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Intersecting Tunnels Tutorial
Unwedge is generally used to examine the safety of a single tunnel. However it is possible to simulate two or more intersecting tunnels with a simple trick. This tutorial demonstrates how to model a drawpoint and adjacent drift in a hard rock mine. This junction is assumed to be a high traffic area so support is applied to achieve a design factor of safety of 2.0. Topics Covered • • • • Intersecting tunnels Importing dxf Scaling wedge size Bolt support
Select: File → Import → Import DXF Or click the Import DXF button on the sidebar. make sure that the units are Metric. Navigate to the Examples > Tutorials folder in your Unwedge installation folder and open the Tutorial 06 Drawplan.0 Tutorial Manual .Intersecting Tunnels Tutorial 6-2 Model Select Project Settings from the toolbar or the Analysis menu. stress as tonnes/m2. Select: Analysis → Project Settings In the Project Settings dialog.dxf file. Also ensure that the box is checked for Compute End Wedges. The model should appear as follows: Unwedge v. Select OK. For this tutorial we will start by reading in an Autocad DXF file which contains the geometry of the intersecting tunnels.3.
because then this becomes a full 3-dimensional problem. You will now see the two tunnels oriented such that the main drift is heading North. Select: View → Select View → 3D Wedge View As you can see. by default. the problem is simplified to assume that the roofs of the tunnels are flat. The geometry will be clearer if you rotate the Perspective view approximately 90° as shown. For example. Unwedge assumes that the tunnel is horizontal. For this tutorial.3. You will now see the correct 3D representation of the tunnels. to set the main drift heading East. For the analysis in this tutorial. click in the Perspective view and then click the button for Reset Tunnel Rotation just to the right of the Wedge Translation slider in the sidebar. we need to rotate the tunnel 90°. Under Tunnel Axis Orientation on the sidebar. Since we have imported a plan view. The height of the tunnel appears significantly too large. If your actual tunnel is heading in a different direction you must change the Trend. This will be addressed later by scaling wedges. Unwedge v. set the trend to 90°. You CANNOT define the intersection of tunnels with a curved roof. TIP: To look directly down the tunnel in the Persepctive view. set the Plunge to 90°. Note that this analysis assumes that the roof and floor of the tunnel are flat.Intersecting Tunnels Tutorial 6-3 Tunnel Orientation Switch to the 3D Wedge View. we will assume that the main tunnel is heading North so leave the Trend at 0°.0 Tutorial Manual .
Ensure the General tab is selected. By default. Set the Design Factor of Safety to 2. Note that all three joint sets are assigned these properties by default. Since miners are constantly at work in this area of the mine. For Joint Properties 1.3. Select the Joint Orientations tab in the Input Data dialog. enter Phi = 30 and Cohesion = 0. we want a high factor of safety. 3.Intersecting Tunnels Tutorial 6-4 Input data Open the input data dialog.0. Select the Joint Properties tab in the Input Data dialog. Select: Analysis → Input Data Now enter the data by following these steps: 1.0 Tutorial Manual . Enter the Dip and Dip Directions for the joint sets as shown. 2. 3 joint orientations are already defined. Unwedge v.
3.Intersecting Tunnels Tutorial 6-5 4.0 Tutorial Manual . Your screen should now look like this: Unwedge v. Click OK to close the dialog.
0 Tutorial Manual . Let’s assume that the height of the tunnel is 5 m. This will calculate the actual maximum wedge size for the tunnel height. and enter the actual tunnel height. Select: Analysis → Scale Wedges You will see the Scale Wedges dialog.3. To scale down the size of wedges. select the Scale Wedges option from the Analysis menu. you must use the Scale Wedges dialog. Therefore check the box next to Tunnel Height and set the scaling value to 5 m. Your screen should now look like this: Unwedge v.Intersecting Tunnels Tutorial 6-6 Scaling Wedges In order to account for the actual height of the tunnel.
However. even though the graphical tunnel height will appear larger. Recall that we want a factor of safety of at least 2.e. This can be easily accomplished by adding a few spot bolts.Intersecting Tunnels Tutorial 6-7 Now you can see that the wedges have a maximum height of 5 m. Select: View → Select View → Perimeter Support We will support the perimeter wedges using cable bolts so click on the sidebar button for bolt properties Select: Support → Bolt Properties Change type to Cable Bolt as shown. Switch to the Perimeter Support Design view.3. Perimeter Wedge Support You will see in the sidebar that all of the wedges have a factor of safety below 1. Unwedge v.0 Tutorial Manual . This is a display issue only – just remember that the wedge size corresponds to your true tunnel height. the graphical display of the tunnel "height" will still appear too large (i. larger than the tunnel height you have defined).
3. which allows you to choose the bolt property type and length.0 Tutorial Manual . Repeat these steps until wedges 5 and 7 are supported by one bolt and wedges 2 and 4 are supported by 2 bolts. Now click on the perimeter such that the bolt goes through one of the wedges. Select: Support → Add Spot Bolt You will see the Add Spot Bolt dialog. Now you can simply add one or two bolts through each wedge to stabilize them.Intersecting Tunnels Tutorial 6-8 Click OK.5 meters so the default 2 meter bolts should be sufficient. Click OK to use the default Bolt properties. The maximum apex height for the perimeter wedges is less than 1. The screen should look like this: Unwedge v.
3.Intersecting Tunnels Tutorial 6-9 You can see in the sidebar that the factor of safety for all perimeter wedges is now greater than 2. thus achieving the design factor of safety for these wedges.0 Tutorial Manual . Unwedge v.
Intersecting Tunnels Tutorial 6-10 Roof Wedges To see the wedges that form at the top and bottom of the tunnel intersection. the largest trace length actually observed underground was 10 meters in length so we can scale the wedge to reflect this. Select: View → Select View→ End Wedges You can rotate the views to get a realistic view of the roof and floor wedges like this: The maximum wedge found in the roof of the excavation is very large with an apex height of approximately 13 meters and a weight of almost 3000 tonnes. At the bottom.3. change the Wedge to Scale to Roof.0 Tutorial Manual . However. select all joints and enter 10 m for the Scaling Values as shown. Unwedge v. At the top under Trace Lengths. Select: Analysis → Scale Wedges You will see the Scale Wedges dialog. we need to look at the end wedges.
Now add an array of bolts by selecting the Add Pattern button. Using the default shotcrete. end-plated cable bolts installed at 1. We will choose the cable bolt support option. which is required because the drawpoint and drift are commonly travelled working areas and must be safe. the wedge could be supported with a pattern of 8 meter long.3 meter by 1. first switch to the End Support Designer.Intersecting Tunnels Tutorial 6-11 Click OK to close the dialog.0 Tutorial Manual . We will support the roof wedge using the same cable bolts as used for the perimeter wedges so there is no need to change the bolt properties. Select: View → Select View → End Support Ensure that the End Wedge Visibility in the sidebar is Roof. Select: Support → Add Bolt Pattern Set the length to 8 m and the vertical and horizontal spacing to 1.3.3 meter centres. the layer of shotcrete would have to be 40 cm thick to support the wedge with a factor of safety of 2. Alternatively.3 m as shown. This can be supported by shotcrete or cable bolts. You will now see that the wedge is now ~ 150 tonnes. Unwedge v. To do this.
Click anywhere on the screen to place the array. However.3. Your screen should now look like this: You can see in the sidebar that the factor of safety for the roof wedge is now greater than 2.Intersecting Tunnels Tutorial 6-12 Note that the maximum apex height of end wedges may be greater than 8 m. You will now see an array of cable bolt locations.0 Tutorial Manual . Click OK. which we do not care about. Unwedge v. Therefore 8 m bolts are fine. this maximum is for the floor wedge.
3. Click on the three dots to the right of the pull-down menu. Unwedge v. That concludes this tutorial on how to model intersecting tunnels.0 Tutorial Manual . You should now see no wedges. We don’t care about the floor wedge so we can turn it off by going to Wedge Visibility and selecting User Defined. The screen should now look like this: Check that all wedges are within the desired factor of safety by going to Wedge Visibility and selecting FOS < Design.Intersecting Tunnels Tutorial 6-13 3D Wedge Views Return to the 3D Wedge View. Uncheck 10 Floor and click OK.
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