AND
BY
FRANCIS
B.
CROCKER, KM.,
PH.D.
PROFESSOR OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY, PAST PRES. AM. INST. ELEC. ENG., MEM. BRITISH INST. ELEC. ENG.
AND
MORTON ARENDT,
E.E.
ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ELECTRICAL ENGINEERING, COLUMBIA UNIVERSITY FELLOW AM. INST. ELEC. ENG.
NEW YORK
D.
1914
COPYRIGHT, 1910, BY
D.
D.
many
of
as well as
On the other hand, the operation of electrical authoritative. machinery has received comparatively little attention. This latter fact is anomalous when we consider that there are undoubtedly several
hundred users
for every designer or constructor of such apparatus, builder supplies a large number of customers. Hence because each the authors have endeavored to supply information that may be
to
useful
electric
those
who
motors.
operate or are interested in the operation of Included among these are electrical engineers
who
or run electric power plants, managers of manufacturing or other establishments in which electric drive is employed, as well
install
as students
working
and
their application
to useful purposes.
The subject is necessarily technical because it involves not only the mechanical factors speed and torque but also the electrical
quantities voltage, current
five
and flux. Moreover, any or all of these fundamental quantities may, in fact usually do, vary and are affected by other factors or conditions. Hence the problems must be
analyzed and solved with thoroughness to obtain results of real value and cannot be properly treated in a popular manner. Nevertheless
care has been taken to introduce and explain each step or result as
clearly as possible,
specific
and
to illustrate
feasible,
by a
The
numerical example based upon standard commercial motors. general method herein adopted is an outgrowth of the course
and
is
Columbia
of University 1889. upon counter e.m.f. and its relation to impressed e.m.f. as the important
criterion of
original, but
based
the
consideration
motor
it is
This point of view is, of course, not action. claimed that the conception is more explicitly and
iii
343*09
iv
PREFACE.
than heretofore.
widely applied
Furthermore,
so that they
this
idea brings
may be regarded as identical except for slight differences easily seen, and our knowledge concerning one is applicable to the other. The plan of treatment also links voltage with speed, and current with torque, since in
general they are respectively proportional. pair of quantities at a time instead of four.
and generator
motor differs so radically from the d.c. type that the treatment must be modified, but even in this case a similar standpoint is
adopted as nearly as
possible.
Throughout the book references are given to United States and foreign patents as well as articles and books in which may be found further descriptions of the various machines and methods Those portions of the A. I. E. E. Standardization considered. Rules relating to electric motors have been extracted verbatim and
put together as Appendix A. The authors gratefully acknowledge their indebtedness to Messrs.
H. Morecroft, A. G. Popcke, L. W. Rosenthal, A. H. Timmerman, E. H. Waring and G. B. Werner for valuable information and
J.
to F.
L.
Mason
They
also take
this
opportunity to thank the Crocker Wheeler, ElectroDynamic, General Electric, Wagner and Westinghouse Companies for illustrations and data of apparatus manufactured by them and discussed
in this book.
January
5,
1910.
present
edition
contains
addi
make
the
complete.
These changes apply to the illustrations as well as to the text. Some sections of the book have been considerably revised or added to, as for example Starting Box Calculations for direct current shunt and alternating current induction motors, and an entire chapter on the power requirements of various tools, etc., has been introduced.
The
object
of the authors
is
and operacomprehen
most persons, who study or use these machines, even including students and practitioners who specialize in electrical At the same time particular care has been exercised engineering.
siveness for
matter that is only of theoretical or special interest. In other words, both the scope and volume have been kept strictly within the limits of a handbook, and no attempt made to produce an encyclopedia of the whole subject or an exhaustive treatment
in omitting
of a particular branch.
The
authors
gratefully
Geo. F. Sever,
edition.
April, 1914.
Mr.
J.
Wm.
Siebenmorgen in
new
TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART
I
GENERAL
CHAPTER
INTRODUCTION
I
PAGE
i
CHAPTER
II
PART
II
DIRECTCURRENT MOTORS
CHAPTER
ACTION OF SHUNT MOTORS
III
10
CHAPTER
SHUNTMOTOR STARTING BOXES
IV
33
CHAPTER V
SHUNTMOTOR SPEED CONTROL BY VARIATION OF RESISTANCE OF ARMATURE
CIRCUIT
40
CHAPTER
VI
51
CHAPTER
VII
70
CHAPTER
VIII
91
viii
TABLE OF CONTENTS
CHAPTER IX
PAGE
99
CHAPTER X
CONTROL OF DIRECTCURRENT SERIES MOTORS
114
CHAPTER XI
COMPOUND WOUND MOTORS
1
24
PART
III
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS
CHAPTER
CLASSIFICATION AND HISTORY
XII
1
29
CHAPTER
XIII
137
CHAPTER XIV
POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
173
CHAPTER XV
STARTING OF POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
.
.202
CHAPTER XVI
SPEED CONTROL OF POLYPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
214
CHAPTER XVII
SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS
223
CHAPTER
XVIII
248
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ix
PART
IV
SERVICE CONDITIONS.
.281
CHAPTER XX
POWER REQUIREMENTS OF VARIOUS TOOLS, ETC
288
INDEX
301
and Control.
PART
I.
CHAPTER
INTRODUCTION.
I.
An
electric
motor
is
is
the
exact
converse of the dynamoelectric generator. On the other hand, identically the same machine may be and often is employed to per
form
either function,
which
dynamoelectric machine.
fact is known as the reversibility of the In the earlier periods of their develop
ment, however, the two machines were usually regarded as quite different in character and were constructed on wholly different
lines.
or
Strange to say, the motor historically precedes either the magnetodynamo electric generator. Barlow's wheel of 1823, the first
motor, was similar in construction to Faraday's disc of 1831, which was the original magnetoelectric generator. The Jacobi electric motor of 1838 was large enough to propel a boat carrying
electric
fourteen passengers at three miles per hour, and Page in 1851 constructed a car driven by a i6horsepower electric motor at
nineteen miles per hour, whereas the dynamo electric machine was not invented, by C. W. Siemens and Wheatstone, until 1867. These
as well as other electric motors of those early times
as
more
practical or
The
Paci
it
intended to be used in a motor, although the inventor suggested that could also be employed to generate electric currents.
All
of
cost of operation was excessive for any considerable power, especially with the lowefficiency motors and crude forms of battery then available. The result was that the motor had to stand aside while
the generator was being developed to commercial success, which development began about 1880. Even then the electrical energy produced was used entirely for arc and incandescent lighting. In
fact,
it
was not
until
systems of distribution
had become
regulated so that the use of electric motors upon their circuits encouraged or even permitted except in a few cases.
The electric light having been practically introduced and more or less generally established, inventors, manufacturers, also those who produced electrical energy, turned some attention to electric
power, which, from about 1888, has been a prominent part of
electri
The
former type, also the induction and synchronous alternatingcurrent motors, began to be commercially introduced about that time or soon
after.
power in all its branches has been at an extraordinarily rapid rate and with most farreaching results, unequaled by any other art or industry in anything like the same period of time. Either a dynamoRelation between Generator and Motor.
electric generator or
a motor
may
tain
number
given density in lines per square centimeter. The former machine when the wire moves; the latter machine exerts
if
torque
We may
full e.m.f.
In practical operation,
however, the generator has current flowing in the wire so that a certain
torque, opposed to driving force, is also exerted; and in the motor an e.m.f., counter to energizing current, is set up by the motion of the
wire.
Hence
either
machine while working, develops both e.m.f. and between them under these conditions being
is
INTRODUCTION.
respect to motion in the generator and positive in the motor. follows therefore that electrical power is positive in the generator
8
Tt
and
mechanical power is negative, whereas electrical power is negative In fact the exact funcin the motor and mechanical power positive.
tion of these
machines
is
that they convert mechanical power into electrical power and These distinctions in function or action do not, however, vice versa.
means
motors.
involve any necessary difference in the construction of generators and As already stated, identically the same machine is equally
operative for either purpose because the dynamoelectric machine is In practice, motors and generators are someperfectly reversible.
what
to
different,
but merely with respect to details of form or conmore convenient for the special uses
which they are applied. As a matter of fact motors differ among themselves, railway and stationary types, for example, fully as much
most part mere matters of adaptability, the usual operation of generators is radically unlike that of motors. The former are almost universally driven
at constant speed by steam engines, gas engines, turbines or other Of course in practice the speed varies sources of mechanical power. but this is ordinarily undesirable and avoided as much somewhat,
as they differ from generators. While these differences in construction are for the
as possible by most careful design as well as adjustment of governors. The few cases in which the speed variation is large, as, for example,
the driving of a generator from the axle of a railway car, involve mechanical as well as electrical difficulties, special and often complicated auxiliary apparatus being employed. On the other hand, the speed of electric motors
is
very
commonly
variable or adjustable, the range in many cases being from zero to a maximum in either direction, as in railway or elevator service, and speed ratios of three or four to one or higher are common in factories,
machine shops,
etc.
to
and it is the particular purpose of this book to discuss this subject In those applications for which constant speed of motor control.
is
may
owing
be given special often of practical importance to reduce or allow for even slight changes of speed.
action,
is
own
which matter
attention, because
it
CHAPTER
MANY
II.
DIRECTCURRENT MOTORS.
Type Shuntwound motors
Operative Characteristics.
Starting torque obtainable in actual practice is 50 to 100 per cent greater than rated running torque,
and
Serieswound motors
fairly
Most powerful
starting torque of any electric motor, speed varying greatly (inversely) with load changes.
Compoundwound motors Compromise between shunt and series types. wound motors Starting torque limited, for which reason these Differentially
. .
.
motors are rarely used practically. They are interesting scientifically because their speed can
be made almost constant for reasonable load
changes within rated capacity.
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS.
Synchronous motors
Singlephase type not
self starting; polyphase type is selfstarting with low torque, speed of both absolutely constant.
Induction, motors
Singlephase
(per se)
is
Comrmitating motors
Singlephase
self starting
speed
may
or
No
attempt
is
made
of electric motors except special features relating to speed control. The general subject of motor structure, mechanical and electrical,
is
treated in a
number
of standard
4
works
listed at the
end of
this
chapter, and a reasonable knowledge of such matters is assumed. For example, the various parts of motors, their names, forms and
relation, are
supposed to be understood. The sole function of electric motors is to drive some other machine
or device, but, as the number of such applications is practically Some of infinite, their field of utility becomes almost universal. the prominent uses include the driving of cars, pumps, fans, machine
tools,
looms, printing presses, hoisting apparatus, grinding and Before taking up the discussion of polishing machines, etc., etc.
it
will
be well
to consider the
advantages
Saving in Power.
it is
This
is
generally the
first
point to be
considered, but
power
usually
in
by no means the most important, as the cost of manufacturing is rarely more than i to 3 per cent of the
times greater.
It is
cost of the finished product, the expenditure for labor alone being
a fact, however, that, due to the absence of belting and shafting losses, which are usually 40 to 60 per cent of the total power required to drive the various machines, the
many
saving
electric
is
considerable.
off of
is
current
stopped, compared to the large practically constant loss with beltIn facing and shafting, is much in favor of the former method.
tories
and similar
is
power
maximum
or total
amount
The losses required when all machines are working with electric drive correspond to the usual or average conditions, while belting and shafting losses vary somewhat with load, but
at full load.
This nearly correspond to possible or total capacity of the plant. is more or less offset by the losses involved in the double advantage
conversion of energy from mechanical to electrical and back to mechanical form, but in most cases and in the long run the former
method does
effect
particularly true
when
if
a real saving in power consumption. This is the machines to be driven are scattered;
they are very compactly placed, with minimum distances between them, the saving in power by electric drive might
or nothing, but some or
all
now
to
PLATE
B.
must be
sacrificed.
A great
is
advantage due
to the flexibility
electrically driven
machines
which are
brought
to a
easily
made up and
the use
as, for example, when a portable drill is brought or to a large number of castings, or when a vertiheavy casting cal slotter is applied to the outside of a large casting at the same time that the interior is being bored.
to the
work,
The elimination of overhead belting 6. Clear Head Room. and shafting by the use of motors gives a clear head room, which enables overhead cranes to be used freely; a fact which results in great saving of time and labor in the bringing of the wo^'to the
tools or
better illumination
removing finished pieces. The clear head room also gives and ventilation. In fact the saving in cost of
proper illumination
ficial.
general
or, arti^
Comparing
plate
silkweaving shed operated by belting and shafting, and plate B, an illustration of the same mill in which the looms are operated electrically, the great advantages regarding head room and illumi
The dripping of oil from overhead bearings 7. Cleanliness. and shafting is a constant source of annoyance, and the dirt thrown out from belting is an even worse enemy to cleanliness.
The
This
work.
8. Health of Employees. On account of the better ventilation and illumination, and reduction of dust and dirt, it is shown by actual experience that the general health of those who work with
agitation of dust
an especially
by belting and shafting keeps it in conit penetrates everywhere and everything, important matter in printing and textile
electrically
driven machinery
is
improved.
In the Government
printing office at Washington, it was found that the sick list decreased as much as 40 per cent after the electric drive
was was
introduced.
The electrical method 9. Convenience for Detached Buildings. enables power to be supplied easily and economically to detached buildings or sections, which is not possible with belt or steam transcan be located
mission; therefore, the buildings, like the machinery within them, for general convenience, and not with special regard
them with power. This subdivision of an industrial establishment into a series of detached buildings is an almost absolute safeguard against total destruction by fire; and is thus a practito supplying
cal guarantee of continuous earning capacity. If electric power were not employed, it would be necessary to have very extended belting and shafting connections, involving great losses and extra
heavy wall construction, or a number of small power plants with a larger force of men and considerably less economical in operation than one central power house.
10.
drive
For similar reasons, with electric a simple matter to extend a building, or add another in any
whereas shafting must be installed originally large enough it must be replaced later; in which
direction,
case the operation of the existing line shafts would be interfered with.
11.
Reliability.
less
frequent
and
less
serious,
one or a few machines, while with belting and shafting the breaking
or slipping off of a belt, or the failure of a friction clutch, may require the shuttingdown of a whole plant or a large section thereof. Fur
thermore the time required for repair is usually less with electric power. In a large establishment a delay of even a few minutes
represents a considerable item in wages, and in addition the interruption of the work is demoralizing. It might be argued that the
power plant may break down; this is, however, just as likely happen with one form of power transmission as with another. In case of damage by fire or flood, the machinery can be moved, rearranged, reconnected and started again much more promptly with electric driving than with belting and shafting.
central
to
12.
Speed Control.
The
is
possible with
the electric drive, and the convenience as well as the wide ranges of control, are great advantages which in many cases are sufficient in
The
operator
hand, instantly relieve it of strain. With mechanical drive the methods of speed control are more limited and require more time The shifting of the belt on a to operate than with electric motors. cone pulley, or the throwing in and out of different sets of gears,
than the simple turning of a controller handle, in a much more convenient position than is the mechanical device. The result is that the usually possible with operator makes more frequent use of the former in order to gain even
effort
more
maximum
The
For example, the can be kept absolutely value, whereas mechanical drive cannot
work.
be adjusted as quickly or as
closely, the steps of speed variation saving in time thus obtained is considerbeing able and correspondingly reduces the shop cost of the article. It is the particular purpose of this book to discuss the matter of electric
much
greater.
motor speed
13.
control.
Increased Output.
of clear
Owing
to its
many
on account
head room
manufacturing establishments
in
most cases
materially increased or the running expenses decreased by the introduction of electric drive. An added output of 20 or 30 per cent is often obtained from the same plant, which in itself is sufficient to make
the difference between profit
and loss in a manufacturing business. Overtime work, also work on holidays or during strikes, may 14. be carried on conveniently and economically with a portion of the
machinery or even with a single tool, because a small engine and On the other generator may be run to supply the electric power.
hand, the main engine and the whole or a large part of the shafting and belting would have to be operated in order to supply the power
by the ordinary mechanical transmission. Rumbling of line shafts and slapping 15. Noise. done away with when electric drive is adopted. entirely
of belts are
B. A. Behrend.
1901.
PART
II.
DIRECTCURRENT MOTORS.
CHAPTER
LET
us
III.
now
the machine
by
own
action,
after
To make external or purposely introduced factors will be explained. results as significant as possible, standard shuntwound machines the
horsepower. The exact data these machines and calculations based thereon are given concerning It is to be remembered that the in Table i of the present chapter.
Three
no
average size of motors is less than that of generators, several of the former being usually fed by one of the latter. Hence these sizes
It is also a fact represent small, medium and fairly large machines. that the nohorsepower size is sufficiently large, so that still larger motors will correspond closely. For example, the efficiencies of the
three sizes are about 81, 86 and 93 per cent, respectively, above which last figure the efficiency would increase only i or 2 per cent.
no
horse
power, and
these machines
may
be taken
to represent
commercial
practice with respect to shunt motors. few simple tests determine the fundamental facts from which
the action of these machines under almost any reasonable conditions may be readily calculated. Most of the tests are well known, but
they are included here as a desirable part of the definition of these fundamental quantities, to avoid any uncertainty in regard to them. It is assumed that the construction of shunt motors is already
and other types. The literature of dynamoelectric generators and motors is extensive in regard to their theory, design and construction, there being many works in which these
and
control of this
9),
it
deserves.
10
11
The Voltage V,
for
is
is
normally operates,
assumed
armature and
field circuits,
type are in parallel (Fig. i). If V is not constant it should be maintained so (for experimental investigation) by inserting a rheostat
Armature
FIG. I.
SHUNTMOTOR CONNECTIONS.
which can be adjusted to correct any variations. This voltage should be that marked on the manufacturer's name plate and is genIt may be found later that some erally known as the rated voltage.
other voltage is preferable in order to obtain a different speed or other result, in which case a new series of tests should be made at the
modified voltage. 2. The Total Current I taken by the motor at rated load
is
also
plate.
This
may
be found
later to differ
from
the current at which the rated horsepower is developed, or it may cause heating in excess of the limit specified in (4). In either case another series of observations should be made with the corrected
For the present, however, it will be assumed that the rated voltage V and the rated current / are both correctly given on the maker's name plate. In the shuntwound motor the total
current.
current /
rent Ish
3.
.
is
the
sum
Ia and
shuntfield cur
12
is
AND CONTROL.
tive windings.
50 degrees C. as measured by increase in resistance of these respecThis gives a working temperature of t + =75
degrees C.
distinction to
T, at which the machine is said to be "hot" in contra"cold" at the room temperature t. To determine
rise is within the limit of 50 degrees C., supplied with the rated voltage V and operated with sufficient load to draw the rated armature current Ia until a constant
temperature
upon
and
it
the
size,
reached, requiring from 6 to 18 hours, depending speed and ventilation of the machine.* The resistis
ance of the
field
and armature
25 degrees C.
is
R +
R + (.0042 R
is
measured before, during This resistance at (6). X 25) = i.io$R and at 75 degrees C. (.0042^ X 75) = 1.315 RQ, in which R is the value at
circuits is
and
o degree C.
Hence the
is
resistance at
: :
as 1.315: 1.105 119 !> r I 9 P er cent greater than the "cold If the increase in resistance is found to be more resistance."
than
but
if
19 per
cent,
to
the
1ess
standard
safety
limit
found
be
much
only for safety, but also for constancy of speed, as shown later (see
page 26).
The
capability of a
motor
to carry current
depends upon temperature of the air and other variable conditions. Hence the rating of motors and other electrical apparatus is some
what
arbitrary, but
it is
based upon the long experience and consenwho make and use them. The A. I. E. E.
Standardization Rules are followed herein and are given so far as they relate to motors in Appendix A. The Field Current I sh in the shunt motor 5.
is
determined by con
necting the field terminals directly to the supply circuit, the voltage " This should be measured when the machine is hot," of which is V.
that
is,
after the
run specified
in (4) to obtain
working conditions.
The
field
"cold," before the run, because speed variations are caused by the temperature changes, as explained later (Chap. Ill, p. 26). Further
more, with both values known, the increase in resistance and the temperature rise may be easily calculated. The shuntfield resistance "hot"
R sh = V
f
I sh and
the corresponding
value cold
is
13
= V + r sh
from which
R'
R sh + R'^ =
hence
I' sh
Ish
it
f
1.19,
Psh =1.19
is:
I sh
In any case,
(238.1
/,)
(!*
i),
in
which
is
initial
6.
Ra
and brush
brush
contacts, is also
measured "hot."
brush contacts,
"drop" due
to the
which depends upon the current density, should be measured at the rated current value and deducted from the total drop in the armature
circuit, to get the true resistance of that circuit, or that
quantity which, multiplied by the current, gives the IR drop. The nature and value of drop due to brush contacts is discussed later in the present The armature, before it has time to cool after the run chapter.
specified in
but is not (4), is supplied with its rated current / allowed to rotate, under which condition suitable resistance must be inserted in series to compensate for the absence of counter e.m.f.
,
The
total
drop
measured,
also the
drop D
Ia
is
.
Ra =
(V
b)
armature terminals is then due to the brush contacts, and we have b The armature circuit resistance "cold," if
R' a
entirely
84 R a assuming "cold" and "hot" temperatures of 25 degrees and 75 degrees C., As a rule, however, the total resistance of the armature respectively.
of
copper,
then
= Ra
5
1.19
latter
has a nega
temperature
between
= a+ 25 degrees and 75 degrees C. is about 15 per cent, or R' a = .87 ^ a This variation in armature resistance is not very 1.15 important, however, as it will be shown later that it has but little
effect
upon
this statement
apply to shunt motors, but it is true generally of the various types of electric motors and generators, as affected by variations in armature resistance due to any reasonable temperature
changes.
14
AND CONTROL.
COUNTER
E.M.F.
Before proceeding with the various problems to be considered in connection with electric motors, it is desirable first to study their counter electromotive force, as it plays an exceedingly important
part in the action of such machines. The counter e.m.f. of a motor armature is the e.m.f. that it would develop as a generator when operated at the same speed with the
same
field
flux.
for
Let
^ = flux entering or leaving the armature per pole, n = total number of inductors on the armature, N = revolutions per minute, p = number of pairs of poles, b = number of circuits in parallel in the armature
e
winding,
(2)
then
c.e.m.f. of
motor armature
=
60
io
By
n,
inspection of
b
equation
(2)
it
is
3>,
p and
the
number
a motor varies as the c.e.m.f., other factors being constant. This is a very important fact in studying the action and speed control of electric motors, especially shunt motors, because the abovementioned quantities remain practically constant or do not change In series or compoundgreatly in this type, unless purposely varied. wound motors the field flux usually varies considerably with the
current and torque. In fact in a lightly loaded series motor it increases almost directly with the current. Even in the case of these
machines
in
is
used in Chapter
IX
as the criterion
This fundadetermining speed mental and general significance of the counter e.m.f. of electric motors is the basis of the method of treatment set forth in the
variation
control.
and
The counter e.m.f. .of shunt and series motors or present book. other directcurrent types can be determined in several ways which
will
i.
now be
explained.
The Experimental Method of Determining the C.E.M.F. armature shaft may be fitted with a heavy flywheel, so that the
stored energy in the revolving parts
is
great.
The motor
is
then
15
by
introducing resistance in
its
order to reduce slightly the voltage applied to it, while the field is excited with the proper line voltage V. When the rated speed
is
wheel
is suddenly opened, and the flycause the armature to maintain almost constant
speed for a short time, during which the c.e.m.f. can be measured by a voltmeter connected to the armature terminals, since it then
becomes the
e.m.f.
of the
field
allow rated field current I S h to pass through it. The armature is also connected to the supply, sufficient external resistance being
inserted so that only the rated load current I a flows through its winding. This develops a torque, but the armature is not allowed
to rotate, a metallic or
shaft of the
wooden bar being clamped to the pulley or machine. By means of known weights or a spring
in pounds, the pull 'plus the friction of bearings
balance
we measure
add these together and the length of brake arm in by feet may be called the true torque (Tt) because it is the full amount developed by the interaction of the magnetic field and armature
and brushes,
also the pull
friction,
minus
divide
by two.
The
result multiplied
current.
of the
arm
eliminated.
The
tendency to rotate, the pull minus friction being measured by yielding slightly to the motor's
torque.
in r.p.m., the gross power developed would any speed be 2 xT footpounds per minute, which divided by necessarily 33,000 is the total mechanical horsepower evolved in the armature
at
t
armature
Then
N N
and corresponds to the indicated horsepower of a steam engine. This must equal the electrical horsepower supplied to the armature; hence
TN
t
33,000 I a
7.03 I
where
or generated voltage at any speed N. true torque or turning effort of a motor depends upon the armature current, the number of armature inductors and the flux
The
16
AND CONTROL.
is
a constant, depending
This gross or true torque includes of poles, effective conductors, etc. not only the effective torque developed by a motor at its pulley
overcome
friction,
In the case of a generator, the total torque that necessary to revolve the armature and overcome friction, etc.
losses.
Hence
effective
motor torque
(friction
windage
generator torque torque torque) + core loss torque). In the case of beltdriven machinery, the effective torque is equal to the difference in tension on the two sides
of the belt multiplied
true
by the radius
rent
is
not considered, core loss and windage are absent when the friction is eliminated by the described
of measuring the true torque.
are dealing here with ideal conditions, the usual practical losses being eliminated. The use of Equation (2) to cal3. Calculation of C.E.M.F.
method
Hence we
The quantities involved culate c.e.m.f. has already been explained. in that equation are determined by the designer of a motor or generathem are not usually known to, or readily ascertainable Hence the following method is given by, the user of the machine. because it employs data easily obtained by the simple tests already " indicated under the head of The Armature Resistance" on page 13.
tor,
but
all
of
These
tests
after the
machine
is
in practical
service.
In the armature circuit of any directcurrent motor the applied voltage, F, overcomes three factors, namely, resistance drop, brushcontact drop and the c.e.m.f.; hence,
==

V rearranging, c.e.m.f. (4) Brushcontact drop or fall of potential which occurs at the contacts of brushes and commutator being small has often been wholly
ignored in tests and calculations concerning dynamoelectric maNevertheless, it is a measurable quantity producing an chinery.
appreciable effect upon the speed of a d. c. motor as well as upon the external voltage of a d. c. generator. As its value does not
V = I aR a + D b + R a + D b ). (I a
c.e.m.f., or,
17
it is
common
practice sim
machine. This assumption is open to two criticisms: first, the fact that even the maximum brush drop may not be and usually is not quite as much as 2 volts, and second, in any case it varies somewhat with the current,
ply to
2 volts for
assume
d. c.
so that
If
it is
amount
at light loads.
brush drop increased directly with current it could be included in the armature resistance, giving a total value which multiplied by the current would be the total armature drop. This would be most
tests and calculations, but unfortunately does not accord with the physical facts. Brush drop appears to be the combination of a fall of potential which is fairly constant and a true
resistance drop
IR
Probably
the approximately constant fall of potential is in the nature of a In c.e.m.f., the phenomenon being analogous to that of the arc.
such a contact, especially in the case of a carbon brush, may This is true even under properly be regarded as an incipient arc.
fact,
tion,
favorable conditions, and with a poor contact due to dirt, vibraroughness of commutator, etc., the arc becomes actual and
apparent. The curve in Fig. 2 is based upon the results of actual tests made with a number of brushes similar to those employed in the three
motor specified above. The voltage is the total value, includthe potential difference or drop at both positive and negative ing carbon brushes. It increases with the current density, being pracsizes of
tically a rectilinear function, as Fig. 2
shows, but
is
centimeter and
portional thereto, since the drop is i volt at i ampere per square 2 volts at 6 amperes per square centimeter, these the ordinary limits for small as well as large machines at rated being
load.
current densities for larger motors, also generators, are usually higher than for small machines, but are not adopted as desirable, being practically necessary because in large
The
machines many must be carried, with a reasonable number and size of amperes For ordibrushes, upon a commutator of moderate dimensions.
nary calculations not requiring very accurate results, the loss of potential at brush contacts may be included with that due to armature resistance.
is
usually small.
Accord
18
AND CONTROL.
is
ing to this assumption the total lost voltage in the armature circuit
/a (R a fance and
K c ), in
Rc
is
which I a
is
on page
1.4
r
20,
we have 37
(.28
If
+ Rc =
)
from
which R c =
FIG. 2.
brush drop thus calculated is only 2.3 X .038 .09 volt. actual brush drop found by test is .84 volt when the armature = .75 volt less runs free, hence the calculated result is .84 .09 than the experimental. This difference, which would be about the
free, the
The
'
or J of
230 terminal voltage, and would introduce a corresponding error in calculations of speed, etc. Ordinarily this error would be insignificant,
especially as
it
disappears as rated
load
is
approached.
On
the
other hand, the percentage of error is twice as great for ii5volt motors, and in the case of speed control by armature rheostat or multiple voltage
it
calculations.
would be too large to be neglected except for rough For example, the true speed of a motor running at
Q \x
H^
'
230
19
resist
than that calculated by using the assumed brushcontact ance of .038 ohm.
drop; that
is,
D =
b
Ia R b
(5)
it
is
seen that the experimentally determined represented by a straight line for all current
is
and 6 amperes per square centimeter. Below i ampere per square centimeter the line curves downward, but if the straight portion were prolonged backward it would intersect the
between
i
the simple numerical relationan initial loss of potential due to brush contacts of
is an increase of .2 volt for each For example, the drop at 3 amperes + (3 X .2) = 1.4 volts and so on.
we have
per square centimeter is .8 This assumption introduces no error whatever for currents above i ampere per square centimeter, and below that value the error
is
mum
only
of .19
at
no
load.
At
this
between the straight and curved lines represents which would be negligible in all practical cases.
we have
for the
.8
37
Rb
from which
Rb =
The
(1.4
.8)
s
37.
.016.
V =
I a (R a
+ R b ).
(6)
b is eliminated, a great advantage that the empirical quantity The value of R b like that rational quantity I a R b being substituted. of b is constant for a given motor and does not vary much for motors
of
in volts
due
to
20
AND CONTROL.
mature current is completely represented by b + I a (R a + R b ), in which I a is the only variable and is easily measured. ShuntMotor Problems. The following data of three standard
sizes of shunt
machines
may be
motors are given, so that the various features of these studied and the efficiency, effect of temperature,
etc.,
speed regulation,
may be
calculated.
These
results
are ob
tained by actual tests of the completed motors. The precise signifiin most cases the method of determining these data are cance and
stated in the preceding chapter, but in general the table speaks for itself and the figures given are found by simple measurements using
It is also possible to assume voltmeter, ammeter and speed counter. or predetermine such data and use them as a basis for calculations
similar to those
which
follow.
TABLE
I.
In the above table the potential difference or voltage drop due to the brush contacts has been taken from the curve in Fig. 2.
Calculation of Speed of Shunt Motor Running Free It was shown that the speed of a motor Machine).
(i
is
Horsepower
directly proportional to the c.e.m.f. at any instant, other quantities such as field
21
rated
c.e.m.f.

c.e.m.f./.
(7)
(I a
b
R a + D b ),
in
which we
D
X
and obtain
c.e.m.f.
230
(3.85
3.08
at rated load,
and
c.e.m.f. ==
(I'a R' a
2.7)
+
:
.83]
of c.e.m.f.
:
equation
we have 1250
r.p.m.,
Therefore r.p.m.y 217.1 r.p.m is within .3 per cent of the test value (Table
228.1.
for the speed at
=
I)
1314
which
no load.
Rated load
c.e.m.f.
= V Noload
(I a
Ra +
b)
230
(37
c.e.m.f.
= V
The
(I'R'a+
= =
228.6 volts.
(7)
rated speed
:
is
equation
we have 825
is
863, which
within
.3
218.2 228.6; whence r.p.m./ r.p.m.y per cent of the test value of 865 r.p.m.,
= V 
Noload
c.e.m.f.
= b] = V
230 (380.7 X
(I' a R' a
.0103
f
224.2 volts.
D' b }
(7),
229
volts,
597 r.p.m., being within .3 r.p.m.y the noload speed given in Table I as 595 r.p.m. These calculations assume armature flux the same at
at rated load,
84) (14.20 .009 224.2 229 or r.p.m.y per cent of the test value of
 230:
585
which
is
no load as armature
is
The
close agree
The
effect
of armature reaction in
reducing flux and increasing speed depends upon the position of the brushes but usually would be appreciable and in some cases actually
Nevercauses the noload speed to be less than that at rated load. theless a rise in speed lends to occur, due to diminished drop in armature resistance and brush contacts when the load torque and
This tendency
is
correctly repre
sented by the values calculated in the three examples above. In fact the speed will actually vary in accordance with the numerical
22
AND CONTROL.
some other condition, for example that of armature reaction or of temperature, is also changed. It is better, however, to study and determine each influence separately and then
results obtained unless
combine them
Such
is
the
method
cause speed variation, the amount of which may be calculated by a similar use of equations (4) and (7), substituting the proper values
for speed, current, etc.
The above
ture
is
assume
that
arma
load were suddefily thrown (25 degrees C.). off a motor which had been operating with full rated armature
"cold"
current for several hours, the armature would not cool immediately and its resistance would remain at practically rated value. In the
case of the loh.p. machine, for example, the c.e;m.f. would then be = 228.5 instead of 228.6 volts, but the cor(2.3 X .28 + .84) 230
less
than
^ of
per cent,
which
inappreciable. If, applied to a "cold" motor, the speed will not diminish as much as " " In this case the c.e.m.f. hot (75 degrees C.) if the armature were
.
is
will
be 230 but
(37
.244
will
be
.6
this difference is
is
219.6 instead of 218.2 volts. cent higher, or 830 instead of 825 per The effect of practically insignificant.
1.4)
Engineers (paragraph 313) state: "All electrical apparatus should be provided with a nameplate giving the manufacturer's name, the
Where voltage and the current in amperes for which it is designed. the kwcapacity, character of current, speed, frequency, practicable,
type designation, and serial number should also be stated." From the data thus given the approximate or "nameplate efficiency" of
a motor can be determined as follows:
From Nameplate
Input
load
of
Horsepower Motor.
at rated load
i
230
920 watts.
Output
at rated
h.p.
746 watts.
23
between input and output, the motor = 746 H 920 = 81 per cent.
In deCalculation of Efficiency, Using Test Values (Table I). the efficiency of a motor we take the motor input at rated termining
load and then calculate the straypower and other losses, using the The difference values found by actual test and given in Table I.
of input
between input and the total losses gives the output, hence the minus losses to input gives the motor efficiency.
ratio
straypower losses of the ih.p. motor running free (i.e., at 1310 r.p.m.) are equal to the armature input at no load minus the armature noload copper and brush losses; that is, the noload stray power losses
(.4
The
VI' a
(I'a
R 'a +
I'aP'b)
2.7
4
.83)
3X
.4
91.2 watts.
The remaining
Loss Loss
Loss
in Field
in in
x X X
230
3.08
1.05
= = =
34.5
Watts
45.64 Watts
4.04 Watts
84.18 Watts.
If to this
we add
loss is 84.18 f
the noload stray power of 91.2 watts, the total The motor output is equal to 91.2 or 175.4 watts.
minus losses. The input by test (Table I) is 230 volts = and 4 amperes, that is, 920 watts; hence the output is 920 175.4
the input
or 81.0 per
920
cent; so that in this case the efficiency
to that
exactly equal Ordinarily (as shown by the 10 and no h.p. examples which follow) there is a slight difference because the former is based upon purely electrical data while
by calculation
is
by nameplate determination.
test of actual
mechanical
power developed.
The assumption
rated load
power
at
no load
it
is
the
same
as at
is not absolutely correct, since will be lower at rated speed, which is from 2 to 5 per cent less than with the motor running free, but the error introduced by this assumption is practically
negligible, as will
be proved
in
motor.
24
AND CONTROL.
Nameplate
efficiency
= Output
from nameplate
X 746 1230 X 38
10
8740
calculation of efficiency of the loh.p. motor is similar to the foregoing example of the i horsepower machine, but the straypower
losses will
The
losses of loh.p. motor running free (i.e., at the noload armature input (230 volts and 2.3 865 r.p.m.) equal amperes) minus the noload armature copper and brush losses;
The straypower
that
is:
= 230 X 2.3 Stray power at no load = 526 watts. At rated load the motor
is
(2.3*
.244
2.3
.84)
at a slightly
less
lower
because the
eddy current constituent varies as the square of the speed, and the several losses due to hysteresis, windage and friction may be assumed
to vary directly as the speed.
In ordinary machines of
:
50 per cent due to windage and friction, 25 per cent due to hysteresis and 25 per cent due to eddy currents. Hence, 75 per cent of the straypower losses
vary as the speed, and 25 per cent vary as the square of the speed.
The
stray
power corrected
for
change
in
or 4j per cent will be (.955 X .75 X 526) + (.Q55 2 X .25 X 526) = 495 watts. If the stray power had been assumed to have the same
value at noload speed as at ratedload speed, the error introduced 495 =31 watts, or about .4 per cent of
8740 watts, the rated input. This difference is so small that it may Furthermore there generally be neglected in practical problems.
is
in
most cases a
rise in
These are called "load losses," being partly due to larger mechanical forces and therefore friction, also to augmented hysteresis and eddy currents because of altered distribution of flux which is crowded
into
armature.
The assumption
to cover load losses
of
the
which
25
follows:
power are as
Loss in
in in
230
.28
1.4
= = =
230.
Watts
383.3 Watts
51.8
Watts
665.1 Watts
to
the
corrected
the
Hence the output X 38 = 8740 watts) minus this loss, input (230
495
665
1160 watts.
equal
is,
that
8740
11
60
7580 watts.
is,
The
efficiency
therefore,
7580
comparison of calculated output = 7460) shows that the former (10 X 746
that the manufacturer
is
8740
is
rated to
as
it
Effect of Armature Resistance upon Speed of Shunt Motors. The principal and instantaneous cause of shunt motor speed variation with changing loads is the varying armature current and conse
= I a R a ) hence the reason for making quent varying armature drop ( This cause the resistance of the armature (R a ) as low as possible.
;
of speed
change
is
motor.
let
Assume
its
shown by consideration of the typical zoh.p. armature to be "hot" (75 degrees C.) and
current alone.
us determine the speed change due to variations of armature From Table I we have the following test values:
.28
ohm, brush drop at noload .84 volts, at rated load 1.4 and speed at rated load 825 r.p.m., with armature current Ia of 37 amperes and terminal voltage V of 230. According to equation (4) the c.e.m.f. at rated load with arma" but running free is 230  (.28 X 2.3 + .84) = 228.5 ture "hot Hence from equation (7), taking the c.e.m.f. at rated load volts.
volts,
Ra =
from page
21,
we have
r.p.m. (free)
=
218.2
825
864; that
is,
the speed changes from 825 to 864, amounting to 39 r.p.m., or 4^ per Thus there is a speed rise of 4^ per cent solely on account of cent.
diminished armature drop (including brush contacts) when the The effect is the rated load is removed from this loh.p. motor.
same
as
if
the
voltage
supplied
to
the
26
AND CONTROL.
to that extent.
about 44 per cent. In fact the available voltage is actually increased This calculation does not take into account the effect
of armature reaction
which tends
to counteract
more or
less the
speed variation determined above, as shown a little later. Effect of Temperature Changes upon Speed of Shunt Motors.
Heating of armature
affects the
may
shown on page
22.
For
.244
ohm; while
the
"hot" armature
25 degrees to 75 degrees C.
50 de
grees C. rise being permissible) is 15 per cent greater (see p. 13) or The speed alteration at rated load due to this heating is .28 ohm.
determined as follows:
C.e.m.f.
at
rated load
230
(37
.244 f 1.4) 219.6 volts, the c.e.m.f. with armature "hot" and at Hence the speed at rated load and rated load being 218.2 volts.
when
is 219.6 f 218.2 X 825 830 r.p.m. instead the armature is "hot," an increase of .6 per
not material in most practical cases, as the change due to varying load may be 4 or 5 per cent as shown above. As already noted on page 22, the load may be and often is sud
which
is
denly thrown off a motor when its armature is hot," and conversely " " cold armature. In each case rated load is often applied to a
the
resistance of
"
simply upon
its
The change
"
in this resistance
" cool value (after continued being only 15 per cent between its " " value (after continuous running at rated hot stand still) and
load),
it produces little practical effect upon speed, as shown above, and usually this effect need not be considered.   The allowable Change of Speed due to Heating of Field Circuit.
temperature
winding
is
Since 19 per cent increase in the resistance, as shown on page 12. " " the rated resistance is the working or hot value, being 230 ohms
for the shunt field of the typical loh.p. machine, it follows that this resistance at ordinary temperature (assumed to be 25 degrees C.),
is
R sh =
1.19
230
1.19
=
=
193.3 ohms.
Current in
field (hot)
I sh
= V
=
230
ampere.
27
field (cold)
/'*7~
A s*
V =
23O ~ I
933
1.19 amperes.
Hence the current in the coils cold is 19 per cent greater than when the latter are hot; and from magnetization curves of standard types of shunt motors a rise of 19 per cent in field m.m.f. causes an increase
of about 4 or 5 per cent in the flux, or the field is this amount stronger " " " cold than hot." With the other conditions (e, b, n and p) constant,
the speed
(N)
 will
:
2p 
or
io
60
io8
X 60 X $n 2p
With the
when
5
is
is
4 to
This
is an objectionable characteristic of the ordinary shunt motor for work requiring almost perfectly constant speed, such as weaving. It can be overcome
by employing a
field
field so highly saturated that a moderate change in current produces only slight flux variation; or a field winding composed of wire having a zero temperature coefficient would secure
a like
result.
costly,
for
much
copper,
wire.
former plan employing a field approaching saturation is desirable for other reasons, such as improved commutation, so that the total
of
was explained under the preceding heading relating to heating armature that rated load may be put upon a "cold" or a "hot"
motor or
may be thrown
off either.
is
In the
perature of the former simply increases with the time of operation until maximum is reached.
Hence the heating of shuntfield coils and the percentage of speed occasioned by it are practically the same whether the motor is The same is approximately true of arrunning free or loaded. mature heating by eddy currents and hysteresis in its core. On the
rise
28
other hand, heating due to armature resistance increases as the 2 square of the current (I a Ra) and is therefore very small at light loads. At rated load it is about equal to the core heating in ordinary
machines, in which case the temperature rise in the armature would be about onehalf as great running free as at rated torque. It has already been shown (page 26) that speed change due to
when
armature heating is small, the r.p.m. being .6 per cent higher the armature is "cold" (25 degrees C.) than when "hot"
(75 degrees C.).
.3
when
the armature begins to run free (i.e., cold) than for several hours.
when
it
has
The upon Speed of Shunt Motors. due to their own action have been
cases
them was
constant.
on the assumption that the voltage supSuch constancy is the desirable con
Nevertheless, appreciable variations of voltage do occur even on the best regulated circuits, and may often become very considerable, that
per cent or more, whether from central station or isolated plant. Fortunately the ordinary shunt motor is not very sensitive to these
is,
than that of the voltage change. usually from .6 to .8 of the latter; that
in voltage will cause the
fall
speed
is
In this
motor
lamp, the ordinary tungsten^filament type changing'its candlepower about 3.6 per cent when the voltage is altered only i per cent. A shunt motor in which the magnetic circuit is considerably below
saturation runs at nearly constant speed even if the voltage varies This is because the flux 4> varies directly with the voltage widely.
very closely proportional to e, the c.e.m.f. in the 8 e X 60 X io X b derived from equation (2), expression r.p.m. =
V, which in turn
is
$n
p
is
so that
any change
in the latter
cancelled
by a corresponding
remaining constant. On the other change with a magnetic circuit completely saturated and therefore hand,
in the former, r.p.m.
constant, the speed would vary directly with e which is nearly proportional to the supply voltage V in the normal shunt motor with an
armature
circuit of very
low resistance.
29
In most practical cases the magnetic circuit is only partially saturated, and in order to determine the percentage of speed changes
that will be produced
it is
by a
necessary either to arrive at the result empirically by actual test or to calculate it from the magnetization curve of the machine, which
is
more or
It
is
each design.
is
known
A.
I.
against excitation as abscissas, by drawing a tangent to the curve at the ordinate corresponding to the assigned excitation, and extending
the tangent to intercept the axis of ordinates drawn through the The ratio of the intercept on this axis to the ordinate at the origin. assigned excitation, when expressed in percentage, is the percentage
of saturation."
in
It
may
also
j,
which p is the percentage of saturation and / is the saturation factor, which is denned by the same Rules (par. 57) as "the ratio of
a small percentage of increase in field excitation to the correspondIt is not ing percentage increase in voltage thereby produced."
*
Proof that
let
Fig.
Y represent any point upon the ordinate thereof curve, having a value Z and the abscissa
and
said
a value K. Through the point Y draw a tangent to the curve and continue the tangent line until it intercepts the axis of ordinates, represent the distance of the point of intersection from the origin by the ordinate of
value
crease
W.
in
Let
voltage
small increase
force.
magnetizing
Then
cent
by
definition
is
the
to
per
saturation
equal
or
W^Z and
similar
factor, is equal to
triangles
M/KsL/Z
I
MZ/KL. From
wherein
K'.'.L
this latter
equation
be divided through
wherein
W/Z=iKL/MZ
as above.
W/Z=p
and
30
necessary, therefore, to determine the complete saturation curve of It is sufficient to ascertain the percentage rise or fall the machine.
in the voltage developed by the machine running as a generator on open circuit at any constant speed when the shunt field is excited first by normal voltage V and then by the voltage V v, in which v is the percentage of variation of V in any particular case. For if the saturation curve or the test example, just mentioned shows that the voltage generated by a machine rises 2 per cent when the
voltage V exciting the shunt field is increased 5 per cent, then its saturation factor/ = 5 * 2 = 2.5 and its percentage of saturation
=i
/
2.5
=60
per cent.
any other selected value. This percentage of saturation represents If the extent to which the magnetization approaches saturation. the armature core were wholly saturated this percentage would be
100, while
it
is
moderate
flux densities.
This
same percentage of saturation represents the ratio between speed variaand change of voltage V supplied to its terminals.
In the above example, therefore, the speed would
3 per cent
rise .60
the voltage increased 5 per cent, the percentage of At 100 per cent or complete saturation the saturation being 60.
when
speed rises or falls exactly the same percentage as the voltage. On the other hand, at zero saturation or with low flux densities practically proportional to the excitation, the speed would be constant.
assumed that the resistance of the shuntfield circuit is constant, in which case the field current varies directly with the voltage V. This would be approximately true for a change of a few per cent in the value of V, which is all that usually occurs in
In this discussion
it
is
practice.
Of course any
increase in
perature and therefore the resistance of the field winding, so that the shuntfield current would not increase or decrease quite as rapidly This fact makes the percentage of speed variaas the voltage V.
This effect is similar tion slightly greater than that stated above. to that due to the gradual heating of the field which occurs even
when V is constant, as already explained on page 26. The definitions of percentage of saturation and saturation
factor
quoted above from the A. I. E. E. Standardization Rules refer either to one point on the saturation curve at which a tangent is
31
small percentage of increase in field excitation." This limitation is imposed because a point of tangency or a very short distance on a curve may be regarded as a straight line. The
voltage variations occurring in practice may be so small that this assumption is correct, but often they amount to 5 or 10 per cent or even more, and cases might arise in which the voltage may be acci
"a
For the purposes dentally or purposely varied 50 or 75 per cent. of our problem, which relates to the effect of such variations upon the speed of shunt motors, it is sufficient to consider only the range of
form of the curve between the limiting points being of no consequence. Hence the machine is driven as a generator at
variation, the
any constant speed, and d the difference in voltage developed is v respectively. measured with field excited by voltages V and V
not necessary in this case to limit v to the "small percentage" If d and v are expressed as percentages of stated in the definition.
It is
*
= /,
simply the fact that in order to raise the voltage generated by a certain percentage it is necessary to augment the magnetizing current
a greater percentage.
is
3,
which
generated voltage demands a 3 X 4 = 12 per cent increase in magnetizing current or exciting voltage which are assumed to be proportional to each other in a shunt machine, because temperature and resulting resistance
changes are gradual even when they occur. In making the test to determine d for a given value of v, only a voltmeter is connected
to the armature;
is
small,
and the
at
speed may have any reasonable value, provided it is constant. The above method of calculating the speed of a shunt motor
various values of terminal voltage
applied in the case of a General Electric shunt motor. The results lohorsepower ii5volt thus obtained are given in Table II and are compared in Table III
V was
test, at
the
same
as those
employed
in the calculations.
portion of the
magnetization curve of the motor was carefully determined, and from this the following relations required for the calculations were deter
mined.
V represents the voltage applied to the motor field winding; = V R sh e.m.f. represents the openr\
when
and
the motor
is
32
flux
<
The
per
cent saturation at rated excitation with 115 volts directly from the magnetization curve.
was determined
TABLE
II.
OF A
10H.P.
SHUNT MOTOR.
motor
is
in its simplest
form as follows:
{
r.p.m. at
V=
r.p.m. at rated
(A
B)
(8)
wherein
and
must be given
TABLE
III. MEASURED AND CALCULATED SPEEDS OF A 10H.P. SHUNT MOTOR WITH LINE VOLTAGE (F) VARIED.
field current.
CHAPTER
IN
starting shunt
IV.
likely to occur in connecting the shuntfield coils to the circuit because their resistance is high. The difficulty is with the armature
winding,
its
resistance being very low in order to obtain high efficiency If a lowresistance regulation, as already shown.
line terminals, the current
\ ,^
FIG. 3.
it
would tend
to injure or destroy
it,
When
an armature generates no c.e.m.f., so that the standing entire voltage of the supply circuit would have to be consumed by the brush contacts fall of potential in the armature resistance and
still
Theoretically the armature current would rise in the typical 10= (V = (230 1.4) ^.28 = b ) + Ra horsepower motor to a value I a 816 amperes compared with rated current of only 37 amperes.
This equation
equal to
zero.
is
obtained from equation (4) by making c.e.m.f. Practically the current would not reach such
33
34
prevent
an extreme value, because the fuses or circuitbreaker would act to it; but a very excessive armature current would flow at least
momentarily with injurious mechanical as well as electrical effects. To prevent injury and at the same time to obtain gradual acceleration, an adjustable rheostat, commonly called a "starting box," is
inserted in series with the armature, the resistance of
ally
which
is
gradu
As a
otherwise specified, are designed to allow the motor to draw an initial current about 50 per cent greater than normal, so that the machine
may develop ample torque to start under load.* The value of the starting current depends upon the working load, the equivalent moment of inertia of the various devices to be The maximum accelerated, and the rate of acceleration desired.
thus a combination of the current required to accelerate and that required to overcome the working load torque.
starting current
is
The mean
is
the angular velocity, of motor armature at rated speed in is the equivalent moment of inertia of motor radians per second, armature and other parts to be accelerated, V is the rated voltage of
v* herein co is
is
The
maximum
current at the
moment
Ist
of starting
is
Ia
+ 2lma
(9<Z)
design of a starting box is based upon this maximum start" " inrush current needed to accelerate the motor armature or ing In the following method of 'startingbox design in the desired time.
The
assumed that the same inrush current obtains at each moment the controller arm is shifted to reduce the box resistances in series with the motor armature, and still further the motor is supposed to
it is
Let
and
let r\, r 2 , r 3
rn
be the
startingbox resistances
i, 2,
when
the controller
arm
is
on contact notches.
3
*
.n
Standardization Rules, A.
35
The
at the
moment
notch
current flowing through the starting box and motor armature of starting with the controller arm in contact with
is
:
the
first
bla
= V
f
(R a
+ rO*
(96)
This current
is
armature accelerates, and continues to do so until the driving torque equals the load torque, whereupon the armature rotates at a constant
speed.
The armature
Ia
current then
is:
(V
c.e.m.f.0
(Ra
+ ri).
(gc)
To
T2
still
troller
arm
is
moved
bla
= (V 
c.e.m.f.0
*
(Ra
+r
2 ).
As before, this current produces a torque in excess of load requirements and the armature is further accelerated until it acquires a
speed sufficient to reduce the current to the rated load value:
Ia
(V
c.e.m.f.2)
(R a
r 2 ).
(9*)
Similar equations
at the
may
remaining startingbox points and from these the ratio (b) between these current values is
:
found that
ri
+R
r2 rz
+ Ra
r3 4
r2
+ Ra
+ Ra
Ra + Ra
rn
+ Ra Ra
The number
must be divided, so that the specified inrush current shall not be exceeded, is obtained from the product of the members of equa.
or
+R
I
log!
log
b.
(gg)
Brush drop
is
herein neglected.
36
The
values
of
may be
determined by
r2 r3
4 b
(9*)
4 b
T
(V 3
+ Ra ~
bRa)
etc.
To show the application of the preceding method, let us now design a starting box for the typical loh.p. motor of the text, and assume conditions as follows:
Time
Line voltage (V)
= 20 seconds. (t) = 230 volts. Rated load current (la) = 37 amperes. Armature resistance (Ra) = .2& ohm.
of starting
Equivalent
(K)
moment
grm.
= 90 X io 6
of_
inertia
.
of
cm 2
Rated speed
Motor operating
From
Ima
mean
accelerating current
is:
(K
5
7/io7
3^52
90
io 6
r
230
2o
io 7
14.7 amperes.
From
maximum
inrush current
2 94
is:
la
2! ma
37
66.4 amperes.
is
The
ratio
between
maximum
66.4737
1.79.
The
total
box
(230
4
66.4)
.28
=
.20
3.19 ohms.
5
The number of
4.32.
=n=
347
log
log 1.79
is not to be exceeded, the starting only 4 points were employed the current obtained at last notch would exceed the specified value. That obtaining with five notches is considerably less than allowed. From equ. (gh) values of r 2 r z r^
etc.,
r2 r3
f4
= = =
(ri
(r 2 (r
r6
(r4
+Rathe
bRa)
+ .28  1.79 X .28)  1.79 X .28) (1.66 + 28  1.79 X .28) (.805 + .28 +b= (.326 + .28  1.79 X .28)
(3.19
4
1.79 1.79
1.79 1.79
= =
=
.8050)
.3260;,
.06^0.
f
=
f
The number
box and
of contact points of
to
value
the
resistance
37
Draw
total
OX
starting
resistance;
draw
also
OY
equal to the
resist
inrush amperes.
locate
On OX
locate
OR
OI
equal to
draw a line RR f parallel to OY. On OY the normal load amperes, and through / draw
rectangle
OXP Y.
Join
OP,
.34
.6
l.(
1.94
3.47
Ohms
FIG. 30.
in
Armature Circuit
and
at the intersection of
OP with IA
parallel to
O Y.
The
equals R a +r 2 ohms to scale, and (J'P+R'P)X the speed the motor acquires on the first notch after r.p.m. gives acceleration ceases. The value of (J'P v R'P) X t gives the required
distance
OJ
Join OJ ', and draw the vertical line LL' through the intersection of OJ' with IA The distance OL to scale equals (Ra + rs ) ohms and (L'P+R'P) X r.p.m. gives the
first
notch.
speed obtained on the second notch as acceleration ceases, while 1 (L'J T R'P} X t gives the time of contact required on the second
notch,
etc., for
The
table:
results
the remaining points. from the completed diagram are given in the following
38
TABLE
IV.
FIG.
3a.
In case a motor
is
to
resist
ances already calculated would not bring up the speed gradually. The inrush current would be the full voltage divided by the sum
of axinaiure
and
is
230
f
(.28
3. 19)
= 66.4
amperes. The mean accelerating current would be onehalf of this or 33.15 amperes. This value substituted in equ. 9, assuming the moment of inertia of armature running free to be 50X106 grm.
2 cm. and taking other data as before, we have
Ima
cu
K+V+io 7 =
obtain
full
t
83~6
50
io 6
is,
230X1X10?.
From which we
= 4.9
seconds, that
speed in that time, the total starting resistance This speed would be slightly greater than in series with it. being In order to start a motor gradually without load at rated load.
sometimes the practice, especially in Europe, to use a special box, the resistance of which is much higher than in the preceding " For instance', if it were desired to have the speeding design.
it
is
up
as of
resistances
no load occur in 20 seconds, as before, the required external would be far higher than those for rated load conditions, given in Table IV. For example, suppose the moment of inertia 2 From the motor armature running free is 50 X io 6 grm. cm.
at
is
"
2.3
amps.
Mean
accel
T ma
=
106
T
230
20
io 7
8.15 amps.
2.3
2(8.15)
18.6 amps.;
hence
initial
is
noload
/*i
(230
T
18.6)
.28
12. i
ohms.
39
box having any such high resistance were employed to start a motor under load (for example at rated torque,) the armature current would be far less than the desired value until next
to
when
owing
then flowing. For this reason, and to have the starting box adapted to all load conditions, the American practice is to use a box designed
to start the
motor under
load.
Thus, while the speed may rise rather result, because the initial
armature current to a
reasonable value and the speed does not rise more than about i per cent above rated value. Rapid acceleration without load is not
On objectionable, provided neither current nor speed 'is excessive. the other hand, the motor is fully protected when started under load,
the armature current having the proper values to bring the armature
field
motors from the source of supply in circuit shall not be broken suddenly when the
Failure to take this precaution not only causes arcing at the switch blades, but might break down the insulation of the field coils, owing to the high voltage induced by sudden cessation
is
motor
shut down.
of current in such
by opening the supply switch at 5, leaving the field connected across the armature, Fig. i. The machine then slows down gradually and,
acting
the original
direction, through the field winding, so that a sudden inductive discharge is avoided.
avoid the possibility of closing the supply switch with the starting resistance cut out, the National Board of Fire Underwriters
specify that "Motorstarting rheostats must be so designed that the contact arm cannot be left on intermediate segments, and must
To
be provided with an automatic device which will interrupt the supply circuit before the motor speed falls to less than onethird of its
normal value." *
This protective feature consists in replacing the resistance in the armature circuit, upon opening of the starting
supply switch, and
* is
Rule
40
device in the starting box. This comprises a small electromagnet B, excited by the supply voltage, so placed as to hold the contact arm,
through a keeper
the circuit
is
K placed upon
it,
in the
"on"
is
position as long as
closed.
returned to the "off" position by means of a spring at P, but this does not occur until the speed of the motor has been consideris
arm
ably reduced. The winding of the electromagnet B may be in series with the shunt field or directly across the line, the latter connection being preferable with adjustablespeed motors, because in such instances the field current may often be reduced to only a small
of its full value and the tractive effort of the holding would be so weakened that it would fail to hold the controller magnet
percentage
arm
in position.
STARTERS AND REGULATORS. R. Krause. London, 1904. RHEOSTAT CONTROL. A. C. Button. Gen. Elect. Review, Schenectady, Vol. XII,
1909, pp. 365, 423
CHAPTER
V.
THE
the particular
method
to
There are two general condias cost of motor and equipment. the first calling for adjustable speeds at contions of speed control; stant torque (if desired), the second being satisfied by adjustable
The first of these conditions is fulfilled speed with variable torque. variation of the applied armature voltage, and the second by by
change cf field flux. Armature Rheostat
resistance in series with
Control.
The
first
The
regulating resistance
ordinary starting box, since it may be in circuit for long periods. The accepted design is such that it will not heat up to more than
100 degrees C. on continuous service with rated load current. The large current capacity may be obtained by making up the resistance
units in plate form, or some other arrangement by which large radiating surface is obtained. Equ. (10) shows how the total
voltage
is
consumed
in the
armature
V=
It is
c.e.m.f.
+ hRa + D +
Ia Rx
(10)
must decrease, and, as already shown, when c.e.m.f. is reduced the speed diminishes in the same ratio, hence the control of a motor by rheostat in its armature circuit is a method of speed
the c.e.m.f.
regulation which can only decrease the speed of the machine.
For the sake of simplicity in the folthe straypower losses will be assumed to be the lowing problems,
Speedcontrol Rheostat.
41
42
same
no load and
full
in fact, as already shown, the change a very small amount, which is practically by
it
load
negligible.
Assume
to give a
that
is
and
this
speed variation in four steps from onequarter to rated speed, at rated torque and for continuous service at any of
control
is
is
to
" armature should be considered as operating hot," hence its resistance R a is .28 ohm and the speeds desired are 206, 412, 619, and 821;
r.p.m.,
respectively,
the conditions of
Ia R x
= V
V.
the last being the rated speed. Tabulating torque and speed desired and recollecting that
(c.e.m.f.
I a Ra
+ D b we
)
TABLE
The same
The
c.e.m.f.
at rated speed
volts
(= 230
sufficient resistance
= 218.2 volts. produce a drop of this amount, that is, I a R x The rated current Ia is 37 amperes, therefore the required resistance
to
Rx =
218.2
r
37
5.9
ohms.
zero speed with rated torque exerted, threequarters of 5.9, or 4.4, ohms give onequarter speed, also 5.9 f 2 = 2.95 ohms give oneon.
ohms give threequarters speed and so raised to 1.25 I ay corresponding to standard overload capacity, the necessary resistance in each case is only In this way the resistance needed for any speed from .8 as great.
half speed, 5.9
H
1.48
zero to rated value and for any armature current can readily be
determined.
43
the controller,
of the various resistances required in necessary to determine the size of box that
ohms
needed radiating surface. The temperature rise usually permitted in speedregulating rheostats is 100 degrees C., and with temperature limit known, the surface of the resistance
will contain the
units (A) can be calculated, because the heat energy emitted equal that produced; that is,
.24
in
must
I\R X =Aht,
(ioa)
which Ia is the rated current, R x the total resistance of the rheostat, h the emissivity of the resistance metal (i.e., gramcalories
emitted per square centimeter per degree C.), and
t
the difference
in degrees C.
The
total
current I a
is
as given in preceding table is 4.4 ohms, the 37 amperes, the emissivity h of nickelin (the resistance
is
Rx
metal assumed)
degrees C.
.000506 and the difference in temperature t is 100 Substituting these values in equation (ioa) we have
A =
That
is,
or
the nickelin wire employed must have an emitting surface it will not increase in temperature
resistance resistance
more than 100 degrees C. at rated load. Knowing the required and the radiating surface, the length of the
wire can readily be calculated if the cross section be decided upon. Assuming a circular wire, the following formulas of resistance and
length apply
sq. cm.,
/
:
Surface area
=2
idr
and
R r =~^
the length in centimeters, r the radius in centimeters, r the total rheostat resistance (4.4 ohms) and p the specific resistance
h (i.e., .00005 P er centimeter cube). these values in the above equations we have
of nickelin
Substituting
28,600
2 iilr or
28,600
2 nr
;
and
4.4
.0000^ J
Tir
or
4.4 /= 
nr
.00005
Equating these values of / and solving for r, we obtain r .253 cm.; from which / = 18,000 cm. That is, the nickelin wire required
&
S.
gauge) and a
into three
meters.
The
44
sections of 1.47
ohms each
to
when
simple method of constructing this box is to employ resistance units in the form of helices. helix 4 cm. diameter requires n 4 or
12.5 cm. of wire per turn, or i meter of wire would make eight turns. These turns should be about .5 cm. apart, which is equal to the
diameter of the wire, so that eight turns require 8 cm. height. total length of resistance wire being 180 meters, each section
meters long and
section
if
The
is
60
is
composed
in
of 60
8 or 480 turns.
Hence each
made up
one helix would be 480 cm. high. In order it may be divided into 12 units,
each 40 cm. high. For the complete box 36 units are required, each 40 cm. high and 4 cm. in diameter. These coils should be placed so as to have i cm. space between them for ventilation and to avoid
shortcircuiting; hence the
box would be 6
same thickness. would accordingly be 40 X 30 X 30 cm., containing 180 meters of nickelin resistance wire No. 4 B. & S. gauge. Discussion of Speed Control by Armature Rheostat. The efficiof such a combination for obtaining motor speed control at ency
the
The
power
the various r.p.m. selected is determined as follows: The straylosses affect the efficiency at the various speeds so slightly
we assume them as constant at their value and speed; correction can, however, be made, as
at
shown
later.
motor operating
output of which
is
7550 watts.
TABLE
VI.
45
and the speeds as Hence it is sufficient abscissas, we have a straight line, as in Fig. 4. to calculate one value and draw a line through this point and the A study of this method of speed control brings out the origin.
plot these efficiency values as ordinates
we
following objections:
RHEOSTAT CONTROL
Objections to Armature Rheostat Control. This may not be very objectionable if (a) Bulk of Rheostat. only a few motors are so controlled, but for a number, the extra
many
cases
it
is
difficult to find
of
power
is
supplied at all speeds, but at low speeds only a small part of it is converted into useful work, the balance being wasted as heat. Thus, with the lohorsepower motor the useful work at onequarter speed
is
only 21.4 per cent of the total input, as shown in table above. Since the Varying Loads. (c) Poor Speed Regulation with
is
= V IaR x ), voltage minus the resistance drop in the regulator (V any change in the current drawn by the motor produces a change in the terminal voltage, the c.e.m.f., and, therefore, the speed.
occur with load changes may be very great, and are best brought out by specific examples. Consider
in speed
likely to
The changes
46
the loh.p. motor with the controller box just designed for it, and assume that the motor is driving a lathe at rated torque (37 amperes)
and at onehalf speed. That is, the motor is running at 412 r.p.m. and a full cut is being made; suddenly, however, the machinist so
changes the depth of cut that the torque
rated value
that
is,
falls to
onequarter of the
and the simultaneous amperes increase in speed accompanying this will be very considerable. Its value can be determined as follows:
7
9.25
The
current
total resistance
drop
in the
armature
circuit is at this
(.28
reduced
equal
to
9.25
2.9)
30.4
199.6 volts.
rises
Hence
the speed
199.6 218.2
825
is, it
suddenly from
412 to 755 r.p.m. when the torque is decreased from rated value to onequarter thereof. In most practical cases it is desirable that no material variation in speed should occur with change of torque, so
that this increase,
amounting
to 83
per cent
=1.83), would
The speed change for any torque variation at any rheostat setting can be similarly calculated and the results of such calculation have been embodied in the speedregulation curves of Fig. 5. The speed
of the
motor
at
controller
any fraction of rated torque with any position of the these curves and the speed
change due to any variation of torque thus readily determined. For example, the typical lohorsepower motor, when operated at rated torque with 3 ohms external resistance in its armature circuit,
If its load be so changed that the required onehalf of the previously assumed value, the regulatorque tion curve indicates that the speed rises to 635 r.p.m., an increase
of 54 per cent.
From
it
becomes obvious
that the speed regulation of a motor with armature rheostat is very poor; in fact the changes in .speed which occur with considerable
and
may
and
its
work.
This
difficulty cf
may be
avoided by
employing some
of the fieldweakening or multiplevoltage methods to be considered later. With these methods, even when the torque
47
is
from zero
2 to
from
small, being 30 per cent, depending upon the particular method and
speed change
the speed setting employed. In the foregoing calculations, the error introduced by assuming the straypower losses as constant at all speeds is small, as shown in
Consider, for example, the onequarter speed condition for which the error introduced by variation of straypower losses due to
speed change would be a maximum. With speed at onequarter of rated value, and at rated torque, the motor output would be equal to The various resistance losses would be the same as at 1887.0 watts.
FIG.
5.
RHEOSTAT RESISTANCES.
rated load, or 675.0 watts.
The
total
straypower loss
is
made up
of
eddy current, hysteresis, friction and windage losses, the first of which varies as the square of the speed, while the others vary directly with speed. In motors of about loh.p. capacity the various losses
are approximately in the following proportion: Eddycurrent loss, onequarter of total straypower loss.
Hysteresis loss, onequarter of total straypower loss. Friction and windage, onehalf of total straypower loss. The sum of these losses, or the total stray power, has already been found to be 526 watts (p. 24). Hence the eddycurrent loss
at
normal speed
is
r
= 8. 2
48
watts.
The
hysteresis
loss
at
normal speed
is
131.5,
onequarter
131.5^4=32.8 watts.
is
The
friction
The
total
motor
675
loss,
107
782 watts.
The motor
input
is
8740
watts; motor
is
1887 watts;
hence, the loss in the rheostat is 8740 (1887 + 782) = 6071 watts; thus R x = 6071 ^37 2 = 4.45 ohms, or only .05 more than that obtained by calculation with straypower losses assumed constant.
Hence
of
by this assumption is negligible. Speed Control by Brush Shifting. Speed variation by means
brush shifting
to
is
not desirable, as
it
and tends
120
produce sparking.
.110
100
90
At rated Load motor has
4.5
fi
la
Ra Drop
a
b
d 25
in
minimum
sparking position
50
75
100
FIG. 6.
by brush
Curves are given in Fig. 6 showing how the speed can be controlled shifting, but the range is small. It is interesting to note in connection with this figure that armature reaction in a motor due to a
considerable negative lead of the brushes (that
is,
moved backwards,
opposite to direction of rotation) can be made to maintain a constant or rising speed. This is not a feasible method, however, because
in the operation of directcurrent
motors
it
is
minimum
49
ing is the most troublesome feature of these machines. In the to case of interpolar or commutating pole motors a lag of even
$ inch in brush position causes a pronounced rise in speed as the load 'is increased, with the probable production of visible
sparking, while a brush lead of the same amount would cause the machine to assume the speedload characteristics of compoundwound
motors; that
is,
the speed
increase of load.
CHAPTER
THE
immediately preceding chapter
VI.
method
of motorspeed adjustment.
This
chapter adjusting the speed of directcurrent shunt motors by alteration of the impressed voltage, and they are called adjustable or multivoltage systems in contradistinction to the constant or singlevoltage systems to be later on
described.
the remaining
methods
is
.
due
to
changes
These
methods
also differ from the constant voltage ones in the fact that they can be employed for the production of rated torque over the entire speed range (with the single exception noted below) in place The general classification of of a constant output in horsepower.
2.
3.
4.
5.
>
6.
7.
number
of poles in motor.
7,
In the
the motor as a
whole
is supplied with constant voltage. age available for each armature is varied in case ing of the armature conductors is altered in case
7 so as to
the c.e.m.f. developed; hence these two rather peculiar cases may be included in a general way under adjustablevoltage control.
They
rent
also resemble the other five cases in the fact that field cur
and flux are usually maintained constant. The doublearmature motors of case 6 do not exert constant torque, as in the other six cases, but produce constant output in horsepower like the
single
in the
voltage types.
It
is
also
to
above
list
apply to multispeed 50
51
In the discussion
was shown
(as
efficient
will
f.,
that
is,
produces
an almost cor
responding change in speed. This is the principle of the adjustablevoltage or multivoltage systems of control.
Multiplevoltage Systems. The simplest multiple voltage system is the ordinary threewire circuit, with say 115 volts
Threewire
FIG.
7.
between either outer and the neutral conductor, and 230 volts between the outer conductors as represented in Fig. 7. Thus a
230 volt shunt
motor connected so that its field winding is supplied and its armature with 115 volts, as indicated by solid
develop a certain speed. If the armature terminals are then connected to the 23ovolt supply, as indicated by broken line,
may be obtained by " control. Let us consider the loh.p. motor, fieldweakening the data of which were given on page 20. This machine has an armature resistance, hot, of .28 ohm; a brush drop of 1.4 volts and
an armature current
of 37
mediate "
The two
and
full
amperes
i,
at rated load.
* Division
52
Then Ia R a +
the c.e.m.f.
is is
D =
b
.28
37
1.4
= n.8
volts.
115
218.2.
n.8 =
230
 n.8 =
:
103.2.
With V =
ratio
With
V=
at these
:
voltages
is
as 103.2
218.2, or nearly a
to 2
is
The
objection to this
method
An additional speed sary, only two running speeds are obtained. can be secured from an unsymmetrical threewire system, in which one of the sides has a voltage of x and the other side a voltage of
but even then only three running speeds corresponding to To gain a much 3 x could be obtained with three wires. wider speed range with only onethird greater number of wires,
2 Xy
:
the fourwire
systems were
developed,
and these
will
now be
explained.
The first of Multiplevoltage Control of Speed. these fourwire methods, historically, is that of H. Ward Leonard,*
Ward Leonard
who employed
three generators of 62, 125 and 250 volts, respectively, and grouped them in series in the order named, as represented in These voltages were supplied to the various motors by a Fig. 8. fourwire system of distribution, connected to the three generators as shown.
^T^
1
\
IS'
V.
t
V.
375 V.
250
V.
V.
875
V.
V.
234
56
SYSTEM.
Running Points
FIG. 8
shuntfield windings of all the motors were supplied with a constant voltage, either the total amount obtained by connection
The
A and D, or a smaller value, as, for example, that existing between the wires and D. The armature terminals be connected as desired to any two of the conductors A, B, may
with the outside wires
* U. S. Patent
No. 478,344,
July, 1892.
53
and D\ thus if applied to A and B, 62 volts would be obtained; B and C, 125 volts; across A and C, 167 volts; across C and D 250 volts; across 5 and D, 375 volts; and across ^4 and Z), 437 volts.
across
t
Taking the speed at the highest voltage as the full or rated value, the various running points would give speeds of approximately i, T T> T> T> an d y> a sudden jump in the voltage increment occurring
at the fifth point.
volts,
speed value, or that corresponding to 312 could not be obtained, because to get this voltage AB would
f
The
have
to
be added directly
to voltage
shortcircuit
the voltage
EC.
The
system developed was that of the CrockerWheeler Company, employing voltages of 40, 1 20 and 80 in the order given. (Fig. 9.)
By connecting
and
AB
to
CD,
to
(AD) EC, to
T
V.
!
v.
240V.
240
V.
120
80 V.
40 V.
Running Points
FIG. 9.
AC,
to
BD, and
finally
to
AD,
six
voltages
and
speeds
are
obtained as follows:
40 volts " 80
..120
"
AC BD
gives
"
"
AD
These voltages correspond approximately to J, , , , J and f of the rated speed. Thus, with this system, the speeds increase in a or in an arithmetical progression, there being no jumps, straight line,
but a uniform
table of
The actual speeds are from 106 to rise throughout. 862 r.p.m., giving a range of a little more than i to 8, as shown in the
"
55.
54
Bullock
method
is
A third multiplevoltage Multiplevoltage System. that of the Bullock Company, Fig. 10, employing vol:
: : : :
tages which increase in geometrical progression ; that is, the voltages 3 2 ar ar 4 ar5 As these ar ar are in the following ratio: a values must all be obtained in practice from a single system consist3 = a + ar, that ing of only four conductors, it is necessary that ar
.
ar 4
ar
ar
ar2
ar
ar
ar
2
.
Running Points
450
FIG. 10.
The
is,
only factor r which satisfies these conditions is 1.3247; that each voltage is 32 J per cent, or about onethird, higher than the
preceding.
60, 80
and
no
named.
that are practically convenient, but are only approximately in the ratio stated, the theoretically correct values being 60, 79.5 and 105.3
The armature voltages and speeds obtained by connecting the armature terminals of the typical lohorsepower motor to the
volts.
The speed is various conductors are given in the following table. toe. e.m.f.; that is, r.p.m. = (c.e.m.f. j 218.2) X 825, proportional
the two latter being rated values.
TABLE
VII.
55
which
is
about
range of exactly i to 5, the total number of controller steps being The range of voltage is 40 to 240 in the former the same for both.
and 60
Hence the former starts at a lower speed 182 r.p.m., and finally reaches about same
at
maximum
any reasonable maxiof voltages. It is desirable, howmum; at least the maximum voltage and ever, to have standard values for one of the sub voltages, in order that standard motors, arc and incandesthey differ only in the ratio
cent lamps,
etc.,
may be
same
lines.
The
control
is
much
higher
than that of the armature rheostat method for same torque and speed Let us consider the typical loh.p. motor, the data of range.
which were given in the table on p. 20, and determine its efficiency at rated torque and the various speeds obtained by the CrockerWheeler multiplevoltage system.
The
voltages of 40, 80, 120, 160, 200 and 240, respectively, are determined as in the case of the Bullock system above. The input in watts
in each case
is
armature current
found by multiplying the voltage input by the rated = 37 amperes) and adding 230 watts, which is (Ia
TABLE
VIII. SPEEDS AND EFFICIENCIES OF 10H. P. MOTOR WITH CROCKER WHEELER MULTIPLEVOLTAGE CONTROL.
u)
56
AND CONTROL.
of the
of this
former method
is
very marked.
far speed regulation curves in Fig. 12 and values in the following table show this superiority very clearly. The r.p.m. at rated torque are from table above, and r.p.m. at no load are 39 r.p.m.
rheostatic control
better
The
/ Rheostatic Control
Efficiency
85
50
Percent Rated Speed
75
100
FIG.
II.
higher in each case for multiple voltage, because armature current is reduced from 37 to 2.3 amperes, which decreases armature drop
34.7
.28
9.7 volts,
is
The
c.e.m.f.
must
.6
no load
for
825 39 r.p.m. The r.p.m. at armature rheostat control are found as follows: The
218.2
terminal pressure to give 106 r.p.m. at rated torque is 40 volts; hence 240 40 = 200 volts must be consumed in rheostat, the
resistance of
which
is
200
5
37
240
r
226.1
At no load
c.e.m.f.
to
57
TABLE
IX.
SPEED REGULATION,
10H. P.
MOTOR.
1000
loa
multiplevoltage system
may
be supplied
load.
of 40, 80
and 120
maximum
full
30 to 50 per cent of the possible load. Instead of using the above combination of three generators, one generator of total voltage and
58
load capacity and a threeunit balancing set (Fig. 13) at 40, 80 and 120 volts can be and usually is employed. These balancers, it has
\
40
120 V,
80 V.
FIG. 13.
total capacity of only 5 to 10 cent of the total load in ordinary cases. If, however, there is per one extremely large motor, while the rest of the plant consists only of small motors, the balancer set should have a capacity equal to
The balancer arrangement is the one that of this large motor. as it is advantageous in the following respects: usually adopted,
(a)
prime movers, only one instead of either three or a system of line shafts, belts, etc. engines (6) Lower cost of generator, a large one in place of three smaller ones of same aggregate power.
cost of
(c)
Lower
Lower
cost of foundations.
(d)
(e)
electrical connections.
The motors
machines, which is an important practical advantage. They are so connected that the field is permanently across the 24ovolt lines
and the six running speeds are the armature terminals from subvoltage to subis
in operation,
59
by means
of the controller
drum
as
shown
in Fig. 14.
In
FIG. 14.
some cases the changes from one running speed to another are made gradually by shifting to the next higher voltage with some resistance inserted in the armature circuit and then gradually reducing this resistance until that voltage is applied to the armature terminals and so on with the various subvoltages until the maximum pressure is These gradual changes with intermediate speeds are also attained.
obtainable by diminishing the field current until the next higher speed is reached, then connecting the armature to the corresponding
voltage, at the
same time
Since the
motor
the
is
field weakening, particularly as below normal which lowers the frequency of com
is
employed
in passing
many
from minimum
to
maximum.
60
AND CONTROL.
The MotorGenerator and " Boost and Retard " Systems, both invented by H. Ward Leonard, are also multi voltage or rather adjustable voltage methods of speed control, but the speed changes being gradual, no intermediate steps are required. In the case of
the motor generator system* in addition to the working motor, a
motordynamo is required for each machine so operated. The motor end (M) of the motordynamo is connected to the line or supply mains and controlled as any ordinary singlespeed machine
(Fig. 15).
The
no.
15.
ing motor's armature (WM). Adjustable voltages and speeds are obtained by changes in the field strength of the generator, the field of which, as well as that of the working motor, being connected
to the supply circuit.
is
by means
By
is
motor
built
and rheostat (R) in the generator field cirmethod the reversal of voltage applied to the working gradually accomplished, being first reduced to zero and then
this
Furthermore the reversing switch small field current instead of the armature current S controls only a which would be 20 to 50 times greater, requiring large contact
up
surfaces.
this system is extremely flexible, it is not extensively emon account of its first cost. The motor end of the motorployed dynamo must be larger than the working motor by the amount of the losses in both the dynamo and working motor. For example, the motor previously considered is of 86.6 per cent effilohorsepower ciency; hence to operate this machine at rated load, the input must
While
be 10
also
5
.866, or
n.6 horsepower.
The
efficiency of the
dynamo
is
61
1.6
f
.866, or 13.5
horsepower capacity.
needed
1 1.6
are required, each of a power equal to or for the actual work, the total rated capacity being 10
13.5 35.1 horsepower. extensive use of this method of speed control was formerly the operation of turrets and gun platforms in modern warships, for
An
adjustment and yet wide range in speed are necessary. frequently used for driving large rolls in steel mills, where in combination with a heavy flywheel it is known as the Ilgner
which very
It is
fine
now
system.
" Both of the Ward Leonard methods and the teaser" system,
to
be given
Their esseninvolve motorgenerator equipments. tial advantage is forcibly shown by the following example: To obtain 55.5 amperes at 17 volts, sufficient to develop a torque to start the
later,
standard lohorsepower motor from rest under load, assuming 50 per cent increase in armature current above the rated value of 37 amperes, would require a motorgenerator of 80 per cent efficiency
.8 = 944 watts from draw 55.5 X 17 the same starting torque directly from a armature rheostat control would require
to
=
watts,
which is nearly 14 times as much power. The "Boost and Retard" System* of Ward Leonard is very similar in principle to the preceding method but reduces somewhat its high cost by the following scheme. A motorgenerator is also em
FIG. 16.
WARD LEONARD
"
ployed, but the generator end is placed in series with the line, so that This e.m.f. its e.m.f. may be added to or opposed to the line pressure.
is
controlled
by variation
of field resistance,
and
its
direction
by
rever
operation of this system may be understood by referring to Fig. 16. To obtain the same speed range with
sal of field connections.
* U. S. Patent Xo. 572,903,
The
December
8,
1896.
62
AND CONTROL.
a 24ovolt motor as with an ordinary multiplevoltage system, the line potential is only 120 volts, while the generator end also
develops 120
and generator pressures are in series, the voltage V at the motor terminals will be 120 + 120 or Decrease in value of V from 240 volts to 120 volts is obtained 240.
volts.
if
Thus
both
line
field of
is
the generator to zero, while a reduction of obtained by reversing the generator voltage and
thus subtracting it from the line pressure. This is accomplished by arranging the field rheostat F to reverse the field connections, the current in the same having been, however, first gradually reduced
which manner the high voltage and spark the opening of a field circuit are eliminated. Since accompanying the voltage of the generator end is only onehalf of that required by at rated speed, the wattcapacity of the the working motor
practically to zero, in
WM
little more than oneworking motor, and accordingly the parts of the are 50 per cent smaller than in the preceding motor generator
MD
system.
The
and
it
voltage and current relations existing between the units comand retard" system are as shown in Table X,
when
MD
"crushing" or "retarding" the line voltage, it has reversed its function and is acting as a motor driving what was previously the motor end as a generator, which then pumps back into the supset is
ply line, thus furnishing part of the current required by the workFor example, to run the working motor at onequarter ing motor.
= 66.3 volts, that speed or 206 r.p.m. requires n.8 + (218.2 4 4) armature and brush drop plus onequarter of rated c.e.m.f. is, must generate Hence the machine 48.7, which, combined with
115, the line voltage, produces the required 66.3 volts for the working motor. The machine D, thus developing a c.e.m.f. of 48.7 volts, is = 1802 watts. therefore running as a motor, consuming 48.7 X 37
efficiency of the
machines
and
as 80
= 1442 watts at 115 per cent, the latter will generate .80 X 1802 since it is connected to the supply lines. Hence it furnishes volts,
12.6 amperes and the supply circuit 24.4 amperes to the 37 amperes consumed by the working motor. The other values in Table are calculated in a similar manner. For
1442
r
115
make up
and
M might be
less
than 80 per
63
to
would be of little practical consequence. It be noted that this "boost and retard" method as well as the
preceding "motorgenerator" arrangement gives full rated torque with usual overload capacity at all speeds of the working motor, so that its horsepower output increases directly with its speed.
TABLE
X.
VOLTAGE AND
CURRENT RELATIONS.
advantageous example, to start the working armature by supplying it with n.8 volts consumes only 115 volts and 10.5 amperes or 1208 watts from
the supply lines.
To produce the same effect with a rheostat in the would demand 230 volts and 37 amperes or 8510 On the other hand, watts, which is seven times as large an input. with this system at or near rated speed, the efficiency falls from 86.7
armature
circuit
7640
115
83.8
operation when the "inching" or slight forward movement of the press must be effected very accurately for " " making ready, as it is called. While this could be accomplished
by the two preceding multivoltage methods, the cost of the equipment would be rather high, hence the development of this special method.
The apparatus and connections of the electrical units in Fig. 17. The "teaser" or motorgenerator MD is
tively small capacity
are as
of
shown
compara
and
its
64
AND CONTROL.
operation is as follows: The motorgenerator acts as a current transformer, to supply currents of considerable value at low voltage to the main motor for starting large presses, inching them forward The or even running them for long periods at low speeds.
The
WM
is
Pull Speed
FIG.
17.
Teaser Cut
10
20
30
70
80
90
100
FIG.
1 8.
by decreasing the value of the series ing the speed and voltage of resistance R or by field weakening of the motor end until the main
rotating at such a rate that it can be operated with comparative economy from the main line through the resistance R m " teaser" is disconnected from the line and main at which instant the
motor
WM
is
motor.
The
great
economy
of
the
65
is shown by the curves in Fig. 18, which represent drawn from the line by the two methods when the working motor is performing the same duty. The dotted line com
line
A little below half speed the teaser is cut out, above which point the armature speed and current are controlled by the rheostat Rm in the usual way.
cent of rated speed.
The
represented in the upper diagram of Fig. 17. The armature current is assumed to be of the working motor 55.5 amperes, which is above rated value, in order to overcome inertia and 50 per cent
WM
generator end
amperes are generated by the amperes are supplied through to start the motor demands 17 the motor, as indicated. Merely volts and 48.8 amperes or 830 watts from the machine D. Assuminitial friction.
Of
D of the
teaser,
and
6.7
ing 80 per cent efficiency for the motorgenerator, the input of the must be 830 + .8 = 1036 watts. Hence the voltage motor end
consumed by
resistance
it is
1036
H
6.7
==
is
230
(150
17)
=63
volts, the
amount
of this
resistance being 63 76.7 94 ohms, which is gradually decreased At starting only to raise the speed of the teaser and working motor.
of 230 volts
230 volts and 6.7 amperes are drawn from the supply lines, instead and 55 amperes, which is more than eight times the
in watts.
power
When the teaser generator is of the simple shunt type, a sudden overload or sticking of the press rollers stalls the entire equipment, fall too low to produce the current because the terminal volts of
known as required. Bullock Teaser Booster equipment has been developed. This is the essentially like the preceding, but the generator end of the teaser is
this difficulty the modification
To overcome
compound wound,
so that
WM
any tendency
to stall the
it over the sticking point. the working motor may exert full With these teaser arrangements, torque at all speeds, so that its horsepower output increases with the
tem
is similar to the teaser HolmesClatworthy System. sysin principle and is also applicable to the driving of printing presses, but the low speed for starting and inching purposes is
This
66
AND CONTROL.
The equipment comprises a main supplied from a special motor. or working motor, a smaller auxiliary motor and a controller. In addition there is an electrically operated selfreleasing clutch,
situated between the two motors,
by which the turning effort of transmitted through worm gears to the press. The auxiliary motor is wound for such a speed that by means of the gearing it will drive the press for all purposes of starting up,
is
etc., and bring it up to a sufficient speed so that main motor may take the load advantageously. As soon as the main motor overspeeds the auxiliary one, the releasing clutch operates automatically, and the latter machine is disconnected. This method of motor speed conDoublearmature Method. trol is placed under the general head of multivoltage or ad
the
justablevoltage
even though the line voltage remains constant, adjustable speed is obtained by changing the voltage applied to a given armature winding, thus producing
systems
because
the
eral
same
result as
by
same
The
principle
is
the
first
obtained by connecting the armature windings either independently or in series, while in the second case four speeds can be secured by changes in the manner of connecting the two armature windings to
the circuit.
method (General Electric Company's,* and C. and C. Electric Company's systems) employs a motor with an ordinary field frame and winding which may be shunt or may be compound wound, but the armature core is provided with two windings and two com
The
first
Thus if one armature mutators, which are alike in all respects. winding be placed across the line a certain speed will be obtained. If both are placed across the line in series, the speed will be about
This doublearmature method is closely similar to onehalf as great. The successive steps the seriesparallel control of railway motors.
in
this
method
a compoundwound
motor are as
extension of the same principle is exemplified in the motor developed by the Commercial Electric Company, which employs
An
one
frame and winding (shunt or compound) and two independent armature windings, but instead qf having these alike in
field
common
67
them has 2 x inductors and the other 3 x inductors; i.e., one has 50 per cent more inductors in series than the Thus if the 2 x winding be opposed to the 3 x winding and other. connected in series to the line, only x inductors are effective in producing the c.e.m.f., hence the speed would be a maximum. If the
Min. Speed
Shunt Field
LSeries Field
Armature Windings
Starting Resistance
ToinroTflT
Series Field
Max
Jumper Speed
Slmnt Field
inmnnnnra
B^t
FIG. 19.
winding with
itself to
the line, a
maximum would
be obtained.
If the
winding
with 3 x inductors were placed across the line, a speed of onethird the maximum would be obtained, while if both were placed in series
across the line so that they generate e.m.f. in the same direction corresponding to 5 x inductors, a speed of only onefifth the maximum
would be the result. The general connections shown in Fig. 20. If used in combination with
with rheo
68
AND CONTROL.
for
example, a 6 to
i field
method would give an extremely wide range; range would give a 30 to i speed range.
The
well as the G. E.
rated torque at all
and C. and C. methods described above, gives full speeds unless the field is weakened, because both
Min. Speed
2x
FIG.
20.
MOTOR CONTROL.
armatures
may
carry
times the
like the field weakening method. is, constant power The Bullock Control by Variation of Number of Poles. Speed at one time manufactured a motor capable of giving Company
various speeds by changing the number of poles. For example, consider a sixcircuit armature with a sixpole field magnet. When
the field coils are so connected that the ordinary relation of alternate exists, the number of armature circuits
69
(2),
from equation
r.p.m.
eio8 6o b
n<& 2
io8 6o
.
n<&
then, the connection of the field coils be changed so that three poles adjoining each other become S, and the other three AT", we have
If,
= e io 6o n$$
or
%x
provided the yoke and armature have sufficient cross section to Hence the speed in the second case would carry the increased flux.
it
was
The
cost of
due to larger frame, complex windings and For example, switches, that it has not been commercially successful. it would be necessary even in the smallest motors to have six poles in
i
order to obtain a 3 to
speed range.
CHAPTER
VII.
method
open
to the
same
The
is
equation
QnN 2
60
7
io 8
shows that
if e,
varies kept constant, and the armature flux $ varied, the speed as the flux because the other quantities do not change inversely
<
unless purposely
of parts.
tion.
made
to
This
relation,
Shunt motors are usually designed to have such high flux density in both field and armature that it is not practicable to increase
it
materially.
Hence
*
this
method
is
confined to and
commonly
called
field
weakening. In the case of ordinary shunt motors, the range of speed variation
of field
weakening is small. For instance, take the 10motor previously considered and weaken its field by the horsepower introduction of extra resistance into its field circuit to produce 30 per Since the flux must be varied inversely as cent increase in speed.
by means
the speed, it must be weakened in the proportion 130 100 or 100 : 77, that is, 23 per cent, while to produce this change the field
:
ampereturns must be reduced by about 50 per cent. To develop rated torque with this diminished field strength the armature current
must be increased 30 per cent, and the ratio between back ampereturns and field armatureturns, instead of having its normal value of
about
.10, is raised to
.26,
is
30 per cent
greater
and the
latter is
reduced to onehalf.
This
latter ratio is
The corresponding increase in cross ampereturns, acting excessive. collectively with the increased back ampereturns, causes excessive 70
71
in the case of
by field Another
of speed above rated value an ordinary standard shunt motor cannot be obtained weakening without objectionable sparking.
difficulty arises
current necessary to maintain constant torque augments the I2 a Ra loss, which in the lohorsepower motor armature rises from 37*
an increase of 262 watts or 68 per cent, producing too much heat for the armature insulation to stand for any consider.28 to
48
.28,
able time.
Adjustable speed motors of the fluxvariation type are not constanttorque machines, but constanthorsepower or output motors; i.e., the
torque falls to the same degree as the speed increases, or T X r.p.m. = a constant. In fact, unless the ratio of back ampereturns to
ampereturns is less than 10 per cent at minimum speed, an increase in speed of even 30 per cent with constant output is not practicable with the ordinary shunt motor because it demands a
field
50 per cent reduction in field m.m.f., as shown above. It is evident that a shunt motor, to have any considerable range of speed variation (i.e., increase of more than 20 or 30 per cent) by
field
field
control, requires some modification in design, because the must be more powerful with respect to the armature than in the
Some special motors of this case of standard singlespeed motors. kind allow of speed variations of three or four to one, with constanthorsepower output, but not at rated torque. These increased speed
ranges are obtained as follows:
Magnetic Circuit of Very Soft Steel. The magnetic properties of the material are such that even with high flux densities the bend
(a)
of the curve
is
not reached, so that the change in m.m.f. to produce is not excessive; i.e., the rate of change of flux
and
field
With
frame
armature
winding consists of fewer turns per section and a larger number of Thus, under sections, so that the selfinduction per section is low. normal or even exceptional conditions the ratio of field to back ampereturns
is
cannot become
sufficient strength
ing at
and enough armature sections to prevent sparkmust have a frame considerably larger than neceshigh speeds sary for a singlespeed motor of equal power and the commutator
72
In general, when considering of bars. simple type of variablespeed motor, it can be stated that the percentage of speed increase of which a normally loaded motor is capable by means of field weakening, is a measure of its overload In other words, a given range of capacity with full field strength. speed variation demands a motor having a certain increased capacity,
or special features of design.
illustrate this point
:
The
Relative Sizes of
Frames with Speed Ratio of 1:2: frame for a lohorsepower motor. i5horsepower
With
is
density
always great
is
due
to
armature reaction
lessened and
a sufficient flux is
maintained in
the commutation zone, giving sparkless operation within reasonable speed and load limits.
Greater ranges of speed adjustment than a three to one ratio are frequently required, for example, five or even six to one; in such With the cases the preceding types are not economically available.
(a)
and
(b) types
it is
difficult or costly to
field excitation is
fringe
when
the
main
reduced
a speed range greater than three to one; thus some new feature in This design to maintain the commutation flux becomes necessary.
feature,
somewhat
differently obtained,
is
motors.
Historically the
of these
is
the
This compensated form employs what is equivaa stationary armature built up in the polar faces, and traversed by the armature current or a portion thereof, which develops a m.m.f. opposed to the armature m.m.f., thus eliminating or even
Engine Works.
lent to
It
Thompson
to prevent
by special turns immediately around them as well as by the compensating winding, which establish a flux for reversal over
lugs, excited
73
two features of compensation and commutation, which are independent of the strength of the main field, and sparkless operation over wide
speed changes is theoretically possible. (d) The second of these special forms
reaction
is
is
and
condition of operation
good speed regulation. The sparkless secured by the use of "interpoles" or auxiliary field poles, placed directly over the zone of commutation, the m.m.f. of these poles being opposed to that of the armature, and,
depended upon
as they are energized by coils carrying the armature current, their m.m.f. increases with and is designed to be superior to that of the
armature.
Thus
is
locally
maintained inde
pendently of the main field, and varies automatically, as required, with the result that sparkless commutation may be obtained. f The
and d is that the former embodies general as well as local commutation flux, whereas magnetic compensation the latter depends upon local flux for commutation alone, with no
difference between types c
Machines
a
ofClass (a)
number
are
in
use
are built by many manufacturers, and while they are larger than standard constant
speed motors, as already shown. An example of this class (a) is found in a 5h.p. Bullock shunt motor, the data of which are as
follows
:
amperes (depending
2.1 to 3.6
Armature
ohms.
Field resistance, hot, 195 ohms. Weight of motor complete, noo Ib.
Tests were conducted upon this motor with the results shown in
the following series of curves:
* U. S. Patent No. 591,024, October 5, 1897. f U. S. Patent No. 775,310, November 22, 1904.
74
AND CONTROL.
FIG. 21.
ADJUSTABLE
1400
Kiel
Corrai
.23
Amp
1000
Field Current
GOO
Amp.
123456
H.P. Output
FIG. 22.
SPEEDLOAD CURVES OF
5*H.P.
BULLOCK MOTOR,
75
The magnetization
feature, other than that the flux density is kept below the bend of The speed load curves (Fig. 22) show that speed reguthe curve. lation under load changes is reasonably good at the lower speeds.
At the highest speed (curve A) the load was not carried heyond 5 horsepower, the rated value, because at this point the tendency to spark becomes pronounced and the speed regulation not as good as
in the preceding speedload curves.
in this case
The
was due to the greater sparking and voltage drop at the brush and commutator contacts; also to the fact that the current in
the shortcircuited coils not being in the correct direction strengthens
Curre
Curve
Curve C
>
A No load R.p.m.410 Arm.Cumt 4 Ampe. B Rated load R.p.m.350 Arm.Current 25 Ampe. No load R,p.m.l300Arm.Current 6 AmpB.
D
Rated load R.p.m.l050Arm. Current
= 1.3 Amp.
)
Field Current
Curve
25Ampg
= .23 Amp,
Field Gurrenfr
FIG. 23.
FLUX DISTRIBUTION OF
5H.P.
BULLOCK MOTOR.
the field.
The
currents,
losses.
running
free,
rise
greater stray
power
The fluxdistribution diagram (Fig. 23) of this motor shows how much the field flux is reduced in value to obtain the highest speed, and how the armature distortional effects have forced the field magnetism to the
left,
under the brush, which naturally causes the sparking noted above. The efficiency curves (Fig. 24) of this 5 horsepower motor bring
is less
out the fact that, at corresponding loads, the efficiency of the machine the higher the speed. This is to be expected because frictional
76
losses increase
off,
the
more rapidly than the iron and excitation losses fall same being true generally of all adjustablespeed motors un
less
234
HorsePower Output
FIG. 24.
EFFICIENCY CURVES OF 5~H.P. BULLOCK MOTOR AT SPEEDS OF 350, 700 AND 1050 R.P.M.
(b) were formerly manufactured by the Magneto and called Storey Motors, after the designer. Company, These motors are of interest because they show how the concentration and holding of the flux at the pole tips can be obtained by simply
Machines of Class
Electric
hollowing the
field cores, as
FIG.
25.
The frame
of the
motor
is
of soft steel
and the
but not reaching the bend of the magnetization curve, as Fig. 26 shows; and the cores are relatively short.
SPEED CONTROL OF
SHUNT MOTORS.
77
The data
of a 3h.p., 3
is
as follows:
.5
FIG.
26.
ADJUSTABLESPEED
Armature
resistance, .31
ohm.
The
motor
(Fig. 27)
show a very
uniform flux under the pole pieces at minimum speeds, also that the flux reversal line remains fixed independently of the load, thus maintaining a flux for commutation, which, however, is notably decreased in width as the main field is weakened, causing the ultimate develop
78
AND CONTROL.
ment
motor
fact is also
Maximum Speed
Minimum
ited
Speed"
Rated Load
Load ;oLoad
No Load
i I
8
R.P.M.=
430
6.0
FIG. 27.
t.5Am
1400
1200
1000
Field Curre t.7
Am
800
600
400
200
FIG.
28.
For example, the drop in speed from no load to rated load with the weakest field is 29 per cent, whereas the decrease in speed over the
corresponding load range at the strongest field is only 16 per cent; thus the falling off in speed with weakest field excitation is 13 per cent greater. Only a small part of this is due to the greater I a R a
drop (28
.31
8.7 instead of 25
.31
7.8);
falling off in
speed occurring at
weakest
field
to poorer contact
and sparking
at the brushes.
79
The efficiency curves of this Storey motor (Fig. 29) show that the second speed (860 r.p.m.) is probably the best for average service; while the highestspeed curve indicates large straypower losses.
It
shunt motors
considerably in speed as the load comes on, the greatest percentage of reduction occurring with weakest field, and, in all cases, the drop in speed is either equal
b)
and
off
to or greater than that caused by Ia R a drop. Moreover, as the brushes of these machines are set back from the geometrical neutral ^one, they cannot run equally well in both directions of rotation,
The
abovedescribed Storey motors and belong therefore to the same class (b). Their pole pieces are split in the
the the flux, forming a field frame of cloverleaf form. of laminations, is similar to the construction
direction of
shown
in Fig. 31,
(c)
.
Class
The
matically illustrated
in
80
AND CONTROL.
of
demand
is
for
an adjustablespeed motor
its
machine of
this type,
however,
FIG.
30.
and therefore
chine tools the modified design shown diagrammatically in Fig. 31 was developed in the spring of 1904. This modified type retains the
compensating winding and commutation lugs of the earlier patented design, but discards the inner polar ring with its inherent cost, connecting the commutation lugs directly to the field yoke and placing the compensating winding in slots formed in the main polar faces. The function of the compensation coils C, C (Fig. 30), in series
with the armature winding, is primarily to prevent the distortion of the field flux and thus eliminate brush shifting with varying load.
This, however, was not found effective to prevent sparking,* hence
*
Transactions A.
I.
E. E.,
March
XII.
81
the commutation lug was introduced to provide the necessary flux for reversal directly at the armature coils undergoing commutation, thus
general compensation and local commutation
phenomena
are combined.
FIG.
31.
The
data of a 3h.p.
ThompsonRyan motor
tested
by the authors are as follows: Line voltage, 250 volts. Armature current at rated load, 11.4
Noload armature current, i.o Armature resistance, 2.1 ohms. ance, 1.17 ohms. Field resistance, 200 ohms.
Speed, 350 650 pounds.
to to 2.2
to 12.2
field strength.
Weight complete,
The
show
is
reaction
reversed as load
trailing
As a result of this action, the the action occurring in other motors. corner is weakened more than the trailing corner is strengthleading
82
is a diminution of the field strength under load increase, with a slight improvement in speed regulation. The increased IR drop due to the compensating winding, however, does cause the speed to vary considerably with load.
The
to
Maximum Speed
Field Current = .28
FlG. 32.
This scheme
speed
regulation
is
of copper used in the compensating winding is approximately twice that used in the armature winding, which naturally means greater
I a R c drop,
losses and heating. c features of this design are the extremely small air gap Interesting and the very high average potential difference of over 20 volts exist
PaR
commutator
that at
bars.
In fact
this voltage
is
some
points, because,
when
the
operating at the higher speeds, the points of very high flux density can be approximately located by the lines of scintillation on the commutator, due to incipient sparking between neighboring bars.
is
motor
The
clock
speedload curves of this motor (Fig. 33) represent both and counterclockwise rotation and show just the reverse of
the characteristic regulation of the ordinary simple fieldframe shunt motors (types a and 6), in that the speed decrease under load is more
pronounced
at the
low than
ment
in regulation is
due
by the action of the balancing windings. For example, at minimum speed the drop in speed from no load to rated load is 14.5 per cent, which is substantially that which occurs through I a R a drop. At the
= .28 amps.) the decrease in highest rate of rotation (field current from no load to rated load is only 7.1 per cent, whereas it speed
SPEED CONTROL OF
1CSC
SHUNT MOTORS.
83
1400
IA=.28
Amp.
1200
1000
800
600
400
=1.15
Amps.
200
1234
H.
P.
Load
FlG. 33.
so
f
3'H.P.
THOMPSONRYAN MOTOR.
B.
A.
JC.
A B
C
1.1
.!
Amps.
.5
01234
HoisePowtr Load
FlG.
34.
would be 15 per cent due to I a R a drop; so that speed regulation improved 8 per cent by the effect of the balancing winding.
The fluxdistribution curves shown in Fig. 32 indicate not only very markedly the reversal of armature reaction, but also the net
84
AND CONTROL.
The decrease of mainfield strength occurring at the highest speed. and even reversal, under the middle of the
poles,
is
main
due
to
the
fact
that the
laminated construction
split from the pole face back through is necessary so that the removal of the
various field coils for repair is feasible. The efficiency curves of this motor in Fig. 34 indicate nothing unexpected, because it is obvious from the construction that copper
losses are great, losses are also
and the fluxdistribution curves show that the core large, on account of the crowding and numerous
reversals of flux.
is extremely sensitive to change of brush posia barely perceptible movement forward or backward producing tion, quite different speed characteristics, so that the machine runs faster
more slowly
in the opposite
one instance
like a differential
motor and
in
The ordinary
under
wear
tion
of
objectionable sparking. Class (d). Inter pole* or commutationpole motors (Fig. 35) constitute what is herein designated as Class (d) of adjustablespeed
motors.
In such machines auxiliary poles are introduced between These interpoles are excited by coils connected the mainfield poles. in series with the armature, so that full or proportional part of the
This type
differs
from Class
that the compensation winding is discarded and armature (c) reaction is therefore not eliminated or reversed, a local commutation
flux alone being depended upon for sparkless operation throughout In fact, with this type armature reaction is the range of speed. actually exaggerated because the flux from the interpole strengthens
the leadingpole corner and weakens the trailingpole corner just as This exaggeration of field distortion the armature m.m.f. does. on the contrary, it improves the speed regulation does no harm, but,
of the machine.
the
main
field
The
* U. S. Patent
22, 1904.
85
increases therewith
field.
commutating
of this type of motor are diagrammatically indicated in Fig. 36, N, S, N, S being the main poles, and n, s, n, s Each interpole is of the same polarity as that of the interpoles.
The connections
FIG. 35.
VIEW OF FIELD FRAME OF INTERPOLE MOTOR, SHOWING RELATIVE SIZES OF MAIN AND INTERPOLES.
FIG.
36.
the
main pole immediately back of it, depending upon the direction of rotation; hence the illustration shows polarities for clockwise
As represented, the interpoles are small with respect to the mainfield poles, the arc of armature periphery subtended by
rotation.
86
AND CONTROL.
the former being about onesixth that embraced by the latter. As already stated, the interpoles are provided with magnetizing
connected in series with the armature and are placed midway between the main poles, directly over the armature coils undercoils
going commutation.
are consequently
SD set that they shortcircuit coils in the geometrical neutral position. With this setting of brushes the motor will operate with
substantially the
rotation.
same speed
the variable resistance rheostat for adjusting the field strength in order to change the speed; and R.S. is the polechanging switch for reversing the direction of rotation.
is
V.R.
Data
factured
of a 5h.p., 6 to
manuby the
by
the
Armature current running free, .7 to 1.7 amperes, increasing with speed. Field current, adjusted between 1.27 and .16 amperes to obtain speeds from 210 to 1260 r.p.m. at 5h.p. output.
Resistance of armature winding, Resistance of interpole winding,
.9
.2
ohm at ohm at
75 degrees C. 75 degrees C.
Resistance of shuntfield winding, 176 ohms at 75 degrees C. Speed 205 to 1260 r.p.m. at 5h.p. output, increasing with weaker
field.
Weight, 1200 pounds. The magnetization curve of this motor (Fig. 37) shows that, for the minimum speed, the flux density is carried well up above the
bend;
of
i
:
is
obtained with
currents at 8
i.
The speedload curves of this motor (Fig. 38) indicate excellent speed regulation, with an actual increase of speed under load at The regulating influence of armature and the weakest field value.
reaction upon the main magnetic field and speed is out by the following examples: brought The noload speed with field current of 1.27 amperes is 222 r.p.m. The speed diminution caused by IR drop is 22 r.p.m.; nevertheless, at rated load with field current of 1.27 amperes, the speed is 205
interpole
r.p.m.; hence the effect of armature
is
to
87
be.
speed 5 r.p.m. compared with what it would otherwise At a speed of 740 r.p.m. the armature reaction exactly com
Field Current
FIG. 37.
FIG. 38.
SPEED RANGE 6
I.
88
AND CONTROL.
pensates for IR drop and the motor speed remains constant up to With field current of .16 amthe rated output of 5 horsepower. the motor speed rises from 1209 to 1260 r.p.m. when output pere increases from zero to 5 horsepower. Apparently it should fall
from 1209
to
:
1084 r.p.m., which is the ratio between the c.e.m.f's 213.6), but the reaction on the main field by the inter
speed
176 r.p.m.
Arm. Current
.72
Amp.
"
22.2
1.27
FIG. 390.
FLUX DISTRIBUTION OF
5~H.P.
1.27 AMPS.;
lation
thus evident that with this type of machine the speed reguthe reverse of that obtained with adjustablespeed motors the ordinary forms of field magnet (Classes a and b). having The interpolar type of motor can be readily reversed in direction
is
of rotation even while under load, on account of the great selfinduction of the interpole and armature circuit and the production of the proper value of commutation flux. The fluxdistribution curves in Fig. 390 indicate that at strong
field excitation the interpoles
The same
62.
fact
was
also
shown
With small
field flux,
do not produce a very great effect. in the speedload examples on page however (Fig. 396), the interpole m.m.f.
and armature reaction produce a marked weakening and distortion of the main field, which phenomena are also apparent from
the speedload curves (Fig. 38). If the brushes be displaced from [he geometrical neutral position, the motor speed is considerably changed. For example, with the

89
under load, because then the interpolar flux develops in the armature an e.m.f. which decreases that produced by the mainIf the brushes are advanced in the direction of rotafield poles.
Arm. Current
"
I.*
1.7
!
Amp.
"
" =
24.0
FIG. 396.
FLUX DISTRIBUTION OF 5~H.P. ADJUSTABLESPEED INTERPOLAR MOTOR, FIELD CURRENT .16 AMP.; SPEED AT RATED LOAD 1 260 R.P.M.
under load, as
in the case of a
cumulative
compound motor, because the interpolar flux generates an e.m.f. In consein the same direction as that due to the main poles.
quence of
this,
is
obtained
when
A. 1.27
.
03
C.
123456
H.P.
78
FIG. 40.
same
in
and motors of
this
both directions for given load and field type should not be shipped by the
is
90
AND CONTROL.
The
The
motor
load
which
is
due
rapid
reached
is
to
be expected,
PR
losses
The
of this
strength of about .3 ampere, because at this value the general efficiency of the motor is considerably greater than at lower or higher
speeds.
Another type of motor, the speed of which is adjustable by varying field flux, was invented by Mr. Gano S. Dunn.* The armature is supplied with constant current and the field
winding separately excited from a constantpotential circuit through a rheostat. The armature current being constant, the torque varies
directly with field flux.
Dunn Method.
By means
regulated from a very low value up to full strength with corresponding increase of torque. This large range of control is obtained by regulating the field current, which is small, the heavy
may be
armature current being kept constant by an automatically reguThe advanlated generator, as in constantcurrent arc lighting.
tage
by the "fieldweakening" method but gives any torque or speed from zero to full already described,
is
is
are employed) to a certain ratio of speeds, usually 2 or 3 to i. This method possesses an additional advantage over fieldweak
ening control in having maximum field strength with maximum speed and torque. In these respects it would be adapted to
On the other hand, adjustablespeed work in machine shops. the necessity for constantcurrent as well as constantpotential supply, and the high voltage required for any considerable power*
are serious objections to this system.
to
It is
below
20
it
one
a dangerous voltage in
a shop.
To
its
demand
latter
multiply circuits is objectionable because each would Furthermore, the separate constantcurrent generator.
has not been developed commercially above 10 amperes. For these reasons, the fieldweakening and multiplevoltage methods are preferred for machine shop or similar service.
* U. S. Patents No. 549,061, October 29, 1895, and No. 591,345, October
5,
1897.
CHAPTER
THE
VIII.
pends upon the variation of the reluctance of the magnetic circuit. This method of control is based upon the fundamental fact that
flux
magnetomotive force
Thus,
reluctance
if
FIGS. 41
AND
42.
field flux is
changed
it is
in the
io8 6o b
evident
<&n 2
that the speed varies inversely as the field flux (<) or in the same ratio as the change in the reluctance. Among the earlier methods
were those of T. A. Edison and the Diehl Company. The Edison Variable Reluctance Methods of Control. The reluctance of the magnetic circuit in the machine was varied, as
tried
91
92
AND CONTROL.
in the
shown
yoke
raised, thus
is
The range
of speed adjustment
limited,
however, as excessive sparking develops when the field is weakened because there is no feature of design to prevent flux distortion. This
method was primarily intended for voltage regulation in connection with generators, and is of historical rather than commercial importance.
The Diehl Method of Control. In this type of machine flux reduction was obtained by a lengthening of the airgap. The field was hinged so that the pole pieces could be moved away magnet
from the armature as indicated
in Fig. 42.
not very successful and was, like the preceding, originally intended as a means for regulating the voltage of generators.
Two modern
ing
methods
of speed control
Company.
FIG.
43.
The speed
increase of this
its
depends upon
magnetic
circuit, the pole cores being made hollow and provided with iron or steel plungers, the position of which is made adjustable through
worm
93
dm
hi
J.710
L
Field
Amperes
FIG. 44.
MAGNETIZATION CURVES OF
4H.P.
STOW MOTOR.
MOO
300
2000
.1800
^1600
1100
1200
1000
800
>ger C
^600
400
fft
FIG. 45.
94
the
as represented in Fig. 44.* When the plungers are withdrawn, total flux decreases because of the lengthening and reduc
metal in the
edges
(in
field
cores.
The
flux
being
now
varying degree according to the position of the plungers), is maintained relatively strong, and the
The
concentra
well
show
that
armature reaction
shown by the fluxdistribution On the other hand these curves forces the commutation fringe
consequently, to maintain
back,
and loads;
sparkless commutation at the 3 to i range of speed, the brushes must be given a lag. This requires the brushes to be shifted if the
direction of rotation
reversed, or if the speed range is greater than however, that the crosssection of the field core being diminished, the effect of armature reaction for a given current is less because the reluctance of the path of the armature flux is
is
3 to i.
It is
fact,
increased.
this
The data
of a 3 to
amperes,
1.3 to 2.2
amps,
max.
The
shown
tively,
and
47,
magnetization, speedload relations, A study of the speedload curves indicates that the speed tribution. regulation at the higher rates of rotation is not as good as that with
This is due to the fact that invisible sparking at the stronger fields. the brushes and poorer brush contact increase the I a R a drop, just as in the types (a) and (b) adjustablespeed motors which are controlled
by variation of field current. The most efficient operating speed of this motor is at the second plunger adjustment, which gives
1090 r.p.m.
* U.
S.
95
HorsePower Output
FIG. 46.
10
Hungers out
Field Current Ann.Current 2J2
.
17.0
y^.
Plungers in
Field Current .64 Amps.
.
R.p.m. 2175.
Arm.Ourreut 1.3
"
II
R.p.m
725.
FIG.
47.
4H.P.
STOW MOTOR.
96
AND CONTROL.
The Lincoln Adjustablespeed Motor. The variation in reluctance of the magnetic circuit of this type* is obtained both by lengthening the airgap and by decreasing its effective area. The
armature
is
FIG. 48.
1280
012345
FIG.
49.
6T 89
10
11
12
The armature is movable in surfaces as represented in Fig. 48. the direction of its axis, so that movement one way increases the
length of the airgap, thus decreasing the flux and raising the motor The fact that the effective length of the armature inductors speed.
* U.
S.
97
within the magnetic field is decreased by this shifting of the armature also increases the motor speed.
working curves of such a machine of 10 horsespeed range are given in Figs. 49 and 50, being those of speedload and efficiency at various loads, respectively.
characteristic
5 to i
The
power and
principal objections to this construction are the extra space required for the armature and the large force required to move it.
The
012 3456
FIG.
50.
78
10
The
ordinary singlespeed machines, the flux distortion at high speeds being limited on account of the increase of the airgap lengths.
However,
It is to
armature are employed in the more recent designs. be noted that in this machine, as with types (c) and (d) motors
having fieldrheostat control, the speed regulation is better with weak than with the stronger magnetic fields, the variation in r.p.m. being
and 6 per cent respectively. Of the various means of motor speed control considered in the preceding chapters, the field rheostatic method is unquestionably
2.3
It is simple, cheap, applicable to any system of D.C. supply, and enables any particular motor speed to be main
independently of load changes. The range of speed control obtainable is rather limited in ordinary shunt motors, but as already
tained
98
the interpole overcomes this limitation. The change of reluctance method is open to the objections: high cost of the machines, mechanically clumsy construction and lower
shown
speed ranges available. The multiple voltage systems though giving very wide speed ranges are expensive, because they require a complicated system of current generation as well as distribution
costly controllers.
and
The Ward Leonard motor generator systems the widest range of speed control obtainable, but their cost give limits their use to those purposes for which first cost is a minor consideration.
see the
MOTOR SPEED REGULATION. J. W. Rogers. Prac. Eng., London, DIE GLEICHSTROMMASCHINE. E. Arnold. Vol. II, p. 616, 1908. ELECTRIC JOURNAL, Vol. I, p. 251; Vol. II, pp. n, 566; Vol. Ill, p. 348. ELECTRIC MOTORS. H. M. Hobart. 1910. ELECTRIC WORLD, Vol. XLIX, p. 947.
D. C.
1907.
LONDON
MOTOR CONTROL.
1905, p. 303.
American
Electrician,
Vol.
XVI, 1904,
p.
391;
Vol.
XVII,
MULTIPLEVOLTAGE CONTROL, Electric Power, 1904. PROCEEDINGS ENG. SOCIETY WESTERN PA., October, 1905. SPEED CHARACTERISTICS AND CONTROL OF ELECTRIC MOTORS.
Mag., Vol. XXXI, p. 60, 1906. TRANSACTIONS A. I. E. E., Vol. XIII,
Vol.
Vol.
C. F. Scott.
Eng.
p. 377, 1896;
XX,
XXIX,
p. 621.
Chas. Day.
Trans. Internat
VARIABLE SPEED CONTROL. Eng. U. S. A., 1904. PUBLICATIONS of the various manufacturers of electric motors.
CHAPTER
As
the
IX.
of this
are in
series,
magnet.
Arm
FIG. 51.
ronstant current.
the latter are
two general types, constant potential and Attention will be paid chiefly to the former, since
no longer used commercially. The greatest of all of the electric motor is to electric traction, for which applications purpose series motors are almost universally used in this country. It
is
and control
of
series
pumps,
etc., is also
Speedcurrent Curve.
The speed
is
motor
rises
when
the current
ing upon the degree of magnetization of the magnetic circuit. At low current values, and therefore low flux densities, the speed is relatively
its
is
cor
The speed
much
r.p.m.
=E
2
io 8 6o b
p&n
99
100
The
which
is
field current,
the
same
as or proportional to the armature current in the The flux at low densities increases almost
and
if
there were no voltage drop due would take the form, r.p.m. X <3>
to
to
constant,
which
dinate axes.
both coor
circuit is ap
proached there
raising the right
is
flux with current, so that the speed does not fall as rapidly, thus
Moreover, the resistwindings increase with the This current, tending also to raise the same part of the curve. relation between speed and amperes input is brought out numeriance drops of the armature and
cally in the
hand portion
motor ond a
two following examples. The first assumes a series with a field of relatively low flux density, and the sec
B of equal current capacity but having a field saturation below rated load. approaching The series motor A is assumed to run on a 5 50 volt constantseries
motor
armature resistance being 0.7 ohm and field value. This motor, operated as a generator at a constant speed of 200 r.p.m., gives, in terms (separately excited) of voltage generated, the magnetization curve A in Fig. 52 with fieldpotential circuit, resistance of the
its
same
current variations from o to 50 amperes. Armature reaction may be practically neglected, being relatively small in series machines since
the brushes are in the neutral position and because field m.m.f. rises Brush drop is also practically with armature current and m.m.f.
motors which run at 550 volts or more in railway service and usually at voltages of 220 or higher for stationary work. Moreover, the field winding being in series with the armature, drop due to resistance is about twice as great as in a shunt machine
negligible
in
most
series
of the
same
voltage,
relatively small,
and
it
will
The
At
five
speedcurrent curve is calculated as follows: amperes input the voltage drop due to armature and field
is
resistance
IR a + IR se =
5 (.7
.7)
7 volts;
generated with 550 volts applied Fig. 52, curve A, the field flux due to
=5507 =543
5
From
amperes produces
at
200 r.p.m.
an
DIRECTCURRENT
500
KS^
l\]
/;101
450
400
350
2250
\
150
.100
50
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
Magnetizing Current
FIG. 52.
B.
r.p.m.
(543
56.5;
200
1920.
The speed
at other torque
conditions corresponding to 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 amperes can be similarly calculated; the results being given in the following table.
TABLE
XI.
A,
(LOW
a,
Fig. 53,
seen that speed varies greatly with current, and comparing them, the range being from 1920 to 233 r.p.m. with currents from 5 to
it is
50 amperes.
are
0.4 and i.o ohm respectively, and the magnetizationvoltage curve of this machine operating at 200 r.p.m. with 5 to 50 amperes field current is curve B, Fig. 52, showing much higher flux densities than
curve
of the
first
machine.
The
is
50 amperes
relations
in the pre
and
line pressure
motor A.
The
existing between current and speed can be calculated as ceding case, the results being given in Table XII.
TABLE
XII.
B,
(HIGH
The
series
effects of
motors
low and high magnetic flux densities upon speed of shown by comparing the two speed
For motor
speed range
is
794
:
change
r.p.m., or 8.24 i for motor A, which is the variation in speed with the motor of high flux density, the current being the same, that is, 5 to 50 amperes in both cases. The
with high flux density the i, while it is 1920 to 233 more than twice as great as
:
type of directcurrent series motor commonly employed is that with the higher flux density because of the greater economy of material and better operation with variation in load and line voltage.
of series
Fig. 54,
it
apparent that the speed changes in series motors are due not only
to resistance
drop / (R a
+R
se )
The IR a drop is greater in series than in shunt motors of the same rating, because the former are
usually designed for intermittent service, so that the current density in the field and armature windings can be made much higher than
of in shunt machines,
103
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
FIG. 53.
'
B.
KSS
/Torqa
10
20
30
40
30
TO
90
100
FIG. 54.
The speed
the c.e.m.f.
any given current, as already shown, depends upon I (R a +R se )', hence the speed at generated or upon V
for
any
line voltage
Vx
is
r.p.m. x
= Vx I(R a + R se ) I(Ra + RJ
r.p.m.,,.
r.p.m.
in
which
r.p.m.
and
are
the
speeds
at
the
standard
and
fractional
voltages
and
Vx
respectively while I (R a
+R
st )
104
is
than Vj
'
the resistance drop in the motor windings. When the speed corresponding to it is lower than
,
Vx
is
less
the value
is
Vx
is
than
true.
still,
it is
Similarly
is
when Vx
/ (R a
is
greater than
se )
the reverse
When Vx
equal to
+ R
For any increase in exerting torque corresponding to /. the speed rises proportionately. above this value
Vx
6000
60
ZOO
3OO
4OO
5OO
FIG. 55.
By means
sponding curves (Fig. 55) of the typical 2oohorsepower series railway motor (G. E. Type 690, N.Y.C. "M. U." trains) at 150 and 300 volts have been calculated from the 6oovolt curve given by the
manufacturer.
The torque of any motor varies directly Torquecurrent Curve. with the product of armature current and field flux. Hence in a series motor the torque at low flux densities varies directly as the square
105
torque
the
= ~KP;
approaches
saturation
power
of the current.
The torque
of a series
motor
and windage losses from the change in speed with altered voltage. At low resulting voltages and corresponding speeds, these losses are reduced and the
for variation in hysteresis, eddycurrent, friction
is similarly increased; at higher voltages Since the hysteresis loss varies with the first power, and eddycurrent loss as the square of speed, the difference in torque for any given current is greater between the 150 and 300 volt
ampere
the reverse
true.
curves than that between the 300 and 600 volt curves. The percentage difference between torque values at any two voltages increases with
the current
on account
of ratio
of
speeds at these
Fig. 55 shows the torquecurrent curve for the typical voltages. 2oohorsepower series motor at 600 volts, being approximately correct for 150
is
and 300
small compared with the total torque. The fullload value of motor current in the case of a railway equipment is generally employed as the starting current.
A
the
of a series
comparison of the speedcurrent and the torquecurrent curves motor (Fig. 55) shows that the maximum torque exists at
speed.
minimum
This
is
series motor, as
torque can thus be obtained at starting, which gives rapid acceleration. Further study of these curves also brings out the bad feature of the series motor, namely, that very
high, in fact dangerously high, speeds
ture
if
maximum
may
Series motors should, therethe load be totally removed. be either geared or directly connected to their load to prevent fore, any breaking of the mechanical connection which is likely to occur
with a
belt.
The
motor.
in its
torque per ampere may be called the torqueefficiency of the This varies with the current, but there is a gradual reduction rate of increase, because the magnetic circuit approaches
The
is
"
substantially the
K<$.
mag
T =
K&I.
.'.
T=
The
106
of
pounds
foot radius
from motor
shaft.
This value
is
obtained by dividing the pounds tractive effort per ampere by the gear ratio and multiplying this quotient by the radius of the wheels
in feet.
For example, the torque per ampere at motor shaft with armature current of 300 amperes is 3120 X 1.5 r 300 X 1.885 =
8.27
pounds
at
a foot radius.
10
O
FIG. 56.
/OO
200
30O
400
50O
A/nperes
G. E.
690
K can
be obtained by determin
ing the torque T at any reasonable current / and dividing this by the product of that current and the electromotive force corresponding
thereto
at
when
the motor
is
107
SL
&^
/OO
200
300
G. E.
40O
300
A/nperes
FIG. 57.
Horsepowercurrent Curves. The output is readily calculated from the torque and speed, since torque is expressed as pounds pull
at a onefoot radius
and
is
obtained as follows
_ 27rPLr.p.m.
33,000
torque (r.p.m.)
(12)
5250
wherein
is
the pull in
pounds
of the
at rim of
wheel and
is
the radius
turning
moment
motor be expressed as
tractive effort
108
or pounds pull at the rim of the car wheel per hour (m.p.h.), then the output is
(t.e.)
in miles
(m.p.h.)
h.p.
375
d3)
and 300
volts the
horsepower
output is practically onequarter and onehalf, respectively, of the value at 600 volts. More exactly, the output at subvoltages is a
little less
than the same fractional part of the output at 600 since the percentage increase of torque at the reduced voltage
Fig. 57
volts,
is less
and current
at 600,
FIG. 58.
Efficiencycurrent Curves.
2ooh.p. series
The
efficiency curves
of
this typical
300 and 600 volts, Fig. 58, show that the efficiency of such a motor at rated voltage is nearly constant over a wide range of speed and load, but with very small or excessat 150,
r.p.m.
motor
and
torque
(t.e.)
L.
109
less
falls
to
low values.
At voltages
than
normal,
trie
efficiency
is
is
reduced, and
this reduction is
more marked
as the voltage
lowered.
The
efficiency at
Efficiency
746
(h.p. output)
watts input
torque (r.p.m.) 7 watts input
1.99
(t.e.)
(m.p.h.)
(14)
watts input
1000
2000
Tractive Effort in Pounds
G. E. 6pC.
FIG. 5Q.
RAILWAY MOTOR.
This
is
a railway
series
motor
The
form
to
almost a straight
is
line.
The equation
curve
of the form
t.e.
=
m.p.h.
+B
C.
(15)
110
constants change with the voltage, resistance and degree of magnetization of the magnetic circuit. Fig. 59 gives the speedtractive effort curves of the typical 2ooh.p. series motor at 150, 300
The
and 600
volts, the
volts, t.e.
=
=
12,800
m.p.h.
2 5'3
1.82
970.
volts, t.e.
1050.
m.p.h.
volts, t.e.
5.78
740.
m.p.h.
16.43
The insert points as shown in Fig. 59 are derived by calculation and agree very closely with the test values over a wide range of speed. Gears and Wheels. A railway motor is usually connected to the axle of the car drivers through a single pinion and gear, but in some cases the armature is directly mounted upon the axle of the car The speed and tractive effort at the rim of the driving wheels. wheels are respectively proportional and inversely proportional to the wheel diameter, while with gearing these two quantities are dependent upon the gear ratio, which is always designed to secure
speed reduction.
The proper
ratio
to be performed, but usually lies corresponding to highspeed service. and speed of larger wheel diameter
depends upon the type of service between 2 and 5, the lower value
The
is
effect
on
tractive effort
ratio.
The speed and tractive effort for any gear ratio and wheel diameter may be found for any other known conditions from the following formulae, wherein m.p.h. and m.p.h. x are respectively the known and the unknown speeds, in miles per hour, for an existing gear ratio r and wheel diameter D. The gear ratio r x and wheel diameter D x T is the torque for correspond to the unknown speed (m.p.h. x ). the known gear ratio, and Tx is the corresponding unknown value.
m.p.h.,
m.p.h.
=
Drx
 D
(17)
Ill
The
62 are
shown
in Fig. 60.
siderably smaller power than the typical General Electric machine which the preceding curves relate, the maximum current being
latter.
FIG. 60.
rated output of a motor is determined by its commutation and heating limits; hence even a small reduction of the
losses within the
Motor Losses.
The
motor
is
of considerable importance.
assume the
efficiency of a
i
motor
to
per cent, in which case the total loss within the motor is reduced from 10 to 9 per cent, resulting in a decrease of 10 per cent in the heat to be radiated and a probable lowering of the
temperature rise by nearly 10 per cent. Thus it is seen that the rated output of a motor depends largely upon its efficiency. The peris not, however, increased 10 per cent in the above because the heating effect is as the square of the current. example,
missible output
For example, when current rises from i.oo to 1.05, the heating effect On the other hand, the PR heat is augmented from i.oo to 1.1025.
112
is
may
be raised say
per cent.
The
great,
in field current
would not be
because the flux usually approaches saturation at maximum current and may be assumed to be i or 2 per cent additional.
The
and armature
is
of wide variation.
W.
following tables taken from a paper by B. Potter give values of the loss distribution of typical railway
The
motors.*
TABLE
XIII.
TABLE
XIV.
by which railway motors are commercially classified. The nominal rating of the General Electric Company is the better known. This is defined as that output which
Rating.f
ratings
* Trans.
t
Amer.
Standardization Rules, A.
113
causes a temperature rise of 75 degrees C. from a room temperature of 25 degrees C. after an hour's run upon test stand with motor
This rating is much covers open and 500 volts at motor terminals. in excess of the continuous service capacity of the motor, but it gives
a convenient
means
of classification
and
is
a severe test
upon the
use higher voltages, a test at 550 volts in place of 500 volts would probably more nearly approach service conditions at the present
time.
The continuous
responds
rating used
to that current
on a
test stand will produce a temperature rise of 60 degrees C. voltage selected is an approximation of the average value throughout the period of starting as well as running. No attempt is made to reproduce the conditions of ventilation that obtain in
The
actual service.
The
is
limited
by
its
commutation; nevertheless in welldesigned car equipments the motor should be able to slip the wheels under normal track conditions before the sparking limit
is
reached.
The
trary
because of
rating of railway motors must necessarily be largely arbithe intermittent character and very variable
The
is
actual
operation under the practical conditions of each particular road, which a shop test can only approximate in a general way. It is
well,
however, to have some nominal rating, as denned above, in order to estimate and compare the performance of different railway
motors.
CHAPTER
Function of Controller.
X.
For
terminals.
By
this
means
regulated, while the heating and sparking of the motor are restricted within reasonable limits. Starting is accomplished by inserting proper values of resistance in series with the motor, usually supple
series to parallel
connection of two or
by means of series rheostat or resistance (R) which is gradually reduced in predetermined steps until the motor terminals are connected This method is practically the directly across the full line voltage. same as the rheostat control of shunt motors, except that only the armature current is affected in the latter machine. The same These include bulkiness objections apply, however, in both cases.
of rheostat, widely varying speed with any considerable change in torque and very low efficiency. For example, the loss by this
is
energy supplied by the line during the period of starting and thus equals the energy consumed in the motor. Moreover, the only
efficient
is
running speed
is
more windings on
taneously, certain a single motor or winding receives but a fraction of the line voltage
Where two or more motors or two or same armature are to be controlled simulgroupings may be obtained by means of which
the
circuit.
may
be connected in
series
is gradually reduced until each motor The motors may then be thrown in onehalf line voltage. receives parallel with each other and in series with resistance, which is
114
115
again cut out by steps until each motor receives full voltage. Thus there are two points of the control at which no resistance is in circuit.
The
total
full
parallel operation onehalf of the motor consumption. The speed of the motors when operated in series
about onehalf
is
This
seriesparallel control
the
method
generally adopted
and
CONTROLLER
K 12
RES.
MOTOR
MOTOR
TWO MOTORS.
FIGS. 6l
AND
62.
whenever two or more motors are operated The simultaneously. various steps of this method of control are illusdiagrammatically trated in Figs. 6 1 and 62, which are respectively for two and four motor equipments. A modification of the control is
seriesparallel
the socalled Bridge arrangement, in which the motor circuits are so arranged that they are not opened during transition from series to
parallel connections.
116
When
it
is
common
employ three groupings of motors in startAt first the four motors are
in series
series,
in
(A), then two groups, each consisting of two motors are connected in parallel (B), while' finally the four
motors are placed in multiple (C). During the first few steps of each combination, series resistance is gradually cut out of the This method secures higher efficiency than the others but circuit. necessitates more car wiring than either the simple rheostatic or
seriesparallel control.
The energy
loss
during the period of acceleration is about j\ of the total supply, or about f of the motor consumption. The three efficient running
points are as
shown
in Fig. 63,
to onequarter, onehalf
and
full
Jrwoforefietif
71
fcsisfance
FIG. 63.
METHOD OF CONTROL.
Field Control.
it
electric traction
was customary to increase speeds after the efficient running points (without external resistance) had been reached by shunting some of the field winding or by arranging the field coils in parallel combinations (field commutation). The resulting weakening of the
however, led to objectionable sparking at the brushes, and this means of control for railway motors was discarded. The introfield,
duction of interpoles or
commutating
flux
commutating
but proportional
field control for
to the
The performance
117
manner are given in Fig. 64, while Fig. 65 illustrates the various steps of such a method of speed regulation.* The control is by seriesparallel connection supplemented by the After starting increase of speed obtainable with field weakening.
with resistance in the ordinary way, the machines are brought
into the series running condition (No. 5) with fullspeed strength. Higher speeds are attained by combining the four field coils of each
motor
2000
1500
1000
40
50
60
70
90
100
FIG. 64.
7) and finally in parallel (No. 8), thus securing four field strengths The speed rises as the field for any given armature current.
current
is
in equal degree.
Similar combinations
motors.
Thus by
this
method
of
control eight
efficient
running
points are obtained with a twomotor equipment. The speed range at rated load, or even at any intermediate load, is not, however, 8 to i, because the field strength does not change
directly with the m.m.f., the magnetic circuit being partially saturated.
apparent from the characteristic curves of this equipment (Fig. 64) that the speed with armature and field windings of both motors all in series, at full field strength and rated load, is about
It is
5.2 miles
all field
coils in parallel
*
(weakest
field condition,
No.
is
about
Article
by G. H. Condict,
XLVII,
1906, p. 1088.
START
RUN
Ej~[
Q^MT^HVHAArVVV
O^^^^VT^nMv\V
C^^J^AVVVVT^ViAV
HUM
4
Lj
 
O'TffiSSMVHVW^
O^^^WrAVH^^
O^^^^V^n^
fTTTh
Resistance
FIG. 65.
119
This
is
ordinary seriesparallel
of speed.
range
Drum and
power
Master Controller.
series
motors
etc.,
the
of
stationary fingers
cylinder.
or
Where
made
and interrupted by separate switches, called contactors, which are controlled electrically from a master controller and operated by a pneumatic or solenoid device. This latter form of control is almost always used where several cars are to be operated together, and
from any car irrespective of sequence. made continuous from the first to the
train line
The
last
coach by means of a
of
The
rate
acceleration
in
starting
troller
rapidly the operator moves his conto the last notch. Some recent types
from passing to the next point until the current has decreased to a certain value, or cause the controller to move (" notch up") automatically at the proper rate to a point
predetermined by the operator.
The
efficiency of control
methods may be
easily calculated,
assum
ing that the current per motor is maintained constant by a gradual This is the ideal condiincrease in voltage at the motor terminals.
tion because
it
is
closely approxi
mated
and
comparison of the
in
forth
Figs.
is
Rm
is
the resistance,
is
line voltage
.
and
T the
time
from
start to full
It
should be noted
that the assumption made in developing these diagrams is that the time during which the motors are in series bears the same relation to
CE
methods.
 IR m
\
1
bears to (E
IR m ).
The shaded portion of the diagrams represents the losses during the period of starting with uniform acceleration by each of the three
120
AND CONTROL.
(V
if
^ +
^
&3
g
N
^
VH
>^
..v
^ ^ 7 ^
I
Ullrf
"*
6
I
h
<<
"
a
"^
1
K\
I &
^ + ^
1
3
enoA ami
121
following values are taken from a case in actual practice and he table below is calculated from them.
= 600 =/ =
volts.
250 amps.
se )
Motor
resistance,
(R a
+R
An
out the great advantages of the series, seriesparallel, parallel control compared with the other two methods, not only as regards the greater speed range, but also higher efficiency of the equipment during
the period of starting.
COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT METHODS FOR STARTING SERIES MOTORS WITH UNIFORM ACCELERATION.
at
present,
this
importance,
and
differs
Although not used commermachine is of such historical type so radically from the constantpotential
of
motors now universally adopted, that it deserves some attention. Electric motors were first used in considerable numbers about 1886
or 1887. Then, and for some time afterward, there were constantcurrent arc lighting circuits in many smaller towns and in portions
of large towns
In*
where constant potential supply was not available. such cases motors were operated on these circuits in series with arc lamps. The connections are represented in Fig. 69, A being the
the field circuit of such a motor, the windings of which were designed to carry the constant current (usually about
armature and
10 amperes) continuously.
into
the
circuit
by the cutout
122
because
motor with constant current exerts constant torque T = K&I, in which field flux $ and armature
FIG. 69.
Unless the load happens to equal this for adjusting the motor torque to the load must
be provided, otherwise the motor will either stop or race. The usual method was to shortcircuit more or less of the field winding,
or to shunt
trolled
it
by a centrifugal governor mounted on the motor shaft. diminution in load below the motor torque would produce a rise in
speed, and the governor would then reduce the field strength and torque to the proper value. The speed of these constantcurrent
motors was also regulated by shifting the brushes or by moving the armature out of the field. The serious objection to the operation
of motors
on constantcurrent
high e.m.f. of
the latter, usually from 3000 to 6000 volts. Even the potential difference between the motor terminals is about 100 volts (1000
watts
r
amount
to 1000
volts for a
lohorsepower machine.
drop in the field winding (iRse) would between the brushes, being dangerous
mutation.
to persons
To
123
a potential difference of 5000 volts between the two conductors, whether using one motor or several in series. The constantcurrent motor, however, possesses the great advantage that the armature
may be
results.
full
is
when standing
usually
makes up
For further information concerning series motors see the following AMERICAN ELECTRIC RAILWAY PRACTICE. Herrick and Boynton. 1907. DIE GLEICHSTROMMASCHINE. Vql II, p. 630. E. Arnold. 1904. ELECTRIC MOTORS FOR RAILWAY SERVICE. W. B. Potter, Trans. A.
:
I.
E. E.,
Vol.
XIX,
p. 170.
ELECTRICAL TRACTION, Vol. I. Wilson and Lydall. 1907. ELECTRIC TRACTION FOR RAILWAY TRAINS. E. P. Burch, 1911. ELECTRIC JOURNAL, Vol. I, p. 479; Vol. Ill, pp. 14, 525; Vol. IV, p. 454. ELECTRIC RAILWAY ENGINEERING. Parshall and Hobart. 1907. ELECTRIC RAILWAY ENGINEERING. C. F. Harding. 1911. ELECTRIC TRACTION AND TRANSMISSION ENGINEERING. Sheldon and Hausmann,
1911.
ELECTRIC RAILWAYS. McGraw Co. 1907. TRANS. A. I. E. E., Vol. XXIV, p. 65; Vol. XXVI, p. 1407. STANDARD ELECTRICAL HANDBOOK, pp. 456, 828, 841. McGraw. 1908. ELECTRICAL ENGS.' POCKET BOOK, H. A. Foster, pp. 614, 753, 760. D. Van Nostrand Co. 1908.
CHAPTER
THERE
are two classes of
XI.
COMPOUNDWOUND MOTORS.
compoundwound motors.
In one case
the ampereturns of the series coil reinforce the shuntfield ampereturns, producing the cumulativecompound motor; in the second case the series ampereturns oppose those of the shunt winding, produc
The former machine is coming the differentialcompound motor. mercially called the compound motor, the latter being known as the
differential
motor.
The
connections of a
compoundwound motor
are
shown
in Fig. 70.
FIG.
70.
As already noted, an ordinary shunt motor is usually operated with constant potential at the fieldcircuit terminals, so that the flux is
practically constant at all loads (except for a slight effect of armature reaction which reduces this flux by a small percentage at rated arma
Hence the torque increases practically in ture current and torque). In a cumulativecomdirect proportion to the armature current.
pound motor the conditions are somewhat different, since the field becomes stronger with increase in load, due to the magnetizing action of the series coil, so that the torque increases more rapidly than the armature current. That is, the torque is proportional to the armature current and to the field flux (due to the sum of the series and
shunt excitations) that
,
is,
torque
= KIa
124
(F
V R sh
f
F/a)
At the same
COMPOUNDWOUND MOTORS.
time,
since the field flux rises with increase in load,
to
125
Ia R a
effects
This decrease
in
load
n<& 2
p
magnetic
density approaches saturation, further reduction in speed being caused solely by the armature and series field IR drop. Hence the compound motor combines the characteristics of the shunt and the
having a speed not extremely variable under load changes but developing a powerful starting torque. The stronger
series
types,
the shuntfield flux (noload flux) the more nearly the action corresponds to that of the shunt motor; the weaker the shunt field the
In fact, closely does the machine resemble the series motor. two forms of cumulativecompound wound motors are commonly manufactured, one with a low ratio of series field m.m.f. to shunt
m.m.f. varying from 10 to 25 per cent at rated load; the other having a series m.m.f. equal to 50 or 75 per cent of the shunt field m.m.f. at rated load.
field
more
The characteristic curves of a 4ohorsepower 22ovolt compoundwound motor having a field m.m.f. at rated load made up of 80
per cent shunt and 20 per cent series excitation, are shown in Fig. 71. The speed increase of this machine between rated load and running
about 35 per cent. It is interesting to compare the curves of Fig. 71 with those given in Fig. 72 as the effect of weakening the shunt excitation and strengthening the series field becomes at once
free
is
The curves in Fig. 72 are for a motor similar to that of apparent. the ratio of excitations being now, however, 70 per cent Fig. 71,
series
and 30 per cent shunt, there being prevent the motor from racing when load
just
is
theless the motor speed varies from 590 to 1010 r.p.m. The former machines are employed extensively in shop practice where a motor may be required to start under heavy load but must maintain an
approximately constant speed after starting, or when the load is The heavily compounded motor is employed where removed.
powerful starting torque and resulting rapid acceleration are needed with speed not too widely variable under load changes as in elevator, In addition to the comparatively rollingmill and similar service.
constant speed required after the running condition has been attained, elevator service has an additional requirement, namely, the motor
126
Eir
E.P.M
800
500S
Is
B.H.P.
g
Torque
200
100
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
Amperes
FIG. 71.
WOUND
600
g
400
To
25
50
75
100
125
150
175
200
Amperes
FIG. 72.
WOUND
COMPOUNDWOUND MOTORS.
must have the
overbalanced.
127
winding relatively powerful compared with the shunt winding would reverse the excitation and result in a burnout. Welldesigned
shunt motors have a speed regulation within 5 per cent series motors have a speed change of almost unlimited ratio from no load to full
;
variation
from 12
m.m.f. as set
The speed control employed with compound motors may be any of the various methods explained in connection with the shunt motor, though when used for elevator service the control is generally
entirely rheostatic, with the final cutting out of the series
after acceleration
winding
has ceased.
The
Differential
Motor.
In this
class
of
compound wound
series
The
to
constant at
if
compensate drop and thus maintain the speed all loads. These machines will operate satisfactorily
for I a
field flux
Ra
becomes so
much reduced
hence the
c.e.m.f.
winding would
circuitbreaker.
result, if the
machine
this
is
customary protection it is very troublesome to have the fuses blow or circuitbreaker open every time an overload happens to occur for a second or two. A "still further objection to this motor is its low starting torque due to weakening of the
field
Even with
In
fact,
being of considerably lower inductance than the shunt circuit, the motor if quickly started under load, would tend to rotate in the wrong
direction.
Hence the series winding should be automatically shortwhile starting the machine. circuited The constant speed secured by differential winding may be obtained from a specially designed shunt motor with exaggerated
armature reaction, also by brush lag, by an excessive number of armature turns, or by proper use of interpoles, without the serious
128
For most practical purposes, however, the speed of a welldesigned shunt motor .does not vary to an objectionable extent, so that this special regulation is not needed.
weakness of the
The differential machine is, therefore, rarely used. Resume of Characteristics of Directcurrent Motors.
Shunt motors have a speed varying only slightly with load changes, and good starting torque. They are employed where the speed should be approximately constant and also where the speed may be
adjusted by some of the methods described. These machines are employed Series Motors.
starting torque
speed must be automatically adjusted to load, but they have no customary or even limit of speed with variable loads.
Compoundwound motors have a speed decreasing considerably (12 to 50 per cent) with load, but are capable of exerting some of
the powerful starting torque characteristic of series motors, and are employed for work requiring that capability and a speed not excessively variable
to their
under load changes. They may also be safely belted work, while series motors should never be, but must be
positively
connected to prevent racing. Differential motors may be designed to give an almost absolutely constant speed under all load changes within their rating, but beyond
this the
small.
likely to
is
be stalled
is
also
no longer used
practice,
improvement
in the design of
PART
CHAPTER
CLASSIFICATION
III.
XII.
AND HISTORY.
development of the electric These related chiefly to
THE
motor were
I.
directcurrent types because the only source of electrical energy commercially available up to 1880 or thereabouts was the voltaic
battery.
Furthermore, the
dynamoelectric machinery
all
in operation prior to
designed to supply direct currents only. progress and as a natural result the scientific advance of the
d. c.
more
attention. Nevertheless, during all this time experiments were being made and ideas evolved which led up to the various a. c.
these being quite numerous and differing widely from one another. On the other hand, d. c. motors are practically
types
now known,
all
of one species, which may be defined as embodying essentially drum armature with commutator in a bipolar or multipolar field,
and is the same as the d. c. generator except for mere differences in form to suit particular conditions, as, for example, those of electric railway service. While there is only one important kind of d. c. machine, we have the following distinct Types of Alternatingcurrent Motors.
1.
a.c.
generator reversed
in function.
Induction Motor, having armature winding closed upon itself or through a local circuit not connected to source of supply and
2.
without commutator.
armature with commutator and 3. Repulsion Motor, having brushes connected through local circuit wherein current is induced.
4.
Similar to d.
field
and
motor, having armature (with commutator) winding both connected to supply circuit, hence often
c.
129
130
AND CONTROL.
in
the flux
field.
In addition
of a.
c.
motors
two
types may other three types are supplied with singlephase current, and even when fed from polyphase circuits each motor is connected to one
be operated by
The
phase only. It is to be noted that the conductive type, No. 4 of the above classification, is the only one capable of being operated either as a With the entire field as well as armature d. c. or as an a. c. motor.
and with certain features to limit sparking, as the same machine will run well with either direct explained later, or alternating current; in fact many electric locomotives are so
iron laminated
operated on the
New
York,
Hartford Railroad.
The
other forms, types Nos. i, 2, 3, and 5 of the foregoing list, are It is true that type 3, the incapable of operating with d. c. supply.
repulsion motor, has a commutator and is structurally similar to the d. c. machine; nevertheless it must be differently connected
we have only a
single
motor or generator, while there are five types of a. c. motor, one of which is the same as the d. c. machine. The only other kind of dynamo that has been used for d. c. generaimportant type of
This can also be unipolar or homopolar machine. operated as a d. c. motor and as an a. c. motor. Therefore the latter seems to include all cases of the former, in addition to which
tion
is
the
it
its
own.
motors would include, therefore, an account of the development of each of these five types, which for the most part owe their existence to different times and difhistory of a.
c.
The complete
ferent inventors It is sufficient at this point to indicate briefly the principal historical, facts, to be supplemented later by the discussion of the individual types, which contain references to inventors, authors, patents,
and
articles.
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS.
131
The history of the synchronous motor is essentially similar to that of the a. c. generator because the two machines are structursame machine may be used equally well reversibility was not fully appreciated and applied by those who first brought out and experimented with electric generators and motors, so that they were designed quite differently and their development was to a large extent independally identical; in fact the
This
Nevertheless, any improvement in the It generator was equally applicable to the motor, and vice versa. is also a fact, as stated in Chapter I, that the reversibility of the
ently
carried
forward.
electric generator began to be understood many years ago. For example, Pacinotti in 1860 invented his ring armature for use in motors as well as generators and later others described machines
perform both functions.* In 1868 Wilde while operating alternators in parallel observed the fact that the armature of one of
to
to oscillate as
from
theory of this
Hopkinson in 1883 published the and showed that continuous rotation phenomenon
be maintained.!
In conjunction with Prof.
another. f
W.
with
G.
Adams he soon verified these conclusions experimentally three De Meritens alternators of several horsepower each, at
the South Foreland lighthouse, the results being given in a paper by Adams on "The Alternate Current Machine as a Motor."
The polyphase generator or motor may be regarded as a comAt the same time the polybination of two singlephase machines. motor has the practical advantage that it is selfphase synchronous
corresponding singlephase motor requires some This advanauxiliary means to bring it up to synchronous speed. tage is a fortunate incident, however, because polyphase systems owe
starting, while the
their great
importance not
to this fact
operating induction motors and their economy of material in transmission lines as well as in generators, etc. Early in 1887, Charles S. Bradley invented a machine to operate either as twophase generator,
* Siemens, Brit. Patent No. 3134 of 1878. Deprez, Brit. Patent No. 4128 of 1887.
I,
p. 69.
and
Elec.,
November
13, 1884.
132
AND CONTROL.
considered more fully
The
is
means
of such currents.
Many
devised and physical facts noted which have contributed to the advance in this direction. Arago * in 1824 observed the retarding
of a compassneedle produced by surwith a copper ring. He also deflected a suspended magrounding netized needle by motion of a copper disk immediately below it, and with more rapid motion he caused the needle to rotate continuously
effect
basic in relation to the induction motor, being due to the force set
up
between a magnet and a conducting body when they are moved with respect to one another so that electric currents are induced in the
by cutting the magnetic lines of the former. It was not, however, until Faraday's discovery of magnetoelectric induction in
latter
1831 that the true explanation of these phenomena was forthcoming. Walter Bailey read a paper before the Physical Society of London
on
tions,"
June 28, 1879, entitled "A Mode of Producing Arago's Rotaand exhibited a model in which a copper disk was caused to
by progressive shifting of magnetism among four fixed electromagnets, by throwing on and off as well as reversing through a revolving commutator the current obtained from two primary Thus the Arago effect was produced without bodily batteries. the magnet, or in other words, it was what is now known as moving
rotate
In 1880 Marcel Deprez presented a paper before the rotary field. the Societe Francaise de Physique describing a motor which operated
by twophase currents. It was, however, of the synchronous type, and is only interesting as a step of progress in this direction, but in 1883 he announcedf an important theorem on the production of a
rotary field by the combination of two alternating magnetic field's Deprez was the first differing in phase by one quarter of a period.
to appreciate that this
phenomenon
by
is
cranks) acting at right angles, and he was also the the theory of the magnetic case.
* Annales de Caimie et Physique, XXVII, 363; t Comptes Rendus, Vol. II, p. 1193, 1883.
work out
XXVIII,
325;
XXXII,
213.
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS.
133
A number
of inventors
had prior
to
Gramme,* Cabanellas,f and others. next important contribution was that of Professor Galileo Ferraris, who in 1885 built a twophase motor having four poles, two of which were excited by one alternating current and the other
rents; for example, Wheatstone,
The
two by another alternating current differing in phase, the rotary field thus produced causing the armature to revolve, without any This motor was not exhibited electrical connection to the latter. till 1888, on March i8th of which year Ferraris also read a paper
before the Turin
Academy
in
which he
of the rotary field and described experiments illustrating the same. He pointed out the fact that a motor armature in which the current
generated by induction must necessarily rotate less rapidly than He employed the field, or in other words, there must be a slip. armatures of iron, copper, as well as of mercury, and suggested that
is
a. c.
in
principle.
He
also
explained
how twophase
obtained by dividing an a. c. circuit into two branches, one inductive and the other noninductive, now known as the splitphase
connection.
Charles
S.
Bradley on
May
8,
U. S. patent (^0.390,439) in which he clearly showed and described a twopole generator having a Gramme armature tapped at four equidistant points
by connections
This machine
generated twophase currents, one of the objects stated being to obtain larger output by reason of the fact that one current is at a
maximum when
the other
is
This
is
one of
equal weight.
motor
if
more power than singlephase apparatus of Bradley also stated that his machine could be used as a supplied with twophase currents and that it would give
if
was what is now called a rotary converter. In that is to say, fact this was the basic and controlling patent on that machine in the
United States.
issued August 20,
Bradley in another U. S. patent (No. 409,450) 1889, describes a similar machine with three
* British Patent No. 953 of 1878.  British Patent No. 200 of 1881.
134
AND CONTROL.
armature connections
as a motor
when
which
is
nothing
less
than a
threephase system of
power
converter to supply d. c. railways, arc lamps, storage batteries, and other electrolytic apparatus.
Nikola Tesla
applications for
in October, November, and December, 1887, filed U.S. patents which were issued in May, 1888, as Nos.
381,968, 381,969, and 382,279, setting forth a generator to produce twophase currents, connected to a motor in which a rotary field was
developed thereby and acted upon an armature of iron to cause it to It is interesting to consider wherein Tesla's work differed revolve.
from the early contributions which have just been pointed out. Arago's disk and similar apparatus prior to that of Bailey were in no
sense electric motors, because the motion of the disk
result of bodily rotating the
device of Bailey was an induction motor, because currents supplied to its stationary magnets set up a rotary field which induced currents
in
of
its
armature.
not truly alternating, however, being merely direct currents from two batteries which were reversed by a commutator turned by hand. Furthermore, what Bailey exhibited in 1879 was on ty a small model
appreciable power, its design being wholly unadapted to practical On the contrary, Tesla particularly describes the use of a true " alternating current, each impulse of which involves a rise and fall " " in order that the progression of the poles will be conof potential " as in the case of simple reversed tinuous and not intermittent He also points out " the practical difficulty of interruptcurrents.
ing or reversing a current of any considerable strength." The drawings and specifications of these Tesla patents set forth machines
The
1883,
gave a definite mathematical basis for this important physical principle, but he did not embody it in a concrete motor, and could
not therefore have obtained a patent for his results, original though they were, since a principle unapplied is not patentable.
On the contrary, Ferraris did work out not only the theory In involved but also constructed motors in accordance therewith.
this country,
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS.
that he could get no benefit for
135
what he did prior to his printed while Tesla could go back to his earliest notes, experipublications, mental work, and private disclosures to others. This is the one
respect in which a foreigner's rights are not equal to those of an American citizen in the eyes of the patent law. It is also true that
Ferraris did not appreciate the great practical value of his invention, but this is often the case even with the best ideas until they are applied
In
itself this
would not
invali
date his patent rights, especially as we have seen that he actually built working induction motors operated by polyphase currents and suggested the applicability of the same principle to a. c. measuring instruments. It would seem, therefore, that Ferraris had good moral claims to the credit of the invention, but in this
country was barred legally from, using the earlier evidence in his
favor.
Bradley in his U.
S.
7,
was applied
tion motor,
for
May
patent No. 390,439, already cited, which 1887, did not set forth or claim the induc
but he clearly showed and described a machine to serve as a generator of twophase currents, as a rotary converter,
or as a twophase synchronous motor, thus including all the important elements of a polyphase system except the induction motor. It has already been stated also that Bradley's U. S. patent No.
409,450 fully describes a threephase generator, converter, and synchronous motor. The earliest application for a patent by Tesla setting forth a threephase generator and motor was filed
Oct.
12,
1887.
Even
Ferraris,
required several years of experiment and design by many engineers, involving much labor and expense, before this type of motor became
In
fact,
this
cannot be said
still
to
have
further improvefactor,
in efficiency, higher
power
No
a
one
is
directly credited with having invented the alternatingThe first mention of the possibility of such
136
about 1890 that this idea was applied the simple a. c. series type was manufactured quite practically extensively for use as small fan motors. During the early nineties,
It
was
when
among others, Rudolph Eickemeyer and C. P. Steinmetz experimented with largesize a. c. series railway motors, but they did not meet with much success on account of the high frequency of the current
Interest in this type of motor lapsed usually employed at that time. on account of the development of the single phase inducthereafter,
tion motor, until G. B. Lamme of the Westinghouse Company produced a more practical machine in 1902, upon which engineers again became much interested and many modifications were devised.
The
invention
of
Prof. Elihu
Thomson, who
conducting body tends to be repelled by a magnet excited by alternating current. This phenomenon and various experiments illustrating it are described by him in a paper read May 18, 1887, before
" the American Institute of Electrical Engineers on Novel Phenomena of Alternating Currents."! Professor Thomson in this
paper also showed how to apply the principle and thus obtain a new In this machine only a portion of the armature type of electric motor.
coils
are shortcircuited at
away from
This
ber
latter
the poles.
The form
any given time, that is, those moving of motor now known as the repulall
of
its coils
shortcircuited.
arrangement was first described by Professors Anthony, Jackson, and Ryan in their U. S. patent No. 389,352, issued Septem
n,
made
in 1887.
Neither of
to
importance until 1902 or later, when the latter was experimentally tried and its use advocated for electric railway service by the General
Electric
*
Company and
others. J
Journal British Institution of E. E., p. 527, Vol. XIII, 1884. U. S. Pat. No. 363,185 of 1887.
Papers and discussion by Slichter, Steinmetz, Blanck, and others in Trans. Amer.
CHAPTER
THE
XIII.
is
alternator; that
the
in general
The simplest of this type is the singlephase generator or motor. of its characteristics will also explain the action machine, and a study
For example, a twophase of the corresponding polyphase motors. motor may be regarded as a combination of two singlephase machines. There is, however, the important practical fact that the
singlephase synchronous motor
is
not at
all
selfstarting
(unless
provided with special starting device), while the polyphase synchronous motor is selfstarting without load, in which limitations both differ from the majority of other electric motors. It should
also be noted that this type of
motor whether
single or polyphase
Not
Following Reasons.
is
The
rotation of the
due to the fact that an uniexerted between the armature and field. Any
its
allows a greater armature current to flow, producing a corresponding increment in the driving effort of the motor.
In the case of a synchronous motor we have the following conditions: a field excited by direct current and an armature supplied with alternating current. The first condition provides a field of
fixed magnetic polarity, the second gives an armature the current in which is alternating, therefore the direction of rotation also tends
to
however, the motor could be brought to such speed (by external means) that the half of the armature represented above in Fig. 73 would be below after the current
alternate.
(Fig.
73.)
If,
would
result,
producing a torque in one direction and therefore continuous rotation. For this to occur, the armature must, however,
revolve onehalf a turn in the time occupied by one alternation of
137
138
AND CONTROL.
In
current,
other words, the armature _must generate a counter e.m.f. of the same frequency as the applied voltage. When this condition is fulfilled
the motor
is
TIG. 73.
term synchronous motor. It is apparent that the speed of this motor must remain constant, since the torque must be unidirectional to
maintain rotation, so that the speed of any synchronous motor
by
its
is fixed
i.e.,
number
oj poles
and
speed in r.p.m.
periods per
:
sec.
60
(18)
pairs of poles
is
up a rotary magnetic .field in the the armature, which reacts upon the field magnet to pro
duce mechanical rotation. The circuit of the field winding, however, must be open, because the rotary field would not be sufficiently powerful in the
up
to
presence of the field flux. After the rotary member Ts To speed, the usual d. c. field excitation is established.
prevent the development of excessive voltage in the field coils, they are not connected together in series until synchronous speed is nearly
attained.
It is also desirable
when thus
normal working
voltage,
which
may
be obtained
As shown
above, the motor jmust operate at a definite speed on a circuit of The field strength being also congiven frequency, or not at all. stant, the effective counter e.m.f. of the motor is of constant value;
therefore
it would seem that with constant applied voltage, which is the practical condition, the armature current could not automat
139
The peculiar action which occurs and gives carry additional load. variable torque is explained as follows: Consider two ordinary
and G driven by independent prime singlephase alternators movers, but with their armatures electrically connected in series and The jointly furnishing power to an external load Q (Fig. 74).
FIG. 74.
e.m.f. of the
Em + E
as
Since there
is
A and
or
FIG. 75,
A AND
B.
PHASE.
current / will lag behind the resultant e.m.f. or E r by an angle 0. If the load should change or the steam pressure vary, the engine
140
governors would tend to maintain constant speed but one would naturally act before the other. This difference, however small,
its e.m.f. to fall behind, so that its with respect to the current would be less, its load therephase angle
to
drive
it
correspondingly
increased.
The
it
quence being that the former continues to drop back in phase until is about 180 degrees behind the other machine. Referring to
KG.
76.
OEg represents
other, so that
OE
the e.m.f. of the lagging machine and r is the new resultant e.m.f. and OI the
relation with E r as before, position, which maintains the same phase the resistance R and inductance L of the circuit have not because
changed.
represent the new phase displacement of Em and Eg respectively with reference to the current. The load on each of the alternators is now EmI cos <j> m and Egl cos (f>g respectively;
Let
(f>
m and fa
the angle fa being less than (j) m the load Egl cos fa on the engine that drives the machine G is greater than that on the engine driving hence the latter tends to run faster while G will fall the machine
,
off in speed.
The
load on
increases
141
Em
90 degrees, after
and I becomes greater until it passes through which cos $ m has a negative value, so that the work
is negative, that is, it is operating as a motor, Hence the operathe phase relations being represented in Fig. 77. tion of two or more alternators in series is a condition of unstable equi
done by alternator
librium, unless they are positively connected or driven from the same source of power so that any speed change is common to both; other
FI3,
77.
SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR, PHASE RELATIONS BETWEEN LINE VOLTAGE CURRENT AND MOTOR E.M F.
wise, at the least variation in load or speed, they will instantly fall out of step and tend to pass into the condition of opposition or 180
phase
is
relation.
On the
and thus
other
hand
If
more
alternators
a stable one.
it
one machine tends to speed up, its voltage increases would supply a larger current, carry a heavier load and be
compelled by the action of the engine governor to slow down, while the underloaded machine would tend to speed up, thus equalizing
conditions.
This statement
is
of commercial plants.
practical difficulties arise in of parallel operation, because of slight differences in " " of governors or other causes, angular velocities due to hunting
On
the other
hand
some cases
which
may throw
alternator
If,
after the
reaches the
i8odegree phase
142
we disconnect
its
would continue
its
supply copper losses and stray power not enough, armature will tend to lag a trifle, torque. the resultant e.m.f. to increase so that more current flows. causing This increases its torque sufficiently to maintain rotation, unless the
to
If this is
armature be
dropping back of
synchronous
M should be so great
is
in duration or
relation
broken.
preceding facts may be summed up as follows: The ability a synchronous motor to carry a variable load is due to the^ of
The
phase shifting of its e.m.f., which action, taking the place of the speed changes of other types of motors, alters the resultant e.m.f. so that the armature current automatically adjusts itself to the load.
The singleStarting and Synchronizing of Synchronous Motors. phase synchronous motor is not selfstarting, as already explained,
and requires some auxiliary motor to bring it up to synchronous speed and into proper phase relation before it can be properly conSuch auxiliary starting device may be nected to the supply circuit.
series, repulsion or induction (splitphase) motor, or if the directcurrent field exciter is large enough, it may be used as the starting
motor, being supplied with current from a storage battery, which at Small synthat time also furnishes the mainfield exciting current.
chronous motors are often constructed with the starting device as an integral part as follows The Armature core is ^provided with an additional winding and commutator, which, connected in series
:
with an extra winding on the field cores, makes it possible to start The commutated armature windthe machine as a series motor.
ing is connected across the main field after synchronous speed is attained and the main armature is connected to the a. c. supply
lines; thus the
machine becomes
selfexciting.
selfstarting,
with about 10
development of a
rotary field
upon
by the currents in the armature windings, which, acting the polar faces or grids set in them, drags the rotor around.
manner, the
field circuit is
To
opened, and the armature supplied with approximately rated load current at about onehalf rated voltage through a transformer or compensator. This causes
start in this
143
approximating that of
the rotor into step at synchronous speed, after which the armature is supplied with current at rated voltage and the machine is ready to
It is possible, if the pole faces are solid or provided carry its load. with dampers, to start up with the field circuit closed, but this takes about twice as long and a somewhat larger current to synchronize.
if
the
motor be
large with respect to the generators, cause serious voltage fluctuations, and it then becomes desirable to use some other starting devices,
for example,
an auxiliary machine as already stated in the case of new method of starting the singlephase synchronous motor.
synchronous motors has been proposed by Dr. Rosenberg, which It differs, however, from the also employs an auxiliary motor.
earlier
methods
is
motor
motor.
in the fact that the stator winding of the starting connected in series with the stator winding of the main This method may be designed to give almost any desired
automatically synchronizes the machine.* f This self synchronizing method is particularly adapted to use in " " connection with rotary converters, as the rotary always pulls in with the correct polarity.
starting
torque
and
ordinary mechanical speedmeasuring impossible with instruments to determine the approach to synchronous speed as
It
is
accurately as
is
motors to the
line.
and motor voltages must also be correct. There are, however, simple electrical methods of determining definitely when agreement in frequency and proper phase relations exist, the simplest of these being the lamp methods, one of which follows In Fig. 78 L and
:
line
terminals
and
single
phase synchronous motor, which can be connected by the double Two synchronizing lamps / and /' are connected pole switch S. respectively, as shown, across the two gaps in the circuit, controlled
by the switch
S.
By means
EF,
is
51,
144
proper speed.
or
With the
rotor
member
when
/,
its
frequency
differs greatly
alternations of current
of the
are too rapid for the eye to detect, but when the motor varies only slightly from that of the line, whether frequency higher or lower, the synchronizing lamps will glow for one moment and
lamps
The
FIG. 78.
less
rapid the
in
opposite
At the instant that the voltages are and of equal value, there will be no current phase,
through the lamps; but when the voltages are in phase their full sum is applied to the lamps, which then glow at their maximum
brilliancy.
When
be connected to the
that the
the flashing becomes very slow the motor may line by closing the switch S at the instant
to glow. If the
lamps cease
motor continues
to operate
strength
may
line current
be small after the auxiliary motor or startingup device is It is better to connect the motor to the line as it apdisconnected.
proaches exact synchronism rather than when it is departing from it; that is, the main switch S should be closed the instant the lamps
cease to give light. Owing to the fact that incandescent lamps do not glow with less than 30 or 40 per cent of their rated voltage, it is impossible to determine exactly the minimum voltage difference which is the
proper condition for connecting a synchronous machine, and thus the current passing between the machines and the line may be
rather high
upon
closing of switch 5.
To
145
such rush of current, the lamps may be diagonally connected, that between G and F and between E and is, (Fig. 79), in which
FIG. 79.
when the phase relation is correct, much more definitely shown. The lamps
if
may
first
also
connected as in the
show
full voltage.
The
as
connections of the
shown
in Fig. 80.
If
all
become
FIG. 80.
may
bright or dark, the connections are correct, and the line switch be closed at the instant of darkness. It may happen, however, that the
sively.
lamps do not glow at the same instant, but succesThis indicates that the leads are not connected in their
In this case the motor lines should be transposed
proper order.
146
until the
lamps brighten simultaneously. After the machines have been once properly connected their synchronizing can be accomplished with a single lamp.
If the voltage of the circuit is too
high
indi
be inserted as
cated
Transformers
FIG. 8l.
EXCITER
The latter will glow when the motor other and with the lamp /. that of the line, provided the connections of either e.m.f. opposes
the primary or secondary coils are reversed, the former case being
has become apparent with the continual increase in the size of means of synchronizing than those afforded by
just described
if
the
lamp methods
trouble
may
ensue
connected together when not exactly in step. Such a ^device is secured in the synchronizer or "synchroscope."* This instrument consists essentially of a small induction motor, of which the fixed
winding or stator
or rotor
is
is
supplied with current (through a phasesplitting device) from the machine to be synchronized. A rotating magnetic field is
is
thus set up in the synchronizer, and the rotor thereof will revolve at a
speed that
*
line
and motor
1904, p. 692;
147
The shaft of the rotor is provided with an arm, which, frequency. with it, serves as an indicator. When the frequencies of revolving
the currents in the rotor
and
both
no longer a rotary one, and the pointer remains stationary. This condition may, however, indicate only an equality of frequency, not necessarily one of correctness of phase
the magnetic field due
to
relation.
There
is
is
by the rotor
its
index
when frequency and phase agreement both so set that it points vertically upward when
and
these con
Accordingly, while agreement in frequency is indicated by the fact that the index of the synchroscope is stationary, the angular difference between such direction and the vertically upward one shows the phase difference existing. Another feature
ditions are secured.
is
it
also
motor
(or
incoming machine)
if running too fast the pointer will move forward in a clockwise direction, while if revolving at too low a speed the pointer will move in a counterclockwise direction. Thus the synchroscope
because
accurately indicates frequency and phase relations, and its use is to be recommended in connection with large synchronous motors as
well as generators.
Phase Relations between Constant Line. Voltage and Motor Current. The synchronous motor in practice is supplied with current from a constant potential a. c. circuit, and load changes cause the machine to draw currents varying not only in value but also in phase relation with respect to the line voltage. Fig. 82, A, B and c, illustrates the changes in current value and phase angle which occur in the case of a 3Okw. singlephase synchronous motor when the load is 5, 20, and 40 kw. respectively, motor e.m f. and line voltage being equal at 500 volts. These diagrams show that the angle between the current and line voltage becomes smaller and smaller as the load is increased, and would at about 45 kw. load reach a zero value, after which upon further addition of load it becomes greater again, in the opposite direction, but shifting from a leading to a lagging angle.
<f>
not the only way to produce variations in the angular relation between line current and voltage; it may be caused by adjusting the excitation of the motor, and this is frequently done
Change
of load
is
148
actions occurring in a synchronous motor with variable field excitation can readily be studied by means of vector or circle dia
The
grams.
example any condition of motor load and let by Egy the current by /, and the angle between them by g The angle 6, existing between the resultant e.m.f. E r and the current / (which depends upon the values of frefor
Assume
/IA,
Motor Load
5
12 A
K.W.
B,
Motor Load
20 K.W.
92 A
C,
FIG. 82, A, B,
Motor Load
40 K.W.
AND
C.
CHANGES OF CURRENT VALUE AND PHASE WITH VARIATION IN SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR LOAD.
quency
/,
of the circuit),
is
theoreti
of the magnetic circuit is only approximately constant. Hence, knowing the line frequency and voltage g the load amperes /, the watts
input and the machine constants (L and R), we can readily draw vector diagrams representing the various phase relations of Eg ,E m ,E r and / at any input, or any mechanical output, if we recollect that
,
this latter is equal to the input less the IaR a losses. Formulae can be derived from these vector diagrams by which any one of the various
149
known
(pp. 158,
off
OEg a,s
<fi
from
Eg
and
2
is
equal to
2
I\/R2
2
f
(2
xfL)
while the
angle
is
cos" (R
*
\/R
/.
+ (2
7r/L)
at angle 6
ahead of
The motor
e.m.f.
pleting the parallelogram; that is, it is parallel its true vector position and relative value being
and equal
to
Eg E
r,
OEm
The motor output, input of the motor is Egl cos <f> 7 2 ^ a or E m l cos </>m core and friction losses, is Eg l cos <f>g including wherein E m is the motor e.m.f. and <j> m angle between E m and /.
The power
.
With the
line voltage
Eg
may
<f>
.
have any value for a given input, depending upon the value of cos g For instance, in Fig. 83, B, let the motor input have the same value as in Fig. 83, A, but let the current be in phase with the line e.m.f.;
that
is,
Egl cos
<t>
const,
is
and
<j>
o.
The new
same
substantially the
current /, since R and L have not changed materially, but Er is The new smaller than before because / is less for the same load.
value of
Em
(the
motor
e.m.f.)
lelogram of which OE g is position and value of Em are shown by the line OE m which is longer This increase can be brought about than in the preceding case.
,
by increasing the strength of the motor field, because the speed is synchronous and therefore constant. In Fig. 83, c, let us assume a motor load of the same amount as in the two preceding instances, but with the current leading the line e.m.f. by an angle g equal to the lag in the first case (Fig. 83, A). The angle between E r and / remains practically constant because R has not changed and L only slightly. Lay off OEr as the resultant e.m.f. an angle d ahead of OI. Completing the parallelogram we have OEm representing the phase and value of the motor e.m.f.
only in one way,
i.e.,
(/>
that corresponds to these new conditions. diagram shows that the motor e.m.f. (Em ) is
An
now
inspection of this
In fact the
so
much
still larger value. strength of the synchronous motor can be increased that the motor e.m.f. is considerably greater than the line
of
field
150
100
Eg I Cos
 17.5
<f>
^ Eg  200 v.
<f>
K.W/
 29
lag.
" 87.5
Eg
200 Y.
E
m 275V.
Ir
168V.
FIG. 83.
VARIATION OF POWER FACTORS (COS <f>g) OF CIRCUIT BY A, B, C AND D. CHANGE OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR E.M.F. MAINTAINING CONSTANT INPUT.
151
<f>
which condition
shown
in Fig. 83, D.
gradually strengthened the line current can be made ultimately to This phenomenon of the synchronous motor lead the line e.m.f. is of value in the transmission of power, since a superexcited motor
can be employed to raise the powerfactor of the tends to have a lagging current.
circuit,
which usually
Torque Conditions of Synchronous Motor depending upon Angle The current flowing in the between Current and Motor E.M.F.
armature of a synchronous motor
of three general
FIG. 84, A, B,
AND
C.
VARIOUS PHASE RELATIONS OF SYNCHRONOUS MOTOR AND CURRENT WITH CONSTANT OUTPUT.
E.M.F.
This phase relations with respect to the motor e.m.f. or E m be 180 degrees (Fig. 84, A) because motor action is phase angle may
.
c.
motor;
it
may
152
be
it
may be more
than 180
The most efficient condition for motor output exists in the first when the phase angle between Em and Ia is 180 degrees, since
is
a mini
FIG. 85, A, B,
AND
C.
(f>
m =
<, AND
>
l8o.
mum.
This
may
diagrams of current and e.m.f. are shown with a phase displacement of 1 80 degrees; the resulting power curve P being negative at
153
every instant; thus fora given area (representing motor power) the value of / will be ? minimum. This condition is also shown by
the equation
E ml
cos
(j)
maximum
negative value
= motor power; because cos m has its = m = 180 degrees; hence to i, when
(f>
(f>
produce a given power with E m constant, / will have minimum In Fig. 8c;, B, the wave diagram shows the current displaced value.
less
the resulting
than 180 degrees with respect to motor e.m.f., in which case power wave has both negative and positive values;
hence with a given current the motor power represented by the negative area is not only smaller than in the preceding case but is still further diminished by the positive area, so that the available motor power is considerably less than when the current and e.m.f.
differ
by 180 degrees. Therefore, to have the same power the current must be greater in the second case (Fig. 85, B). Evidently similar conclusions apply when the current leads the motor e.m.f.
c.
There
is
and motor
namely a strengthening or weakening of the motor field. For example, if the phase displacement between current and motor
e.m.f.
is 1 80 degrees, the current reaches its maximum at the same instant as the e.m.f., which condition is represented by the position
FIG. 86.
ANGLE RETWEEN
E m AND
IS
l8o; DISTORTION OF
field,
adopted
for a.c.
merely
machinery.
The
effect
is
154
field poles
S arma
ture poles.
If
motor
in
reaches
its
maximum
Fig.
87.
An
inspection of this
FIG. 87.
ANGLE BETWEEN Em AND LINE CURRENT LESS THAN l8o; MOTOR FIELD STRENGTHENED.
strength of the motor is increased because the flux direction of the armature favors that of the field.
If the
difference
maximum
e.m.f. as
e.m.f., that is, the phase then this current attains its degrees, before the armature reaches the position of maximum
shown
The
phase relation
is
FIG. 88.
ANGLE BETWEEN E m AND LINE CURRENT MORE THAN l8o; MOTOR FIELD WEAKENED.
field
due
armature
A summary
i. For a given current a motor develops maximum torque when the phase angle between its e.m.f. (Em ) and the armature current
(/) is 1 80 degrees.
155
When E m and
is
differ
in
phase by more or less than 180 is less than when the phase
180 degrees.
the phase angle (j) m is 180 degrees the armature reaction merely distorts the field, because one pole tip is strengthened as much as the other is weakened, with ordinary flux density.
the angle (f> m is with respect to E m ) lagging
4.
When
When
less
the
motor
5.
field.
When
The
1 80
the angle
(7 leading
Em )
<
condition of lagging current with respect to motor e.m.f. degrees) gives more stable operation than the others
field strength augments the torque of the motor, tending thus to hold it in step. Conditions of Maximum Output. Various relations between the
maximum motor
and
/,
Eg
motor constants R, L,
the
Many
of these are
For example, a
ture resistance of 0.13 ohm, the voltage across the terminals is 1443 volts, and for theoretical maximum output the current would be
=
2
^ 0.26
is
about 55 times
its
rated
2 load current of 102 amperes, the heating effect being 55 = 3025 The corresponding values of maximum watts times the normal.
output and voltage have also been calculated, but the above preposterous result demonstrates that little time should be spent in
determining or discussing such imaginary conditions. The rotation of a Operative Limits of Synchronous Motor.
synchronous motor, as already explained, is absolutely dependent upon the maintenance of synchronous relation with the line voltage.
power is exerted through a relatively easily somewhat flexible it is true, but not so strong as that of the series, shunt, or induction motors. These gradually drop in speed and finally become stalled upon application of excessive
the driving
link,
Hence
broken
156
very
fact
This abrupt stopping of a synchronous motor is due to the very upon which the ability of the machine to carry variable loads
has not already before the godegree limit is reached. Practically, the stopping would occur before (f> m is reduced to 90 degrees, because the driving power must be sufficient to overcome the core losses,
zero (EmI cos
so
(j>
m =
o)
stops,
if it
done
windage,
any external
load.
Investigation of the operative range curves (Fig. 89) of the synit has two conditions of operation,
The
unstable condition of
the phase angle between armature and line less than a certain value, ranging between 100 degrees
when
and 120 degrees, depending upon the resistance and reactance of the motor armature. Thus, if the motor should be operating on the unstable portion of the curve, that is, between zero and about no degrees, any attempt to increase the load would be accompanied by retardation of the armature, which would not, however, augment the driving power of the machine; with the result that the
Conversely, while the motor load operating on this unstable portion of the curve, be decreased, acceleration of the armature results, which augments
synchronous link
is
if
the driving
power
of
the
the
machine, and acceleration is continued power curve is passed and the stable con
dition reached.
The stable condition of operation for synchronous motors exists when addition of load causes a retardation of the armature with increase of driving
it
power until load and driving power balance. If, be attempted to overload the motor considerably, the however, resulting retardation of the armature causes the angle between the motor e.m.f. and line voltage to decrease so that it is less than
157
corresponding
to
that
therefore the
tion
motor passes
and
stops.
into
effort;
80
E m 700V.
600V.
60
/
400V.
50
800V.
40
Unstable
Stable
\
\ \
Condit on of
Open
30
tion
Condition of Operation
20
Ra 10
Eg  500 V. 0.8 w
2 TTfL 2.5
f60
Degrees
1.00
120
140
160
180
motor
ture
is
operating on the stable portion of the curve, the armaaccelerated and the driving power decreased until a balance obtained.
is
is
158
and thus the capacity of a given synchronous motor, depend upon its field excitation and armature constants (resistance and reactance of its winding). The driving power of such a machine is generally greater the stronger its field, within the limits attainable in practice. For different machines,
other things being equal, that one having the larger impedance angle 1 (tan" 2 TtfL T R) has the higher overload capacity or greater
stability.
The range
The approximate operative range of any synchronous motor for various conditions of excitation can be predetermined if the line
FIG.
90.
voltage,
armature
e.m.f., resistance,
known.
The
from the
ordinary diagram showing the vector or space relations between the line voltage, current and armature e.m.f. Inspection of Fig. 90
Er = VEm +
2
Eg
E m Eg COS d,
(19)
where d
is
the angular relation between motor and line voltages. the armature current can be obtained by dividing the
resultant voltage
rL r
Z =
^m + Eg +
Em Eg COS d
(2O)
~+
The
(27T/X)"
driving power of the motor, or that portion of the input converted into mechanical power, is
Wm
= Em l COS
<m,
159
m being the angle between motor voltage and line current. The value of this angle (j) m depends upon the phase relation between line voltage and armature e.m.f., the value of these voltages and the
6. =
Thus
cos
^'"
(21)
Wm
'"
"
'
x Em
cos 3 +
\
_ cos.
tL r
(22)
where
the impedance angle of the motor armature/ These equations will now be applied to the determination of the characteristic curves of the following synchronous motor
is
:
Rated capacity
Speed
Poles
40 h.p. or 30 kw.
900 r.p.m.
8
60 periods per
0.8
2.5
sec.
500
Armature resistance (R) Armature reactance at 60 p.p.s. (X) Armature impedance at 60 p.p.s. (Z) Impedance angle of motor armature (0)
Stray power losses at 500 volts excitation and 900 r.p.m
ohm
2.63
ohms ohms
Let us for example determine the various values of armature m when both g and of motor output
(Eg) and motor (Em) voltages are 500 volts, and the phase angle between Eg and Em altered from 80 degrees to 180 degrees in = Em = steps of 20 degrees. Proceeding for d = So degrees and Eg 500 volts, we have from equation (19) p. 158,
line
Er
= V(5oo) +
2
(5oo)
2 (500) (500)
cos 80
766
volts.
*Proofof equ.
but
or
(21).
<
m =5+0a;
but cx=cosi
5
E  EmCO
Er
j8=i8o5.
cos
3
= cos
5)
(i 80
6) = cos
a=cos 1
Er
'=0)31
Eg+Em cos Er
160
From
= Er +
766
r
2.63
1
,
291 amps.
3 o'.
COS (j>m=
.368.
From
eq. (22),
Wm
<t>
or motor output
500
291
368
53.5 kw.
30'; cos fa
=+
.852.
The same
values of
Er
steps could be followed out in deriving corresponding m etc., when d is varied. Collecting the results of I,
values of d
and
Wm as abscissae
shown
curves for 300, 400, 600, and 700 volts indicated in the same figure could be obtained in the same
The corresponding
manner, though
diagrams shown
It is to
employed the
this
circle
on pages
163, 164.
machine
is greatest at the highest field excitation considered; but at these heavier loads the armature current is excessive, as shown in Fig. 95.
When
excited so that
its
the motor has about 80 per cent overload capacity before instability is reached. At greater excitations, for example at 600 volts, the
crest of the
power curve occurs at 140 per cent overload. The important fact follows that with a synchronous motor liable to be subjected to widely variable loads, greater stability is obtained by ad
161
80
100
120
140
160
180
of the machine.
500 volts
is
becomes too great, causing excessive heating For example, the armature current for 30 kw. at 70 amperes, at 600 volts, 82 amperes; and at 700 volts,
162
120 amperes.
The
curves between current and phase angle given from the values of d and / in the table just
These show that as the angle between line e.m.f. and motor e.m.f. becomes smaller the current increases rapidly.
preceding.
Circle
line voltage
If we consider a given Diagrams of Synchronous Motor. and armature e.m.f. of a synchronous motor, and plot the vector positions and relative values of line voltage, armature e.m.f., resultant voltage and current through a phase swing of 180 degrees, it is found that while naturally the locus of the motor voltage is a circle, the loci of the resultant voltage and armature current
These
circle
centers of these circles are at different points. diagrams of the synchronous motor are useful, and by
,
The
their application the values of E r I, and m can be directly determined and thus the power or operative load range curves of the motor obtained without the lengthy calculations based upon the preced(j>
ing
equations.
excitation.
One
motor
diagrams is required for each Their construction and application are as follows
set of circle
Lay
off in
OEg
(Fig. 92)
representing the line voltage, then add to it, in the same direction, f the line Eg Em which corresponds with and is proportional to the motor e.m.f.; also, lay off to the left of Eg a distance proportional
to
a center and
and representing the motor voltage as above. Then with Eg as Eg Em ' as a radius describe a circle. This is the
.
Its maximum value is proporlocus of the resultant voltage E r tional to the distance from O, through E g to E m while its minimum value is the distance along the same diameter from O to the point
,
at
which
this
With the point as a center describe a is, the length OQ. This is circle having a radius representing and proportional to Em
that
.
motor
voltage.
Through
the point
draw the
tan"
1
line
OK so that
it
makes an angle
.
OK
OE The location of the point K is obO as a center and a radius equal to OEf m OEm Then from the point K along the
]
'.
line
OK towards O lay off a distance equal to Em and with this new This reprepoint P as a center and PK as a radius describe a circle.
and
is
proportional thereto,
163
is numerically, for any vector posiequal to the amperes multiplied by the impedance Z. The maxi
mum
current and
its
position are represented by the line OK, which =Z, the impedance, being obtained when
OK
the motor voltage and line voltage are in phase (i.e., 360 degrees displacement existing between them) The minimum value of the current is equal to the distance OL divided by the impedance, and is obtained when the motor voltage is 180 degrees from the line voltage Three
.
sets of circle
first
shows the
FIG.
92.
Em =300
loci of resultant voltage,
VOLTS,
500 VOLTS,
60.
voltage
is
line voltage
gram
corresponding
loci
and the third diagram (Fig. 94) sets forth the loci when the motor voltage is 700 and the line voltage 500 volts. Consider the first diagram, and let it be desired to obtain the resultant voltage, motor current, value of m and driving power of motor when the angle between the motor voltage and the line voltage is 130 The procedure is as follows: From the point O draw the degrees. line OEm so that it makes an angle of 130 degrees with OEg. This the angular position of the motor voltage with respect to represents the line voltage. Then with the point Em as a center and a radius to OE g describe an arc which cuts the resultant voltage vector equal
e.m.f. are each 500 volts;
<j>
,
OE
and
its
(= 375
v.) of
center
OE
164
FIG. 93.
Eg
500 VOLTS,
FIG.
94.
Em =
700 VOLTS, 6
Eg
500 VOLTS,
60.
The
line
OI
repreif its
and
this
current
is
in
between
E m OI
the angle
146).
its
The
angle contained
circle.
165
X 146 X 0.97 kw. 42.5 Various angular positions between Eg and E m can similarly be assumed, the motor current and driving power determined as
m gives the motor driving power, or 300
300
280
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
FIG. 95.
shown, and these different values plotted as ordinates with the phase angle between E and Em as abscissae; the result being the motor "loadrange curves" and "current curves" shown in Figs.
89, 90
and
95, respectively, of
series
It
by
166
AND CONTROL.
This occurs with the typical 4oh.p. motor examined when the angle E m OI is a little less than no degrees.
teristics of
Curves of the Synchronous Motor. All the working characa synchronous motor can be determined from its opera
range curves, which were derived and discussed in the preceding pages. For example, the currentpower curves are obtained by plotting curves, having corresponding current values as ordinates and kilowatts as abscissae. Two sets of current power
tive load
(Fig. 95); one group showing the relation between current and output or driving power, and the other between current and armature input. The armature watts input are determined a losses and watts output. by adding the corresponding
curves exist
PR
The characteristic V curves of the synchronous motor are readily determined from the currentpower input curves, by proceeding as
follows:
draw the
vertically through the 30kw. abscissa point of the currentpower curve (see Fig. 95), and from the intersection of with the different input curves we can determine the the line
straight line
AB
AB
For example,
is
93 amps., at
400
volts
it
The
relation existing
current
values used as abscissae and ordinates, respectively, gives the 3Okw. V curve for the motor of the text. The complete series
of these
like
curves given in Fig. 96 were obtained by following a procedure for the different values of input employed.
A
a
motor voltage
study of these curves indicates that at any given input, as the is increased the armature current decreases, until
value is reached, after which, upon further strengthenmotor field, the current begins to increase. The variation in the armature current for a given range of field excitation is greater at the lighter loads, and the curve obtained when the motor
ing of the
minimum
running practically without load is of substantially a V shape, hence the name; while at the higher loads the curve flattens out
is
considerably, appearing like an arc of a large circle at rated load These same V curves can be determined input and beyond.
by
calculation,
simple
employing a formula which is derived from the between line volts, motor volts,
167
300
400
500
600
700
Motor E.M.F.
FIG. 96.
and current
being
Em = V(E
but
*
its
cos <0
 IRaY+
(E g
sin
<f>
 IX) 2
(23)
use
is
rather tedious.
it is
From
apparent that
(0
wherein
Em = 2 Eg =
2
fa\
cos 1
(A)
).
cos (Q
00)
cos 6 cos 00
sin 6 sin
00
sin"1
we have
or
E ma = Eg2 cos3 002 IREg cos 00 + PR2 + Eg sin 002 IXEg sin 00 + PX* = (Eg cos 00  IR) + (Eg sin 00  IX) E m = \/(Ey cos 00  IR) + (Eg sin 00  IX) 2 (B)
2
,
which equation expresses the value of the motor current, phase angle, and armature constants.
e.m.f. in
168
AND CONTROL.
curves
is
power curve, namely, those showing the relation between power factor and field excitation. These are determined as follows:
of constant input and let this, as before, be kw.; then refer to the currentpower curves (Fig. 95) and mul30 This tiply the current at any motor e.m.f. by the line voltage. is the voltamperes input. A division of the correspondproduct
ing abscissa value (which was 30 kw. input in this instance) by the voltamperes gives the power factor at the selected field excitation and input. The curves obtained by using the power factor and the corresponding motor e.m.f.'s as ordinates and
abscissae, respectively, are those represented
by the broken
lines
in Fig. 96.
It is to
of the current
tion
be noted that these are the converse in shape curves. The power factor rises with field excitavolts,
up
to
but as the
field
strength of the
augmented the power factor decreases, even more rapidly than it rose. It is also apparent that the power factor of the machine is improved by addition of load to the motor.
is still
motor
of Fig. 96
Capacity Effect of Synchronous Motor. Reference to the curves and to the formula for motor e.m.f. (Em) shows that the
ff
when (j> is a lagging angle, then plus. The larger values of the motor e.m.f. exist when (> g is a leading angle, sin (f> then being minus, which increases the second term under the radical and consequently Em
smaller values of motor e.m.f. exist
because sin
(j)
g is
is
Hence, variation of the motor excitation produces a greater. change in the angle between line voltage and motor current. Low field excitations cause a lagging current to flow and high excitations
current.
draw a leading
is
e.m.f.
greater than that of the line (field superexcited) draws a leading current and acts as if it possessed electrostatic capacity.
The above property of the synchronous motor, used as such or as a rotary converter, is frequently utilized to improve the power factor of transmission systems, usually because induction motors or lightly
loaded transformers
are
supplied
thereby,
which operate
at
low power factor (p. 200), necessitating lagging current to be This condition not only increases the line drop but transmitted.
also interferes seriously with alternator regulation. tion of a superexcited synchronous motor at the
The
installa
receiving end of
line reduces
this
169
In fact, the motor field can be so adjusted that the phase displacement between line voltage and current becomes small or even nil.
The fact that a synBalancing Action of Synchronous Motor. chronous motor draws a leading current when superexcited, and
that the extent of lead
tion, gives
to
increased with the degree of superexcitathis type of polyphase machine the capability of
is
an unbalanced polyphase circuit. When slightly superexcited motor is connected to the terminals of a balanced or an unbalanced polyphase system, all phases of the motor armature draw a leading current. That phase winding, however, which is connected across the line terminals of lower voltage draws a current of greater lead than the other windings because its superexcitation is relatively higher; hence, the compounding tendency of the leading current is more marked in this
restoring a balance to
phase than in the others and the voltage thereof is increased. This action tends to balance the circuit, not only in voltage but in current as well, because combinations of leading and lagging currents
give reduced resultant currents. Hunting of Synchronous Motor.
arises in connection with
synchronous motors is that of hunting, These terms signify the periodic or phase swinging. pumping, fluctuations in speed and armatunTcUritent occurring under certain
conditions.
Such surgings may be produced by several causes. Let us suppose the typical motor to be running at a constant load up to a certain instant, and that then the load is suddenly varied, say
momentary retardation of the motor armature natuand we see from power curves (Fig. 89) that the angle rally results, between Em and Eg must decrease to allow of increase in the driving
increased.
power of the motor. The proper value of armature current is not obtained at the instant that the correct phase angle between E m and Eg exists, but somewhat later, owing to time lag caused by inertia
may
of the armature winding. Thus, while the the right angular relation momentarily pass through
with respect to the line e.m.f., it will ultimately draw more current than its load requires. This causes the armature to be accelerated
(d)
between
E m and Eg
is
is
so
much reduced
motor load, whereupon lagging or retardation of the armature again ensues, and so on. This phase swinging of the arma
170
tiire
AND CONTROL.
term hunting.
The amplitude
usually dies down, due to frictional, eddy current, and hysteretic effects, so that the armature finally finds its correct load position.
The
irregular rotation
above considered
may be
regarded as con
motion of rotation at synchronous speed with a toandfro or pendular motion superposed upon it.
sisting of a uniform
We
will
and armature current. produce There are, however, other actions by which such fluctuations may be Assume the motor load to remain quite constant but the started.
oscillations in its angular velocity
rise.
This corresponds
an advance^of the angular position of the line voltage vector, which naturally decreases the angle between E m and Eg thus increasing the driving torque of the synchronous motor (see operativerange curves, Fig. 89), and producing an acceleration, which will,
,
as already shown, develop the hunting phenomenon. Similarly a sudden change in excitation of the motor or in the line voltage will produce a variation in the motor torque and thus bring about the
This fluctuation is very slow compared with the line frequency, and its period can be readily determined by the violent swinging of the needle of an ammeter connected in the
phase surging action.
supply
line.
As already stated, the hunting started by any one sudden disturbance will gradually subside. If, however, before the oscillations due to one cause have been damped out, another disturbance should occur of such nature as to reenforce the already existing
fluctuations, their combined amplitude may become so great as to cause the motor armature to swing beyond the range of stability, with the result that it falls out of step and stops. This action is
w
because sudden load changes are usually accompanied by marked variations in line voltage, both acting to produce a like effect. The surges of the armature current thus developed may affect the alternator speed, and then all three dislikely to occur,
If the phase swinging is not violent turbing factors act in unison. to cause the motor to pull out of step, the variation thus enough
produced
nected to
in
may
low
periodicity that
becomes apparent in the flickering of lamps conthe circuit, and it may even develop hunting in other
171
synchronous motors fed thereby. The fact that hunting of a synchronous motor not only interferes with its own stability but may
react
objectionable,
upon other synchronous units connected to the line is very and the prevention of marked hunting becomes a
practical necessity.
Prevention of Hunting. Inspection of the power or operative range curves of synchronous motors (Fig. 89) shows that a given
FIG. 97.
Damping Grids
FIG. 98.
ANTIHUNTING DEVICE.
change
in torque will
is
the field
strong than when it is weak, and naturally the smaller the initial phase shift the less the resulting oscillation; hence, use of strong fields is favorable in checking hunting, but this by itself will
suffice.
not
It
has already been indicated that the production of eddy currents the surging of the armature current tends towards the reduction of by the duration of the surges, and theoretically any device wherein
currents are generated by the pendular motion of the armature will Hence it is act by Lenz's law to stop the motion producing them.
172
AND CONTROL.
necessary to design a device wherein heavy eddy currents are developed by even slight hunting tendencies, in order to arrest the
surging in
its
checking
earliest
effect are
very development. The devices producing this known as damping coils or dampers. One of the
dampers was proposed by Hutin and Le Blanc* (Fig. 97), and consists of a series of thifck copper bars embedded in each pole 'piece, parallel to the armature 'axis, and connected in A parallel by heavy copper rings concentric with the armature. more modern and probably more economical arrangement (Fig. 98)
of these
consists of a copper grid placed in corresponding slots cut in the
polar face,, the outer rim of the grid forming a closed the pole piece. f
* U. S. Patent No. 529,272, November 13, 1894. f U. S. Patent No. 575,116, January 12, 1897.
band around
ALTERNATING CURRENTS, D. C. and J. P. Jackson, p. 571. ALTERNATING CURRENT PHENOMENA. C. P. Steinmetz. 1908. DIE WECHSELSTROMTECHNIK, Vol. IV. E. Arnold. 1904. SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS AND CONVERTERS. BlondelMailloux. 1913. ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS. A. S. McAllister. 1909. ELECT. ENG. POCKETBOOK, Van Nostrand, N. Y. 1910. p. 340. STANDARD HANDBOOK, p. 341. McGraw. 1908. SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS. F. G. Baum. Electric World, March, 1902. SYNCHRONOUS MOTORS. Prof. C. A. Adams. Harvard Eng. Journal, 1907.
LONDON
Trans. A.
Trans. A. Trans. A. Trans. A.
Jour.
I.
1883. J. Hopkinson. E. E., Vol. XIX, 1902, p. 718. C. P. Steinmetz. E. E.., Vol. XXIII, 1904, p. 481. G. B. Lamme. E. E., Vol. XXVI, 1907, p. 1027. M. Brooks.
E. E., Vol.
XXXI,
C.
J.
Fechheimer.
E. Rosenberg,
CHAPTER
)
XIV.
THE
machines are employed, depending upon the system by which the current is supplied. The operation of the induction motor is very
different
trical
.or
from that of the preceding types because there is no elecconnection between the armature (usually called secondary The motion of the armarotor) and the source of current supply.
is
ture
field
produced by a rotating magnetic field, and it which is the characteristic of induction motors.
is
this peculiar
wound with
and D.
Two
A, B, C conductors of one
A and and those of the other phase B, across C and D respectively. The
phase are connected at
direction of the winding is such that a current entering at A will
FIG. 99.
TWOPHASE CURRENTS.
i in
This condition
is
represented at
AB
having
its
maximum
positive value,
CD
90
zero value, in accordance with the usual phase difference of or onequarter period existing between twophase currents.
later, i.e.,
A moment
AB
173
174
AND CONTROL.
has decreased somewhat, and the other has increased, so that they In this case, each current will tend to produce a are now equal.
south pole where
it
and
respectively, so
developed midway between, as shown at point 2, the arrow being inclined at an angle of 45. The next the current of phase AB has fallen to zero, and that of instant,
that a resultant polarity
CD
has reached
its
maximum,
current
south pole at B, the needle being inclined downward at an angle of 45 as shown the successive conditions, the needle will at point 4. By following
AB
make a
FIG. 100.
be found
finally at 9 it assumes its original vertical direction, the 7, 8, current having then completed one cycle of its changes, having passed through two alternations. Thus, the compass needle tends to
its support continuously by the shifting resultas long as the winding is supplied with twophase or field, or quarterphase currents. If either one of the connections were reversed, the direction of rotation of the needle would (Fig. 99)
and
be rotated on
ant
AB
CD
Hence, to reverse
necessary to interchange the terminals of one of the two phases. The Action of ThreePhase Currents in producing a rotary field is quite similar to that explained for The twophase currents.
175
is
wound
X,
and Z, instead of
at
when
is
maximum, then
cur
and
each
X.
This tends
to
X, and produce two north poles at Z and Y The resultant due respectively.
a south pole at
to the latter is
RING SUPPLIED WITH FIG. 101. midway between Y and Z; conseTHREEPHASE CURRENTS. quently a magnetic needle placed within the ring would assume the position indicated by the dotted arrow at i in Fig. 102. Onesixth of a period later,, currents
a north pole at T,
enter at both
at F,
FIG. 102.
hence the needle would point towards V. At the end of another onesixth of a period, the maximum current would enter at Z, and the needle would turn to that point as shown at 3 in Fig. 102,
and
so
on
until
it
had made a complete revolution in one period If any of the two connections shown
176
in Fig.
sponding magnetic field will be reversed. Variation of Flux with Twophase and ThreePhase Stator Windings.
To
field at
up by 2 phase
'Currents,
At any point of
space each coil will produce when carrying current, a field proportional to such current. With balanced twophase currents,
=
The magnetic
x
7 sin
=
and
7 cos
field at the
6,
common
centre
of the
0,
two
coils is
M sin
along X
axis,
M cos
along
axis.
Now
field
OR
since the fields are at right angles to each other, the resultant is given by the square root of the sum of their squares or:
x*
= M.
In other words the magnitude of the resulting rotating magnetic field is constant and equal to the maximum field set up by any one of
the two balanced phases.
FIG. IC2
A.
FIG. 102 B.
To
field
and
c,
placed at 120
=
= =
I sin
1 sin
0;
0
27:
=  o7 =j
sin
+ 
.8667 cos 0;
ie
I sin
\
.
o /
.57 sin
.866 7 'cos
0.
The
by the three
coils at
177
common center O are indicated by the vectors x, y and z, respecThe relative values of these fields at any instant are tively.
:
6
0.
+ .S66M
cos 0;
The
total horizontal
any moment

is
X=
(y
+2) cos 60
 sin 0)
is:
M sin
0.
The corresponding
total vertical
component
F=
(y
z) sin 60
f
M cos
M.
0.
field (at
any moment)
is
OR =
X2 + F2 
In other words, the resulting rotating magnetic field produced by balanced threephase currents is of constant magnitude, and 50 per cent greater than any one of the alternating fields producing it. The particular advantage of the threephase motor with respect to
the twophase machine
is
that
it
is
more economical
as regards
copper for its stator winding, since the smaller current per phase The threeof the former would produce an equivalent induction. also lends itself better to the use of a simple phase winding
starting device, being
for running.
ally
"Y"
transmission lines,
employed, because the corresponding generators, transformers, etc., are more economical of material.
ring with the magnetic needle as described, illustrates the synchronous polyphase motor, since the armature revolves in syn
The
is
chronism with the angular velocity of the currents. If the needle replaced by a laminated cylinder of iron wound with inductors
an ordinary armature except that they are shortcircuited, it is found that this will also revolve, but in this case the speed is a little
like
less
than that of the synchronous field. The difference in speed (angular velocity) between the rotary field and the armature divided
is
the angular velocity of the rotary field ture by co2, we have 5 = (on twm*
by
coi
and that
of the
by s, armawith
This
slip represents
field,
respect to the
by
lines
armature inductors; consequently the latter are cut of force and therefore currents are induced in them. Since
178
it is
upon
the armature to revolve, this type of machine is called the induction It is to be noted that no current is supplied to the moving motor.
part,
hence
it
need have no
later)
electrical connections
made
to
it,
except
(as will
tion, in
be shown
which case
The
motor is connected
source of current, and is termed the stator or primary. part called the rotor forms a secondary to the stator.
The moving
cause the primary forms the inducing member or field, while the secondary or rotor is that part acted upon inductively, or the armature.
Typical Induction Motor.
The
duction of a commercial machine on account of the waste of copper and its high leakage reactance.* The rotor winding and core must
also
be modified
typical stator core consists of an assemblage of thin iron or mild steel rings of about .014 to .025 inches in thickness, with teeth
The
and
slots
upon
These
slots
contain a
distributed
drum winding
of substantially the
poles are therefore not produced by windings concentrated at certain points of the gap periphery on salient or separately projecting masses of iron as in d. c. machines. Nevertheless, magnetic poles are formed by properly connecting the groups of coils. Although
The magnetic
a diagram as in Fig. 99
may be
it
machine.
stator
is
does not portray the actual commercial The windings are seldom closedcoils, the threephase usually Y connected, although certain manufacturers
employ
nection
this
grouping simply for starting, changing to delta conrunning. is divided into a number of groups, equal
to
when
The winding
product of the
the
number of phases and the number of poles. Fig. 103 Consider represents the diagram of an 8pole twophase winding. the instant when the currents in the two phases are in the same direction (that is between o and 90 or 180 and 270, Fig. 100),
*
Leakage reactance
is
that
to such
179
will
same
Thus a
pole
pole.
is
formed by two groups, both phases being represented in each When the current in each phase reverses (after a half cycle)
the pole shifts the angular distance covered by two groups, so that the field completes one revolution in eight alternations of current.
Thus if the current supplied had a frequency of 60 cycles per second, the field would make 15 revolutions per second, or 900 per
minute.
the length of crossconnecting wire, it will be seen that every fourth group is connected in the same direction in each coiled arc such as A represents a group comprising a phase.
To minimize
FIG. 103.
certain
number
of coils
in series,
each
coil located in
a separate
to the
beginning
A
104.
sixpole threephase
The phases
180
The phases
which
is
are thus only 60 degrees apart. To get the star or Y y a i2odegree relation, the middle phase is reversed, as in Fig. 105, so that a pole will be formed by the three consecutive
phases when the current is in the same direction in A and C, and The beginning of the middle coil (C), and not the opposite in B.
end, as with the other two,
is
connected to the
C
common
point O.
FIG. 104.
FIG. 105.
181
alter
three completed 20 r.p.s. or 1200 r.p.m. with 60 cycle current. periods, making The speed or number of revolutions made by the rotating field
of the field
is
accordingly depends upon the frequency as well as upon the number of poles, being directly as the former and inversely as the latter, or
r.p.m.
60
frequency
J
pairs of poles.
(25)
Since speeds of
veniently be employed, the majority of induction motors have four, For example, a group or a still greater even number of poles. of commercial 60 cycle machines has two pairs of poles up to 5 horse
power capacity, three pairs from 7.5 to 30 horsepower, four pairs from 30 to 50 horsepower and five or six pairs for sizes between 50 and 200 horsepower.
The
winding either of copper bars or of wires embedded in it. The simplest form of rotor construction employs what
is
known
as the squirrelcage winding devised by Dobrowolsky. It consists of a number of lightly insulated copper rods or bars arranged in holes or slots around the rotor periphery, and connected at
each end by brass or copper rings of ample crosssection. There must be no common factor between the number of rotor and stator
slots,
may
tend to
"
lock," or
fail to start
when
current
The end
rings
may be
and connection
to the bars
or welding. Riveting not done well gives poor contact, which results in heating and large slip. Screws and bolts are also expensive
rivets, screws, solder
if
and poor contacts are likely to exist. Soldering by itself secures good contact but at heavy overloads or slow starting it is. likely to melt. Hence a combination of two of such means of connection is usually employed, though welded connections would be very satisuniformity of material at the joints could be assured. In the squirrelcage winding which Fig. 106 illustrates, the rotor has a
factory
if
number
of equidistant rectangular holes near its periphery, and these holes pass copper rods, the projecting ends of which through are bolted and soldered to two cast metal end rings. type of rotor
is
threephase
182
AND CONTROL.
winding already described, but the three free ends of the winding are led to three slip rings upon which brushes bear
stator
FIG. I06.
SQUIRRELCAGE ROTOR.
to the three terminals of a
(Fig. 107).
Yarranged
FIG. 107.
The fundaFundamental Equation of the Induction Motor. mental equation of the induction motor is the same as that of the
transformer, with the exception of the winding constant
Kr
(26)
m jo'
where
8
,
/=
the turns in series per phase, second and m the total maximum flux per pole. cycles per is a constant required to correct for the departure of the flux the c.e.m.f. in volts,
<
E =
between
.63
and
i.oo,
wave form, and its value varies depending upon the number of phases, slots
133
Since
<f> ro
= 3>a
7T
P<J>
gap
is
 where
P = number of poles.
we
have,
4.25
Putting
P&a = $ and
=
120
_
2
io
9
^
\/ 2 l^AT r.p.m.
#1^
r.p.m.
as the volts and inversely as the frequency. An equation for the magnetizing current of the induction motor
Ni
in the gap, a number of ampere are required for the path through air, and a number Then the are necessary for the path through the iron.
is
in actual design
from
i.i to 1.5.
That
is,
the ampereturns required for the gap are the controlling factor. The / NI may be calculated from magnetization curves of the
N
<S>
may
INa =
Where S
3 i 33
Lg +
(29)
the total surface of air gap is the length of core X circumference, L g is the effective length of mechanical gap X 2. All
values of the above are expressed in inches. The magnetizing current 7 mag corresponding to the air gap should be as low as possible because it is entirely wattless and thus reduces the power factor
of
the
motor.
It
/mag
la
M.F.
( 3 o)
The
value of /mag varies from 1530 per cent of the rated load
184
current, depending
upon the
sizes.
per cent
The
value of I a
is
mL aP
VzNS
will therefore
be
'
3I3
^y
we
pi
>P
MF

(32)
Combining
relation
this
motor the
p2
*F.
(33)
That
is,
from
this
number of poles, while inversely proportional to the number of turns and to the frequency. It is evident that to keep the same percentage of magnetizing current,
the turns
volts must be proportional if one or the other change. with a change in the frequency, the volts should vary as Similarly the square root of the frequency.
and
leakage reactance, or those portions of primary and secondreactances which are due to leakage of flux, is difficult to ary determine accurately without tests. It may be predetermined
The
within about ten per cent by means of such a formula as given by It Professor C. A. Adams (A. I. E. E. Transactions, June, 1905). be expressed in reactance ohms or inductive volts per ampere, may
There are four components comprising or per cent of total flux. the total leakage, namely, primary, secondary, zigzag, and endEach of these four factors is proportional to the ampere leakage. The slot leakage, primary and secondary, varies turns per slot.
inversely as the slotwidth,
and
The zigzag leakage, threading functions being quite complex. from primary to secondary slots, varies inversely as the air gap length.
The end
the coils, or inversely as the number of poles. of corollaries follow from the above relations.
certain
number
185
leakage for a given total induction by decreasing the flux per pole. (b) The per cent leakage varies inversely as the square of the voltage, since for a given apparent watts input, the current and
the flux per pole respectively vary inversely
voltage.
(c)
and
directly as the
The
openings
is
to cut
down
the use of open secondary slots, even where the conare placed in slots from the ends and not from above as in ductors
flux.
Hence
the primary.
leakage current is that additional magnetizing current remaintain the primary flux against the secondary reactions. quired It may be determined from tests, very easily and with considerable
to
The
accuracy; either from pull out (or maximum torque), or from the locked current (which is the current drawn by the motor when
applied to the stator with the rotor held stationary). following empirical relation between pull out torque and per cent leakage has been found to hold
rated voltage
is
The
(34)
If readings of voltage,
ohms
are
El
"'=
sin
'
2 J
(35)
The
transformer with
more exaggerated than they are in a secondary shortcircuited, the mutual flux is
reduced to the very small value required to maintain the current through such an exceedingly low resistance, and the magnetizing
current
is
Under
these conditions
we have
(36)
COS
E 
Ir l
Where I equals
factor,
rated load current, cos <j> equals full load power and Ir l equals rated load primary
drop.
since
it
The denominator
only approximates the useful or c.e.m.f., does not take into account the Ix drop; but will be found
186
AND CONTROL.
of an induction motor may be determined for from the per cent value of the two wattless components
by means of the
relation
cos</>
wherein
= Vioo (per cent magnetization + per cent leakage) = Vioo  (M + L? (37) M and L are the respective values of the magnetization and
2
2
.
leakage currents
in
all loads, varies inversely with the load. The leakage percentage current, however, is a direct function of the load, being substantially zero at no load.
The magnetization
its
hence
To show the effect of various relative values of percentage leakage and magnetization currents the following example is given, the + L at rated load. selected motors having the same value of
* In
terms
1S7
indicates that motor No. i is best on account of the small percentage of its suited to heavy overloads leakage current. Motor No. 3 is best suited to light loads by reason
The curves of the small percentage of its magnetization current. in Fig. 108 are drawn from the data of the above table, per given
cent load and per cent powerfactor being employed as abscissae and ordinates respectively.
IOC
90
8C
70
25
75
100
125
150
175
200
EFFECT OF LEAKAGE AND MAGNETIZATION CURRENTS UPON PGWZX FACTOR CF DIFFERENT MOTORS.
It
was shown
in the
development of the
elementary induction motor that the phenomenon which caused the secondary of the motor to revolve was the mutual action of the
That is, the rotating rotary field and the secondary currents. field induces currents in the secondary, and these currents magnetic acting according to Lenz's law tend to stop the motion producing
them.
The
by the secondary
that
is,
field.
At no load the
and secondary
very low, and the rotor revolves at approximately synchronous As the load gradually increases, the current required in the secondary becomes larger; at the same time the frequency of
speed.
is
higher.
The
188
AND CONTROL.
is
same
greater,
hence the speed must fall off more rapidly than the torque growth would indicate. In addition to this, the decrease in speed with increase in torque is still further accentuated because the secondary current lag becomes greater, consequently a proportionately larger current is required to produce the corresponding torque.
Finally magnetic leakage becomes pronounced, the effective flux reduced and the speed must drop off an extra amount to compensate for this condition.
can no longer be maintained, and the motor stops or becomes The exact form of the speed torque curve depends upon stalled.
the relation existing between the resistance and reactance of the secondary winding, and upon the leakage factor.
speedtorque or more correctly the torquecurve of an induction motor is indicated by the following equa:
tion
T=
e r 2s
(r
2 )
(38)
wherein
N
e
is
the
number
r2
oc
2
Wj
*
= = = = =
field.
The
derivation of equa. 38
sponding quantities in a transformer as follows: LetEi be the line voltage per primary circuit, and with the usual' low resistance of the stator winding, it may be placed equal to the voltage induced per primary circuit
by the rotary
field,
or
if
e is
N,e
Similarly at standstill the secondary
,
= Er
may be
written
2 e,
and
at
any
slip s, this
two components,
from which,
its
resistance
sN2e =
It
'
The
is
consequently
This energy current, in terms of the primary current, when multiplied by the primary voltage corresponds to that part of the motor input which represents the power of
189
An
i.
many
of
the
The
by
d I
torque becomes a
maximum when
2
r2
= 3x2',
this follows
directly
r2
sN 22 e2
MI
(r 2
+ s2x 22 )sN 22 e2  wi zr 2 (r 2 sN 22 e2 )
which
is
S 22X 2 2
 2r 22 =
motor
O,
or 8X2 = r 2 for
2.
maximum
The torque
of an induction
(39)
which
evidently greater the less the resistance of the motor winding, and the lower the angular velocity of the rotary field. = sx2 3. The maximum torque of a motor occurring when r 2
is
shows that
because
5 is
maximum
when
r2
= x2
/ \
r
which varies inversely as
rr>
<'
ma *
t
V &
^7
(40 '
and consequently to produce torque not only should r 2 and x 2 be equal but they
the resistance
The
relation
is,
*****
Ni(r*
+ S *2
2
l
2 )
(d)
and when multiplied by the primary voltage senting the power of the rotor, or
Rotor power
E =
it
**
=
'
'
()
and these
r2 f
rx22
<?x*
r*+s*x*
r*
s*x*
r*
The
torque exerted by the induction motor is obtained by dividing the rotor power by the rotor speed w2 = wi (i s), or we have
190
4.
AND CONTROL.
is
The power
2
expressed by the
relation
but since at
maximum
torque r 2
sx 2
we
have the condition that the power factor of the secondary at maxi
mum
5.
2
0.707.
is
The
7 2V 2
(p.
r 2s
from equa.
b (p.
188)
=
(r
+sx
2 )
which
s
may
w
t
;
189) as:
/ 2V 2
torque
hence we see that for a given torque and frequency the rotor copper losses vary directly as the slip. For example: Consider a motor
with 85 per cent efficiency at rated load and a slip of 5 per cent. efficiency with 10 per cent slip at rated load would be approximately 80 per cent, and with 15 per cent slip it would be about
The
75 per cent, one per cent in efficiency being lost with each per cent increase in slip.
6.
The
189):
input
of
the
motor,
not
primary copper
(p.
losses
or windage
2
and
from equa.
Motor input
output
is
= sN
r2
e r2
2
x2
.,
Motor output
*

y I r2
t5
C^/V*
x2
Since the output divided by input gives the motor efficiency, it is apparent that per cent of electrical efficiency is equal to percentage The total of synchronous speed (i s) attained by the rotor.
losses of
the
in the input as
(p.
e
2
,
but the line voltage being follows that for a given slip, the motor torque varies directly N^, as the square of the line voltage^ and converse y at a given torque the
rotor slip varies inversely as the square of the line voltage.
The Diagram of the Induction Motor. curves show how the powerfactor, torque, speed,
Circle
characteristic
efficiency
and
191
current vary with load, that is, they give the performance of the motor. The simplest method of determining the series of curves relating to the induction motor is by means of the circle diagram.
Many
diagrams of
this
first
one
"
Elektro
"
of October
n,
1894.
The
majority of these
the
The
circle
diagram
is
entirely
based upon the fact that the induction motor is substantially a transformer with considerably increased magnetic leakage. The
essential difference in action is the fact that the energy of the trans
former secondary appears in electrical form, whereas that of the motor is given out in mechanical form. The motor problem may accord
from the transformer standpoint by substituting the equivalent transformer shown in Fig. 109, which replaces each
ingly be studied
TTfflffi
FIG. 109.
its winding. Let L 1 and L 2 denote those portions of the and secondary selfinductance due to the leakages of flux primary which contribute nothing towards the development of the torque,
phase of
The
primary and secondary circuits respectively. Resistance h is intended to represent a loss proportional to the hysteresis and eddy
in the
This
is
loss
is
supposed
to
remain
not exactly true, the fact that the primary copper loss increases as the load is augmented, largely
compensates for the error of this assumption. Let I 1 be the primary current, r l the true primary resistance and
as being
*
the primary voltage per phase. This latter may be considered made up of three components, namely *
:
The
XL, page
253, 1904.
192
(1)
(2)
AND CONTROL.
that
I l r l which
is
in
phase with 7 r
i.e.,
That due
to the
mutual
its
flux existing
this
secondary.
To
we must
i2
consider the
secondary current.
Let
instantaneous value be
to this current is
7 2W sin
cut.
The
is
flux
Mi v
wherein
the coefficient of mutual induction between primary and secondThe voltage thereby induced in the primary, assuming a ary.
one
to
one
ratio of transformation, is
a)MI 2m cos
cut.
To
balance
this the
impressed voltage must have an opposite component or + cuMI 2m cos a)t, the effective value of which is ooMI 2 in quadrature
.
with 7 2
The
its
total
secondary e.m.f.
is
that
due
to the
primary
current,
value being
It is
the current 7 r
ajM^ made up
lagging in
the
secondary current, namely, the 7/ 2 drop, and one the leakage reaction, wL 2I 2 in quadrature with 7 2
.
sented
by
OA
in
phase with
is
O7
is
reprethe X ;
ALi,
90
behind
in
Oh. OP
the induced
the secondary, due to the mutual flux. Its two components are
e.m.f.
PR
and
OR
2,
corresponding to the
nent of the primary applied voltage, VECTOR DIAGRAM OF d ue to the mutual inductive reaction, no. VOLTAGES PER PHASE OF INThe is L c p er p en dicular to OR y , DUCTION MOTOR. ^ ,, is then the impressed primary voltage
.
OC
at
an angle
CO A
or
</>
is
power
The
193
POR
corresponding to
current.
<
is
From C draw
a line parallel to
OR
AL
at
N.
triangles,
namely,
OPR2
This construction gives us two similar and NLiC, wherein L\C and PR? are pro
portional.
Now
a>L v
in position,
because
and cuM
fixing the points A, L and the corresponding vectors represent R v which are of constant value. Hence as the secondary
by I lt thus
now
OR P
2
NLf, however, is similar to OPR 2 so that any change in the latter must be accompanied by a corresponding change in the former, or the point C must describe a semicircle on L^N as a diameter.
The
ingly
it
point O, being the origin of axes, is fixed in position; accordis constant for all values of C*, follows that X
OV
which
may
be expressed as
OC OV X OC = K
Tf
;
or
OV = K +
jr
OC.
However, by construction
voltage
OC =
consequently
OV=
7r
The
is directly proportional to the is constant, therefore current, and we have the important fact that the extremity primary of the vector representing the primary current moves along an arc
OF
of a circle as the load of the motor changes. With this rule established, we can construct particular circle diagrams adaptable to
practical use.
We
shall
A.
S.
McAllister in the
"
Electrical
this
employ the circle diagram proposed by World " of April and May, 1906.!
diagram the following readings must be determined, namely, voltage, current and watts with motor running without load, and voltage, current and watts with its rotor
locked, also the resistance of each primary phase winding. The equivalent singlephase current is obtainable from the no load
ammeter
reading, and the equivalent singlephase locked current The equivalent singlephase is derived from the locked conditions. resistance of the stator can be calculated if resistance per phase
winding
is
is
known.
reason for using singlephase equivalents diagram when thus constructed gives directly the
The
and output.
its
The
is
external
equal to the square of the corresponding tangent. f Alternating Current Motors, A. S. McAllister, p. 109, 1909.
194
AND CONTROL.
equivalent singlephase current in the case of twophase circuits is the sum of the current in both phases, while in the three
The
phase system the equivalent current is V^ 7, where 7 is the average of the currents in each line. The equivalent singlephase resistance
any twophase or threephase system, when considering the like currents, is onehalf that measured between phase lines by direct
for
currents.*
The watts input and current for the locked condition cannot be obtained safely with rated line voltage because of the danger of In damaging the motor by the large current which then flows.
practice a locked saturation curve
of four or five
obtained by plotting a series readings of current, power and torque with the test
is
voltage at rated frequency, and varied between onefifth and about threefifths of the operating pressure employed as abscissa. The
various curves are then continued beyond the test points by exterA rough approximation of the locked current and polation.
and then and the watts by four, but by multiplying possible change in saturation is likely to introduce an error of The above curve large value, especially in the powerfactor.f method is therefore preferable, although it is evidently open to
watts can be
testing at onehalf rated voltage,
made by
the
current
two
some question.
trated in Fig.
series of locked
illus
in.
of
line
Construction
represent
the
Diagram.
Let the
vertical line
OE,
Fig.
112,
Draw at their proper phase voltage vector. to scale, the equivalent singlephase no load current positions, and locked current OF, using the power factor quadrant to
OM
obtain
the proper phase angles. Through and F\ draw, perpendicular to OE, join
draw a
line line
HM
per
pendicular to the
middle of
either
as center
and
XM
ME,
or
intersecting
MH
also,
a
at
X.
With
XF
MCF; this the locus of the primary current. The distance represents the added primary or stator loss existing with rotor
is
HG
locked,
its
length
H
total
locked
watts)
IF.
Draw
pleted, the
performance of
GM.
* A. S. McAllister, Alternating Current Motors, pages 13, 14, 15. the position f The rotor should be allowed to rotate very slowly during this test, or r of the rotor should be varied and the results ave aged.
195
I
200
400
ISO
30
ICO
20
200
100
50
100
150
200
Volts
FIG. III.
2OH.P., 2I5VOLT,
INDUCTION MOTOR.
by
For example, the factors indicating the operation inspection. of the motor with a current P are as follows:
OP
to
scale represents
the equivalent
singlephase primary
current.
Cos. angle
POE equals
power
factor of motor.
in
primary equivalents.
RT equals total
PR
RS
primary
loss in watts.
loss.
196
^ pT
~QR
r
PR
Torque
.
746 r.p.m.
r.p.m.
OM' = U'T =
magnetizing current.
leakage current.
197
OM
'
*
M 'T
j
OP = OP =
Maximum Maximum
torque
C
B
is
perpendicular to
MG.
is
output
is
perpendicular to
MF.
factor exists
Maximum power
100
when primary
current vector
is
in the
diagram.
10
50
100
150
Torque
FIG. 113.
in Lbs. at Ft.
200 Radius
250
300
The
6ocycle, 8pole, 2i5~volt induction motor of 20 horsepower capacity, the values for the construction of these curves being obtained from
The fundamental data employed the circle diagram just given. were derived from test and are as follows:
Hot
resistances of stator:
Ph
(1
'
3)
Equivalent singlephase
= .107 w; Ph = .106 w
054 w
(3
2)
.109 &;
198
Construction.
radius of 2.5
in.
Draw
OM = .42
Lay.
Lay
off p.f.
in.
= =
(i in.
80 amperes).
off p.f.

MF
5375 in
Join
Bisect
MF
and M, draw perpendicular to voltage line OE. and erect a perpendicular at this point. The interthis
MH
section of
perpendicular with
of current locus.
OP
OP =
power
nate
1.57 in.
126 amperes;
H
continue
OP
until
it
intersects
power
factor ordi
2.20
in.,
is
or 2.20
Line
MG
2.5
=
:
drawn
as follows
at
PI =
total
power input
starting
43 kw.
HI =
MN
power input
at
no load
930 watts.
HF
copper
increase of primary
OF of
Primary copper
line voltage
430
X =
2
10 kw.
No
33. 5
.I08
.06
kw.
Increase in primary copper loss at starting = 9.94 kw. The line FI = 43 kw. = 2.46 in. or 17.5 kw. = i in.; thus dis
.57 in.,
which determines
is
drawn.
The
7
slip at
(i.e.,
126 amperes)
is
= QR RP =  = 10.9 per cent. Synchronous speed = = 900 (.100 .109) = 802 r.p.m. = 900 speed = TP = 1.4 in. or 1.4 X 17.5 = 24.5 kw. Motor input Motor output = PQ = 1.15 in. or 1.15 X 17.5 = 20.2 kw. = 27h.p. P T = 20.2 24.5 = 82.5 per cent. Motor efficiency = PQ
.*.
ir
199
watts
output
r.p.m.
7.05
20200
7.0=; ^ ^
i761b.
r.p.m.
radius.
by
ing thereto
Since the torque corresponding to current is ft. radius, and the vector correspond1.38 in. long, we can state that i in. on the torque
OP
RP
an
current
ON
+ OP =

26 per
NT OP =
^
DATA FOR CHARACTERISTIC CURVES OF A 20H.F. INDUCTION MOTOR DERIVED FROM CIRCLE DIAGRAM. FIG. 112.
Maximum motor torque CG' = 2.5 X 137 == 343 Maximum motor output = 1000 (BJ X 17.5) *
ft.
Ibs.
746
29.6
f
.746
39.5 horsepower.
The performances
to a series of
for
different
current values
corresponding
points indicated on the circle diagram were similarly obtained, and for convenience of reference are arranged in the preceding table, to which the curves in Fig. 113 cor
respond.
regulation of this particular motor is fairly good up to 150 per cent of rated torque, beyond which limit the drop in speed becomes pronounced, and at a torque of 343 ft. Ibs. (2.7 times rated
value) the motor reaches
its
The speed
200
limit
maximum
is
that point upon its speedtorque curve at which further increase the torque causes the motor to
any attempt
fall
to
in
rapidly
speed and stop. This characteristic is very pronounced in induction motors, the exact location of this point depending largely upon the
It usually varies between two and three flux leakage occurring. times the rated torque, depending upon the size of the motor, and may be obtained at starting if the rotor resistance and "standstill"
reactance are
made
its
equal
(p.
is
189).
motor
maximum
obtainable at a speed greater than torque, and this is usually the case with
motors. The power factor curve indicates one of the difficaused by induction motors on a circuit, namely, the production of a wattless current, which is particularly pronounced at light
culties
The power factor of an induction motor increases with the " " load to nearly the point, after which it decreases, and pulling out unless a special method be employed to secure maximum torque at
loads.
starting, the
power
at or
factor at standstill
is
usually
much
lower than
when running
The
201
by standard machines, and it should be noted that the power factor increases somewhat with the size of the motor. Starting and pull out torques are in terms of rated load torque.
Starting amperes equal amperes to start with rated load torque at line voltage, in terms of rated load current.
For further information upon theory, construction and control
the reader
is
of induction motors,
ALTERNATING CURRENT MOTORS. A. S. McAllister. New York, 1909. ALTERNATING CURRENT PHENOMENA. C. P. Steinmetz. New York, 1908. COURANTS ALTERNATIFS, Vol. II. G. Sartori. Paris, 1905. DYNAMOELECTRIC MACHINERY, Vol. II. S. P. Thompson. London, 1905. ELECTRIC MACHINE DESIGN. Alex. Gray. 1913. ELECTRIC MOTORS. H. M. Hobart. London, 1910. ELECTRIC TRANSMISSION OF ENERGY. Gisbert Kapp. THE INDUCTION MOTOR. Behrend. New York, 1903. THE INDUCTION MOTOR. De la TourMailloux. New York, 1904.
WECHSELSTROMTECHNIK, Vol. V.
E. Arnold.
Berlin, 1909.
CHAPTER
THE
with
fact that
XV.
substantially a transformer
difficulty
shortcircuited
causes
in
starting,
especially
when
For
pressure.
terminals are directly connected to full line example: The locked saturation curves of an
induction motor, as shown in Fig. in (p. 195), 'indicate that direct application of the full line pressure to the stator terminals, with the
rotor shortcircuited
and standing
still,
current which
rent
is
is
avoided.
low.,
In addition
power
motor
Consequently, when the regulation, causing voltage fluctuation. to be started is of even moderate size (over i h.p.) some means
to
should be employed
values.
limit
the inrush
current to
reasonable
general forms of rotor windings are employed in practice as already stated on pp. 1812, and as a result two methods of starting
Two
have been developed which depend respectively upon: (a) Reduction of Line Voltage.
(b)
Resistance Control.
Starting
by means
of
is
adopted when
squirrelcage rotors are employed, and it is generally accomplished through the introduction of an auto transformer or compensator
primary circuit. The underlying principle of this type of be understood by referring to Fig. 114. The device is to a singlecoil stepdown transformer, the ratio of transequivalent
into the
starter will
formation being that existing between the total number of turns across which the primary terminals are connected and those between
In the specific instance illustrated in is placed. the primary potential is 440 volts, the secondary voltage Fig. 114, is 176, secondary current 200 amperes, and primary current 80
amperes.
The
is
only a frac
203
when
the switch
is
position, but after the motor has approximately reached its rated speed, the switch is thrown over rapidly into the running position, the
stator
Amps.
80
Amps.
FIG. 114.
each phase, each coil being placed upon a separate leg coils, of a laminated iron core. Each coil is provided with three or more
taps, so that a
number
of subvoltages
for
Running
a.
Starting
FIG. 115.
The three coils of the comswitch, according to service conditions. pensator are Yconnected, the supply line to the three free ends and the starting connections of the motor to the taps being as shown in
Fig. 115.
To meet
204
AND CONTROL.
40, 58, 70
and 80 per cent of the line voltage, though the 70 per cent value meets most of the commercial requirements, as it gives pracThe line currents with the tically full load torque for starting.
above taps are respectively 16, 34, 50 and 64 per cent of that which would be drawn by the motor if no compensator were employed. The chief objection to the compensator is its cost, being about 25 It has been suggested that this per cent of that of the motor. could be reduced by using one compensator for starting a expense
number
of motors, the method recommended being as follows:* throwover switch is provided for each motor to be started, and a
threepole compensator supply switch. Only one motor can be started at a time, thus avoiding the line disturbance caused by
simultaneous starting of two or more motors, each motor switch being thrown into the running position as soon as the machine
FIG. 1 1 6.
approximates normal speed. When all motors have been started, the compensator supply switch should be opened. The diagram (Fig. 1 1 6) shows the method of connecting three motors to one
compensator.
*
G.
of
Electrical
Engineers,
Vol.
XLI, 1908,
p. 685.
205
started without
Threephase motors
maybe
a compensator, by Fconnecting the stator windings at starting, and employing delta connections for running, the change being rapidly
made by means of a special throwover or doublethrow The connections for such a starting scheme are switch.
in Fig. 117.
i
7
four point
illustrated
is
By
this
at starting
only
\/3 or 58 per cent of the line voltage. It follows, then, that the For example, constarting current and torque are also reduced.
Motor Windings
AAAAAA
A'
A/WWV\
FIG. Iiy.
CONNECTIONS FOR STARTING THREEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR. STATOR YCONNECTED FOR STARTING.
motor already referred to; the starting current with Fconnection would be only onethird of that taken if the motor were thrown directly on the line with deltaconnected stator, or it would
sider the 2oh.p.
be (470 r 3)
r
97
being proportional to the square of the potential difference employed, would give a value of torque equal to onethird of the value obtained
with
full line voltage.
Boucherot Method.
An
excellent
method
motors provided with squirrelcage rotors is that devised by M.P. Boucherot.  The general scheme is to employ the ordinary form
of stator as the primary,
and
cage windings
of graded
resistance
high resistance with low inductance to low resistance with high * Rated load current equals 97 amperes. t Bulletin de la Societe Internationale des Electriciens, February, 1898, and Electric Motors, H. M. Hobart, pp. 325~337> London, 1910.
206
AND CONTROL.
resistance circuits are the seats of large induced currents at starting, while those of high inductance have only
inductance.
The high
small currents, because at standstill their reactance is high. The As the rotor speeds starting is due to the high resistance windings. from standstill, the frequency of the secondary e.m.f. decreases; up
all
becoming
is
extremely low.
Thus
the advantages of a high resistance rotor for starting are secured, while the poor speed regulation and low efficiency of such a winding
low resistance
usually found to be sufficient to meet practical requirements, Fig. 118 showing a rotor punching
is
12
13
FIG. Il8.
of such a motor.
radial openings joining the upper and lower slots are designed to prevent the occurrence of excessive magnetic leakage with respect to the inner winding. Copper bars are placed
The
high resistance
alloy.
and these are connected by means of end rings formed of German silver or other resistance
207
The
speedtorque curves of such a motor are illustrated in Fig. A represents the action when the motor is op
20
<
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
erated with only the outer or high resistance winding active. In this case the starting torque available is nearly twice that at rated load, and the slip at rated load is about 25 per cent. Curve B indicates
the speedtorque relations when the inner or highly reactive winding is used. Under this condition the motor has practically no
starting torque, while the
is
only
maximum available torque when running 60 per cent of the rated value, and the corresponding slip is only 6 per cent. The speed torque characteristic of the motor with
both windings active is shown in curve C. The starting torque then obtained is substantially twice that existing at rated load.
The speed
regulation
is
excellent,
slip of
at rated load.
It is surprising that this
method
of control
high,
necessary to start
and the control extremely simple, all that the motor being the closing of an ordinary
It
in
the
discussion
of
the
torque of this type of machine may ance of its secondary winding. With this method of control the
starting torque can be
*
made
to
to the
maximum
Electric Motors,
H. M. Hobart,
London, 1910.
208
that
AND CONTROL.
In the case of is, two or three times the rated load torque. small machines (3 to 5 horsepower), in which no speed regulation is required, provision may be made to locate the special resistance
ing for this
and shaft, employan overhung core. For example, the three free purpose ends of the rotor winding are connected to three resistance grids placed within the rotor spider. This resistance is subsequently cut out, by operating a lever which engages a collar free to slip longitudiThis collar moves over the resistance grids, nally upon the shaft.
grids in the annular space between rotor core
cuited.
gradually reducing their value, until they are completely shortcirThis method, while applicable to small machines, is not
advisable for large ones on account of excessive loss in the resistwhich if confined within the rotor would produce extreme ances, heating and perhaps ultimately injure the motor. Consequently,
in large machines, or in the case of those
PR
whose speed
is
to
be ad
justed, the regulating resistances are placed external to the motor, connections being made to the free ends of the Yrotor winding by
of three sliprings and brushes, Fig. 120. This type of resistance control, owing to the presence of the sliprings, is commercially
means
known as
FIG. 120.
The
slip of
an induction motor
at
as the secondary copper losses (p. 190); hence if the rotor resistance per phase winding be doubled, the slip for any given torque
will
if
times value, the slip will be thrice its former amount, etc. The curves shown in Fig. 121 are obtained from the speedtorque
of one, one
curve of Fig. 113, and they correspond to secondary rotor resistances and onehalf, two, four, five and eight times that existing
209
each of the branches, as shown in Fig. 120. The amount of external resistance needed to obtain any given starting torque within the range of the motor's capabilities can be
equally in
readily determined from the speedtorque curve obtained when the For example, rotor is operated with its windings shortcircuited. it is desired to have the typical motor operate so that it will give, as
maximum, approximately
rated torque
exists
when
the
starting;
when
slip is eight
500
900
800 M 400
\
700
600
Hi
o>
<J
p; 7j
300
400
I
200
g
300 g
200
, 100
\
50 100
100
200
250
300
350
Torque
FIG. 121.
Hence
to
have
this
torque
about twelvefold.
However, since the resistance per phase winding of the rotor is .044 ohm, approximately .5 ohm additional must be placed in each branch. Similarly, if it be desired that the motor
exert the
maximum
can be also determined directly from the speedcurve of Fig. 113. The slip at maximum torque is 40 per torque cent, therefore to have 100 per cent slip and same torque, the rotor
ternal resistance
resistance
must be increased
to
about
,110
2.5
times
its
initial value,
that
is,
a total of .044
2.5
ohm must
be placed
in
each
phase
The advantage
of employing
210
AND CONTROL.
by the curves in starting current drawn
directly to the line
clearly indicated
by
122.
Of
these,
shows the
when connected
Curve
shows the
Time
FIG. 122.
10 in
12
14
16
18
20
22
Seconds
2 ro
3r
in
4ro
Rotor Resistance
Terms
FIG. 123.
when
is
employed and the increase of current when this resistance is shortcircuited on the second occurring Curve C shows what step after twelve seconds acceleration.
ance (.132
per circuit)
results
ohm
when
is
211
ohm), and is gradually reduced in This method causes a very marked reduction in the average starting current, and is used where the supply circuit must not be disturbed by voltage fluctuations.
steps to
its
shortcircuit value.
The
factor, torque
at starting, as well as
which
curves show that addition to rotor resistance at starting improves the power factor, reduces the starting current, while it also increases the starting torque until the rotor resistance equals rotor reactance, beyond which the torque falls off.
Calculation of SlipRing Control. The determination of the resistance steps for the starter of a slipring induction motor is a simple matter, and it depends entirely upon the fact that the slip at a given
For torque varies directly as the resistance of the rotor circuit. example, let it be supposed that the typical 20 h.p. induction motor
be provided with a starting controller such that the following specified conditions will be met:
is to
(single
phase equivalent). Current not to exceed above value upon change in setting of controller arm.
Power
cent.
it
is
to
to
be
held upon any given notch until acceleration for such setting has If this is not the case, it is well to double the number of ceased.
resistance steps,
making
these
less resistance
the torqueper cent slip, and torquepower factor curves of the motor as in torquecurrent Reference to this figure shows that twice rated torque Fig. 1230.
Ibs. at one foot radius, and that it occurs under normal operatconditions with a current of 180 amperes (s.p. equiv.) and at ing a power factor of 85 per cent, thus conditions specified are obtainable.
is
Draw
250
The
250 Ibs. torque (rotor windings short circuited) is 17 per cent; hence to obtain a like torque at starting the rotor circuit
slip at
212
must be increased from normal value to substantially same or from .044 to .27 ohm. With such resistance in the rotor, the motor will develop a starting torque of per phase 250 ft. poundals and accelerate the rotor along slip curve CD against
resistance
six times
the
is
48 per cent
(468 r.p.m.). produce further acceleration, the rotor resistance must be again reduced. To have a slip of 48 per cent and a torque of 250 ft. poundals, the rotor resistance must be decreased from 6 times
to 2.83 times
To
normal or from
.27 to .127
ohm
17 per cent.
If
50
100
300
850
FIG.
123 A.
such a change
is made in the controller setting, the motor again a torque in excess of load requirements and the rotor acceldevelops erates along line EF until rated torque is attained, which occurs at
slip of 23
shows that 23 per cent slip at a torque of 250 ft. poundals is one and onethird times normal slip, hence to produce an acceleration beyond 680 r.p.m. the rotor resistance must be reduced from .127 to .06 ohm causing the rotor to speed up as shown
by line which is
rated torque at if times rated slip is attained, cent slip or 804 r.p.m. Further reference to the 10.7 per sliptorque curve shows that a torque of 250 ft. poundals is not
until
GH
213
obtainable with a 10.7 per cent slip, neither can the current rise above 130 amperes nor the power factor fall below 88 per cent if
the rotor resistance
is
short circuited.
Hence
after acceleration
has
ceased on the third point, the control arm may be moved with safety over to the full speed position. Collecting the above results in tabular
form we have
Excellent discussions concerning the various methods employed for starting poly
ALTERNATING CURRENTS. A. Hay. London, 1906. ELECTRIC MOTORS. H. M. Hobart. London, 1910. ELECTRIC MOTORS. N. G. Meade. 1908. HANDBUCH DER ELECTROTECHNIK, Vol. IX. Leipzig, 1901. WECHSELSTROMTECHNIK. E. Arnold. Vol. V, Berlin. 1909. POLYPHASE MOTOR. B. G. Lamme. Electric Journal, Vol. I, 1904. THE INDUCTION MOTOR, CHOICE OF TYPE. G. Stevenson. Journal Inst. E. E., Vol. XLI, 1908.
CHAPTER
THE
XVI.
machine, the larger sizes usually having the better speed regulation. However, for many practical applications, such as hoisting, machine tool and traction work, it is desirable and often essential to vary the speed of a motor. It is the object of this chapter to examine the
various methods of controlling the speed of induction motors, which These is even more difficult than it is for directcurrent motors.
methods
are:
Variation of the frequency of the supply voltage. Variation of the number of motor poles. Variation of the rotor resistance.
to
obtain
steps
regulation
or
more gradual
of adjustment
control.
any single
Variation of Supply Frequency. The speed in r.p.m. of the rotary field of an induction motor being, as already shown, equal to 60 frequency .pairs of poles] any change in the periodicity of the
applied voltage would be reproduced in exact proportion in the speed of the rotary field. Hence, variation of frequency is theoretically the ideal
obtaining of such
of speed control; unfortunately, however, the a source of power supply is not commercially In case only a single motor is operated, the feasible at present.
means
generator speed could be altered, and thus the frequency of the current. The voltage should be varied in proportion to the fre
quency with
this
method
no load current
215
would either be excessive or too small, according as the frequency is low or high, thus considerably changing the powerfactor of the
machine.
cated,
is
employed in this book (p. 71). The speedtorque, currenttorque, and power factortorque curves of a 2oh.p. motor, when operated with currents having frequencies of 20, 40 and 60 cycles, are respectively as shown in Fig. 124. The supply voltage is
150
Torque
FIG. 124.
altered with the frequency; that is, pressures of 72.5, 143 and 215 This group of curves shows that the current volts are employed.
and power
factor for any given torque equal to, or less than, the rated value are practically constant, and independent of the frequency employed. The speeds attained at a given torque vary in
than the frequency, being 836 r.p.m. at rated torque 530 r.p.m. at 40 cycles; and 230 r.p.m. at 20 cycles, This difference is due to the departure practically a 4 to i range. of the machine from ideal conditions, since resistance and leakage
ratio
a greater
and 60
cycles,
216
The
is
The synchronous speed in r.p.m. of an induction motor being given by the expression
60
as
X/
the
v
(p. 181), it is
number
of poles.
about
1 200
r.p.m.
if its
for six pairs of at 600 r.p.m. will rotate at a speed of stator winding be rearranged so as to have 3
simplest method of applying this control is to a stator having two or more separate windings, correspondemploy One winding may also be used, ing to different numbers of poles.
pairs of poles.
The
the different speeds being obtained by which alters the grouping of the coils
means
A
it
is
is
and
number
A grouped or polar rotor winding requires a of poles. rearrangement of its coils in the same order as those of the stator, though two or more independent rotor windings could be used.
The
connections of a multispeed motor of this type are relatively
simple, especially if only two to one ratio in speed is required and the In this case, only six leads are brought rotor is of the cage type. out from the machine for threephase circuits, and eight for two
phase
In case, however, a polar rotor winding is used (to allow for slipring control), twelve leads must be brought out from
lines.
the machine for threephase connection, six of these terminals being for the stator winding and the remainder for the rotor. Similarly
if
a three to one speed adjustment (in three steps) were wanted, threepole groupings would be required, with eighteen leads brought
out from the motor, nine for the stator and rotor respectively.
sequently this
of
for
Con
method of control is objectionable in the complication connections when more than a two to one speed is desired, espe
cially
machines having wound rotors. A further criticism is that the speed changes can be made only by opening and closing the connections to the supply lines, which as already shown (p. 202)
very likely to cause wide variations in the primary current and
fluctuations in the line voltage.
is
The power
affected
machine
is
not greatly
by change
number
of poles, though
it is
somewhat
217
higher with the smaller number. The efficiency and speed regulation are better with the greater number of poles.
Variation of Resistance of Rotor Winding.
The
third
method
of adjusting the speed of an induction motor is by varying the resistance of the rotor winding. This arrangement has already been
considered under the heading of slipring control, and curves showing the effect of resistance in the rotor are given on pp. 209, 210. It does not give a constant speed over the torque range, in fact, the
resistance employed, as
shown
in
of a d.
The speed regulation is comparable to that shunt motor having an external resistance in series with the armature, and the other objections of low efficiency and conc.
by the controller also obtain. Consequently, method should be employed only when the periods of speed _^ adjustment are of relatively short duration, the motor being operated most of the time at rated speed. It is, however, used considerably in connection with the other methods of speed control, for transition from one running speed to another.
siderable space occupied
this
variously
The
application of this
of which are coupled together, either directly upon the same shaft or indirectly by the load, as in the case of an electric locomotive.
The
has
first
of the motors
(i.e.,
rotor provided with a polar winding, arranged so as to deliver at standstill a voltage of the same pressure and number of phases
its
as those of the
power
circuit.
(primary)
of
machine may be
is
may
be
XXVIII,
1909, p. 971.
1909.
218
The
shown diagrammatically
125.
Motor
voltage at rated frequency upon closing the supply switch S. secondary delivers threephase currents of the same frequency
f
and
voltage to the stator of machine B when switch S is connected to its lower set of terminals; consequently both motors will accelerate.
As motor
will
its
rotor currents
will decrease,
and
Motor B
FIG
125.
5 up and
if
S'
down
speed.
is
Therefore,
this half
the point at which the machines tend to operate together. speed Rated speed is obtained when one machine only is employed, the
by means
The above explanation applies to the use of two motors having an equal number of poles. If, however, the machines connected in cascade have a different number of poles, they will operate at speeds other than half normal. For example, referring to Fig. 125, when
either
motor
r.p.m.
A or B = frequency X
is
60
operated singly, the synchronous speed in rpairs of poles, or the cascade set could
be employed to give the speed of either motor, depending upon which one was connected to the line. The next step would be to connect the secondary of machine A to that of the primary of motor
219
gives one of two speeds, depending upon the employment of direct If the former is used, both motors or differential concatenation.
tend
to rotate
of such
a combination
=/x
60
*
(p A
+ pB)
(41)
wherein /is the frequency of the supply circuit in cycles per second, while pA and pB are the pairs of poles of motors A and B respectively.
is
obtained
when
the machines
up
in opposite directions; in
is:
=/X
60
^
(p A
PB).
(42)
method of obtaining a four speed outfit, the speed range depending upon the number of poles of the For example, if motor A has 6 pairs of poles respective machines. and B has 2 pairs, while the line has a frequency of 60 cycles per
poles consequently provides a
Motor
60
B
v
=/X
60
j
p3
60
1800.
in
differential
2.
Motors
r.p.m.
900.
3.
concatenation,
*
PB)
60
60
60
(6
2)
=
X
Motor A operating
60
r
alone, r.p.m.
=/X
r
pA
60
600.
in direct concatenation, r.p.m.
4.
Motors
60
60
(6
2)
450.
of four to
one
is
attained.
torque developed by a group of motors in cascade depends upon whether they are connected in direct or differential order, and
it
The
may be
Torque
wherein
in Ibs. at i
radius
.117
(Wi
W)
PA
PB
(43)
Wi
220
of the
number
A and B
and
cycles per
second.
The
concatenation and the minus sign for differential connection. The latter gives the lowest starting torque, and the set will not start up
if
number
of poles
is
is
connected to the
line.
The method
to
using the motor with the smaller number of poles singly, and when the synchronous speed for differential connection has been slightly
exceeded, the switches are thrown over so that the desired differential arrangement is secured, after which the equipment will continue
It is possible to operate two motors in cascade, properly. having the motor with the smaller number of poles normally connected to the line, which condition gives a selfstarting differential
to
work
arrangement, but this order of connection is not particularly desirable, because the iron losses of the set would be greatly exaggerated owing to the high frequency of the current in the secondary
circuit.
The
characteristic curves of a
nected in cascade can be determined by means of any of the circle diagram methods, the test data necessary for the construction being determined in substantially the same manner as for a single machine.
The power
at
and efficiency of a cascade group of given capacity and speed will be lower than that of a single machine any torque having the same rating on account of the combined wattless components and losses. A great advantage of the twomotor equipment is that two efficient
factor
running speeds can be obtained without opening the supply switch, hence the line disturbances that occur with the other form of multispeed induction motors, are eliminated. It is possible by an extension of the cascade connection to three
wide speed range of many steps. On a with a set of three motors having 14, 8 and 2 pairs of poles respectively, a speed range from 138 to 1800 r.p.m. is secured, which is a ratio of i to 13. The cost of such a system is extreme, however, and the usual demands of practice are more economically
motors
to obtain a very
6ocycle circuit
set, utilizing
221
Speed Control by Variation of Applied Potential. The slip of an induction motor, at a given torque, varies approximately inversely as the square of the primary voltage (p. 182), and this is the principle of the potential
method
of speed control.
The
usual
means
of securing this adjustable voltage is a compensator, with several The connectaps, which is introduced into the primary circuit. tions for this method are substantially the same as those of the com
pensator starting device shown in Fig. 115 (p. 203), excepting that the contactors slide over the taps, instead of being fixed in position.
The
700
600
a"
500
Rated Torqu
75
125
)s.
Ft.
Rated Torque
'
I:
1WO
Rated Torque
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
J50
HO.
values
of
126.
torque
shown
in
the
curves
of
Fig.
126,
and
from these the speed regulation, for any selected voltage, with change in torque is readily obtained. For example, the speeds for different torques at 50 per cent rated potential are determined
by drawing a
vertical
line
through this voltage abscissa. The with the curves gives the speed developed
speed regulation of a motor convery poor, while the powerfactor and
The
by
this
method
is
regulation and efficiency are even less satisfactory when adjustable resistance in the primary is employed in place of the
The
compensator.
In
method
of induction
motor speed
unsatisfactory.
It
which the more desiramethods already considered introduce too great a complication in wiring and trolley connections.
service, as in the case of traveling cranes, for
ble
For further information concerning induction motor speed control see the following:
ALTERNATING CURRENTS. A. Hay. London, 1906. ELECTRIC MOTORS. H. M. Hobart. London. 1910. WECHSELSTROMTECHNIK. Vol. V. E. Arnold. Berlin. 1909. DIE REGULIRUNG VON DREHSTROMMOTERN. W. Burkard.
1903.
E, T.Z., August,
H. C. Specht.
VI,
B. G.
Lamme.
THREEPHASE MOTORS
cian,
Dr. H. B. Eschenburg.
Electri
London, 1903.
J.
K. Sumac. Z. E.
T., 1904.
I.
G. A. Maier.
Trans. A.
E. E.,
XXX,
p. 2455.
CHAPTER
THE
XVII.
is
and
In fact any polyphase induction motor will operate as a singlephase machine of somewhat smaller capacity and lower power factor, if it is first caused to rotate at nearly synchronous speed by some The necessity for some such auxiliary device arises starting device. that the singlephase motor, per se, has no starting from the fact
torque.
Absence of Starting Torque.  Consider a bipolar singlephase The distribution of motor, provided with a squirrelcage rotor.
current in the secondary at standstill is as indicated in Fig. 127. The current in bars aa! is zero, because these are equivalent
to
maximum
loop,
if it
is
parallel
to
the
flux.
The
moves
at
all,
it
lines of force,
hence
However, must move parallel to the direction of the The bar m carryexerts no turning effort.
}
W.
this equivalent
shown by
it.
the rotor, as
the
symmetry
there
is
This latter ing a current of equal amplitude but of opposite sign. bar being in a field of the same strength and direction as that in is located, will exert a torque equal to that developed by which
m, but in the reverse direction, as indicated by the corresponding arrow. In the same way the effort exerted due to the current in any bar of the winding will be neutralized by that of another sym*
The The
Singlephase Induction
5,
Motor,
M. Arendt and
was
built
J.
H. Morecroft, G. E.
see
1910.
of this type
successful
motor
by C. E. L. Brown,
Lon
don
Electrician, Vol.
XXX,
p. 358, 1893.
223
224
Consequently
at standstill
no turning
FIG. 127.
The above
may be proved
as follows:
Assume
the rotor
winding as composed of symmetrically placed shortcircuited coils, and consider one having its plane at any angle a to the axis of the
FIG. 128.
field
NS,
as illustrated in
Fig.
128.
approximately the
225
B represent the maximum flux density at a, = o, B cos pt represents the instantaneous flux density at a, = o, B cos pt cos a represents the corresponding value at the inductors selected, and with A as the area of the coil the flux passing through
it
becomes
<
"9
cos pt sin a.
(44)
The
e.m.f.
d$ = BAp sin
pt sin a.
(45)
is
The
= BA p sin
(pt
6) sin
f
Z'.
(46)
Naturally in the case of a single coil this current will react upon
the
stator field
and produce
of
all
flux distortion;
if,
however, we
It
sum
is
up
the
effects
of the
balance,
and the
field
distortion
becomes
coil will
negligible.
to
be modified
by the
action of the neighboring coils, consequently Z' in equa. 46 repreThe angle 6 = cos" 1 ( r' * Z'), wheresents the effective impedance.
in r'
is
as above defined.
If
there
are
coils
on
the rotor
coil will
equally spaced
Kth
be
lB*Ap
[sin (2 pt
 6} +
sin 0] sin
2 Z',
(47)
wherein
The
is
T=
2/
lB 2 Ap[sm
(2 pt
 6)+
Field.
flJS^sin
TT
 2 Z'=o*
(48)
Development
fails
of
Revolving
We
field
when we have an
to
oscillating
magnetic
torque.
exert
any
starting
Therefore,
a singlephase it is caused
must be because
is
it
has,
226
currents
field.
upon the stator flux, set up for itself a rotating magnetic That such is the case may be shown nonmathematically. Assume a twopole motor (Fig. 129) the stator winding of which is supplied with a singlephase alternating current, producing an
oscillating field
A A'.
The
FIG. 129.
duce a
angles to the main field, and for convenience assume this to be represented by the poles BB'. In commercial machines no such empty pole spaces exist, as practically all
field at right
we
will
of the stator
is
covered with
coils.
The
them due
first
inductors of the revolving rotor have e.m.f's induced in to two actions, namely by motion through the field and
rate of
by the time
change of the
The
as a
we
transformer e.m.f. The inductors aaf will always have a rotational e.m.f. set them except when the stator field passes through zero value.
up
in
The
amplitude of
this e.m.f.
for
will
be proportional
Conductors aa f
may
be considered equivalent
in
to closed coils,
them
will
produce a
field
in direction
porarily the
IR drop
placed equal to
~
,
where
4> r
developed by
227
field.
The
time phase with the main field, hence the cross will be in time quadrature with it. The direction of the main
in
and the motion of the rotor inductors are such that the
is
e.m.f.
r generated in aa
positive.*
The
rotor currents
are in such
direction that
when
pole
is
of north polarity
and decreasing,
be of like sign but increasing, reaching its maximum pole The stiength of pole B strength onequarter of a period later. decreases after a similar lapse of time, the main field reverses and a
will
north pole begins to build up at A'. That is, the main field and so combine that a north pole travels around the stator quadrature field
in the direction ABA'B'' at synchronous speed. Hence there exists a rotating field produced by the combined action of stator and
rotor currents. This simple explanation gives an idea of the production of the rotating field in the singlephase induction motor, but it does not consider all the reactions which occur.
inductors bb' moving in the quadrature field have a rotational e.m.f. induced in them, in the same manner as those passing through the main field, and this is of maximum positive value
The
when
the north pole at B attains its highest value. these two rotational e.m.f.'s, the varying fields AA'
In addition
to
and aa respectively. Consetransformer e.m.f 's, in coil groups quently, there are four e.m.f.'s, to be considered before the actual
rotor currents which produce the quadrature field can be determined. The rotational e.m.f. induced in inductors aa' is of maximum
positive value
and BE'
set
up
when the pole A is at its greatest north polarity, but the transformer e.m.f. set up in these bars by the quadrature field
is at the same moment of maximum negative value. Hence the ' actual e.m.f. (Ea ) existing in A A is the algebraic sum of these two The rotational e.m.f. due to the main field must be voltages.
greater than the transformer e.m.f. of the quadrature field; in fact the latter is of such strength that the actual e.m.f. (E a ) will be just enough to establish the current which produces the field BB'.
we
angles to the main field, its up directly by the stator magnetizing curmust investigate further to see how it is taken, as it
field is at right
line.
must
*
be,
from the
flowing
It
Currents
away from
reader
into
the
plane
of
the
paper are
called positive.
228
AND CONTROL.
IZ drop
and transformer
assumed
to
negligible;
if
be in time opposition and their vector sum, instead of algebraic sum, must be considered. The main field, by transformer action, induces an e.m.f. in bars
W,
and
their
this
resultant e.m.f. by ] in these conductors sets up a current affecting the main field (E b and consequently the current drawn from the line. The current due to E b is equal to that existing in bars flowing in inductors aa which latter is that producing the cross m.m.f. Moreover, the
in the
same inductors
The
current bb'
is
in
increases the magnetizing the line, the increment being that which would
it
be necessary to directly magnetize the quadrature field. The reluctance of the cross field's magnetic circuit is substantially the
same
as that of the
will
for both
main field, consequently the m.m.f. required be the same, and obviously, therefore, a twophase motor run on one phase
This conclusion
out
tests
is
borne
the
by
actual
practice,
showing

that
magnetizing current of a
single
phase
motor
is
by a
the
fre
threephase
potential
machine,
difference,
quency and turns per phase winding being the same. At synchronous speeds the two component fields
are
FIG. 130.
of
equal
strength;
rotating
bars aa'
reduced
229
main
field
remains constant.
Consequently the strength of the rotating field developed below synchronous speed is represented by an ellipse, the shorter axis being
in the direction of the quadrature field
BB'
'
'.
When
driven above
synchronous speed the field is also elliptical, the major axis, however, being in the direction of the cross field. The fields for different
speeds are as illustrated in Fig. 130, a, b, c, respectively, corresponding to synchronous, subsynchronous and supersynchronous speeds. The maximum torque which a motor is capable of exerting, other
things being equal, depends upon the average value of the magnetic This mean value, neglecting IR field in which the rotor moves.
is
in the
machine the slip, while for the corresponding singlephase value of the field decreases as the slip increases; thus the average
pullout torque of a polyphase
machine connected
be
less
Many interesting facts concerning the rotor currents as well as the development of the rotating field may be brought out by
FIG. 131.
Let us consider the elementary bisimple mathematical analysis. polar singlephase induction motor represented in Fig. 131 with a
coil at
an angle a
to the
main polar axis. Assume as before (p, 224) is a cosine function of time, and adopt
230
AND CONTROL.
A = area of coil. oj = angular velocity of the coil, or a = A sin a = A sin wt = projected area
perpendicular to the flux
cot.
of
coil
on plane CC'
value
NS.
density,
its
B = maximum
flux
instantaneous
being
cos pt.
is
= AB
=
.5
cos pt sin
[sin (p
cot
AB
w)
is
sin (p
co) /];
(49)
= .$AB {(pa>)cos(pa>)t(p+a>)
Z
cos(p + co)
/}.
(5o)
Let
r1
and
inductance of the
represent respectively the effective resistance and coils; the values of these constants are based not
only upon the character of an individual coil but also to some extent upon the action of neighboring coils. With this notation the current in
any secondary
coil
wherein
The
react
fluxes
coil
field will
so
if
be considered, can be expressed only by an infinite series. It has been experimentally shown, however, that the fluxdistorting reactions between primary and secondary do not exist with a rotor winding composed of a number of coils
divisible
but a single
into
pairs,
the
members
of
which
are
placed
at
The
rotor winding of a
commer
this condition;
consequently the
231
higher harmonics of the rotor current disappear and the same is This equation indicorrectly represented byequa. 51 given above.
cates that the rotor current consists of two parts having different fre
At
standstill
any coil spaced an angle y from the axis have a current of the following form:
of the
mag
T A *n * standstm
4
~ ABpcos
(pt
d ss )
'
(52)
(r.'+jz.')
standstill
is
of
line
w) defrequency. The current component with frequency (p creases in value as the rotor speed rises toward synchronism, being
zero
at
that
limit,
j
and
the
secondary current
' (2 pt
then
becomes
/syn=
which
is
ABpcos 
0syn)
of doubleline frequency.
ence of
nents
These variations of rotor current frequencies as well as the presthe differential (p aj) and additive (p + a>) compo
be conveniently observed by the application of a reed Connect such an instrument across the slip rings meter. frequency of the wound rotor of a polyphase motor, excite the stator with
may
singlephase current
of two currents,
and then
start the
machine.
As the speed
of the rotor increases, the frequency meter will indicate the presence
the line frequency. Let us now select a coil on the rotor displaced
any angle
ft
from the
loop a we have
The flux through this new just considered, Fig. 131. coil at synchronous speed (a = ut = pt) will be, from equa. (49),
<>
= AB cos pt sin
(pt
ft),
e.m.f. coil
ft
=
= ABp
2
(cos (2 pt
+ /?),
ft
(55)
current coil
ft
6),
(56)
(57)
232
AND CONTROL.
on the rotor may be
The
magnetomotive force of
all
the coils
expressed as
the rotor will
K^i.
The maximum
is
equal to zero, and hence the poles of be in the same plane. Let /?' be the angle of that particular coil; then
*
= ^COS
(2pt
/?'
0).
But since
i is
equal to zero,
^cos
whence
(2 pi
/?'
0)=
o,
and
/7T
2 pi.
This
means
that
and the
It also 2pt. magnetic pole of the rotor changes at the rate of indicates that the pole rotates backwards on the rotor. The latter,
is turning forward at a rate pt, consequently the rotor revolve backward in space at a rate pt, and the equation of poles
however,
this pole in
space
is
is
referred to the
we have
=
is,
cos
j
(2 #*
/?
That
distribution
constant,
hence
the
m.m.f. of
proved.
The
as
Assume the rotor stationary; this corresponds to the same as the shortcircuited secondary of a transconsidering former. Thus the relations existing between primary and secondary
follows:
it
apply or, neglecting resistance and leakage, the secondary m.m.f. is equal and opposite to that of the
233
rotor
The
the
on
expressed by equa. 46 as
sin
(ptd)sinp,

makes
and reduces
to
pL
this
if t
^cos^sin/3;
o becomes
*
^sin/?.
/
(58)
Jt
is
to
o,
= 
cos
r
(/?
6)
*+2pL*
if
which can be
is
*V=
sin.
(59)
Comparing these values of i and ir we see that these currents have the same distribution in the rotor, but the amplitude of the latter is only onehalf that of the former. Consequently, the m.m.fs of the stationary rotor and of the stator being equal, the m.m.f. of
the synchronously revolving rotor
is
onehalf
winding.
The magnetomotive force effective in developing the when the two fields coincide may be expressed as Y
flux
cos pt
X, wherein
that
represents the maximum m.m.f. developed by the stator and = =due to the rotor. But, as above shown, 2, hence
Y
is
or X.
forces acting at
any instant
in
this
X, constant
in
value,
at
synchronous
234
speed.
AND CONTROL.
Since X rotates backwards may be written X = X cos pt X sin pt, and consequently YX, the total magnetomotive force
cos pt
X cos pt + X sin pt = X
total
cos pt
+ X sin
is
pt.
of constant value and rotates forward at synchronous speed. The magnetic reluctance of commercial singlephase motors, due
use of uniformly distributed windings, is practically the whatever the axis of the field, consequently the reactions same, existing between stator and rotor currents produce at or near
to the
synchronous speed a circular rotating field, and which apply to polyphase motors may be utilized.
the
formulae
effect of
The
leakage and rotor resistance will modify this rotating field somewhat, changing it from circular to elliptical form. It has been indicated on p. 230 that when Torque Equations. the secondary of a singlephase induction motor is caused to rotate
at
any
rate w,
its
current
may be
expressed as
Inspection of this equation shows that the rotor current is composed and the other of a higher frequency than the rotating field. We may consequently consider that this
is set up through the action of two synchronously rotating one revolving in the same direction as the rotor and the other fields, The frequency of the rotor current component due oppositely.*
current
rotor
revolving in the same direction as the naturally less (by the velocity of the rotor) than synchronous The component due to the oppositely value or it is (p a>).
to the suppositional field
is
its
value
being (p
(*>).
The
(
first
field
is
p.l
100,
and referred
Mem.
to the
second
field it is
I\
100.
* G. Ferraris,
Reale Accad.
di Scienze
Torino, Series
II,
Vol. xliv,
December
1893.
no,
London, 1894.
235
motor
is
and two oppositely rotating rotor and one field turn in the same direction, fields. But, since the the torque due to this latter field must be greater than that set up by the other. We have seen from equa. 38 (p. 188) that the torque developed by a polyphase induction motor is expressed by the
interaction between the rotor current
following equation:
1
7"
e sr i
wherein
while
(Jt)
s is the
field
and rotor
core,
the angular velocity of the revolving field. may accordingly write the two component torques existing in the singlephase motor as
is
We
T =
1
''''
2
r 12
r,wherein
st
p 
w =
w. 1
<*>i
oj
and
is
The
total effective
torque
T= T
wherein
is
4
T = ^
^^a
s^
s is positive for speeds below synchronism, while s2 v variable but never greater than unity. Analysis of this equation brings out the following facts:
1.
the torque of the singlephase machine varies as the the impressed voltage, this being the same relation as obtains in polyphase induction motors.
That
square of
2.
the motor exerts no torque at standstill because s 2 5, then equals zero, which makes the numerator of the same value.*
3.
That
makes
in
r2
2
value, 5j5 2
2 2
operate at synchronous speed, because this which case the torque developed is of negative 2 reducing tor 2 and the machine tends to act as
,
a generator.
rotate at less
and
(48), p. 225.)
236
AND CONTROL.
4. The maximum value of s^s^ being unity indicates that the singlephase induction motor cannot operate unless the reactance of its rotor winding at standstill is greater than its resistance. Un
less
such
is
the
case
s^Xf
r2
will
which means
that the
75
50
25
f
25
50
75
100
125
150
132.
torque or act as a generator. Fig. 132 indicates how the speedtorque curves of a singlephase induction motor are affected by change in the value of rotor resistances. Curves A and B may be considered as representative of standard machines.
Curves
and
by
It is apparent from these curves ances into the rotor winding. that the introduction of resistance into the rotor circuit for purposes of speed regulation is attended by a marked reduction of the over
load capacity of the motor, and cannot be used as advantageously It is, however, employed to as with polyphase motors (p. 209).
limit the starting current (pp. 207
and
249).
5. torque developed by a polyphase motor operated as a singlephase machine is less than that produced when normally connected, because of the presence of the counter torque T 2
.
The
6.
If
we
take the
first
differential
coefficient
of equa.
60 with
respect to r 2
and place it equal to zero, we find that the torque developed for any rotor speed u exists when
r2
maximum
=X^+(7^ +
2),
237
maximum
torque
Tmai =
the less the value of r r Characteristic Curves.
AT 2
Vv
(,,
S )
i
ai r r
is
(61 )
greater
The preceding
valuable in that
indicates the general characteristics of singlephase induction motors, is not readily applied to the detail study of
it
any specific machine. The working curves are most accurately determined by actual test. They may, however, be derived with moderate accuracy by means of a circle diagram somewhat similar
to that utilized for the study of the polyphase motor.
The
that developed
by A.
S. McAllister, its
line
OE
(Fig.
Draw
and
OM and OF respectively.
The
value of
OF
determined as already explained in connection with the polyphase induction motor (p. 194).
is
and IF represent the energy components of the corresponding currents, and are therefore directly proportional to the draw a line respective inputs. Through perpendicular to and F; draw also a line perpendicular to the middle of OE, join at X. With X as a center and either intersecting
MN
MK
MF
MK
XM
or
XF
MPF,
this
being the
The distance IG represents the locus of the primary current. added primary or stator loss existing with the rotor locked, its
length
loss
=
total
locked watts)
X HF.
this construction completed the performbe determined by inspection. For example, the factors determining the performance of the motor with a current
Draw
the line
GM.
With
may
are as follows:
OP
cos
primary current,
POE the power factor of current OP. PT represents the watts input at current OP.
OP.
McGraw
Co.,
New York
1909.
238
AND CONTROL.
70 80
20
30
40
50
60
90
100
\
\ N
Scale :1
cm. = 10 Amperes.
lcm.=2.2K.W.
10
FIG. 133.
INDUCTION MOTOR.
239
TR QR
represents the total primary loss at current represents the added secondary copper loss.
OP.
QP QP
loo
represents the watts output at current OP. Trepresents the efficiency of the motor at current
PT
OP.
represents the per cent slip. rr.p.m. represents the torque at current OP. 7.05 The field set up by the motion of the rotor varies as the speed rotor input (W) is (ai), consequently the torque (T) for a given
(PQ
*
PR)*
QP
wW,
or
(62)
T =
K^W.
The
torque, however,
is
(W") divided by
whence
the speed
or
T=
K, (W"
(6.3)
1800
5
FIG. 134.
10
40
45
50
input, from the circle diagram, is proportional the output is similarly represented by PQ; consequently to PR',
The secondary
*
speed as above stated. has been applied to the deterFig. 133 mination of the characteristic curves of a standard 22ovolt, 60The induction motor. cycle, 4pole, lohorsepower singlephase
to the rotor
in
240
AND CONTROL.
and are as follows: stator resistance, .304 ohm; current with motor running free, 19 amperes; corresponding The current with input, i k.w.; and power factor 24 per cent.
were derived by
rotor at standstill
is 170 amperes; input, 13.4 k.w.; power factor, Line potential in both instances is 220 volts. 36 The values derived from the diagram are given in the following
per cent.
table
and presented
in the
form of curves
in Fig. 134.
Comparison of these characteristic curves of the singlephase induction motor with those of the standard polyphase induction motor brings out the fact that the former has zero torque not only
at synchronous speed but also at standstill, whereas the latter usually has a starting torque in excess of that developed at rated load. The following table gives operating characteristics of standard
TO
440
VOLTS.
241
on
Comparison of the values of this table with the corresponding one p. 200 shows that in general the power factor, efficiency and
torque are higher for polyphase than for singlephase while the speed regulation of the singlephase machine is motors, better. This latter feature of the singlephase induction motor
pullout
is
Since in the singlephase motor one primary circuit and a multiplicity of secondary circuits exist, all secondary circuits are to be considered as corresponding to the same primary. Thus the joint impedance of all secondary circuits must be used as
the secondary impedance, at least at or near synchronism. Thus, if the armature has a quarterphase winding of impedance Z t per circuit, the resultant secondary impedance
is
;
if
it
per
circuit,
the resulting
secondary impedance
pedance of a singlephase motor is less in comparison with the primary impedance than in the polyphase motor. Since the drop in speed under load depends upon the secondary resistance, that occurring in the singlephase induction motor is generally less than with the polyphase motor."
Methods of Starting. As already shown (pp. 225 et seq.), the simple singlephase induction motor cannot exert any starting torque.
In practice, however, except
started
in the smallest sizes
which may be
is
by
to
value, consequently
meet require a starting torque as high as 150 per cent of the rated some device producing this feature must be
of
connected with or incorporated into the machine. The methods accomplishing this result may be grouped into two general
classes.
The
first
is
technically
known
as phasesplitting
and the
a singlephase circuit by dividing it into two branches one of which If supplied with twois inductive and the other noninductive. phase currents, even though these be less than 90 degrees apart, an
induction motor
is
selfstarting;
is
approximated the phasesplitting device may be cut out and the machine will then run as a singlephase motor. There are many ways to
obtain such split currents.
series,
The two
may be
in
one being shunted by inductance or capacity (Fig. .135). They may also be put into inductive relation to each other to produce a phase difference.!
* t
U.
Elements of Electrical Engineering, 1902, p. 284. S. Patent No. 401,520, April 16, 1889, to Nicola Tesla.
242
AND CONTROL.
Motors employing the above starting methods are provided with two stator windings, a working winding and a starting winding. The two windings are displaced from each other by about ninety
magnetic degrees, just as in the ordinary twophase motor.
The
FIG. 135.
SLIP
over a working winding, however, is of more turns, being spread than the starting winding, because of heavier wire larger surface, and it remains in circuit as long as the motor operates, whereas the
starting coils are only in use momentarily.
FlG.
PHASESPLITTING METHOD CONISTECTIONS FOR START FIG. 137. 136. DEVISED BY BROWN, BOVERI FOR ING SMALL SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION USE WITH LARGE MOTORS. MOTORS.
illustrated in Fig. 136 has been developed by Boveri and Co. of Baden, Switzerland. At starting the Brown,
The method
in series across the supply lines, the shunted by the condenser. The current being
243
consequently lags more in that winding, the difference in phase between the currents in R and S being sufficient to set up a socalled elliptical rotating field, that is one having greater strength in one direction than in that at right angles thereto.
The
starting winding
is
and
its
connected across
FIG. 138.
CONNECTIONS OF GENERAL ELECTRIC COMPANY CONDENSER COMPENSATOR FOR PHASESPLITTING AND STARTING SINGLE PHASE INDUCTION
MOTORS.
the line by
means
T when
the motor
has approximately attained synchronous speed. This method is slightly modified when machines of over 5h.p. capacity are to be started. The two windings in such instances are placed in
parallel, as
shown
in Fig.
137.
By
this
coil
circuit
is
not broken and the flash occurring upon cutting out the
auxiliary winding is eliminated. An excellent method for starting singlephase motors has been developed by the General Electric Company under patents granted
244
to
AND CONTROL.
for
terminals of the stator winding, which is substantially of standard threephase construction, are connected directly to the supply lines. The third terminal is also
tially
shown
in Fig. 138.*
Two
connected to either one of the mains through an autotransformer upon the direction of rotation (p. 202), the order depending
desired.
denser.
The ends of this compensator are placed across a conThis combination is technically known as a condensercompensator, and is employed because a condenser of given voltampere
FIG. 139.
ARRANGEMENT OF WORKING AND AUXILIARY STATOR COILS, HEYLAND SELFSTARTING SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR.
is
capacity
low
voltage. starting winding can be cut out by opening the switch It may, however, be advanat S after the motor is up to speed.
The
tageous to keep the starting coil in circuit, if of sufficient current capacity for continuous service, because the increased power factor
at light loads thus obtained
The
different
time constants.
This
is
auxiliary winding of
larger
self inductance
245
is
distributed
series
of
semi
coils
are
shortcircuited
upon
inductive secondary circuit, the general arrangement being as illusThe current induced in the secondary winding
field
ducing a
is
component similar
to
that caused
The starting torque thus produced though the power factor of the machine is necessarily low, and therefore the starting coil should be cut out as soon as the
phase of a twophase current.
large,
to
speed.*
rotor windings employed in connection with any or all of the preceding methods for starting may be of the standard squirrel
The
Motor
Starting.
very
interesting type of
self
induction motor is manufactured by the Mfg. Co. of St. Louis, f This motor is provided with an armature of the ordinary directcurrent drum type, having a disk commutator with radial bars. The brushes bearsinglephase
Wagner
Electric
ing upon the commutator are displaced about 45 degrees from the corresponding neutral zones and shortcircuited upon each other. The stator winding is connected to the supply lines, and
at starting the machine speeds up as a repulsion motor (p. 266). In the annular space between the armature core and the shaft are two governor weights w (Fig. 140), which are forced outward, further
and
further,
by centrifugal
is
force as the
machine
accelerates.
When
nearly attained the force acting upon these synchronous speed is sufficient to push the heavy copper ring R, against the weights action of spring S, into contact with the inner cylindrical surface
of the
shortcircuiting the
armature winding.
is
forced to the
Simultaneously with this action the sleeve P sufficiently to lift the brushes B from the com
mutator. This series of automatic actions transforms the machine from a repulsion to a singlephase induction motor, having in the latter form what is substantially a squirrelcage armature winding.
* Electrical Engineer, Vol. XXXVI, p. 306. London, 1896. f U. S. Patent No. 543,836, December 4, 1894.
246
AND CONTROL.
FIG. 140.
The
starting
may
be readily adjusted to
A
sion
of repul
motors
in
is
the
between
torque
in
and
Fig.
The
tests
series
of curves
5h.p.,
shown
141
were determined
from
of
220volt
Wagner
Curve A shows the speedtorque relation on accelerating with normal brush thickness, this being substantially that of one commutator bar. Curve B represents the relations existing with
motor.
etc.
It
is
curves that the normal thickness of brush gives the highest starting and synchronous speed torques. Further study of Fig. 141 indicates
that use of a brush thinner than
to
produce
start
ing and synchronous speed torques of greater value than occur with normal brush thickness. Practical questions, however, such as
when
247
70
Quadruple
50
40
30
20
Railed Lot d Tormie
^S^
10
200
FIG. 141.
400
600
800
1000
1200
1400
1600
1800
wound
This precaution is necessary, as the inrush current otherwise occurring would be considerable and likely to react upon the
motors.
line,
referred to
ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS. A. S. McAllister. New York, 1909. SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTOR. Elect. World, New York, 1906. A. Still. Vol. XLIII, pp. 1108, 1152, 1182, 1202. SINGLEPHASE INDUCTION MOTORS. Dr. C. P. Steinmetz. Trans. A. I.E.E.,
Vol.
XV,
W.
S.
Franklin.
V. A. Finn.
London,
Ber
WECHSELSTROMTECHNIK.
lin,
Vol. V, by Arnold
1909.
CHAPTER
A
XVIII.
many
facts
series, repulsion shunt, and shuntinduction motors, but modifications and combinations have been devised, the more
considered.
a.c.
The
general
historical
and other
Alternatingcurrent Series Motor. The powerful starting and adaptation of speed to load which are characteristic of torque the d.c. series motor make it particularly suitable for traction and
The
many
other uses requiring such qualities. The limitations of direct current generation and transmission, as well as special advantages
of a.c. voltage control, have
a.c.
made the development of a correspondmotor very desirable, a fact appreciated for many years.* ing Synchronous motors, whether single or polyphase, and singlephase induction motors,
all
having
little
obviously unsuited to railway and many other purposes. Polyphase induction motors require at least three supply conductors and are for that reason less desirable than singlephase apparatus,
especially for traction.
ful starting
Up to the torque has an enormous field of usefulness. time the series and repulsion motors both with commupresent tators are the only a.c. types fulfilling this condition.
The operation of series motors on the high frequency circuits formerly employed (100 to 133 p.p.s.) was attempted at various times, but not with success, except in the case of very small machines.
This
failure
was due
* Alex.
Siemans,
Elect.
Engs.,
p.
527,
Vol. XIII,
1884.
248
249
as to the low
the armature winding, shortcircuited during commutation, as well power factor caused by the large reactance of the field
windings. The introduction and use of low frequency (25 p.p.s.) systems for power transmission is the basis for the later commercial development of the a.c. series motor. In 1902, G. B. Lamme, of the
Westinghouse Elect. & Mfg. Co., called attention to an a.c. series motor which operated on circuits having a frequency of i6f p.p.s.* This motor had a powerful starting torque, high power factor, and
was
of relatively high efficiency, but the low frequency necessary it for service on circuits of stand
ard frequency.
lamps at i6 cycles is not satisfactory. The design has since then been modified to adapt this type of motor to the standard frequency
of 25 p.p.s.
The same
and armature
currents.
In
this respect
it
from the
field
only to
shunt motor whose torque is proportional not and armature currents but also to the cosine of the phase
a.c.
There
are,
motor and
by reason
machines Iron 1.
:
of the following
phenomena, peculiar
commutator
to alterna
losses
circuit,
due
An
nating magnetic
by armature
rotation.
A
2.
by
the brushes.
This current
is
due
to
No.
4.
5.
An e.m.f.
of selfinduction in the field and armature windings. Power factor less than unity, due to inductance of the wind
ings.
i.
Iron Losses.
*
The
into
I.
Transactions A.
two parts: that taking place E. E., pp. 1049, Vol. XX, 1902.
in the
arma
250
ture coil
and that due to the alternations of magnetic circuit, The losses arising from rotation of the armature the magnetic flux. coil, being common to both a.c. and d.c. motors, are often called These are supplied mechanically and act like "d.c. iron losses."
to the rotation of the former,
due
The
losses caused
by
flux alter
and are due to eddy currents and hysteresis, the former being reduced to a reasonable amount by employing laminated field magnets as well as a laminated armature
reduction in hysteresis loss is possible by operating at low Hence in the case of a series motor designed for densities. a.c. service a wholly laminated magnetic circuit is necessary. This combined with the limitation of flux densities, results in a feature,
coil.
flux
total
weight 30 to 50 per cent greater than that of a corresponding d.c. The overall dimensions are also correspondingly larger. machine.
2. Transformer e.m.f. In addition to the c.e.m.f. of rotation a second e.m.f. is generated in the armature winding, which does not, however, appear at the brushes, except locally as a cause of sparking,
explained in 3.
The
due
to
armature
TIG. 143.
C.E.M.F.
rotation
is
while the
and B,
Fig. 143,
251
neutral" position, CD. The e.m.f. generated by the armature rotation tends to cause current flow from coil upwards
"
coil
The second
or transformer e.m.f.
produced by the alternations of flux passing through the armature For example, in the case of a ring wound armature placed in a coil.
bipolar
field,
FIG. 144.
WINDING BY AN
A.C. FIELD.
C
no
and
respectively,
hence
maximum
On
the contrary, no lines of force pass through coils A and B, so that transformer action occurs and no e.m.f. is induced in them. This
transformer e.m.f. produces no difference of potential at the brushes placed vertically in their usual position as indicated, because the portions of the armature winding in connection with them are of equal potential, the transformer e.m.f. being shown by heavy arrows (Fig. 144). The maximum transformer e.m.f. exists between
It is evident that this e.m.f. does not act against coils A and B. the flow of current from the supply lines and produces no effect, except that the particular coils shortcircuited by the brushes
experience
maximum
252
up
under heading
is
3.
p. 249.
The
i
J.O
(64)
is
wellknown expression for transformer e.m.f. in which the frequency, <&m the maximum armature flux due to the field
m.m.f., and
total
S the equivalent number of armature turns. If the number of armature conductors, counting all around the periphery, is S a the turns in series are Sa * 2 on the bipolar ring armature in Fig. 144, which is simpler than a drum winding to represent
,
and study.
As already
each turn
upon position, being proportional angular displacement from the line CD. The
is
in
ring armature carries only onehalf of the flux, hence the effect, of
Sa
total
conductors
is
equivalent to
_ Sa
2
2
m
Sa
^
271
271
Substituting this value of S in equa. 64, the transformer e.m.f. induced in the armature winding by the alternating field flux, and
it,
is
^p
to
(65)
drum armature,
in
which
case the turns are only onehalf as many as the total conductors, but the flux is not divided between two turns as in a ring winding.
if introduced in equation. Since those coils undergoing com3. mutation are the seat of maximum transformer action, a large cur
Hence
them as
in
any
shortcircuited secondary.
to the
its
The
due
to this
primary
greatest
just
strength
required for
commutation.
253
PR
loss in the
primary
(i.e.,
field)
winding.*
The sudden
inter
draws a
Since large spark at the brushes and causes commutator troubles. the transformer e.m.f. and current depend upon the frequency of
circuited coil, they
flux alternations, the number of turns in, and resistance of, each shortcan be reduced by proper modification of these
three factors.
That
is,
as low as possible, consistent with standard practice, and the number of turns of wire or inductors in series between consecutive
This latter condition directly proportional to these two factors. increases the number of armature sections as well as commutator
bars,
and therefore
tendency
of the
to spark, selfinduction
number
of turns of wire.
shown, while the resistance of the coil circuit is increased by employing brushes of higher contact resistance than is usual with d.c.
machines, or by inserting high resistance connectors or preventive leads (P) of German silver between the armature sections and the
FIG. 145.
PREVENTIVE LEADS.
The high resistance of the special (Fig. 145). f brush contacts or of the preventive leads is only a small factor, of the resistance of the whole armature winding, consequently
commutator bars
it
Electric Journal, p.
7,
Fan
254
extent.
The
additional
resistance
of
the
preventive
circuit,
leads
it
is,
however,
a considerable
cutting
factor
of
the
local
hence
is
very effective in
circuit current.
down
the
value
of
E.M.F. of Selfinduction occurring in both field and armature windings. This e.m.f. is due to the alternating flux, and introduces
4.
d.c.
motor, that
is,
in addition to the
impressed voltage must overcome an e.m.f. equal to wLI. To cause an equal current to flow, with other conditions the same, the applied e.m.f. must therefore be greater than in the d.c. machine. As a matter of fact, the
of selfinduction
motor
the terminals of an a.c. series railway usually lower than for the d.c., being about 250 compared with about 550 volts, hence the e.m.f. of rotation must be relatively In other words, the a.c. machine still lower in the former machine.
is
Another
difficulty
when one
or
more
field
turns
field winding. The transformer e.m.f. set up in the armature of a bipolar machine,
a burned out
full c.e.m.f.
is
equal to the
developed by rotation
*
when
60,
which
relation
corresponds synchronous speed. armature turns cut the flux at the same rate
the effect of a short circuit in the armature
a.c.
is
This
is
in
both cases.
Hence
motor.
Factor. The field winding being highly inductive, 5. Power and the armature winding having considerable inductance, the current flowing through them is not in phase with the line e.m.f. This condition does not affect the torque of the motor, but the result
ing low power factor impairs the regulation of the alternators, transformers and line, at the same time lowering the efficiency of the
entire system.
field
winding
is
and
frequency of the supply voltage, to the to the square of the number of its turns, hence in any
attempt to improve the power factor of the motor, these various factors must all be considered.
a.
indefinitely,
255
existing circuits, few of which have a frequency The use of i5cycle circuits for series than 25 p.p.s. motors has been proposed in order to improve the power factor, and while that result undoubtedly would be thus obtained, the
off
Total Flux.
the
flux
is,
same
increasing the number of inductors and at time the number of sections on the armature, the field
By
That
the armature
made
field, so
that the
field
inductance
may
be decreased.
Hence
not as
The increase in armature inductance high as in the d.c. machine. " is eliminated by compensation," as explained later.
c.
Turns in
steel of
having
These can be kept down, first, by high permeability, and secondly by having a some
air gap, thus obtaining the necessary flux with a smaller In fact, the lower value of flux indicated of ampereturns. above (b) tends to reduce the number of field turns required.
what shorter
number
It
has been suggested that the power factor of the series motor could be improved by increasing its resistance in order to decrease the
uL+R. This shortsighted improvement in power factor would merely result in an increased I 2 R loss with lowered efficiency and horsepower capacity. The electrical action in a plain a.c. series motor can be readily
ratio
as in Fig. 146.
In the
field
we have a
OY
YR
y
the
resulting
voltage
The
inductance drop
very
RJ
in
the
its
armature
to
relatively small,
and not
much
overcome the impedance required represents reaction of the armature winding, and OD measures the voltage field balancing the joint impedance reaction of armature and
windings.
reaction
at rest.
resistance drop
JD.
The
vector
RD
This
is
also
the
starting
voltage
of
the
motor, the
represented
by
OD
being
all
motor
A
tates
c.e.m.f. is
in
the
developed in the armature winding, when it romagnetic field. This c.e.m.f. or rotative e.m.f. is
256
vectorially represented as
tional
to
the
27TfL f l
^
FIG. 146.
Current
Sa be
<b m
the total
number
the
is
maximum
value of the
e.m.f.
expressed by
,,
_ .707
$ m r.p.m. 60 X io
8
Sa
(66)
The
above
line
DX,
c. e.m.f.
and
OX
V = V(EIot +IR m y +
(Ef
+Ea )\
(67)
Ea
In the case of a completely compensated series motor the value becomes negligible because the armature inductive e.m.f. is
corresponds
and JD, which vary directly with the current / and total resistance R. Ef and E a the inductive drops or reactance voltages of the field and armature windings respectThese vary directly ively, are represented by the lines O Y and RJ. with the current / so long as the flux density is low, under which
YR
257
condition the motor torque increases as the square of current flowing in both armature and field. The counter e.m.f. (DX) rises directly with speed and current, at moderate flux densities,_hence it
does
not
increased.
and the current relation existing between the impressed voltage / varies with the motor load, the power factor decreasing as the torque is augmented, a fact borne out by the working curves of the
series
Still further study of the voltage diain Fig. 148. 146) brings out the fact that the starting voltage of the gram (Fig. a.c. motor is nearly onehalf of the impressed running voltage,
is
OX
motor
ing oneeighth of the line potential. Under the same conditions of field and armature resistance and low current, the latter would
YR and
OY
and
is
RJ
are absent.
Another
the low
power
factor of the
motor
at
being the lowest value over the entire load range; this is so because the inductive component is about the same as when the
motor
is
The
loaded, while the energy component is very much smaller. curves representing the performance of a.c. series motors
can be approximately determined by means of a circle diagram. This method presupposes constant permeability of the magnetic circuit, and hence unvarying reactance of the motor windings, even
though the load current be considerably varied. This condition is maintained only approximately in practice, consequently results
obtained from the circle diagram are not rigorously correct; nevertheless, the speed and power factor values derived therefrom agree
very closely with
is
test results.
The main
difficulty
the fact that the torque values thus obtained are founded upon the assumption that the motor torque varies as the square of the
current, whereas, in fact, this relation exists only for the total torque developed and with the magnetic circuit operated well below saturation.
An approximation which gives the effective torque at different current values with reasonable accuracy will be given later. The circle diagram is directly developed from the vectorial voltage
shown
is
relations
in Fig. 146,
windings
constant and
the impedance of the motor the impressed voltage of fixed value, the
because
if
258
variations of current
of the current vector
representing the vector position of the line voltage (Fig. 147), then at an angle (f>s lay off to scale the shortcircuit current OS. This
}
OX
shortcircuit current
is
taken at
,
and
,
its
,
phase angle
cos
= 9. Next apply a brake to motor amperes shaft or driving wheel and allow the armature to rotate, adjust the brake so that the machine draws a certain current, say about one1
XT
effort,
Lay
off
OI
to scale
and
in its
with respect to line voltage. The locus of the current drawn by the motor with different loads at a fixed voltage and frequency is then the arc of a circle drawn through the points O, 7, and S.
The power
factor of any current can be determined by projectacross to the intersection of its vector with the circle ing The speed corresponding to any the power factor scale upon OX. load current OI, for example, is also determinable from the circle
KNC
diagram, as follows: Draw a line through S parallel to OX, then continue the current vector OI until it intersects this line at P; the distance between points S and P is proportional to the motor
speed existing
tion
is
when
the current
is
true
by construction, because
proportional to the impedance drop and OS to the line voltage; consequently IS is proportional to the c.e.m.f. due to rotation and
and OSP,
therefore to speed of rotation itself. Comparing the triangles OIS it is seen that they are similar because the three included
angles of one are equal to those of the other; accordingly SP is proIf line SP portional to IS, or to the motor speed as above stated. be divided to scale, the speed at any assumed current can be read
off directly
by continuing
its
vector to intersect
SP
or
its
prolon
gation.
The torque
of the
not exceeding a few per cent, by the relation T = k$I. Relative values of the field flux $ existing at different current values are deter
e.m.f. of rotation,
which
in the circle
diagram
is
259
FIG. 147.
260
6000
Diam. Wheels 38
Gear Ratio
3.2i
100
200
300
400
500
60
700
900
1000
Amperes
FIG. 148.
proportional to the line 75 for the current OI, and for any other current proportional to the corresponding line. Naturally, to obtain the true ratio existing between the different rotational e.m.f.'s
and therefore between corresponding values of field flux, these must be reduced to a common speed basis. The torque T with any current 7 X is then determined from that exerted with the
e.m.f.'s
l
test current
The
results
circle
diagram
fora
in Fig.
test
compared
taken from
1
of Fig. 148.
These
5ohorsepower,
compensatedseries motor.
261
Compensated
Series Motor.
close.
The agreement between test and calculated results is reasonably The differences existing may be charged to two facts, namely,
is
not
making very
close linear
a.c. series
motor indicates that the speed and torquecurrent characteristics are very similar to those of the corresponding d.c. machine, but owing to the lower flux densities of the former, the torque increases
more nearly as the square of the current throughout the load range. For the same reason its speed does not tend to become so nearly
262
at fractional voltages
rot=
line
+ /Z 2 
line
/Z
COS
(& 
0).
(69)
In this expression 7
is
ETOt is desired; Z the impedance of the windings, the phase angle of the shortcircuit current, <j> the phase angle of the current /, and Eiine is the value of the line voltage at which the speed is to be
calculated.
an a.c. series motor may be divided into two classes, namely, those which also occur in d.c. machines, and those peculiar to machines having magnetic fields set up by alternating currents. Since these latter motors operate at a lower voltage than the correlosses in
The
machines, the current required for a given power is greater, hence the copper losses will be more, or the amount of copper required in the windings will be larger. As a matter of
sponding
d.c.
an
a.c. series
in a corresponding
d.c.
motor.
The
various losses of
fol
may be
lowing chart.*
It
has
already been shown (p. 256) that to improve the power factor of an a.c. series motor, the practice is to weaken the field and strengthen
by decreasing the turns of the former and increasing This change in design tends, however, to exagthose of the latter. These gerate armature reaction as well as commutation difficulties. two troubles can to a very marked extent be reduced or even elimthe armature
inated
by the introduction
1904, p. 16.
263
same manner as employed in the case of d.c. adjustable speed shunt motors of the ThompsonRyan design pp. 73, 79. This method of preventing the field distortion by the armature m.m.f. and reducing the armature inductance
is
to
TFC
FIG. 149.
(CONDUCTIVE COMPENSATION).
poles are employed, or if an induction motor stator frame is used the compensating winding is displaced 90 magnetic degrees or half a pole pitch from the field winding. The compensating coils carry
a current equal in m.m.f. and opposite in phase to the current in the armature, and this current may be obtained either conductively
by connecting
FIG. 150.
SERIES MOTOR
(INDUCTIVE COMPENSATION)
and armature windings, as in Fig. 149, or inductively by using the stationary winding as the shortcircuited secondary of a transIt is former, of which the armature is the primary, as in Fig. 150.
found that the best
effects are
armature reaction
desirable
partly
when
is complete. The conductive method is the more the motor is to be operated on mixed service, that is,
on a.c. circuits and partly on d.c. circuits. Methods of Control of A.C. Series Motors. The series motor may be controlled by means of a rheostat in series with it, an autotransformer or an induction regulator.
With external
resistance
264
rheostatic
is
When
the
autotransformer
em
ployed, the line is bridged by a single coil transformer provided with taps, so that various voltages can be applied to the motor
circuit,
for starting
FIG. 151.
The speeding up
of
the motor
is
sections of
the autotransformer
usually employed in a.c. traction work is 11,000 volts or thereabouts, while the motors are designed to operThe line from the trolley to the ground ate at 250 volts or less.
trolley voltage
The
to
500
volts, sufficient to
265
operate two motors in series. The general scheme of connecting a.c. series motors, with autotransformer control, for traction service
is
shown in
Fig. 151.
they are connected in seriesparallel groups, two motors being permanently connected in series so as to fit them also for d.c. operation.
operated, cuts out the autotransformer fails, and inserts the rheostatic or series
parallel control of the two groups necessary for d. c. service. Switches aa and cc are open, while b and d are closed for series connection of
motors
switch
the
converse
is
the
order
for
parallel
service.
The
field coils
of rotation.
and motorgenerator systems for d.c. motors, because they all supply an adjustable voltage corresponding to the speed desired. The a.c. means are much simpler, however; in fact the facility of
transforming voltage is the great advantage of the a. c. control. The Repulsion Motor. As stated in Chapter XII, the physical
FIG. 152.
the
was discovered by Prof. Elihu Thomson in 1887, and he applied it same year to the development of an experimental motor.*
The production of the repulsion phenomenon is as follows: If a closed coil of wire be suspended or pivoted near the pole of an alternating current magnet in such a manner that lines of force
from the later pass through the former as represented in Fig. 152, an alternating e.m.f. will be induced in the coil. This secondary
e.m.f. will be 90 degrees later in phase than the inducing flux,
* Transactions A.
I.
and
266
if the coil contains no inductance, the secondary current will also be in quadrature with the primary flux. Under such conditions there will be no development of torque by the mutual action of the
and current as explained on page 250. Practically, coil of w.ire contains some inductance, so that the current lags more or less with respect to the secondary secondary e.m.f., being therefore more than 90 degrees later than the primary flux, with the result that the cosine of this phase relation becomes a This means that the coil is repelled by the field. negative quantity. The maximum repulsion occurs theoretically if primary flux and
magnetic
field
however, every
secondary current
phase by 180 degrees, but even to apvalue requires the coil reactance (coL) to be very
differ in
This condition implies an to its resistance. small current, so practically the maximum repulsion extremely occurs when the coil has such impedance that the secondary current lags about 45 degrees with respect to the e.m.f.
If the
field,
movable
coil
the only
way
in
is by turning this coil no lines of force pass through it assumes a position parallel
above considered be pivoted in the magnetic which the negative torque or repulsion can act on its axis, until such position is reached that
it,
it
coil
it
perpen
may
must be
definite direction,
it
placed obliquely with respect to the flux, to compel rotation in a and if the inertia of the coil be sufficient to carry
center, continuous
motion
will
be developed.
The elementary
is
diagrammatically
was completely laminated and the armature winding was of the open
coil type, the terminals of
each
opposite
commutator
bars.
directly across the line, and the armature shortcircuited by means of diametrically opposite brushes connected by a copper lead.
that they shortcircuit the armature the flux direction, torque and rota
up
The tinued through the successive action of the different coils. limitation of this early type of repulsion motor is the fact that the effective torque developed at any moment is due only to a single
armature
coil, since
no current
whose
circuits
267
Hence to develop any considerable power, the current are open. in the shortcircuited coil must necessarily be high, and the opening of this circuit as the corresponding commutator bars pass out of
contact with the brushes causes excessive sparking.
Professors
FIG. 153.
defect,
Anthony, Ryan and Jackson appreciated the seriousness of this and in 1888 suggested the use of a closed coil armature
This resulted in a winding in place of the open coil type.* increased power for a given weight, because the effective greatly
turns on the armature were augmented and a given current produced more torque, or a smaller current produced the same torque On the other hand, sparking with this without as much sparking.
type of armature
shortcircuited
is
to reversal of current in
the coil
by
the brush, as in d.c. machines, but also to transto the series a.c.
motor
(p. 251).
brushes in the more modern designs is reduced by as in the series motor; by use of a distributed field compensation, winding; high brush contact resistance; prevention leads, etc.
Sparking
in the
motor indicated in Fig. 154, the across the line and there is no electrical directly winding connection between the armature and field or supply circuit, reof repulsion
field
is
sembling in
circuit
transformer with
a leaky magnetic
268
The flux impressed on the armature core by the field, and represented in Fig. 155 by the vector OR, may be resolved into two along the line of commutation of components, the first being
OB
OA
perpendicular thereto.
FIG. 154.
The ent actions, namely, transformer and rotational induction. is that which produces current in the armature component
OB
winding by transformer
effects,
while
OA
is
FIG. 155.
secondary winding by rotation. These two independently produced armature currents are combined to give the total armature
in the
The
ponent
may
be regarded
as being
made up
required to
of three components, namely: First, the comovercome the resistance drop in the field winding;
269
second, that required to overcome the equivalent reactance of the primary winding; and third that needed to overcome the e.m.f.
induced in the
field
By
what
considering these three components, a circle diagram somesimilar to that of the series motor can be developed. The
torque of the repulsion motor cannot be assumed to vary as the square of the current, since the phase relation between stator and
rotor currents, as well as the brush position,
must be considered.
excellent performance diagram of the repulsion motor was " " Electrotechnische Zeitschrift for Oct. 29. given by Osnos in the
An
1903, p. 905.
This diagram
is
shown
in Fig. 156,
and
its
construc
B
c
KG.
156.
lion
is
as follows:
voltage,
OI
represents the direction of the impressed the primary current with the rotor locked, drawn at
OE
an angle
corresponding to its phase displacement. Olf is t the current with the rotor revolving without load and EOIf is its Draw an arc of a circle through Olfl lf corresponding phase angle.
O/
This is the circle of the point C being the center of the circle. current input, and the angle EOI corresponds to the phase angle of any particular primary current. The ordinate IP is the working
or energy component of the current / and is proportional to the Describe the circle B^D, which has its center on OB input.
perpendicular to OE. Then on OB as a diameter describe .a second semicircle OlfD. The first of these semicircles or BIiD
is
circle
OI D
f
is
Thus
line
the ratio
ID
/, the speed is represented by by the product OI X IN. The represents the secondary current in phase and magnitude
IP/PD, and
270
The
angle d
is
the difference
phase between corresponding primary and secondary currents. This diagram takes into account the copper losses as well as leakage
effects,
but does not include the windage, friction or iron losses, for, either by addition to the input or sub
regulation of the repulsion motor may be altered by simply shifting the brushes. This type of motor, however, is very sensitive to comparatively slight change of the brush position, hence
The speed
The
either
direction of rotation of the repulsion motor may be reversed, by shifting the brushes over to the other side of the neutral
from
AB
to
CD
in Fig. 154, or
by
shifting the
a distributed closed
winding
is
employed.
The Compensated Repulsion Motor * is a development of the preceding motor and was designed with the object of overcoming field distortion, and increasing the power factor of the machine.
FIG. 157.
The diagrammatic
modification are
connections
in
of
the
simplest
first
form of
this
this
shown
Fig. 157.
At
sight,
motor
much from
presence of brushes
B and B
the ordinary series machine, but the considerably modifies its action. One
winding,
since the current flowing in the armature across these brushes acts as the current of a shortcircuited secondary, of which the field wind
ing
is
former
The field winding, therefore, acts as a transthe primary. coil; on the other hand, it does not supply the entire magnetic
271
latter
effort.
This
field is
mainly supplied by that component cf the. current which bb. The current flowing passes through the armature at brushes bb is variously known as the exciting or compensating between current, while that developed between brushes BB is called the
shortcircuit current.
is
characterized
power
factor
factor at speeds
is
its
by high power
series motor, while at all speed not as high. points its torque per ampere A further criticism of this construction is the fact that the greatest
less
its connection directly to high advantage of the repulsion motor no longer practicable, because the revolving is tension lines
member
difficult.
is
also in the
main
is
This bad
avoided
by
shown
in Fig. 158.
In
this
FIG. 158.
instead of being supplied directly to the armature from the high tension lines, is obtained from the secondary of a transformer whose
able speed
with the stator and high tension circuit. Variobtainable by variation of the voltage supplied by this secondary, which is provided with taps, as shown.
primary
is
in series
is
motor, with
the possibility of even better power factor at higher frequencies, combined with high voltage supply to which the armature is not
subjected, nevertheless,
it
272
this
features
1.
Noisy
in starting up.
2.
Lower
due
to
as well as the difference in phase. Greater tendency to spark at the brushes, due to excessive 3. transformer currents, upon which its action largely depends.
With compensated motors, though sparking is much less, the 4. motor is provided with twice as many sets of brushes, which are always a source of weakness and trouble, especially in traction
service.
5.
commutation
devices, etc.
Owing
is
to
any
d.c.
motor
the
same
made
adapt such
machines
for service
on alternatingcurrent systems.
Of course
must be provided with laminated field frames to reduce the great losses due to eddy currents that would otherwise occur. The simple shunt motor of this type is not, however, of any comthese motors
mercial value, for the following reasons: 1. Low power factor, due to the many turns of the field winding, the inductance of which is extremely large.
Severe sparking at the brushes, due to the fact that as each coil passes under a brush it becomes a shortcircuited secondary
2.
of a transformer,
3.
and thus a
seat of
Low
weight efficiency.
difference
relation
between
reduced
torque.
The inductance of the armature is small with respect to that of the shuntfield circuit, hence, the two currents differ considerably in phase. Let the vector (Fig. 159) represent the current in the armature circuit and d 1 its small angle of lag with respect to the line
OB
e.m.f.
OA,
while
AC
<
represents the field current and 2 its large 6 1 is the angular difference between 62
OC
273
The
relation
and armature currents (also fluxes), respectively. between these currents is also shown in the wave
<
The torque at any moment is t = KI a sin diagram of Fig. 159. = Kljf cos as the effective OJf sin 2 which by reduction gives T value. In other words, the torque developed by an a.c. shunt motor is
,
/
c
FIG. 159.
E.M.F.
AND CURRENT OF
also
upon the cosine of the angle between them. If the currents were in phase cos (f> would be unity and the torque of the a.c. shunt motor would be equivalent to that of the
d.c.
machine.
Economy
demand a
shuntfield
of design and efficiency of operation winding of many turns and an armature windis
field and armature currents, will always be large. Hence, as already stated, the torque and power per unit of weight of such an a.c. shunt motor are necessarily small.
ence between
The
a.c.
shunt motor
may
on twophase circuits, by supplying the field winding from the leading phase, and the armature from the lagging phase. The lag of field current would bring it very closely in phase with the armature current; thus would be small and the torque correefficiency
<f>
//.
Another
advantage of this scheme is that adjustable voltage speed control becomes available through the simple introducing of a variable This modification of ratio autotransformer in the armature circuit.
the shunt motor, however, has not been adopted to any extent in practice, because induction motors with their higher power factor
274
ShuntInduction Motors. The ordinary singlephase shunt motor as above explained has a very low torque efficiency, owing to the
considerable phase displacement existing between armature current and field flux. To avoid this displacement it is necessary to excite
the field by an e.m.f. leading the armature e.m.f. by 90. The method of accomplishing this without the introduction of a second phase was invented by L. B. Atkinson and the design is embodied
in lines of
Assume an armature
This armature
FIG. 160.
FIG.
l6l.
5IMPLE SHUNTINDUCTION
MOTOR.
is
caused to rotate in an
a.c. field
is
whose
axis
YY
is
90
from the
brush axis
XX.
If
an
e.m.f.
produced thereby will lag 90 behind it. Now as the rotor revolves in this field an e.m.f. of rotation will be induced in its coils, as in
the case of a d.c. machine, in phase with the field flux and thus 90 behind the applied voltage. This e.m.f. of rotation in turn pro
duces a flux 90 degrees behind it in phase and in space quadrature with the stator flux. This rotor flux is therefore in phase with the " " line voltage, and constitutes the in phase flux necessary for the efficient production of torque. The flux due to rotation is not of
constant magnitude, but
is
directly
275
thus this type of singlephase machine has no starting torque and it must be started as a series or repulsion motor. It differs from these machines, however, by the fact that the flux is independent of the load and hence
it
d.c.
shunt motor.
The
motor
is
made up
of
induction motor.
The
stator
winding
is
of the
over a large portion of the stator surface. direct current armature and the commutator has brushes bearing upon it. There are two sets of brushes in the bipolar representation
of Fig. 161, and generally two sets of brushes for every pair of poles.
AND
164.
If,
is
number of brushes may be reduced to two number of poles. The brushes commutating coils in line with
YY
are
called the energy or working brushes, as the torqueproducing current occurs in the circuit made up by them. The brushes displaced
XX
90
from the stator axis are called the exciting brushes as above This machine has the same characteristics as the singleexplained.
phase induction motor, namely, relatively constant speed under load changes, low power factor and absence of starting torque. Its efficiency
is,
however, lower due to the introduction of the brush and commutaIt is possible,
tor losses.
factor
by compensation
276
This may be accomplished by employing a transformer a small voltage in phase with the line e.m.f to the excitsupply ing or compensating brush circuit as shown in Fig. 162. The transformer T can be omitted and the stator winding itself may be used
and
T to
as the
coils
primary of a stepdown transformer, independent secondary being wound concentricly with the stator winding and connected
shown
in Fig. 163.
Or
the separate
secondary stator coils may be omitted and the main stator winding be used as an autotransformer to step down the line potential as
shown
in Fig. 164.
The
selfstarting characteristic
in the
FIG. 165.
SHIFTING OF BRUSHES TO OBTAIN SHUNT INDUCTION MOTOR WITH HIGH STARTING TORQUE.
FIG. l66.
usually 15 degrees, and opening the short circuit between the exciting brushes by means of the switch Sw as in Fig. 165. The machine will then start on the repulsion motor principle as explained in con
Wagner motor,
p. 245,
and
as synchronous speed
may
matically by
means
of
some
centrifugal device.
brush
machine
a substantially
constant speed and at a high power factor. This type of machine is commercially known as the compensated shunt induction motor.
If the
switch
Sw
is
277
necessary to produce acceleration is materially reduced and the starting torque for a given line current is consequently much less.
Such a machine
is
shown
in Fig. 166
and
is
commercially known
as the repulsioninduction motor. The characteristic curves of a The decrease in typical motor of this class are shown in Fig. 167.
speed with increase in load, from no load to per cent, about the same as that of ordinary
equal capacity.
full load, is
about 8
a.c.
shunt motors of
The compensation
factor
by
the high
power
which
is
100
2000
1800 1600
1400
60
300
I
40 200
"3
*
20
100
25
75
100
125
150
175
CHARACTERISTIC CURVES OF A
5 H.P.
REPULSIONINDUCTION MOTOR.
Shunt induction motors may be made to operate as constant output machines of a moderate speed range (about 2 to i) by several methods.
The
XX
axis
simplest way is to strengthen or weaken the field along the by the insertion of capacity or inductance in the excitation
circuit,
as shown in Figs. 168 and 169. The insertion of increases the excitation current and strengthens the field, capacity
brush
thus reducing the motor speed, whereas, the use of inductance weakens the field and raises the speed. Another method is that used in connection with the repulsioninduction motor. This comprises a transformer the
lines
supply
primary of which is connected across the and the secondary thereof is composed of two coils;
278
one, the
regulating coil,"
limited,
circuit.
becomes
less
and
motor speed
is
caused to
COMPARISON OF
With
d.c.
D.C.
machines, each circuit or portion thereof, whether in series or shunt, must obtain its current by electrical connection to
On the other hand, a.c. circuits may be the supply conductors. as well as conductively. For example, any supplied inductively
d.c.
its field
also its
(if
com
provided
The windings of therewith), all connected to the supply circuit. an a.c. motor, however, may be energized in four different ways:
first,
and conduction from the supply; induction through a transformer; third, by induction second, by in the winding shortcircuited upon itself; and fourth, by induction
by
electrical connection to
to
is
connected as a tertiary
directly connected
to
in
its
field
279
trans
former
PS
by the brushes b and b from the secondary and at the same time the brushes B and B
of the
are connected
by very low resistance so as to shortcircuit the armature. Thus tne first three of the above arrangements are present in this one machine. In most a.c. commutator motors the field winding is connected directly to the supply conductors because it is more easily
which they usually carry. The armaconstruction and motion, is more difficult to ture, insulate, and for that reason is often connected as a secondary cirinsulated for the high voltage
on account of
its
which
may
be
made
as low as desired.
This
arrangement is characteristic of the repulsion motor and constitutes one of its most prominent advantages. The ftossibility of ener
any one of the three windings of an a.c. commutator motor one of the ways specified above affords opportunity for making any many different combinations, but this does not mean that all of them
gizing
in
may be protected from highvoltage by supplya transformer. Such protection is not absolute in ing through the case of an autotransformer, but the potential at the motor may
Any
it
a.c.
machine
enables variable voltage to be easily obtained for speed control, as explained in connection with Figs. 151 and 158. The facility of transformation and variation of voltage constitutes the advantage
of a.c.
compared with
d.c.
commutator machines.
On
the other
hand, the low flux densities and power factor, also sparking difficulties of the former, render them less powerful and more troublesome than the latter. In other words, they cost more and develop
less
power pound
for
less satis
factory in operation.
For further information on commutating
motors, the reader
a.c.
is
referred to:
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS. F. Punga, R. F. Looser. 1906. Wilson and Lydall. Vol. II. London, 1907. ALTERNATINGCURRENT MOTORS. A. S. McAllister. New York, 1909. ELECTRIC MOTORS. Hobart. London, 1910. DIE WECHSELSTROMTECHNIK. E. Arnold. Vol. V, Book 2. Berlin. 1912. ALTERNATINGCURRENT ELECT. RAILWAY. G. B. Lamme. Trans. A. I. E.
ELECT. TRACTION.
Vol.
E.,
XX,
1902. p. 15.
ALTERNATINGCURRENT RAILWAY MOTORS. W. I. Slichter, Dr. C. P. Steinmetz and W. A. Blank. Trans. A. I. E. E., Vol. XXIII, 1904, pp. i, 9 and 83.
280
HISTORY AND DEVELOPMENT OF SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS. Feldmann, Haga, and Noome. Der Ingenieur, March, 1909. SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS. F. Greedy, D. Van Nostrand Co., N. Y.
SINGLEPHASE COMMUTATOR MOTORS.
63, 1909.
J.
FischerHinnen.
Elect.,
London, Vol.
M.
Danof
T. H. Schoepf.
Jour. Inst.
M.
PART
IV.
CHAPTER
XIX.
SERVICE CONDITIONS.
ELECTRIC motors employed as a source of driving power must be adapted in speed and torque to the particular purpose to which they are applied. For example, if the speed of the driven machine
suitable for constant speed operation.
required to be practically constant, of course the motor should be It is not necessary in such a the machine driven by it to have the same case for the motor and
is
speed, the conditions being often fulfilled more conveniently by a fixed ratio of speeds obtained through gearing or belting instead of by direct connection. To secure very low or very high speeds this arrangement with large speed ratios usually becomes practically
necessary, as in the case of a triplex plunger
pump running at about 50 r.p.m. connected to a 5h.p. motor whose normal speed is about " buzz " wood 800 r.p.m. Another example is afforded by the
which rotates
at
driven by a 3h.p. motor at say 1000 r.p.m. If the driven machine or street car, for example, is to run at variable velocity, then the speed of the motor must be varied in the
make
or
more
These may be employed either in place of or in combination with the speed alteration of the electric motors, depending upon circumstances. In many cases, however, it is
preferable to change the speed of the motor electrically rather than to introduce two or more sets of gears or other mechanical means For instance, a radial drill costs less and is more of speed control.
281
282
convenient with a 3 i adjustablespeed motor than with change gear box and constant speed motor. There are some conditions,
one speed for several hours, and only infrequently at a different speed, under which it would probably be as well to use a practically constantspeed
especially with large
machines running
at
ratios mechanically.
The
but occasionally.
it
is
In lathes, milling machines and similar tools practically necessary to introduce gearing for the very low
of Motors
speeds.
recommended
in the Standardi
Rules of the A.
is
I.
1800,
June, 1907,
as follows:
1. Constantspeed motors, in which the speed is either constant or does not materially vary, such as synchronous motors, induction motors with small slip and ordinary directcurrent shunt
motors.
2. Multispeed motors (twospeed, threespeed, etc.), which can be operated at any one of several distinct speeds, these speeds being practically independent of the load, such as motors with two arma
ture windings.
Adjustablespeed motors, in which the speed can be varied gradually over a considerable range, but when once adjusted remains practically unaffected by the load, such as shunt motors
3.
designed for a considerable range of field variation. 4. Varyingspeed motors, or motors in which the speed varies with the load, decreasing when the load increases, such as series
motors.
Classes of Service.
of electric
way
many
practical uses
for
The
requiring practically constant speed, regardless of in torque, sudden as well as gradual. changes (b) Service in which the torque is steady or varies as some function of the speed should the latter change.
Service
SERVICE CONDITIONS.
(c)
283
variations in speed with rapid acceleration. starting (d) Service which involves frequent
inching." Service in which the torque varies regardless of the speed, (e) or for which speed variations may be desired irrespective of torque. Service of a cyclic nature, for which energy is stored in a fly(/)
is
The
first
more machines
by a single
motor running
at
A
is
woodworking shop with circular saws, band saws, planers, etc., a common and typical example. The directcurrent shuntthe alternatingcurrent induction or synchronous Directcurrent compoundif
motors are applicable to this service. wound motors are particularly suitable
started from rest or
likely to occur.
On
the other
where heavy overloads, even momentary, are hand the speed of compound motors
with variable torque is not so closely constant as in the case of shuntmachines, but in many practical instances the difference would not
be objectionable. The torqueexerting capabilities of compound motors and their speed characteristics have been discussed in
Chapter
XL
machine driven by a motor may be directly connected by coupling their shafts or by employing the same shaft for both, provided they are adpated to run or can properly be made to run
single
at the same speed. Buffing wheels, emery wheels or tool grinders mounted upon or directly coupled to the motor shaft are prominent and characteristic examples. If their speeds are different they may be connected by belting for moderate speed ratios, and these
should not ordinarily exceed 4 to i. It is customary to use gearing or chain belt for reducing speed in higher ratios, especially
About 8 to i speed ratio is the practical limit chain drive. On the other hand, with sufficient of a satisfactory distance between centers, spur gearing will give almost any speed reduction with high efficiency.
for positive driving.
machine may require constant torque as well as speed and therefore constant power as in an ordinary pumping installation. Thus there would be nothing to cause speed
driven
The
constant
284
or
a.c.
given voltage or frequency, a certain speed being usually desired, and the danger of running away which exists with a series motor is avoided. In most power applications, however,
definite with
included in this
first
power demanded of
the motor vary even with practically constant speed. Very often, the torque and power may be almost nil at one moment indeed,
and
at rated value or
later.
Such
stones, drills,
extreme changes occur very frequently with circular saws, grindpunching presses, shears, buffing wheels and many
kinds
of
other
machinery.
induction or synchronous motors are especially applicable, also the d.c. compound motor for strong starting torque or temporary overloads as noted above.
number
of
through a
line
machines operated by one motor are usually driven This arrangement disshaft by pulleys and belting.
to
tributes the
be
run at different speeds by using various ratios of pulley diameters and readily permits the starting and stopping of individual machines by
clutches or shifting belts. group of woodworking or many other kinds of machines are often driven by a single motor in this way,
as already stated. Usually the number in use and the torque demanded by each are varying greatly, at the same time approximately
constant speed
is
or the
motor
is
employed.
refinement of
this
problem
textile
machinery,
especially silk
speed variation might affect the appearance of the finished product. In such instances the alternatingcurrent induction or synchronous motors are generally employed because the speed of directcurrent
motors varies considerably with voltage changes and with the variation in temperature which occurs after several hours of opera
Chapter III, whereas the speed of the altermotors, unless the voltage varies greatly, is dependent natingcurrent upon the frequency of the supplied current.
tion, as explained in
The second
is
fairly
if
more rapidly
SERVICE CONDITIONS.
the latter changes.
fans, blowers, etc.,
285
its requirements are satisfied by the series motor, whose speed adjusts itself to the work and at starting the rush of current does not tend to be so great as in a shunt motor. It must be, however, either geared or directly connected to the apparatus,
and
because the breaking of the belt or the sudden removal of the load would cause a series motor to race and become injured (p. 105). To avoid these dangers or to permit the use of a clutch which might
allow a series motor to run away, also because very widely variable speeds are undesirable, it is common practice to employ heavily compoundwound motors for driving reciprocating pumps or positive
blowers.
If
a break should occur in the suction pipe of a pump is likely to race, while a compound motor would
speed above the danger limit. The operation of pumps by electric motors is usually effected by gearing, since ordinary plunger pumps do not operate efficiently if driven in excess of fifty
Centrifugal or blowers operating at high speed may be direct driven. The third case (c) includes electric traction and crane service, in which the motor is frequently started and stopped and rapidly
this
by
direct connection
costly motor.
pumps
slowing
down
steep grade. either the direct or alternatingcurrent types, depending upon the current available. Elevator service is of this character, as regards
automatically to the load, a car is climbing a when heavily loaded as These conditions are satisfied by series motors of
itself
when
frequent starting and stopping, but after rapid acceleration it calls for a speed independent of the load. Hence, to fulfill both these
when
up
to speed, its
series field
winding
is
and
it
however,
service,
maximum strength for starting, and use of interpoles. If only alternating cursparking prevented by rent is available, the polyphase induction motor should be employed,
but for powerful starting torque slipring control would be necessary in order to avoid very excessive currents and low powerfactors
Jn starting
operates as a shunt machine. Recently, shunt motors have been employed for this
up or
at
low speed.
286
The fourth case (d) requires the motor to be started and stopped frequently and not rapidly accelerated, but on the contrary slightly " moved or inched " forward at the start, as in the operation of These conditions of service are printing presses, gun turrets, etc.
satisfied
double
armature
also well
by directcurrent compoundwound motors provided with and seriesparallel control. This character of
performed by having a double or variable potential source of current supply for the working motor, low voltage being
is
work
and higher voltages for running. used for starting and inching " " teazer These features are found in the Bullock system, the twomotor method, or the WardLeonard HolmesClatworthy
equipment. The last named, however, being somewhat expensive, is employed for the operation of gun turrets, steelrolls and such special service, in which cost is a secondary
motorgenerator
consideration.
"
"
or very slow operation can also be Inching accomplished by the use of a multiple disk oil clutch, which can be
"
"
very gradually and smoothly applied. The fifth case (e) includes individual machinetool service, for
which the
the
maximum
number
allowable cutting or turning speed requires of revolutions of the work or tool to vary inversely as
the diameter of the cut, maintaining the load at a constant value. This condition is satisfied best by directcurrent shunt motors, as
these are readily controlled in speed, as described in Chaps. VVII. It is to be noted that in cases (a) and (6), the motor usually In regulates automatically to maintain practically constant speed.
con(c), (d) and (e), on the contrary, the motor is hand to give variable speeds. Furthermore, in case (c) by the motor is under control of the hand at all times, while in cases (d) and (e) the motor or machine driven by it, after being started, is set to operate at a desired speed for some time and regulates
remaining cases
trolled
automatically
when
The
presses,
sixth case
for the greater part of the cycle, but the shock or effort required for short periods is very great. If this intermittent but large demand
power were met directly by an increased supply of current from the line, it would call for an excessive value of current, sufficient To avoid this to produce marked fluctuations in line voltage. the tool or machine is provided with a fly wheel, disturbing result,
for
SERVICE CONDITIONS.
and as the motor tends
to slow
287
of the increased turnits
down because
stored energy, thus supplementing temporarily the power supply from the line. The type of motor particularly well suited to this kind of work is a compoundwound d.c. motor or an inductionmotor with a
is
ELECTRIC DRIVEN MACHINERY. Dr. S. S. Wheeler. Elec., N. Y., May, 1898. ELECTRIC POWER IN ENGINEERING WORKS. Dr. Louis Bell. Eng. Mag., October,
1899, January, 1900.
ELECTRIC DISTRIBUTION OF
Inst.,
POWER
IN
WORK
SHOPS.
F. B. Crocker.
Franklin
January, 1901.
DISTRIBUTION.
W.
B. Esson.
Elect.
Eng.,
D. C. and W. B. Jackson.
Cassier's
Mag.,
W.
E. Reed.
W.
INDUSTRIAL ENGINEERING. H. W. Peck. Electric Journal, Vol. VI, 1909, p. 83. APPLICATION OF MOTORS TO MACHINE TOOLS. J. M. Barr. Electric Journal,
Vol. II, 1905, p. ii.
G.
M.
Campbell.
APPLICATIONS OF MOTORS. Electrical Record, June, 1909. COST OF OPERATING MACHINE TOOLS. A. G. Popcke. Electric Journal, Vol. VI,
1909, pp. 674, 757.
Chas. Robbins.
Trans. A. S.
M.
E.,
C.
W. Drake.
W.
Pa., Oct.,
Brachenburg.
SHOPS.
A. G. Popcke.
Am. Mach.,
CHAPTER
THE
previous chapter sets
as regards speed
XX.
and torque characteristics, which must be met unit. This chapter deals more specifically with by any driving the power requirements of particular devices. It is impossible
occur.
in the limited space here available to consider the many cases that The problems of usual occurrence are, however, discussed.
The
The speed
control should be
by
resistance in
the armature circuit for d.c. and by autotransformers in the case As this service is usually continuous for long of large a.c. motors. of time, the motor should have a corresponding rating. periods
a fan
is
hence the h.p. required varies as the cube of the speed. In general, the power required to drive a fan or blower may be approximated
= KQP
19,000
(70)
wherein
is
is
a constant depending upon the type of fan or blower; moved expressed in cubic feet per
in
minute;
is
the air
to
be moved.
given in the following table are based upon a combined efficiency of 60% for drive and fan.
values of
The
10 to 12
8 to 9
12 to 14
6 to
289
Machinery. In general, either d.c. shunt or squirrelare satisfactory for the operation of pumps. cage induction motors In case, however, a pump must be started against the back pressure
of a full discharge or stand pipe,
a compoundwound
d.c.
be used.
The speed
owing
speed
high
shaft.
to the fact
is
which piston pumps can be worked is limited, that water is incompressible. A usual piston
at
minute. This low speed necessitates a 50 to 135 feet per of speed reduction between motor shaft and pump crank ratio
Centrifugal pumps, however,
may be
pump shaft is very convenient and operates satisfactorily for moderate heads. This form of pump, however, is not positive in action like the piston pump and the slip increases markedly with height of lift, hence it
is
not
much used
tandem
for
to
heads over 50
feet,
though several
may
be
coupled in
to drive a
pump
produce 2 or 3 stage lifts. The power required can be approximated by the following expression:
h 'P =
.
Q X (H +
530
F)
>
XE
in feet
wherein
H represents the
F represents the friction head; E represents the efficiency of the pump which varies between
50% and 75%, depending upon
fittings, etc.
The
wherein
friction
head
is
= .4 LV 2D i
is is
is
D
V
to
Power Requirements
The power required of Machine Tools.*ft remove or cut metals depends upon the material to be worked,
Motor
Applications,
* Electric
by Chas. Robbins.
Trans. A.
S.
M.
E.
Vol. 32,
Power Required
in
R. R. Shop Tools.
R. L. Pomeroy.
290
on the
of the tool.
on the cutting speed and upon the condition In general with proper edge on the working tools, it
:
may be
expressed as follows
wherein
is
the cutting speed in inches per minute is a constant or the horsepower required to remove
;
cu.in. of material
condition.
Values for
Material.
Wrought
Mild
steel (low
Hard
The
values of
should
be
drills
and
milling cutters,
because of the packing action of the metallic chip. to the losses in the driving connections between motor and Owing tool, the power determined by the above formula should be increased
by about 30
Example. lowing work:
to
40%.
fol
Diameter
of
Assuming an efficiency of 70% it follows that the motor to drive the lathe would have to be of 5 h.p. capacity, intermittent service rating.
291
The motor
is
a semienclosed
shuntwound interpole machine designed for speed control by field weakening. The speed ranges vary between i 2 and i 6, usually
:
combined
is
starter
operator can
move
is generally located so that the type the handle without leaving the tool carriage.
suffice.
The
controller
and
field rheostat
usually connected by gearing or silent chain drive to the spindle and is located near the head stock of the lathe. The following table gives approximately the power required by various
sizes of lathes
:
The motor
SIZES
Mechanically reversible planers (old style) are usually driven by 25% to 30% overcompounded d.c. motors or polyphase induction motors having wound rotors. The motors may be of
adjustable speed but they need not exceed a i 2 ratio. The motor usually direct connected or geared to the driving shaft which should Planers with reversible motor drive in all cases carry a fly wheel.
:
Planers.
is
employ
field
interpole
weakening.
Power requirements
following table:
292
Drills.
is
The speed
is
The
usually
by means
of belt
or gearing, when the motor may be mounted on top of the column or on an extended base. Silent chain drive between motor and gear
is
drills for
The sizes of the motors required to operate conditions encountered in practice are as in the working
:
following tables
SIZES
Upright Drills.
293
Boring Mills.
The
The
The
25% overcompounded
machine or a
rotor.
The
slipring induction motor having a high resistance connection between the motor and tool is usually by
gearing and a fly wheel must always be a part of the combination. The fly wheel serves to steady the load, giving up some of its stored
The power
required
is
approx
294
to operate emery grinders are usually of the enclosed shunt or induction types and are generally high speed totally
Grinders.
3f"Xf'
6000
15
4i"Xi"
4250
.3
24
6"xf"
3400
.6
o"Xi"
2500
1.25
i2
'Xi'
2
Speed
h.p. for 2 wheels
1750
Size of wheels
i8"X2"
11
"X3"
876
5
Speed
h.p. for 2 wheels
70
3.5
PRINTING PRESSES.
Large Rotary Newspaper and Magazine Presses. A low speed of about 10 r.p.m. for the cylinders of such presses is required for making ready, threading in papers, beating in blankets, etc. For color
done
Ordinary
The latter
:
speed refers to the high speed presses lately put on the market. Four methods of driving these presses are in use at the present time
The
first is
ment for getting extreme low speeds, or the armature rheostatic method of speed control, using shunt motor having a speed range This method is not very satisfactory as it does not of from 2:1.
give uniform low speed or uniform acceleration. The second method is the twomotor drive.
large
is
motor
used to
drives the press at the higher speeds and a small motor obtain low speeds by means of a worm or a train of gears.
A release
mechanism
the former
is
motor, so that
is
when
interposed between the small motor and the large the control is transferred from one to the other,
The
motor and of standard speed. about 20% This system has been well tried out and gives good satisfaction. The third method employs a single motor of the double armature type to obtain the full variation of speed from 10 r.p.m. to 300 r.p.m.
of the capacity of the large
on press cylinders by field control. The fourth method comprises the "Teaser" system described,
In
all
p. 49.
cases
are
either geared
or direct
connected to press shaft. Belts, etc., are not very serviceable on account of the extreme variations in power, and the heavy starting torque necessary for this work.
295
are in use
Double quadruple, double sextuple and double octuple presses which take double the power shown in above table, and are usually driven by two motors one for each half, so arranged that
they can be coupled electrically and mechanically, if desired. A.C. drive has not been very successful with the possible exception of the twomotor drive, and even then the severe requirements of
torque
d.c. drive
more
desirable.
In
general it may be stated that large rotary presses use about 600 watts at full load for each 1000 newspapers, 8 pages each, printed per hour.
Cylinder
drive
all
Printing Presses.
The
type
rated
for
25%
capable of
25%
is
increase
of
speed by
control.
provided with
an armature resistance whereby the speed of the machine may be reduced 50% below normal so that a 3 i speed range is obtained. The motor is sometimes geared but more frequently belted to the
press,
The power
class of
fly wheel of ample capacity. somewhat with the make of press and
:
Bed
in Inches.
h .p.
of
I
Motor.
i5
25
3
35
4
45
5
5^5 to 7. 5
296
The
is
about
The
controller
designed to give
50%
reduction in
increase in speed
by
field
The motor
is
The for tightening the belt is employed. is given in the following table: presses BED AND PLATEN OR
Size of bed in inches
"
power required
for these
GORDON
8X12
JJ
"
PRINTING PRESSES.
7X11
J
10X15
J f
12X18
Ji
14X22
Ji
Horsepower
of
motor
Paper Cutting Machines. The type of motor employed to drive paper cutting machines is from 25 to 50% compound low speed and
nonreversible.
belting.
The mechanical
:
connection
is
either
gearing or
is
The power
required to drive
approximately as follows
25
i
30
1.5
36
2
44
2.5
50
3
57
Horsepower
of
motor
Sewing Machines.
drive
is
The
best type of motor for sewing machine the polyphase induction motor,
"
Usually
"
group
:
by
sometimes
employed.
as follows
The power
work about
18
to 20
Heavy
cloth sewing
Leather sewing
The motors recommended for drivmost woodworking machines are either the d.c. shuntwound or ing a.c. squirrelcage induction motors, depending upon the available current supply. If both are obtainable induction motors are usually
Woodworking Machinery.
preferable because they involve less
fire
hazard.
The
connection
between motor and tool depends upon the type of drive and with
297
group drive the connection is by means of belting to counter shafts. In case of individual drive, it is found that usually band saws,
shapers, surfacers, tenonizing machines, etc., are direct connected, while sanders, circular saws, spindle borers and even lathes are belted unless very wide speed ranges are desire for the lathe.
The power requirements vary considerably not only with the kind and quality of lumber encountered but also with the depth of
cut, rate of feed
and condition of
tool edge.
The
following tables
give average
power demands
FLOORING MACHINES
Capacity of Machine.
Average h.p.
10"
12" 15"
1015 I22O
1525 2535
"'
TENONIZING MACHINES
OUTSIDE MOULDERS
From data
furnished
by
Wm.
Siebenmorgen of the
C and
C. Electric
Company.
298
SURFACES OR PLANERS
SAWS
299
DRUM SANDERS
Hoisting. The power required to operate elevators, hoists or cranes depends upon the acceleration, height of lift, etc. Ordinary cranes as a rule consume one horsepower per ton This assumes an efficiency lifted at the rate of 10 feet per minute.
of about
60%.
with d.c. service
for
operating elevators
25% compoundwound machine or an interpole field control. With a.c. supply, induction motors
having a
either of the high resistance squirrelcage type or of the slip ring form with external resistance. The connection between motor and
hoist
gear giving the desired speed ratio. For elevators counterweights are used to offset to some extent the weight of the car and the load to be lifted. An ordinary arrangementis
drum
usually by a
worm
employ car counter weights of about 400 to 500 Ibs. less than the weight of the car and a variable counter weight of about onehalf
is
to
of the rated lifting capacity of the elevator. The power required to operate an elevator
is
h.p.
33000
x v XE
300
wherein
W\
in
W2 = the
combined weight
and load
;
which is somewhat variable depending upon the condition of A safe value, cable, maintenance of runways, etc. is from 60 to 70%. however,
for various
industrial
and publications
in addition
M.
1905, p. ii.
L. R. Pomeroy.
G.
SELECTION OF
37, 1912, pp.
MOTOR OF PROPER
CAPACITY.
A. G. Popcke.
C. Clifton.
Am. Mack.,
Vol.
Practical Eng.,
June
ETC.
C.
W.
Drake.
Elect.
Elect.
Journal,
Vol.
X,
1913, p. 245.
E.
C.
Wayne.
Journal,
G. A. Anthony,
12,
DRILLING.
DRILLING.
N. T.
A. L.
Sears.
35,
and
Sept., 1912.
De Leuw.
Trans. A. S.
F.
M. E.
Halsey.
AND
DRAUGHTSMEN.
A.
G. E. Titcomb.
Trans. A. S.
M.
E.,
THE ELECTRIC CRANE. C. W. Hill. Lippincott & Co., PRINTING PRESS, POWER REQUIREMENTS. Elec. Rev.,
and W.
Elect.,
1911.
Aug., 1909.
Elec.
Rev.
May
18, 1912,
May
24, 1913.
LAUNDRY POWER DRIVE. Elec. Rev. and W. Elect., Jan. 6, 1912. ELECT. ENGS. POCKET BOOK. D. Van Nostrand Co. 1910 Edit.,
pp. 15151529.
INDEX.
PAGE
184
131
205
130, 133
16, 19
Adjustablespeed Motors
283
4
129
131, 173
136, 265 135, 248
Brush Drop Brush Shifting Bullock Elec. Mfg. Co. Adjustablespeed Shunt Motors. Multiplevoltage System Teaser System
18 48
...
73 54 63
Shunt
Shuntinduction. Singlephase Induction
Synchronous
Alternators
Parallel Connection
Series Connection
Armature
Heating
Resistance Resistance Control
Cascade Control Chain Drive Characteristic Curves of Compound Motors Induction Motors Series Motors Shunt Motors ShuntInduction Synchronous Motors
Circle
217 284
126
197,215,239
Ill, 260
26
13
Diagram
of
A. C. Series Motor
Autotransformer
Auxiliary Poles
Heyland,
A
.
McAllister, A. S
4,
129/283
66,
B
Bailey,
W
Mo
132 57
169 82, 92
1
73,
68 73 72 84
284 288
61
Motor Power
for
for
293
293, 299
73 72 73, 262, 268, 271 Windings 202 Compensator Starter 124 Compoundwound Motors. 243 CondenserCompensator 117 Condict, G. H Constant Current Motor 121 H. P. Motors 50, 71 Motors 50, 71 Torque
ThompsonRyan
301
302
INDEX.
PAGE
PAGE
Faraday's Disk
1
Controller
Drum and
Master.
..
Ferraris, Prof.
Field
53
194
26
Motor Power
for for
75, 77,
Flux Distribution
Damping Grids
Data
of
170
200, 240
G
Gears General Electric Co. Doublearmature Control Induction Motor Series Motor Type 69
110,
282
66 243 110 115
Induction Motors
20 Shunt Motors 132 Deprez, Design Features of Series A. C. Motors.. 253 71 Design Features Shunt Motors 42 Design of Resistance Controller 92 Diehl Co. Field Control 124, 127 Differentially Wound Motors 4 Direct Current Motors 66 Doublearmature Control Methods 232 Doublefrequency Currents
Type
Grinders
Controller
Motor Power
for
for
293 293
H
Heating
Drills
Armature
292 292 119 90
Field
13,
12,
26 26
Limits
Heyland,
A
. .
191,
246
191
E
Edison, Reluctance Control
Efficiency
Heyland Circle Diagram Heyland Induction Motors. History of Motors HolmesClatworthy System.
245 130 65
131 107
.
91
Calculation of
22
200, 241
169
Name
Series
Motor Control
133, 173
177
Advantages
of
Applications of
Reliability of
282 8
8
Development
Efficiency of
of
Speed Control
Elevators
Motor Power
for
for
285 299 86
194 194 191
Leakage Component
Current Reactance Locked Current Saturation Curve Magnetizing Current Factor
Poles
'...'..
217 197 190, 194 202 173 133 200 193 194 173 182 184 186
184 195 195 183 183 181
186,
Equivalent Transformer
for.
for
284 289
200
INDEX.
PAGE
Induction Motor, Polyphase Resistance Control Rotors for
Slip
303
PAGE
Continued.
181. 217
Motors Advantages
of
5
282 282
72, 79, 236,
Slipring Control
181
Compensated
Definition
271
1
Speed Control
Starting of
Starting Torque
Statorfor
Compound
Induction
Interpole
Series
133. 173,
73, 84.
99,
10,
Absence of Starting Torque Brown, Boveri & Co. Types Characteristic Curves Condenser Compensator
Form
.
of Field
G. E. Starter
Methods
of Starting
P
Co
223 223 242 239 244 229 244 241 226 232 241 237 242 242 242, 244
241 245 73 73, 84, 116 249
131,
136,
4,
Types
of
Motorgenerator System Moulding Machines Motor for Power for Multiple voltage System
Balancer Sets for Bullock Electric Co Control of Crocker Wheeler Co
Efficiency of
59
297 297
58 54 59 53 55
51
Three wire
WardLeonard, H.
,52
Tesla Patent
Wagner
Interpoles
Electric
N
Name
Plate
Motor
Data
Efficiency Northern Elec. Mfg.
Co
22 22 79
136
1
Osnos,
269 269
Lamme, G. B
Lathes
for
for
286
291
Pacinotti
1,
131
1
Phase
Splitting
Swinging
Planers
291,
W. B
Power Factor
of Induction Motors.. 187, 202, 211, 241 of Repulsion Motors 271
of Series
M
McAllister, A. S
193, 240
of
148,
63,
168
Press Control
286
294 295
289 76
119
Printing Presses
,
.
304
INDEX.
PAGE
PAGE
Series Motor,
Preventive Leads
255
284 289
D.C.
Continued.
Pumps
Motor for Power f or
.
. .
Racing Rating
of
of
Quarter Phase
173, 176
99
109 104 105 Ill 10, 272 70, 91 25, 41 73, 84
Rated
Current
Voltage
11,
12
11
Rating
Auxiliary Pole
112 136 269 268, 271 136 271 136, 266 271
207, 217, 221
73,
.
72,
Double Armature
Efficiency
22, 76, 79, 83, 89,
73,
Thomson,
Prof.
ElectroDynamic Co
Field Control
48 73 84 79 20 66 95 84
WinterEichberg
Resistance Control Induction Motors
Flux Distribution
Heating
Interpolar Lincoln Mfg.
85,
95 26
114
33, 41
Starting
Ridgway Motor
Rotary Field Rotor Windings Ryan, Prof. H. J
87 96 76 Magneto Electric Co Methods of Speed Control.. 41, 50, 70, 91 50 Multiplevoltage Control
Co
41 Speedload Curves. .74, 78, 83, 87, 93, 96 33 Starting Box 76 Storey Motor
Resistance Control
Saturation Factor
29
AC
Compensated
Construction Control Losses in Power Factor Preventive Leads Siemens, Alex
298 298 129, 135, 248 260 259 263 251 263 249, 263 250, 256 253 135 253, 263 250, 252 255 250 4, 99
99, 121
Stow Mfg. Co Voltage VariationSpeed WardLeonard, H. Controls Shunt Induction Motor Atkinson's
Compensation for Speed Control Shearing and Punching Machines
. . .
92 28 52
274 275 278
Motor Power
for for
Siemens, Alex
Singlephase Induction Motor
duction Motor)..
Slip
(see
Slipring Control
Induction Motors
Repulsion Motors
99
et seq.
Control
133,
242
181
Squirrelcage Rotor
Starting
Box
33
124
202, 245
Compound Motors
Induction Motors
INDEX.
PAGE
Starting Continued.
305
PAGE
Tenonizing Machines
Repulsion Motors
Series Motors.
.
270
114, 264
136, 243,
Storey Motor
Diagram
Damping
Coils
Hunting
Limit of Stability
169, 155,
Maximum Output
Phase Relations
Powerfactor, Improvement
Speed
of
SuperExcitation
Synchronism
Synchronizing
Torque V Curves
Variation of
of
field
Power Factor
Synchroscope
33 142 177 244 76 92 137 155 169 162 161 165 172 159 131 171 156 155 147 150 138 142 142 151 138 142 151 167 150 151 146
292 297 72
73,79
136,
Thomson
Torque
Prof.
Types Types
of
Motors
4,
of Service
166
192 269 256 273 151, 158
190, 221
Motor
Repulsion Motor
271
104, 262
28,
50
11
190, 282
W
Wagner Motor
WardLeonard, H Westinghouse Series Motor. Wheels
Wilde, Prof
245
52, 60
Windings
Balancing
217
61 11 241 134, 173, 11
66
173, 181, 205
Test Voltage
D.
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