6 Ground Water Condition 33 . poor rock or very poor rock. the rock mass can be classified as very good rock. This method of determining the rock quality depending upon various parameters is known as Rock Mass Rating. and it is recommended to use at least two methods at any site during the rating of the rock mass. Different mass classification systems are as follows: 1 Terzaghi‟s Rock Mass Classification System 2 Rock Quality Designation Index (RQD) --. Both methods incorporate geological. we used Bieniawski‟s RMR Classification System.Deere et al. Bieniawski published the details of a rock mass classification called the geomechanics classification and widely known as rock mass rating (RMR) system. RQD is used as one of the parameters. fair rock.Barton et al. observations are done in the related site or observation of considered rock mass is done and data (numeric) are collected to analyze the quality of rock and depending upon final total rated value rock is assigned to one type of above mentioned class. the two most commonly used rock mass classifications are Bieniawski‟s RMR and Barton et al‟s Q system.Chapter IX ROCK MASS RATING Depending upon different parameters of the rock mass. In this system. 1967 3 Bieniawski‟s Geomechanics Classification 4 Rock Tunneling Quality Index (Q value) --. 1974 Among these systems.

1989)) is attached with the report. I II III IV V Rating Value 100-81 80-61 60-41 40-21 <21 Rock Quality Very Good Rock Good Rock Fair Rock Poor Rock Very Poor Rock Different Parameters that were taken in consideration during the field visit are as follows and the copy of Table (Rock Mass Rating System (After Bieniawski. Now mathematical formulae that give RQD are: a) If specimen is obtained through drilling (One-meter length) RQD = SUM OF LENGTH OF PIECES HAVING LENGTH>10CM X 100 % 100 (Total length of core run) RQD = 115 – 3. different rating values have been assigned to different parameters according to their weight. Parameters Included: (i) Strength of intact rock material (ii) RQD Rock Quality Designation is the test done as one of the parameter of Rock Mass Rating. the length sum of specimen pieces that has intact rock of length more than one meter is summed up and the percentage value is found out. the summation of rating value of all the individual parameters give the final rating value and the rock mass is classified as follows: Class No.3 JV Where Jv is Joint Volume. This formula is Imperial formula that may give incorrect information sometimes.In this system. all the parameters are measured and assigned to the respective rating values. In the field. Finally. (iii) Spacing of Discontinuity (iv) Condition of Discontinuity 1 Persistence 2 Separation 3 Roughness 4 Infilling Materials 5 Weathering Condition (v) Ground Water Condition b) If it is done externally 34 . In this method the specimen is obtained through the process of drilling. If drilling is expensive but the precision that the work should be done is less then this test is done externally. When one-meter length of specimen is drilled out. upon what our rock mass rating based.

span.75 4mm Slightly Rough Soft Filling (Clay) Slight Weathered Completely Dry TOTAL 6 1 3 2 5 15 60 VALUE 150 MPa 46% 12. Cohesion of this rock mass is 200-300 KPa and friction angle of rock mass is 25o-35o. 35 . RATING 12 8 8 Result: The total rating of the rock is found to be 60. so it is 3rd Class Rock (Fair Rock).625 cm.Rock Mass Rating in the Field: S. Its average stand up time is 1 week for 5m. N. 1 2 3 4 PARAMETERS Strength of Intact Rock Material RQD Spacing of Discontinuity Conditions of Discontinuity a) Persistence b) Separation c) Roughness d) Infilling Material e) Weathering 5 Ground Water Condition 93.

joint. The tour was also intended to give an insight to the various probable cause of geological failure during any civil engineering construction. Also pore water pressure was the next important cause of mass movement. During the Malekhu site visit. landslides. We were able to gain the knowledge of geological element and their properties as well as features in the geological features in the geological field trip in Malekhu. etc. structures like delta. etc. schist. The main cause of mass movements was found to be steep slope and more slope height. their characteristics. We also learnt about the river channel. we learnt many things about geological elements. etc. that were preserved in the rock during formation of rock or after formation of rock. Raduwa Formation. The objectives of the study were fully met with the co-operation of teachers and students. On the field trip. dams and tunnels. Bioengineering methods would be the most important preventive measure. Last but not the least. This helped us to know the different location at river channel where erosion and deposition takes place. Bhainsedovan Marble Attitudes were studied by calculating strikes. geological changes. rocks.Conclusion: Our field trip to Malekhu thus ended in the third day and we headed back to our college. from our field trip. The Robang Formation. our main objective was to understand the geology of the entire country through the small area. we found Malekhu area rich in metamorphic rocks like phyllite. gneiss. The most of them can be cured by constructing retaining walls. modes of formation of different structures. as they are the major factors in construction of roads. We were acquainted with the geological structures like fault. meandering and braided as categorized by studying morphology of the river. If economically strong other preventive measures like reinforcement. anchoring of slide portion could be done. ground water condition. fan and ox-bow lake formed by them. their types as straight. discontinuity. At the last day we learnt rock mass rating of limestone bed located near Malekhu Old Bridge considering different parameters like strength. Different types of mass movements activities are studied like slope failure. 36 . slate and quartzite rocks in little extent in comparison to other rocks. fold. etc. We studied them. We are very grateful to our teachers who gave guidance and our friends for their valuable support during three days field trip in the Malekhu area. dip direction and dip amount.