PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING AND LEARNING

by: JUMEL I. ABELLERA

DEFINITION OF TERMS The term PRINCIPLE has been adopted from the Latin word “princeps” which means the beginning or the end of all things. Principles are the chief guides to make teaching and learning effective and productive. In a traditional usage, TEACHING simply means giving instruction. It is a process of imparting knowledge and skills required to master a subject matter. As progressive and humanist education advance, Teaching is now perceived as stimulating, directing, guiding the learner and evaluating the learning outcomes of teaching. LEARNING is usually defined as a change in an individual’s behavior caused by experiences or self-activities. PRINCIPLES OF TEACHING AND LEARNING 1. Teaching is good when the learner is made conscious of the goals or aims to be accomplished “Begin with the end in mind” Remember: With a clear and specific lesson objective, you will have a sense of direction. 2. Teaching is good when it is based on the psychology of learning Psychology of Learning Behaviorist Psychology – learning should be organized in order that students can experience success in the process of mastering the subject matter. Cognitive Psychology – focus their attention on how individuals process information and how they monitor and manage thinking. Humanistic Psychology – concerned with the process not the products; personal needs not subject matter; psychological meaning and environmental situations. 3. Teaching is good when it is well-planned and where activities are interrelated to each other Planning is the key to effective teaching. Lesson Plan – a blue print of those teaching activities that are to be done in the classroom

5. Abstract concepts are made understandable when we give sufficient examples relating to the students’ experiences. Each learner has his own learning styles Types of Learners a) Visual Learners – Visual learners are those who learn best by data and information presented to them visually. They learn by listening and verbalizing c) Read-Write Learners – Read-write learners learn by silently reading or rewriting their notes repeatedly.4. 6. They use all their senses to engage in learning c. They are characterized by the following: a. They use words and phrases that evoke visual images d. They emphasize text-based input and output c. They tend to be slow to make decisions . They think in a linear manner c. They exhibit impatience and have a tendency to interrupt c. They learn by seeing and visualizing b) Auditory Learners – Auditory learners learn by listening and verbalizing data. They prefer for information to be displayed in writing b. They speak slowly and tend to be natural listeners b. Experiential Learning makes use of direct as well as vicarious experiences. They prefer to have things explained to them verbally rather than to read written information d. Teaching is good when there is provision to meet individual differences. Teaching is good when it utilizes the past experiences of the learner. They tend to be fast talkers b. They are characterized by the following: a.Kinesthetic learners are those who learn best through hands-on approaches. They tend to be the slowest talkers of all b. Learning is an evolutionary process Behavioral change requires time and patience. They are characterized by the following: a. They enjoy reading and writing in all forms d) Kinesthetic Learners . They are characterized by the following: a. Learning is a consequence of experience.

maintain composure. concepts. Teaching is good when the learner is stimulated to think and to reason and governed by democratic principles Critical Thinking – is a reasonable reflective thinking that is focused on deciding whether to believe or not (Ennis. Psychomotor Domain – domain of the use of psychomotor attributes 9. 1987). reflect. Analysis – behaviors that require student to think critically e. Synthesis – behaviors that call for creative thinking f. Affective Domain – domain of valuing. attitude and appreciation 3. which require students to apply what they have learned d. Teaching is good when it embeds a sound evaluation process. and get the most out of oneself h) Naturalist Intelligence – analyze ecological and natural situations and data. Cognitive Domain – domain of thought process a. These are: 1. and other important data on any topic or subject b.Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligence Theory a) Verbal-Linguistic Intelligence – ability to speak or write effectively b) Logical-Mathematical Intelligence – ability to work effectively with numbers and reason effectively c) Spatial Intelligence – ability to create visually and visualize accurately d) Bodily-Kinesthetic Intelligence – ability to use the hands to fix or create and use the body expressively e) Musical Intelligence – ability to create music and analyze music f) Interpersonal Intelligence – ability to work with people and help people identify and overcome problems g) Intrapersonal Intelligence – ability to meditate. Evaluation is the process of determining the changes in the child as a result of teaching and of his experiences. learn from living things and work in natural settings 7. 8. or idea or giving opinion on an issue 2. Teaching is good when it goes beyond recall of information Benjamin Bloom and his associates classified three big domains of objectives. object. Comprehension – behaviors associated with the clarification and articulation of the main idea of what students are learning c. exhibit self-discipline. It is the process of assessing conclusions based on evidence. Knowledge – behaviors related to recognizing and remembering facts. . Learning is both observable and measurable. Evaluation – behaviors that necessitate judging the value or worth of a person. Application – behaviors that have something to do with problem-solving and expression.

htm http://voices. (2008) Curriculum Development.com/pdf/HowToTeachEffectively_TypesofLearners.mysdcc. Purita P. revised edition. Touch the HEART and Transform LIVES!” -Aristotle References: Acero. (2007) Principles of Teaching 1. Philippines: Lorimar Publishing Company Inc.S.com/info_7851970_types-learners-classroom.B.pdf http://www. Inc. Quezon City.O.O. G. Salandanan.sdccd.G. G. Bilbao.. Quezon City. B. and Castro.. Quezon City. (2000) Principles and Strategies of Teaching. Javier.net/DP_IRL_Laws. Philippines: Adriana Printing Co.drillpad. V. Philippines: Books Atbp.html . Garcia. H.ehow. Salandanan. E. The process of learning is emotional as well as intellectual. and Salandanan. (2005) Teaching and the Teacher. Inc. Inc. G. Inc.10. Mandaluyong City. Corpuz. Inc Websites: http://www. Philippines: Adriana Printing Co. Philippines: Adriana Printing Co. Philippines: Rex Printing Company.. Gloria G.lyceumbooks.htm http://www.. (2009) Methods of Teaching. Quezon City. We tend to remember and learn more those that strike our hearts! “Educate the MIND. Learning is affected by the total state of the individual. (2005) Principles and Strategies of Teaching: A Skills Approach.edu/Staff/Instructor_Development/Content/HTML/Laws_of_Learning . Quezon City. Publishing House Corp.html http://www. & Lorimar Publishing.com/thorndikes-laws-learning-426185.yahoo. Carlito D.

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