Chapter 9 Architectural Pattern of an Animal

New Designs for Living
Levels of Organization in Organismal Complexity •  Zoologists recognize 34 major phyla (multicellular
animals)

•  600M years ago, nearly 100 phyla evolved representing nearly all major modern body plans •  Major body plans - result of extensive selection - determinant of future adaptational variants •  Animals share structural complexities that reflect common ancestry

Hierarchical Organization of Animal Complexity

Grades of Organization
•  Unicellular protozoan groups are the simplest animal-like organisms. a. Within the cell, they perform all basic functions b. Diversity is achieved by varying architectural patterns of subcellular structures, organelles and the whole cell

Metazoa - multicellular
•  Cells become specialized parts of a whole organism; these cells cannot live alone as do protozoan cells •  Cellular grade of organization Simplest metazoans - not strongly associated to perform a collective function •  tissue grade organization - More complex metazoans have cells working closely together as a unit. **parenchyma - chief functional cells of an organ **stroma supportive tissues •  Many tissues work together in an organ; most metazoans operate at the organ system level

Animal Symmetry
•  Spherical symmetry - when any plane divides the body into mirrored halves, as in cutting a globe in half

•  Radial symmetry - when any plane passing through the longitudinal axis divides the body into mirrored halves, as in cutting a pie
•  E.g. Cnidaria and Ctenophora are the Radiata

Biradial symmetry in an animal that is radial, except for some paired feature that allows only two mirrored halves (comb jellies)

bilateral symmetry - organism can be cut in a
sagittal plane into two mirror halves; this usually provides for a head (cephalization) in bilateral animals classified in the Bilateria

Cephalization
•  Differentiation of the head, or cephalization, is mainly found in bilaterally symmetrical animals

Body Cavities and Germ Layers
body cavity - an internal space •  Most obvious is a gut cavity •  Most animals have a second cavity outside the gut •  fluid-filled cavity - cushion and protect the gut •  Coelom provides more space for organs and surface area for exchange. •  Worms rely on the coelom for a hydrostatic skeleton to aid in burrowing

•  Sponges have no body cavity •  Like all metazoans, sponges develop from a zygote to a blastula stage •  In sponges, after the formation of a blastula, the cells reorganize to form the adult animal

Methods of Mesoderm formation
•  mesoderm forms as endodermal cells migrate into the blastocoel three body plans 1. acoelomate plan - mesodermal cells completely fill the blastocoel 2. pseudocoelomate plan mesodermal cells line the outer edge of the blastocoel, leaving a persistent blastocoel and a gut cavity. 3. eucoelomate - blastocoel is completely lined with mesoderm forming a true coelom

2 different eucoelomate plans
a. schizocoelous - mesodermal cells fill the blastocoel; then a space opens inside the mesodermal band forming a coelom

b. enterocoelous - cells from the central portion of the gut lining begin to grow outward as pouches •  The expanding pouch walls form a mesodermal ring and enclose a space which becomes a coelomic cavity.

Body Plans Among Major Animal Taxa
Eumetazoans show great variety in symmetry, number of body layers, and gut structure

Metamerism (Segmentation)
•  Metamerism - serial repetition of similar body segments •  Each segment is a metamere or somite. •  True metamerism is found in Annelida, Arthropoda and Chordata

Components of Metazoan Bodies
A. Extracellular Components Body fluids and extracellular structural elements - noncellular components of metazoans (intra & extra) •  Blood plasma and interstitial fluid - part of the extracellular fluids in open and closed circulatory systems.

Cellular Components: Tissues

Epithelial Tissue
a. Epithelium - sheet of cells that covers an internal or external surface •  provides outside protection and internal linings •  Simple epithelia are found in all metazoa. •  Stratified epithelia are restricted to vertebrates. •  All epithelia have an underlying basement membrane. •  Blood vessels never penetrate epithelial tissues.

Simple squamous : Cheek cells

Simple Columnar : Intestine/stomach

Upper layer of skin

trachea

Transitional : Urinary bladder

Not strictly squamous, Cuboidal or epithelial

•  Made up of few cells, many extracellular fibers and a ground substance or matrix. Two types of connective tissue proper (vertebrates) 1) Loose connective tissue - fibers and both fixed and wandering cells in a syrupy matrix 2) Dense connective tissues (e.g., ligaments and tendons) are characterized by densely packed fibers. •  Much fibrous tissue is made of protein collagen, the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom.

Connective Tissue

Connective tissue fibers
•  Collagen – thick, unbranched, spread, wavy •  Elastic – thin, less wavy, branched •  Reticular – fine & delicate

Classification of connective tissues
I. Connective tissue proper – for binding purposes a. Loose/areolar –
large amount of tissue fluid, many cells, few fibers

b. dense/tendon –
more fibers, decrease in fluid & cells

II. Specialized connective tissue – has other specific functions aside from binding
a.  Adipose – adipocytes - store fats & nutrients, provide insulation, act as cushion - fusiform nucleus

b. Cartilage – chondrocytes - housed inside a matrix called Lacuna 3 types of cartilage accdg to matrix: 1.  Hyaline – e.g cartilage of trachea - clear homogenous matrix

2. Elastic cartilage – in epiglottis & external ear - similar to hyaline except for the elastic fibers present

3. Fibrocartilage – consist of network of collagenous fibers

c. Bone – osteocytes - support, protection, movement, formation of blood cells, reservoir of calcium

d. Blood
– transport medium of the body Plasma – fluid medium where all cell types are found 1. Erythrocytes – frog/human

Leucocytes

2. Leucocytes – granulated & agranulated

Granular wbc
•  Granulated cytoplasm & polymorphous/ multi-lobulated nucleus •  Connected by chromatin strands 1.  Eosinophils – 2 lobes; pink to red granules 2.  Basophils – S-shaped; blue 3.  Neutrophils – 3-5 lobes ; purple

Agranular wbc
•  Monocyte – kidney-shaped/oval nucleus •  Lymphocyte – large nucleus

Thrombocytes
•  Platelets – minute cytoplasmic fragments

Agranulated

Granulated

platelets

Muscular Tissue
•  •  •  •  most abundant tissue in most animals. originates from mesoderm. muscle fiber - cells specialized for contraction. Striated muscles include skeletal and cardiac muscles. •  Smooth muscles lack the alternating bands seen in striated muscle. •  Myofibrils are contractile elements and the unspecialized cytoplasm is sarcoplasm

Muscle tissue
•  Contractility •  Muscle fibers •  3 types

Nervous Tissue
•  receives and conducts impulses •  Nervous tissue cell types are neurons and neuroglia that support the neurons.

Complexity and Body Size
•  More complex grades of metazoan organization permit and promote evolution of large body size. •  Surface-area-to-volume ratios have important consequences for animal respiration, heat, etc. •  Most animals had to develop internal transports systems to shuttle nutrients, gases and waste products, as they became larger

•  “Cope’s Law of Phyletic Increase” - lineages began with small individuals and eventually evolved toward giant forms; it holds for nonflying vertebrates and many invertebrates.

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