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  Coursera  Gamification  Week  5   By  Sudarshan  Gopaladesikan  -­‐  @MrGamify     *Note:  Please  comment  on  the  quality  so  we  know  how  to  improve  for  future  notes.   Share  with  friends  and  the  world  through  email,  social  media  channels,  and  word  of   mouth!  Thanks and be sure to check out http://gamification.co for more news  

and information!  

Enterprise  Gamification       1. Enterprise  Application   a. Intranet  Engagement—Companies  want  their  employees   to  be  more  social  with  each  other  in  other  to  be  more   efficient  and  productive.  This  could  be  like  a  social  network   specifically  for  the  company.     b. Productivity  Engagement—Use  gamification  to  enhance   productivity  on  core  objectives.     c. Efficiency  Engagement—Help  employees  work  more   efficiently  for  core  and  non-­‐core  jobs.  Helps  them  become   more  efficient  employees.     d. Knowledge  Management—companies  want  their   employees  to  share  information  about  job  skills  and   procedures.  This  will  help  employees  across  many  divisions   to  work  in  tandem  because  knowledge  is  being  shared.     e. HR—Gamification  is  used  for  hiring,  on  boarding,   acculturating,  training,  performance  review,  recognition,   and  Travel  and  Entertainment.     i. Google  allows  employees  to  either  get  reimbursed  in   cash  at  a  discounted  rate,  a  virtual  currency,  or  the   option  to  give  the  reimbursement  to  charity.     f. Gen  Y—Gamification  is  important  in  the  enterprise  because   a  recent  Gartner  report  states  that  as  many  as  50%  of   companies  will  use  gamification  by  2015.  By  2015,  today’s   generation  of  college  students  will  come  into  the  workforce.  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

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Games  are  their  language.  B2E  is  a  two  way  street  so  let’s   speak  their  language.     2. Workplace  Motivation   a. Extrinsic  Motivation   i. Pay,  Bonus,  Stock  Options,  Praise,  Promotion,   Responsibility   ii. These  are  tangible  rewards.  Of  course  they  will   motivate,  but  we  are  interested  in  finding  out  what   within  the  job  is  motivating.     b. Intrinsic  Motivation   i. This  is  the  work  that  people  will  do  without  even   getting  paid  to  do  so     ii. Skill  development—people  want  to  enhance  their   skill  level  at  a  task     iii. Information  Feedback—people  want  to  be  in  the   know.  How  to  give  information  to  them  quickly  and   accurately.     iv. Performance  Quality—people  want  to  know  how   they  are  doing  constantly.  They  want  to  work   productively,  but  companies  need  to  provide  proper   feedback.     v. Corporate  Citizenship—people  want  to  feel  part  of   the  community.  The  company  is  a  small  community,   and  citizenship  is  doing  your  part  to  make  the   atmosphere  enjoyable.     vi. Co-­‐worker  Recognition—people  love  being   recognized  by  their  peers.  It  is  a  great  feeling.     3. The  Game  vs.  The  Job   a. Games  are  a  means  to  a  completion  of  a  business  objective.   However,  employees  are  focused  on  the  game.  Where  is  the   proper  trade  off  of  game  and  job?   b. To  optimize  employee  behavior,  gamify  with  intangible   factors  and  use  business  objectives.  For  example,  in  a  call   center,  reward  people  for  getting  good  customer   satisfaction  ratings  rather  than  finishing  a  call  in  under  2   minutes.     c. Citizen  Virtue—remember  the  corporate  culture,   employees  can  exercise  altruism,  conscientiousness,  civic   virtue,  courtesy,  and  sportsmanship.    

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

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d. Enterprise  games  work  best  when  targeted  at  future  in-­‐role   tasks  and  core  citizenship  tasks.  (skill  development  and   altruism)   e. Gamification  in  enterprise  works  to  serve  as  a  training  and   problem  solving  toolkit,  not  just  for  aesthetics.     f. The  employee  can’t  feel  like  they  are  playing  a  game.  It   needs  to  feel  natural.  This  means  the  feedback  and  choices   need  to  feel  meaningful  so  it  carries  meaning  in  real  life   rather  than  the  gamified  environment.     4. Playbor   a. Play+Labor=Playbor   b. However,  here  is  the  danger  of  gamification.  Know  the  book   1984?  If  companies  are  recording  employee’s  actions,   employees  may  feel  constrained.  They  may  not  always  like   being  “watched”.   c. Games  are  voluntary;  do  not  force  it  upon  the  employees.     d. Target  placed  “Green,  Red,  Yellow”  on  the  checkout  screens   to  tell  employees  how  they  are  doing  with  checking  out.   Because  each  check  out  is  being  monitored,  employees  don’t   feel  motivated.     e. In  Disney  Land,  the  housekeeping  staff  was  being  monitored   by  big  screen  leaderboards.  The  employees  called  the   leaderboard  an  “electronic  whip”.     f. Workplace  atmosphere  should  be  a  team  dynamic  rather   than  segregated.  To  create  a  unified  atmosphere,   gamification  can  help  employees  feel  like  they  are  achieving   objectives  greater  than  themselves.     5. Daniel  Debow  Interview   a. Works  for  Rypple.  They  work  to  amplify  behavior,  coach   social  performance  management,  and  help  people  work   better  together.     b. Find  employee’s  natural  affinity  to  rewards,  competition,   and  collaboration.     c. If  all  it  took  were  slapping  on  game  elements,  everything   would  be  successful.  But  it  isn’t.  We  have  to  look  towards   unique  gamification.     d. Observe  data  and  provide  meaningful  feedback.  You  have  to   give  meaning  to  the  rewards.    

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

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e. Culture  is  important.  Employees  want  to  help  the  overall   community,  and  therefore  gamification  should  focus  on   helping  employees  help  each  other.     f. Iteration  is  important  in  design.  Build  version  1.0,  get   feedback,  build  version  2.0,  rinse  and  repeat.  Don’t  try  to   build  the  final  version  on  the  first  attempt.  Customer  co-­‐ creation  is  key.     Social  Impact  and  Behavior  Change     1. Gamification  for  Good   a. How  to  make  people  feel  good  and  awesome?     b. How  can  gamification  help  for  social  personal  impact?     c. Inherent  Relatedness—how  to  make  people  feel  like  they   are  part  of  something  bigger  than  themselves  aka  EPIC   wins.  An  example  could  be  a  brotherhood.  Members  of  the   brotherhood  feel  like  their  actions  for  the  brotherhood  is  for   the  “greater”  purpose,  not  just  for  each  individual.     d. Are  rewards  for  social  good  allowed?  Remember,  tangible   rewards  are  known  to  demotivate  from  the  entire   experience.  When  gamifying  for  social  good,  do  we  focus  on   giving  rewards  or  how  can  we  reward  within  the  experience   itself?  Intrinsic  motivation  is  best.     e. Lastly,  social  good  can  be  individual  behavior  change.  For   activities  such  as  working  out,  nail  biting,  etc.  Competition   with  self  can  be  healthy  when  self-­‐paced  and  not  forced.   Taking  that  into  consideration  can  help  gamify  for  personal   change  as  well.     2. Social  Good  Applications   a. The  following  are  different  social  good  applications  that  use   aspects  of  gamification  to  drive  behavioral  change.     b. Kia  Optima—the  car  making  company  has  added  extra   stats  and  insights  on  the  dashboard  to  help  drivers  see  how   “green”  they  are  when  driving.  Here,  gamification  comes  in   the  form  of  feedback.     c. Zamzee—this  company  aimed  to  solve  fitness  problems   with  low-­‐income  families.  Similar  to  Nike  +,  Zamzee  has   been  able  to  see  success  in  the  neighborhoods  that  have   implemented  their  services.  Gamification  comes  in  the  form  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

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of  points,  badges,  feedback,  progression,  and  lets  the   children  feel  amazing  about  themselves.     d. Energy  and  Environment—Opower  is  a  service  that   provides  feedback  on  how  energy  efficient  people  are.  To   add  a  bit  of  community  altruism,  Opower  compares  each   household  to  all  the  houses  in  the  neighborhood.  Since  there   is  no  leaderboard,  no  one  feels  “singled  out”  if  they  are   using  up  a  lot  of  energy.  Their  leaderboard  is  anonymous,   meaning  that  the  risk  of  demotivation  is  decreased  because   people  aren’t  trying  to  “game”  this  leaderboard.     e. Education—Education  is  based  around  progression  and   engagement.  Gamification  can  help  solve  educational  woes   because  the  new  generation  of  students  needs  to  be   engaged  differently.  Gamification  can  help  solve  that   problem.  An  example  is  asking  the  question  if  the  classroom   should  be  an  additive  or  subtractive  experience.   f. Government—Gamification  can  help  solve  public  policy.   For  actions  such  as  the  election  (see  MTV  Election  2012),   voting,  registration,  obtaining  licenses,  government  can  use   gamification  to  move  people  to  act  in  desirable  ways.     g. Superbetter—Superbetter  was  created  by  Jane  McGonigal   and  helps  people  become  better  people.  Using  things  such   as  quests,  allies,  enemies,  hero  status,  and  power  ups,  Jane   has  created  a  way  for  people  to  embark  upon  personal   change  in  a  way  that  feels  very  user-­‐centric  and  meaningful.   Gamification  comes  in  the  form  of  the  use  of  elements  and   mechanics  working  closely  together  to  provide  a  great   learning  experience.     3. Social  Impact  Techniques   a. Feedback  and  Rewards-­‐-­‐Feedback.  Rewards.  Feedback.   Rewards.  We  understand  that  feedback  and  rewards,  when   done  properly,  can  help  for  motivation  and  action.     b. Monitoring—To  be  able  to  provide  transparency  to  the   users  as  to  what  is  happening  around  them,  we  need  to  be   able  to  monitor  what  is  going  on.  Remember,  we  don’t  want   to  make  it  seem  constrictive  upon  the  users’  freedom.   Monitoring  allows  us  to  create  stats  that  allows  people   gauge  where  they  are.    

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

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c. Communal  Pressure—This  is  peer  pressure,  but  positive   pressure  coming  from  the  company  culture.  How  can   gamification  help  spark  a  team  work  atmosphere?   d. Competition—Competition  is  good  but  not  always.  In  the   example  of  the  Kukui  Cup  (a  energy  saving  challenge  in   dorms  at  the  University  of  Hawaii),  people  were  competing   to  see  which  dorm  saved  the  most  energy.     e. Chance—For  the  “child”  in  our  minds,  we  love  chance  and   unpredictability.     f. Impact—This  goes  back  to  being  EPIC.  Impact  allows   people  to  feel  like  they  are  doing  something  good  for   themselves  and  the  betterment  of  the  community.   Gamification  can  provide  this  kind  of  feeling  with  the  use  of   transparency,  motivation,  intangible  rewards.     g. Stanford  CAPRI—CAPRI  is  a  program  that  tries  to  change   the  behavior  of  people  who  bring  cars  to  Stanford’s  campus.   Because  people  were  typically  driving  through  “rush  hour”,   Stanford  wanted  people  to  use  their  cars  outside  of  rush   hour.  To  do  so,  Feedback  and  Rewards  came  into  play   with  the  use  of  a  virtual  currency.  Monitoring  came  in  the   form  of  GPS  on  smart  phones.  This  allowed  the  program  to   check  in  people  into  a  parking  lot  even  without  manually   doing  so.  This  is  because  the  smart  phone’s  GPS  can  send  a   signal  to  indicate  that  you  have  arrived  to  the  parking  lot.   Chance  was  used  when  people  could  play  a  certain  game  on   the  application.  If  they  leveled  up  by  acting  desirably,  they   were  able  to  play  with  a  board  with  a  higher  reward.  The   association  of  driving  outside  rush  hour  and  being  able  to   reap  greater  rewards  motivated  people  to  change  their   driving  habits.  The  impact  was  being  able  to  relief  car   congestion.     4. Behavioral  Change   a. There  are  two  forms  of  thinking:  automatic  and  controlled.   Automatic  refers  to  things  that  are  habits.  Controlled  refers   to  actions  that  require  conscious  effort.     b. For  certain  actions,  how  can  we  convert  controlled  to   automatic  thinking?     c. Fogg  Behavioral  Model  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

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i. BJ  Fogg  Model  on  Behavior

  ii. B=MAT  (Behavior=Motivation  *  Ability  *  Trigger)   iii. Motivation—as  motivation  is  high,  it  requires  less   ability  to  succeed  in  behavior.  In  the  orange  line,  the   motivation  marks  the  vertical  line.     iv. Ability—as  ability  is  high,  lower  motivation  can   result  to  successful  behavior.     v. Trigger—The  timing  of  the  trigger  could  either  make   it  look  like  noise  or  a  great  facilitator.  The  types  of   triggers  are  sparks,  facilitators,  and  signals.  Sparks   increase  motivation.  Facilitators  increase  perceived   ability.  Signals  increase  both  at  the  same  time  and  are   the  extra  push  to  get  behavioral  to  be  successful.     vi. Similarly,  engagement  loops  increase  motivation.   Progression  loops  increase  ability.  A  good  game   triggers  effectively  so  that  engagement  and   progression  seems  natural  rather  than  forced.     d. Motivation,  Ability,  and  Triggers.  Although  this  is  a  new   model  we  have  seen,  it  boils  down  to  engagement  and   progression.  This  is  key  to  see.  It  shows  two  things.  First,   emphasizing  user  motivation  and  ability  is  key.  Secondly,   users  want  to  feel  immersed  in  the  gamified  environment.   We  should  trigger  only  when  it  seems  natural  to  do  so.   Otherwise,  we  just  let  people  move  towards  sustainable  

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             

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change.  After  all,  it  is  them  experiencing  it,  not  the  game   designer.     5. Susan  Hunt  Stevens  Interview   a. Practically  Green’s  CEO,  Susan  Hunt  Stevens,  gave  an   interview  on  sustainable  gamification.  She  said  that   designing  for  sustainability  is  an  offline  and  online   process.     b. With  technology,  the  online  sphere  allows  for  interaction,   transparency,  and  knowledge  on  social  norms.  Online  mixed   with  personal  interactions  and  behaviors  in  the  offline   sphere  will  help  drive  behavior  change  in  the  offline  aka   real  world.     c. Games  provide  scale.  Giving  levels  so  people  can  see  where   they  are,  where  they  can  be,  and  shows  overall  progression.   The  goal  is  to  keep  progressing  so  that  social  good  action   becomes  less  of  a  conscious  action,  more  of  a  habit.     d. Games  have  a  12-­‐18  month  shelf  life  before  a  new  game   needs  to  help  satisfy  the  gamer’s  appetite.  Same  thing  works   for  driving  social  good  change.  Each  social  good  action  is   unique,  so  unique  frameworks  need  to  be  created  around  it.   Iteration  and  feedback  is  key.     e. When  acting  out  of  altruism,  social  capital  is  actually  valued   very  highly  because  doing  good  for  the  community  makes   us  feel  EPIC.     f. Susan  states  that  too  many  tangible  rewards  that  lead  to   users  “gaming”  the  system—only  acting  for  the  reward.  This   will  lead  to  demotivation  in  the  long  run,  which  is  not  good.     g. At  the  end  of  the  day,  games  help  us  be  expressive.  We  want   to  give  people  the  ability  to  express  themselves  in  the  social   sphere.  We  want  to  give  people  the  chance  to  feel  amazing,   so  that  is  why  social  good  can  benefit  from  using   gamification.          

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