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# SECTION—A

Q. 1.1. (a) Explain machine with suitable examples.

Ans. Machine: It is a combination of resistant bodies which are shaped and interconnected in such a way so as to transform and transmit the available energy to do some particular kind of work. A screw jack is a machine which enables the muscular energy of a man to be employed in raising a vehicle. A petrol engine is a machine which uses the heat energy derived from petrol to propel a vehicle.

Q. 1.1. (b) Explain mechanism with suitable examples.

Ans Mechanism It is a combination of resistant bodies interconnected in such a way so as to get a desired type of motion from a given type of motion A solider-crank mechanism is used for converting the reciprocating motion to rotary motion and viceversa. ‘ pantograph is a mechanism used for en! ingredient the displacements A pantograph can, thus, reproduce a map to enlarged or reduced scale.

Q. 1.1. (c) in what ways does a mechanism differ from a machine.

Ans. (i) The primary purpose of a mechanism is to transform & transmit motion. The primary purpose of machine is to transform & transmit energy to do some particular type of work.

(ii) The parts of a mechanism are not designed to take force. The parts of a machine are designed is take force.

Q. 1.1. (d) In what ways does a machine differ from a structure?

Ans. (i) There is. no relative motion between the part members of a structure. For example, all the members of a high tension electricity tower are rigidly fixed to one another There is relative motion between the links of a machine. For example the piston has sliding motion in cylinder of engine. (ii) Structure does not transforms &transmit energy where as a machine does. (iii) The load on the members of a structure is static, where as the load on the links of a machine is dynamic in nature.

Q. 1.1. (e) Define a link and explain it with the help of examples.

Ans. Each part of machine which has motion relative to some other parts termed as element, or link or kinematic link. A link may be one part of machine or may be several parts fastened together and having no relative motion among them. For example in case of petrol engine some links are as given below: Link 1 : piston Link 2: connecting rod c9 Link 3 : crankshaft, crank & flywheel Lmk 4 cylinder, engine frame, main bearings

SECTION—B

Q. 1.2. Explain different types of links giving suitable examples.

Ans. (a) On the basis of rigidity: (1) Rigid link e.g. the connecting rod of engine. (ii) Flexible link e.g. the belt in belt drive. (iii) Fluid link e.g. fluid used in hydraulic jack (b) On the basis of connection to other links (i) Binary link: It has two holes for making two turning pairs with two links. In the

fig. shown, h1 & h2 are the two holes for pins for connection with two link. (ii) Ternary Link: It has three holes for making three turning pairs with three links. (iii) Quarternary Link : It has four holes for making four turning pairs with four links.

Ternary Joint: In this joint three links are connected with a pin and can have angular displacement with respect to one another. Quarternary Joint: In this joint four links are connected with a pin and can have angular displacement with respect to one another.4. Define and explain the terms : binary joint.3. ternary joint & quarternary joint. Q. 1. Binary Joint: In this joint two links are connected with a pin and are free to have angular displacement with respect to each other.Q. Kinematic Pair : Two links form a kinematic pair if they are connected together in such a way that the relative mtion of one with respect tj the other is completely or successfully sgpramed For example. Define (with example) a kinematic pair and a kinematic chain. Ans. 1. in a petrol engine the . Ans.

Piston and cylinder make one sliding pair. 1. Similarly (2) and (3) make second turning pair and (4) & (1) make fourth turning pair. Screw pair: A screw pair is one in which the two links have contact surfaces as screw threads. 1.5.3) pinconnected to one another at A. 1. Thus the link (1) & link (2) form one turning pair. The links can turn about the pins with respect to one another. 1. B. .5. The piston and Connecting rod me a turning pair. C and D make a four-bar chain.j For example in the four-bar chain shown in the Fig. Give examples.3 the link (2) can turn about pin A with respect is link (1). Ans Turning pair A turning pair is one in which one link is constrcLto have only a turni ni relative to the othriink. Define Q. Kinematic Chain: it is a combination links in which each link forms a part of two pairs and i which the relative motion is completely constrained Ioo For example the four bars in the (fig. Define turning pair and a screw pair.

Justify the statement. the motion of C will be horizontal The same (z e horizontal) motion at C can be obtained if link (4) is replaced by a slider.7 What do you understand by degrees of . and guides are provided for its motion 1 his shows that slider-crank mechanism is a special case of çur-bar mechanism Q. ‘Slider Crank Mechanism is only a special case of four bar mechanism’. 1. Ans.1. If the length of link (4) of the four bar mechanism is made infinite so that D lies on infinity. Q.6.For example the screw and the nut in a screw jack form a screwpair.

because to specify the configuration of this mechanism we ha’ e to know 01 & 2 .1.Ans Degrees of Freedom Degrees of freedom of a mechanism is equal to the number It is also equal to the number of links of the mechanism which can be given independent Q.8 Explain the degrees of freedom of bar mechanisms Ans The degrees of freedom of tour-bar mechanism is one because only the value of O is sufficient to specify the configuration of the mechanism The degrees of freedom of five-bar mechanism are two.

Ans Draw PQ = 600 mm according is some scale at 450 to horizontal .SECTION—C Q.8 A link PQ whose length is 600 mm rotates about end P at 300 rpm in clockwise and has an angular acceleration of 120 rad/s Draw the elocity and acc diagrams at the instant when PQ makes angle of 45° with the horizontal. 1.

yq’ taken perpendicular to PQ represents the tangential acc. The line p’ q’ represents the acceleration of Q relative to P. It is also the absolute acceleration of Q because P is stationary. of Q relative to P. .

if the engine speed is 300 rpm.D. is 120 mm.C. 1. determine for the position when the crank has turned 450 from I. The radius of gyration about C.Q.9 In a simple steam engine the lengths of the crank and connecting rod are 100 mm and 400 mm respectively The weight of the connecting rod is 50 kg and its C G as 200 mm from cross head centre. Ans. (a) The velocity (b) The acceleration of the centre or mass of the connecting rod. .G.

Acceleration Diagram: .

the crank has turned through an angle 300 from inner dead centre. 1.10 A reciprocating engine has a stroke of 36 cm and connecting rod 4 times the crank. At the instant.Q. . Determine: (a) Velocity and acceleration of piston. Ans. of 1140 cn/s2. The crank rotates at 240 rpm clockwise and has an acc. (b) The angular velocity and angular acceleration of the connecting rod..

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.Q 1. PCLCP 4DA are 6 cm. 10 cm from C on the link BC. 10cm and 20 cm respectively Link AB makes an angle oL6O with the fixed link AP and rotates at an angular velocity of t rad/s and angular acc of 2 rad/s The direction of rotation is such that the angle RAP is decreasing. 16 cm. Determine: -(i Angular velocity and angular acceleration of the link CB fb The velocity and acceleration of point P.11 In a four-bar mechanism. the lengths of the liB.

Velocity diagram: .Draw space diagram CR to some scale.

BC = 400 mm. determine the velocity of . 1. AB rotates at 36 rad/s. CD = 450 mm. The lengths of the links are: AB = 200 mm.Q. AD is fixed link. and AD = 600 mm.12 In a four-bar mechanism. At the instant when AB is at right angle to AD. the crank.

100 mm from D. . (ii) The point on CD.(i) The mid point of BC.

and D respectively With respect to (3).13 Define instantaneous centre of rotation Explain the method of locating of instantaneous centres of a four-bar mechanism. Similarly ‘12’ I and 134 are at B. 114 is at A. the end A of (1) can move DA. respect to (3) i.e. therefore instantaneous centre of motion of (1) relative to (4) i. the centre of motion of Axis at some point on line DA and similarly centre of motion of end B of (1) is at some point on line CB extended Thus the instantaneous centre of motion of (1) with. Ans The instantaneous centre of rotation of a body or of a link is the_point about which the body or the link can be assumed to be turning at the givn instant. Link (1) can turn about pin A r t link (4). C.Q 1. 113 lies on CB and DA produced Similarly the instantaneous centre of rotation of (2) w r t (4) is on AB and DC extended .e. ABCD is a four-bar mechanism.

9.14 In four-bar mechanism ABCD.Q 1. No of links = 4 . find by instantaneous method (a) Velocity (angular) of BC (b) Velocity of a point on BC at 135 mm from B (c) Angular velocity of CD (d) Velocity of a point on CD at 27 mm from D (e) Show all the instantaneous centres Ans.600 and 800 mni if AB rotates at 10 rad/s. Refer to fig. BC.540. 1. line AB is at right angle to the link AD which is a fixed link The lengths of AB. CD and DA are respectively 270.

(e)All the six instantaneous centres has been shown in the fig 1.C. Ans. Q.D. position (a) Locate all the instataneous Eentres of the slider crank mechanism. 1.9. In a crank-slider mechanism the length of crank is 150 mm and that of connecting rod is 600 mm. When the crank is at 45° from I. and the crank rotates at 10 rad/s. (b) Find the velocity of slider (c) Find the angular velocity of connecting rod.15. (a) Locating the instantaneous centres: .

16. 1. Ans When a slider slides on a link which turns about a point. What is Coriolis acceleration component? Derive an expression for it. .Q. the component of acceleration of the slider perpendicular to the link is called Coriolis acceleration component.

L AB when at approaches zero. V = Velocity of sliding of slider on AB.Let w = angular velocity of link AB about A. In a short interval of time 8t. This displacement is . . E moves to position E’ and D moves to the position D’. The displacement of D can be considered to be made up of three components as given below: This displacement FD’ of the slider relative to the link is due to an acceleration for of the slider relative to the link. D = Point on slider E Point on link AB under point D..

.9 m/s2 The angular velocity of the rod i. A washer is sliding outward on a Eod with a velocity of 1.2 m/s which increasing at the rate of 0. 17. 5 rad/s coun clockwise and angular acceleration is 10 rad/s2 clockwise Determine the absoli acceleration of the washer when it is at 0.6 m distance from the point about which I rod turns. 1.Q.

as at (b) It is represented by yp in acc diagram .its direction is found by rotating v vector through 900 in direction of w.

18 In the mechanism shown below the length of crank CD is 150 mm. the distance AC is 400 mm Determine the Coriolis acceleration component of the slider if the crank rotates at 120 rpm in anticlockwise direction It is perpendicular is CD and is represented by cd in velocity diagram.:.3 rn/s2 Q 1. draw a line from d parallel to AB (iii) Velocity of a relative to A is perpendicular to AB. Velocity of]) relative to E = ed . draw a line from point a perpendicular to AB.(v) 0’ p’ represents the absolute acc of washer By measurement. (ii) Velocity of E relative to D is along AB. 0’ p’ 15. Intersection of this line with the line drawn in (ii) gives point e.

The two inversions are shown below. Ans.19 Sketch and explain any two inversions of slider-crank-chain. . 1.Q.

1. It is based on double slider-crank chain and has following four links: .20 Sketch mechanism of Oldham coupling and explain how the motion is transmitted from one shaft to another shaft which are parallel but not co-axiaL Oldham coupling is used for connecting two shafts whose axes are parallel but not collinear.Q.

When (2) and (3) slides in the respective grooves. 1. S It is based on double slider crank chain and has the following four links Link (1) : Frame having two slots at right angle to each other. pin jointed to (2) and (3). Explain Ellipse Pe with the help of neat sketches.Q.21. Ellipse trammel is used for drawing an ellipse. Link (2) : Slider free to slide in the horizontal slot of (1) (3) Slider free to slide in the vertical slot of (1) (4) : Bar. S In fig (ii)x=BC cosQ . the end C of (4) traces an ellipse as proved below.

.This is the equation of ellipse. It is obvious that AC acts as theory axis and BC acts as minor axis of the ellipse.

8 m The methods of finding velocity in mechanism are: (a) Relative velocity method (b) Instantaneous centre method (c) Analytical method. . (iii) By measurement.1. 6.5 m.35 m and OC = 2. OB = 4. Q. What is turning moment diagram? Draw and explain the turning moment diagram for a four stroke single cylinder internal combustion engine.(i) Fig. (ii) The instantaneous centre of rotation of BC has been obtained by producing AB and DC. shows the mechanism drawn to scale 1cm = 0.

Turning moment diagram is a graphical representation of applicable of the piston. a sufficient force . Towards the end of stroke the piston has obtained momentum. (ii) During compression stroke the piston is pushed by crankshaft from ODC to IDC. thereqf exerts force on the crankshaft. therefore the torque on crank shaft is negative. The work done by the crankshaft on piston is equal to arean1 and the work by piston is equal to area p1. on the crank shaft for various ans of the crank The turning moment is taken as the ordinate and the crank angle as abscissa. The turning moment diagram of a four stroke single cylinder engine is shown below: (i) During suction stroke the crank shaft pulls the piston from inner dead centre (IDC) to outer dead centre (ODC).Ans.

6. The work on piston by crankshaft is equal to the area n2. Write the function of flywheel. tergy jciecrase of speeywheel. towards the end of the stroke is due to momentum gained by the piston. Ans. The function of flywheel is to act as a reservoir which will absorb energy when the turning moment is greater than the resisting moment.2. (iii) During expansion the high pressure burning gases apply a very high force on.has to be applied by crankshaft on piston for compression. therefore negative turning moment is greater than that in suction stroke. piston which in turn apply a high force on crankshaft thus the work done by piston on crankshaft is shown as P2• (iv) During exhaust stroke the crankshaft has to push the piston from ODC to IDC. The . the work on piston by crankshaft is shown as n2 The positive turning moment. and will release the energy when turning moment is less than the resisting moment. Absorption of energy is accompanied by incre1s2 edoLilytheeLad the release of. Q.

In this way with the use of flywheel.3. i. In power press. motor of smaller capacity is able to serve the purpose. a flywheel absorbs energy and releases the energy. Coefficient of fluctuation of energy : We know that in a cycle. 6. . Explain the terms coefficient of fluctuation of energy and coefficient of fluctuation of speed. Ans. The coefficient of fluctuation of energy is the ratio of fluctuation of energy to the work per cycle.energy is stored in flywheel in the form of kinetic energy. In engine. the flywheel absorbs the mechanical energy produced by electric motor during idle period and gives the energy when actual operation is performed.e. Q. the flywheel absorbs the stroke and gives out the energy during idle strokes and thus keeps the maximum speed and minimum speed of crankshaft near the mean shaft in a thermodynamic cycle.

6. Q. fluctuation of energy and the energy of tube flywheel at the mean speed. The ratio of the fluctuation of speed to the mean speed is coefficient of fluctuation o speed. .Coefficient of fluctuation of speed : The difference between the greatest speed and the least speed of flywheel in a cycle is called the fluctuation of speed.4. Derive a relation for the among the coefficient of speed.

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6. + 900. Ans.02. taken in order are — 350.650 mm2. The turning moment diagram of a multi-cylinder engine is drawn with a scale of (1mm 1°) abscissa and (1mm = 250 N — m) on the ordinate. The intercepted areas between the engine torque and resisting torqve of generator. If the radius of rim is 0.5. Density of flywheel material is 7100 kg/rn3. — 600. — 550. .Q. + 800. + 450.5. Assume that hub & the spokes contribute 10% of the required moment of inertia.35m determine the dimensions of the rim. The engine is running at a mean speed of 750 rpm and the coefficient of speed fluctuation is limited is 0. and . the rim has rectangular cross-section and the ratio of width to thickness is 1.

Therefore.Let the energy stored in flywheel at point A is U. .

6 The torque developed by an engine is given by the equation T=14250 + 2500 sin 2Q-1800 cos 2Q. 50 mm thick.01. The mass density of the steel used is 7800 kg/rn3.Q.6. Where T is torque in N — in and 0 is crank angle displacement from inner dead position. The resisting torque is uniform throughout the work cycle. Calculate the diameter of the flywheel. The engine speed is 150 rpm. of speed fluctuation is 0. . is used as a flywheel. The coeff. A solid steel disc.

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.C.D.7. The turning moment diagram for the engine may be assumed for simplicity to be represented by two triangles Determine the mass of the flywheel required if its radius of gyration is 1 75 m and the speed is to be kept within ± 0.C. and the maximum torque during inward stroke is 1500 N .75% of the mean speed.m when the crank is at 80° from LD. In a double acting steam engine the maximum torque during outward stroke is 2000 N .m when the crank is at 80° from O. 6..Q.

• ratio of areas of similar triangles is equal to the square of ratio of their corresponding sides) . the maximum energy (E1) in the flywheel will be at G and the minimum energy (E) in the flywheel will be at F (•.Work per cycle = area of T — 0 diag for one cycle As clear from the diagram.

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the speed of flywheel falls from 160 to 140 rpm. Derive an expression for the stress produced in the rim of flywheel due to the centrifugal force. 6. Q.9.5 N .ni of energy by the flywheel.Since the actual punching takes place in Sec therefore. the energy produced by 1/10 motor in sec in directly supplied to the punch & the remaining energy is supplied by flywheel during actual punching operation.744. . Due to release of 10.

The hoop stress is not to exceed 4 MPa and density of C. is 7200 kg/rn3.10.I. width and thickness of rim of flywheel for a four stroke engine developing 150 kw at 200 rpm. Total fluctuation of speed is to be not greater than .Ans. Calculate the diameter. 6. R mean radius of the rim a = area of cross-section of the rim Q. Let a = tensile stress or hoop stress produced.

. Work done during the power stroke may be assumed to be 1.4% mean speed.5 times the average work done during the cycle.

Q 6.11 punching press is required to punch 4 holes of 4 cm diameter in a plate o 3-6n thickness per minute The work required for Lsq cm ofZsheared area is 700 .

The stroke of punch is 10 cm.N. Find the mass of the flywheel and the power of the motor required. .m. The maximum speed of flywheel at its radius of gyration is 30 ni/s and the minimum speed is 28 ni/s.

and then remains constant during the next two revolutions. A machine running at 200 rpm requires torque which varies uniformly from 1200 N-rn to 3600 N-rn during the first half revolution.12. decreases uniformly to 1200 N.m.123 kg.Q. during the next one revolution. m2. If the moment of inertia of the flyheel is 723. 6. remains constant for next one revolution. calculate: (i) Fluctuation of speed (ii) Power of the motor . thus completing a cycle of operation.

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and remains constant for one revolution & thus the cycle is repeated in every three revolutions.Q 6. The mass of flywheel is 500 kg and and its radius of gyration is 60 cm If the machine is to run at 250 rpm. falls uniformly to 750 N m during the next half revolution. determine the fluctuation of speed .13 The torque requzredy a machine rdrIes uniformly from 750 N m to 3000 N m during half revolution. remains constant for the following revolution.

that energy of flywheel is max.It is clear from T—0. . diag. at G. at F and energy of flywheel is minimum.

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m The engine drives a machine which require a torque given by expression T’ ($000 +$O0 sin 0) N. Determine the maximum.Q 6. The moment of inertia of the flywheel is 64kg m2. relation of the flywheel and the corresponding angular positions of the engine cam shaft.15.m. An engine produces a torque given by the expression TE = (8000 + 1000 sin 20) N. Acceleration and the maximum. .

The flywheel will have maximum retardation or minimum. The flywheel will have maximum acceleration when (TE ) is maximum.Ans. acceleration when .

6.16 The maximum and minimum speed of flywheel are 242 rpm and 238 rpm respectively The mass of flywheel is 2200 kg and radius of gyration is 1 6 m Find the mean speed of flywheel. maximum fluctuation of energy and coefficient of fluctuation of speed .Q.