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**adjustable damping for precision vibration isolation
**

Huayan Pu, Xin Luo, Xuedong Chen

n

State Key Laboratory of Digital Manufacturing Equipment and Technology, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, 1037 Luoyu Road, Wuhan 430074,

Hubei Province, China

a r t i c l e i n f o

Article history:

Received 17 June 2010

Received in revised form

1 March 2011

Accepted 6 March 2011

Handling Editor: L.G. Tham

Available online 2 April 2011

a b s t r a c t

Dual-chamber pneumatic spring with adjustable damping (DCPS-AD) employs a

variable oriﬁce mechanism (VOM) to obtain the adjustable stiffness and damping

characteristics. These adjustable characteristics are aimed at improving the perfor-

mance of the pneumatic vibration isolation system (VIS). In order to understand

thoroughly how the adjustable parameter of VOM affects the behavior of DCPS-AD,

the model of DCPS-AD is derived analytically and validated experimentally. The

inﬂuence of VOM on the performance of DCPS-AD is analyzed quantitatively. All the

results demonstrate that VOM has the ability to vary complex stiffness distribution in

frequency domain. Based on these results, the approach optimizing the performance of

VIS is proposed, which is realized by adjusting VOM actively. Performance experimental

measurements of VIS in frequency domain are carried out under different payload

masses. The measurement results validate the proposed approach, which can optimize

the performance of VIS when some application conditions varying.

Crown Copyright & 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Ultra-precision vibration isolation systems (VIS) have been essential in the ﬁeld of ultra-precision engineering, along

with the progress of ultra-precision metrology equipment and ultra-precision manufacturing systems. The requirements

of lower natural frequency, higher attenuation ratio for ultra-precision vibration isolation systems have become more and

more stringent [1].

Of an ultra-precision VIS, pneumatic spring is one of the key elements. Compared to mechanical or electromechanical

devices, a pneumatic spring has the ability to support large mass with small stiffness due to the volumetric compressibility

of air [2].

The demands for a pneumatic spring are softer stiffness and better damping characteristics. Optimal structure design

and active control [3] are well-recognized as two effective ways to improve the vibration isolation performance of a

pneumatic spring. However, to achieve the best performance of both these ways, an accurate model of the pneumatic

spring is essential.

Several researchers have investigated the performance of pneumatic spring involved in ultra-precision VIS theoretically

and/or experimentally. The pneumatic spring using in precision vibration isolation has a small stroke and constant

effective piston area. Heertjes and van de Wouw [4] developed a nonlinear model of a single-chamber pneumatic spring.

They presented that the single-chamber pneumatic spring shows obvious nonlinearity when the displacement of the

Contents lists available at ScienceDirect

journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/jsvi

Journal of Sound and Vibration

0022-460X/$ - see front matter Crown Copyright & 2011 Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.jsv.2011.03.005

n

Corresponding author. Tel./fax: þ86 27 87557325.

E-mail address: chenxd@mail.hust.edu.cn (X. Chen).

Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 3578–3590

payload is not small enough. Due to the lower stiffness and better damping characteristic, dual-chamber pneumatic spring

is used widely in the vibration isolation system for ultra-precision instruments.

DeBra [5] proposed a simple linear model of the pneumatic vibration isolator. He presented that air ﬂow from the

isolator to a tank can dissipate the oscillatory energy if it is passed through a restrictor. Erin and Wilson [6] employed this

model to simulate the transmissibility of dual-chamber pneumatic isolator and measured the transmissibility experi-

mentally. The existence of the discrepancy between the measured result and simulation was observed. A modiﬁed model

that incorporates the effects of the diaphragm was proposed to improve the accuracy of analytical model. Lee and Kim [7]

investigated the complex stiffness of the dual-chamber pneumatic spring experimentally. Except the frequency

dependence, the experiment results exhibited signiﬁcantly vibration amplitude dependent nonlinear behavior. Through

the reﬁned analysis, they pointed out that there were two phenomena attributed to this nonlinear behavior, one is the

amplitude-dependent complex stiffness of the diaphragm, and another is the oscillating ﬂow in capillary tube. Based on

the improved model, a transmissibility design method was proposed [8] to make the frequency of the maximum damping

coincide with the resonance frequency of transmissibility. The ﬂow restriction coefﬁcient, chamber volume ratio and

diaphragm stiffness were optimized to achieve optimum transmissibility.

The performance of dual-chamber pneumatic spring (DCPS) is much better than the single chamber pneumatic spring.

Nevertheless, it is still a passive vibration isolator with ﬁxed characteristic parameters. While the application condition

varying, such as the payload mass, frequency band of disturbance, the effectiveness of vibration isolation will be affected.

For example, while payload mass of VIS varying, the natural frequency of the vibration isolation system changes. Due to

variation of natural frequency, the frequency of maximum damping of the optimal pneumatic spring does not coincide

with the resonance frequency of VIS anymore. The dual-chamber pneumatic springs in the previous studies have constant

characteristic parameters, such as the restriction coefﬁcient. This means that, once the pneumatic spring is engineered,

these parameters cannot be adjusted any longer. Therefore, the optimal designed pneumatic spring obtains the optimum

performance only for the special application object under the special application condition. In order to obtain optimum

performance in a range of application, some characteristic parameters of pneumatic spring should be adjustable according

to the characteristic of application condition.

The dual-chamber pneumatic spring with adjustable damping (DCPS-AD) can solve this puzzle, which utilizes a variable

oriﬁce mechanism (VOM) to vary the equivalent area of the oriﬁce actively, which results in the variable stiffness and

damping adjustable ability. Hence, the behavior of DCPS can be varied actively according to the change of application

condition. Then, better effectiveness of vibration isolation can be obtained. To realize this, it is important to understand

thoroughly how the adjustable parameter affects the behavior of DCPS-AD.

In this paper, the inﬂuence of VOM on the performance of DCPS-AD is analyzed quantitatively and the VIS performance

optimal approach by adjusting VOM actively is proposed. The analytical model of DCPS-AD is investigated theoretically

and experimentally. The effect of the variable oriﬁce mechanism, along with other operating conditions (frequency of

vibration) on the characteristic of the pneumatic spring is studied. The paper comprises 6 sections. In Section 2, the

structure of the DCPS-AD is presented. The model of DCPS-AD is developed in Section 3. Computation simulation is carried

out to validate the analytical model in this section. The complex stiffness measurement is carried out to validate the

analytical model and simulation in Section 4. In Section 5, the relation between the variety of oriﬁce area opening and the

frequency characteristic of complex stiffness is built based on the analytical model, and the performance of pneumatic

vibration isolation system is analyzed and optimized. Conclusions are summarized in the end.

2. Structure of DCPS-AD

A DCPS-AD is presented as shown in Fig. 1. The DCPS-AD consists of a cylindrical metal body whose air volume is

enclosed by a thin-walled, ﬂexible and pressure resistant round membrane in the top end. A piston is seated on this

membrane which can provide high suspension force with low stiffness in the vertical direction. In order to obtain high

damping effect, the air space of the pneumatic spring is split into two chambers, named the Load Chamber (LC) and the

Damping Chamber (DC), respectively. These two chambers are linked by a variable oriﬁce mechanism (VOM), which

consists of a pipe and an adjustable oriﬁce valve. The stiffness of the dual-chamber pneumatic spring attributes to two

phenomena: internal volume variation due to compression of air in the spring caused by an external force acting on it, and

the elastic stiffness of the membrane [9]. The damping attributes to air ﬂow through the oriﬁce, which controls the mass

ﬂow rate between two chambers, and provides damping to the system. When the air ﬂuid ﬂows along a pipe, and

encounters a constriction, for example an oriﬁce, a pressure differentiation exists, which forces the ﬂuid itself through the

constriction, causing a phenomenon that appears as damping [10]. The damping can be easily changed by the VOM.

3. Modeling and simulation of DCPS-AD

3.1. Some assumptions

The development of the model involves four parts: The ﬁrst part deals with the motion of the piston in response to the

displacement excitation; the second part establishes equations that govern thermodynamic behaviors of the LC and DC;

H. Pu et al. / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 3578–3590 3579

the third part represents the ﬂuid dynamic behavior of air ﬂow through the VOM; and the fourth part deal with the complex

stiffness of the membrane. To analyze the characteristic of the pneumatic spring, the following assumptions are made:

Assumption 1. The air in both the static and dynamic equilibrium states can be considered to be ideal gas, since it is at

high temperature and low pressure with respect to its critical point values.

Assumption 2. The gas process that deﬁnes the relationship between pressure and volume in both LC and DC complies

with the adiabatic, isentropic relationship.

Assumption 3. The air ﬂow through the VOM is frictionless, i.e., no energy loss due to friction, either in the ﬂuid itself or

between the ﬂuid and the pipe walls.

Assumption 4. The amplitude dependent behavior of the dual-chamber pneumatic spring is neglected in the model of

DCPS-AD. The focus of this paper is to study the inﬂuence of the VOM on the characteristic of DCPS-AD, the vibration

amplitude assumes to be constant.

According to these assumptions, the pneumatic spring is simpliﬁed as two chambers connected by an oriﬁce, whose

equivalent area is variable, as shown in Fig. 2.

3.2. Modeling of the DCPS-AD

3.2.1. Deﬁnition of the stiffness of the DCPS-AD

The stiffness of the dual-chamber pneumatic spring under preload K is given by Eq. (1), according to the deﬁnition of stiffness

K ¼À

df

dx

(1)

x f

Fig. 2. Simpliﬁed model of the DCPS-AD.

Damping

chamber

Load

chamber

Membrane

Piston

Adjustable

orifice

Metal body

pipe

Fig. 1. Schematic of the DCPS-AD.

H. Pu et al. / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 3578–3590 3580

where df is the perturbation force acting on the piston, and dx is perturbation displacement of the piston. In static equilibrium

state, pressures in both chambers are constant and equal. The initial force acting on piston f is governed by

f ¼A

p

ðp

0

Àp

atm

Þ (2)

where p

0

and p

atm

are the absolute chamber pressure and the atmospheric pressure, respectively, and A

p

is the piston area.

When a small perturbation force df acts on the piton, the relation between the perturbation force and the instantaneous

variation of internal pressure of the LC dp

L

can be derived from the differentiation of Eq. (2) with respect to time t

df

dt

¼A

p

dp

L

dt

(3)

The volume of the LC V

L

is given by

V

L

¼A

p

x (4)

where x is the height of the LC.

Differentiating Eq. (4) with respect to time t yields

dV

L

dt

¼A

p

dx

dt

(5)

Substituting Eqs. (3) and (5) into Eq. (1), the stiffness of the dual-chamber pneumatic spring is obtained as

K ¼À

df

dx

¼ÀA

2

p

dp

L

dV

L

(6)

Eq. (6) indicates that the stiffness of the DCPS-AD is related to the variations of both pressure (dp

L

) and volume (dV

L

)

in LC. However, because of the existence of DC connected with LC by the VOM, the variations of both dp

L

and dV

L

in LC are

strongly coupled with those in DC. Therefore, the dynamic relations between LC and DC must be elaborately developed,

in order to obtain stiffness characteristic of the pneumatic spring.

3.2.2. Modeling of the loading chamber

Perturbation force imposed on the piston causes variations of mass, pressure, volume and temperature changes in both

the LC and the DC. LC is analyzed as a control volume involving a moving boundary [11]. The mass ﬂow rate of air into LC is

as [6,7]

_ m

L

¼

1

RT

0

_ p

L

V

L0

k

þp

L0

_

V

L

_ _

(7)

where p

L

, V

L

, m

L

, T are the pressure, volume, mass and temperature in LC, respectively, and k and R are the speciﬁc heat

ratio and the universal gas constant, respectively. The dot over a symbol is used to indicate time rate of change, and the

subscripts ‘0’ denotes static equilibrium.

3.2.3. Modeling of the Damping Chamber

The DC can be analyzed as the control volume with a ﬁxed boundary, as there is no volume change in it. The mass ﬂow

rate of air into DC ð _ m

D

Þ can be obtained by using the same method as LC

_ m

D

¼

1

RT

0

_ p

D

V

D0

k

_ _

(8)

where V

D0

is the volume of DC, and _ p

D

is the pressure change rate of DC.

3.2.4. Modeling of the variable oriﬁce mechanism

The mass ﬂow rates of air into LC and DC are connected by the mass ﬂow rate of air through the VOM, which is given as

_ m

o

¼À _ m

L

(9a)

_ m

o

¼ _ m

D

(9b)

According to the empirical correlations [12], the mass ﬂow rate of air through the oriﬁce can be deﬁned versus pressure

at its ends

_ m

o

¼A

o

p

u

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

2

RT

0

¸

c (10a)

c¼

k

kÀ1

p

d

pu

_ _

2=k

À

p

d

pu

_ _

ðkþ1Þ=k

_ _ _ _

1=2

signðp

L

Àp

D

Þ for

p

d

pu

40:518

k

2

2

kþ1

_ _

ðkþ1Þ=ðkÀ1Þ

_ _

1=2

signðp

L

Àp

D

Þ for

p

d

pu

r0:518

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

¸

¸

¸

¸

_

(10.b)

H. Pu et al. / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 3578–3590 3581

where A

o

is the equivalent area of oriﬁce. The pressures p

u

(p upstream) and p

d

(p downstream) are deﬁned as

p

u

¼maxðp

L

,p

D

Þ, p

d

¼minðp

L

,p

D

Þ

Flow parameter c given in Eq. (10b) is related to the pressure ratio of the upstream to downstream. When the pressure

differentiation between upstream and downstream is not too large, the pressure ratio p

d

/p

u

40.518, the ﬂow is subsonic, c is a

function of the pressure ratio; otherwise, the ﬂowis sonic, the ﬂowparameter is constant. The pressure differentiation of DCPS-AD

is induced by the vibration. Thereby, the pressure ratio in DCPS-AD is much bigger than 0.518 as the vibration amplitude is small.

3.2.5. Membrane model

The membrane is made of a rubber material. It works as a complex stiffness element parallel connecting with the DCPS-AD.

For it is difﬁcult to estimate the complex stiffness of the membrane analytically, the indirect method proposed by Lee and Kim

[7] is used to measure the complex stiffness of membrane K

M

(o). The measurement result is shown in Appendix A.

3.2.6. Complex stiffness of the DCPS-AD in frequency domain

The relation between the variations of pressure and variation volume in LC can be obtained by combining Eqs. (7)–(10).

Transforming these equations into frequency domain through the Fourier transformation, the frequency characteristics of

the stiffness of the dual-chamber pneumatic spring can be obtained. The mass ﬂow rates of air into LC and DC in frequency

domain are given by

~

M

L

ðoÞ ¼

1

RT

0

p

0

joV

L

ðoÞþ

V

L0

k

joP

L

ðoÞ

_ _

(11)

~

M

D

ðoÞ ¼

1

RT

0

V

D0

k

joP

D

ðoÞ

_ _

(12)

For the vibration amplitude is small compared to the height of the LC, the pressure differentiation between

two chamber is small. For the simpliﬁcation of calculation, the nonlinear equations of mass ﬂow rate through the VOM,

i.e. Eq. (10), is linearized at the vicinity of the nominal operating point as

~

M

o

ðoÞ ¼C

o

A

o

½P

L

ðoÞÀP

D

ðoÞ (13)

where C

o

is deﬁned as the ﬂow coefﬁcient of oriﬁce, which can be obtained experimentally.

Substituting Eqs. (9) and (11)–(13) into Eq. (6), the complex stiffness of DCPS-AD due to compression of air and air ﬂow

between two chambers is obtained as

K

complex

ðA

o

,oÞ ¼k

ðV

D0

=RT

0

kÞo

_ _

2

þð1þNÞðC

o

A

o

Þ

2

ðV

D0

=RT

0

kÞo

_ _

2

þð1þNÞ

2

ðC

o

A

o

Þ

2

þk

NðC

o

A

o

V

D0

=RT

0

kÞo

ðV

D0

=RT

0

kÞo

_ _

2

þð1þNÞ

2

ðC

o

A

o

Þ

2

j (14)

where N is the volume ratio of DC over LC (V

D0

/V

L0

), and k is the stiffness of LC as deﬁned by Heertjes and van de Wouw [5], and

k ¼

kp

0

A

2

p

V

L0

The synthetical complex stiffness of the DCPS-AD can be represented by the sum of the complex stiffness due to compression

of air and air ﬂow between two chambers and the complex stiffness due to the characteristic of membrane, it is given as

K

Ã

complex

ðA

o

,oÞ ¼K

complex

ðA

o

,oÞ þK

M

ðoÞ (15)

The real part (K

storage

) of the complex stiffness refers to the storage stiffness, which denotes the stiffness characteristic

of the DCPS-AD; and, correspondingly, the imaginary part (K

loss

) is the loss stiffness, which describes the damping

characteristic of the pneumatic spring.

3.3. Computational simulation

Computational simulation of the complex stiffness is carried out. Table 1 gives the values of all parameters used in

computational simulation.

The complex stiffness of DCPS-AD of Eq. (15) is computed numerically in the frequency domain. Fig. 3 shows curves of

computational simulations along frequency axis, each with a different oriﬁce area, ranging from 9% opening to 100% opening.

From Fig. 3, it can be observed that, the storage stiffness has an ‘S’ shape along frequency axis as shown in Fig. 3(a),

while the loss stiffness has a bell shape as shown in Fig. 3(b). If we separate frequency axis into ﬁve stages, says, still

(less than 0.1 Hz), low-frequency stage (LF, up to about one Hertz), medium-frequency stage (MF, from several Hertz to

ten Hertz), and high-frequency stage (HF, ten Hertz to several ten Hertz, and more than 100 Hz), and higher-frequency

(HRF, larger than 100 Hz), we can ﬁnd that, no matter how much the oriﬁce area opening is, the storage stiffness is almost

a smaller constant at still and LF, and a bigger constant at HRF, while increases slightly along with frequency increasing in

LF, and dramatically in MF. Meanwhile, the loss stiffness has a smaller value at still, increases slightly in LF, dramatically in

MF till reaches the maximum (peak point). After the peak point, the value decreases dramatically in MF, and slightly in HF.

H. Pu et al. / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 3578–3590 3582

It is also interesting to observe that, with increasing the opening area of the oriﬁce, from 9% opening to 100% opening,

the values at still and in HRF are nearly changed, but the interval in which the storage increases slightly is extended, as

well the interval in which the storage increases dramatically shrinks.

Although the peak value of the loss stiffness is nearly changed with the opening area of the oriﬁce increase, the shape

is extended along the abscissa (frequency axis), and the peak point dramatically shrifts and appears at higher

frequency point. In our simulation investigation, by increasing the opening area of the oriﬁce, the frequency point at

which the maximum loss stiffness appears moves from 3 to 27 Hz.

4. Experiment results

4.1. Set-up of experiments

Experiment is undertaken to validate the effect of adjusting the opening area of the oriﬁce on the dynamic behavior

of the DCPS-AD. The varying capability of equivalent area of oriﬁce is generated by the adjustable oriﬁce valve in VOM.

Table 1

Parameters values used in simulation.

Symbol Value Unit Meaning

P

atm

101.325 kPa The standard atmospheric pressure

A

p

3.0Â10

À3

m

2

The piston area

k 1.4 – Speciﬁc heat ratio

R 286.9 J/kg K Universal gas constant

P

0

4.6Â10

2

kPa The initial pressure of Load and Damping chamber

x

0

18.5Â10

À3

m The initial height of the Load Chamber

V

L0

5.9Â10

À5

m

3

The initial volume of Load Chamber

V

D0

3.5Â10

À4

m

3

The volume of Damping Chamber

N 6 – Volume ratio (V

D0

/V

L0

)

T

0

295 K Temperature

Fig. 3. Computational simulation of the complex stiffness with different oriﬁce area opening: (a) storage stiffness and (b) loss stiffness.

H. Pu et al. / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 3578–3590 3583

There is a certain relationship between the spool position of oriﬁce valve and oriﬁce ﬂow area. Through the spool

displacement adjusting knob of the valve, the spool position can be easily adjusted to be the desired value and the desired

equivalent area of oriﬁce is obtained. The sketch of experimental set-up is shown in Fig. 4.

The dual-chamber pneumatic spring is installed on a computer-controlled test facility, BOSE test instrument

(ElectroForce 3500), which consists of the frame, linear motor, displacement sensor and load cell. The piston of the

pneumatic spring is ﬁxed to the mover of linear motor, which is used to exert the excitation. The bottom of the pneumatic

spring is installed on the ﬁxed part of the instrument. The input signal for stiffness test is a series of displacement sine

waves applied by the linear motor to the piston and measured by a linear variable differential transformer (LVDT). The test

frequency range is 0.2–20 Hz. The output is force wave which is measured by load cell. These signals are acquired by the

WinTest PCI Control Electronics which is the BOSE Corporation’s digital control hardware, and the acquired data is

analyzed by the BOSE Corporation’s WinTest dynamic mechanical analysis of materials and devices (DMA) software for

attaining the complex stiffness. The photo of the experimental set-up is shown in Fig. 5.

4.2. Results of experiments

The operational conditions in the experiment contain the frequency of the excitation sine signal and the oriﬁce area

opening. The comparisons between analytical model and experiments are shown in Fig. 6 with four different equivalent

oriﬁce areas. For these experiments, the vibration amplitude is ﬁxed at a constant value of 0.2 mm. It can be observed that

simulation results closely resemble experimental results. It is noted that the frequency point of the maximum loss stiffness

Pneumatic spring

Load cell

Linear Motor

LVDT

ElectroForce 3500

Force Signal

Displacement

Signal

Control

Signal

WinTest PCI

Control Electronics

DMA Softerware

Fig. 4. The sketch of experimental set-up.

Pneumatic

spring

Load Cell

ElectroForce

3500

VOM

Pipe

Adjustable

orifice valve

spool displacement

adjusting knob

Fig. 5. The experimental set-up for stiffness measurement of DCPS-AD.

H. Pu et al. / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 3578–3590 3584

o

max

shifts according to different equivalent oriﬁce areas. According to these results, it can be concluded that the

distribution of complex stiffness in the frequency domain can be actively adjusted by the VOM.

5. Analysis of complex stiffness and performance of VIS

5.1. Complex stiffness analysis of DCPS-AD

Through comparison between the experiment and computation, the ﬁdelity of the analytical model is proved. For

further understanding the characteristic of the dual-chamber pneumatic spring in the frequency domain, the distribution

of the complex stiffness and transmissibility of pneumatic vibration isolation system are analyzed.

The complex stiffness of membrane exhibits amplitude dependent and frequency dependent behavior. Nevertheless, it

does not vary with the variant oriﬁce area opening. Meanwhile, compared to complex stiffness due to compression of air

10

0

10

1

10

2

0

5

10

x 10

4

Frequency (Hz)

S

t

o

r

a

g

e

S

t

i

f

f

n

e

s

s

(

N

/

m

)

Analytical Model

Experiment

10

0

10

1

10

2

0

1

2

3

4

5

x 10

4

Frequency (Hz)

10

0

10

1

10

2

Frequency (Hz)

10

0

10

1

10

2

Frequency (Hz)

10

0

10

1

10

2

Frequency (Hz)

10

0

10

1

10

2

Frequency (Hz)

10

0

10

1

10

2

Frequency (Hz)

10

0

10

1

10

2

Frequency (Hz)

L

o

s

s

S

t

i

f

f

n

e

s

s

(

N

/

m

)

Analytical Model

Experiment

0

5

10

x 10

4

S

t

o

r

a

g

e

S

t

i

f

f

n

e

s

s

(

N

/

m

)

Analytical Model

Experiment

0

1

2

3

4

5

x 10

4

L

o

s

s

S

t

i

f

f

n

e

s

s

(

N

/

m

)

Analytical Model

Experiment

0

5

10

x 10

4

S

t

o

r

a

g

e

S

t

i

f

f

n

e

s

s

(

N

/

m

)

Analytical Model

Experiment

0

1

2

3

4

5

x 10

4

L

o

s

s

S

t

i

f

f

n

e

s

s

(

N

/

m

)

Analytical Model

Experiment

0

5

10

x 10

4

S

t

o

r

a

g

e

S

t

i

f

f

n

e

s

s

(

N

/

m

)

Analytical Model

Experiment

0

1

2

3

4

5

x 10

4

L

o

s

s

S

t

i

f

f

n

e

s

s

(

N

/

m

)

Analytical Model

Experiment

Fig. 6. Complex stiffness comparison between the analytical model and experiment; (a.1) storage stiffness under oriﬁce area 9% opening; (a.2) loss

stiffness under oriﬁce area 9% opening; (b.1) storage stiffness under oriﬁce area 25% opening; (b.2) loss stiffness under oriﬁce area 25% opening; (c.1)

storage stiffness under oriﬁce area 64% opening; (c.2) loss stiffness under oriﬁce area 64% opening; (d.1) storage stiffness under oriﬁce area 100%

opening; and (d.2) storage stiffness under oriﬁce area 100% opening.

H. Pu et al. / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 3578–3590 3585

and air ﬂow between two chambers, the complex stiffness due to dynamic of membrane is negligible. We prefer Eq. (14) to

Eq. (15) as the model describing the complex stiffness of DCPS-AD.

Eq. (14) shows that the complex stiffness of a dual-chamber pneumatic spring varies along with frequency o. K

storage

and

K

loss

have some interesting properties at different frequencies. Three frequency regions are deﬁned to simplify the analysis:

(1) The low frequency region, in which the frequency obeys o5o

low

, where o

low

is deﬁned as

o

low

¼

RTk

ﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

1þN

p

C

o

A

o

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

V

D0

In this frequency region, ðV

D0

=RT

0

kÞo

_ _

2

5ð1þNÞðC

o

A

o

Þ

2

, the storage stiffness K

storage

is given by

K

storage

ﬃk

ð1þNÞðC

o

A

o

ÞðÞ

2

ð1þNÞ

2

ðC

o

A

o

Þ

2

¼

k

ð1þNÞ

The dual-chamber pneumatic spring is equivalent to a single chamber pneumatic spring, whose effective volume

equals to the sum of the Load and Damping Chamber.

(2) The high frequency region, in which the frequency obeys oco

high

, where o

high

is deﬁned as

o

high

¼

ﬃﬃﬃ

3

p

RTkðNþ1ÞC

o

A

o

V

D0

In this frequency region, especially, o-1, ðððV

D0

Þ=ðRT

0

kÞÞoÞ

2

44ð1þNÞ

2

ðC

o

A

o

Þ

2

, the storage stiffness K

storage

is given by

K

storage

ﬃk

ððV

D0

=RT

0

kÞoÞ

2

ððV

D0

=RT

0

kÞoÞ

2

¼k

The dual-chamber pneumatic spring is equivalent to a single chamber pneumatic spring, whose effective volume equals to

the volume of LC.

(3) The middle frequency region, in which the frequency o is in the range of [o

low

o

high

]

In this frequency region, storage stiffness increases dramatically as the frequency increasing. At the same time, the loss

stiffness is signiﬁcant. Differentiation of K

loss

with respect to frequency o yields the slope of loss stiffness dK

loss

/do.

Making dK

loss

/do¼0, the frequency point of the maximum loss stiffness o

max

is obtained by

o

max

¼

RTkð1þNÞC

o

A

o

V

D0

(16)

Fig. 7 shows the distribution of o

max

by increasing the oriﬁce area from 9% to 100% opening. It is changed from 3 to

27 Hz. It is noted that the distribution shows linear relationship between o

max

and the oriﬁce area.

5.2. Performance analysis of VIS

The vertical pneumatic vibration isolation system consists of the dual-chamber pneumatic spring and the payload

mass, as shown in Fig. 8. The displacement transmissibility and force mobility are the two performance indices of the

isolation system. The displacement transmissibility [4] between the base and payload mass can be expressed as

TðoÞ ¼

xðoÞ

x

b

ðoÞ

¼

K

complex

ðM,A

o

,oÞ

ÀMo

2

þK

complex

ðM,A

o

,oÞ

0 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100%

0

5

10

15

20

25

30

Orifice area opening

ω

m

a

x

(

H

z

)

Fig. 7. Change in o

max

for varying oriﬁce area.

H. Pu et al. / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 3578–3590 3586

The force mobility of the system is deﬁned by the payload acceleration response

€

xðoÞ and force acting on the payload

FðoÞ, which can be expressed as

YðoÞ ¼

€ xðoÞ

FðoÞ

¼

Ào

2

ÀMo

2

þK

complex

ðM,A

o

,oÞ

The resonance frequency of the isolator systemo

n

is inﬂuenced not only by complex stiffness of the pneumatic spring,

but also mass of the payload M. To optimize the transmissibility [8] and force mobility of the pneumatic vibration isolator,

the frequency point of the maximum loss stiffness o

max

should be as close to the resonance frequency o

n

as possible, in

order to reduce the peak value at resonance and obtain the large attenuation at high frequency (for the transmissibility).

Both o

n

and o

max

can be adjusted by changing the value of N, V

D0

and A

o

. Nevertheless, the value of the N and V

D0

cannot

be changed after the pneumatic spring manufactured. A

o

can be adjusted actively by the VOM. So the distribution of

complex stiffness in the frequency domain can be adjusted.

To validate the optimal approach by using VOM, the transmissibility and force mobility of the pneumatic VIS are

measured. The instruments used in experimental measurement include the ultra-low frequency acceleration sensor

(Model: PCB393B12, sensitivity: 9.8 V/g), modally tuned impulse hammer (model: PCB086d05, sensitivity: 0.25 mV/N).

LMS Test.lab (LMS INTERNATIONAL Co.) is used to acquire and analyze signals to obtain the frequency response plots.

Figs. 9 and 10 show the transmissibility and force mobility of the pneumatic VIS for increasing the oriﬁce area from 9% to

100% opening. It is observed that the resonance frequency reduces continuously by increasing the oriﬁce area from 9% to 100%

opening. However, the peak value at resonance does not increase continuously. The minimum peak value at resonance exists

when the oriﬁce area opening 25%. Fromthe frequency distribution of o

max

and o

n

shown in Figs. 7 and 9, it is noted that o

max

is closed to o

n

mostly when the oriﬁce opening is 25%. However, o

max

is less than o

n

when the oriﬁce opening is 9%, and o

max

is larger than o

n

when the oriﬁce opening 64% and 100%. To validate inﬂuence of VOM on the performance of VIS furthermore,

Payload Mass

M

Base

x

b

x

Dual-chamber

Pneumatic Spring

K

complex

Fig. 8. The sketch of the pneumatic vibration isolation system.

10

0

10

1

−30

−25

−20

−15

−10

−5

0

5

10

15

Frequency (Hz)

T

r

a

n

s

i

m

i

s

s

i

b

i

l

i

t

y

(

d

B

)

9% opening

25% opening

64% opening

100% opening

Fig. 9. Transmissibility for varying oriﬁce area.

H. Pu et al. / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 3578–3590 3587

the acceleration response of payload under direct impulse disturbance is measured and shown in Fig. 11. It is obvious that the

payload response attenuated fastest when the oriﬁce area opening is 25%.

While application condition of the pneumatic isolator changes, such as the change of the payload mass, o

n

will change.

The optimal oriﬁce area opening of VOM should change along with the payload mass varying, which aims at keeping o

n

coincide with o

max

. To validate this, we decrease the payload mass and measure the force mobility of VIS with different

oriﬁce area openings again. As shown in Fig. 12, the peak value at resonance with 25% oriﬁce area opening is not minimal

anymore. Along with the payload mass decreasing, the resonance frequency increases, which leads o

n

not to coincide with

o

max

for the 25% oriﬁce area opening. Through increasing the oriﬁce area opening, the new optimal performance of the

system can be obtained when the oriﬁce area opening is 30%.

From Figs. 9–12, it is noted that the resonance peak of the transmissibility and force mobility under the optimum oriﬁce

opening are not completely suppressed. The reason is that the optimal performance is limited by the ﬁxed parameter of

DCPS, such as the volume ratio, the volume of the LC. The damping attributed to the air ﬂow between two chambers has

the maximum inﬂuence on the performance of DCPS-AD when o

max

coincides with o

n

. However, changing the oriﬁce area

has no effect on the degree of the maximum inﬂuence, which is reﬂected on the amplitude of maximum loss stiffness.

Substituting the frequency of the maximum loss stiffness described by Eq. (16) into Eq. (14), the maximum amplitude of

the loss stiffness K

loss_max

in frequency domain is obtained as

K

loss_max

¼

kRTKN

ð1þNÞððRTkÞ

2

þ1Þ

It is noted that the maximum amplitude of the loss stiffness does not change along with variety of oriﬁce area.

The maximum amplitude of the loss stiffness should be increased to suppress the resonance peak of transmissibility.

10

0

10

1

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

x 10

−3

Frequency (Hz)

F

o

r

c

e

M

o

b

i

l

i

t

y

(

g

/

N

)

9% opening

25% opening

64% opening

100% opening

Fig. 10. Force mobility for varying oriﬁce area.

0 0.5 1 1.5 2

−6

−4

−2

0

2

4

6

8

x 10

−3

Time (s)

I

m

p

u

l

s

e

r

e

s

p

o

n

s

e

(

g

)

9% opening

25% opening

64% opening

100% opening

Fig. 11. Impulse response in time domain.

H. Pu et al. / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 3578–3590 3588

Redesign of the structure parameters of the DCPS [8] and pneumatic active control [13] are the two methods to suppress

the resonance peak completely.

6. Conclusions

This paper presents a dual-chamber pneumatic spring with a variable oriﬁce mechanism, and focused on the analysis of

the inﬂuence of VOM on the performance of the pneumatic spring. The complex stiffness model is developed to capture the

dynamic characteristics of the pneumatic spring. Comprehensive computational simulation is carried out to describe the

complex stiffness in the frequency domain with varying opening area of the oriﬁce. Experiments were carried out to

validate the analytical model. The results match the result of the computational simulation well. From these results, the

following conclusion can be drawn:

(1) The VOM can adjust stiffness and damping characteristics of the dual-chamber pneumatic spring, bringing variety of

the natural frequency and the peak value of the resonance frequency of the vibration isolation system.

(2) The stiffness characteristic in the frequency domain changes with the variety of opening area of the oriﬁce. The

frequency point at which stiffness changes dramatically shifts to the high frequency region, when the opening area of

the oriﬁce is increased.

(3) The damping characteristic in the frequency domain changes with the variety of opening area of the oriﬁce. The

frequency of the maximum damping increases when opening area of the oriﬁce is increased.

(4) The performance of pneumatic vibration isolator can be optimized by superposing the natural frequency and the

frequency point of maximum damping, through adjusting the VOM.

In the future work, we plan to install the VOM between two chambers to overcome the inﬂuence of the pipe.

Furthermore, the oriﬁce valve of VOM will be replaced by the solenoid valve, thereby; stiffness and damping

characteristics of the pneumatic spring can be adjusted in real time. The pneumatic VIS composed by dual-chamber

pneumatic spring will become a semiactive system.

Acknowledgements

The work of this paper is partially supported by the Major Basic Research Program of China (973 Program)

(No. 2009CB724205), 863 High-Tech R&D Program of China (No. 2009AA04Z148). We are grateful to Mr. Anatoly Burov

for providing kindly help in improvement of English writing.

Appendix A. Measurement of complex stiffness of membrane

A thin-walled, ﬂexible and pressure resistant round membrane is involved to seal the Load Chamber from air leakage.

For it is difﬁcult to estimate the complex stiffness of the membrane analytically, the indirect method proposed by Lee and

Kim [7] is used to measure the complex stiffness of membrane K

M

(o). The measurement result is shown in Fig. A1. For this

experiment, the vibration amplitude is 0.2 mm.

10

0

10

1

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

x 10

−3

Frequency (Hz)

F

o

r

c

e

M

o

b

i

l

i

t

y

(

g

/

N

)

9% opening

25% opening

30% opening

64% opening

100% opening

Fig. 12. Force mobility for varying oriﬁce area (payload mass decreasing).

H. Pu et al. / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 3578–3590 3589

References

[1] Eric H. Anderson, Bowie Houghton, ELITE-3 active vibration isolation workstation, Smart Structures and Materials 2001: Industrial and commercial

applications of smart structures technologies, 2001, pp. 183–196.

[2] Cyril M. Harris, Allan G. Piersol, Harris’ Shock and Vibration Handbook, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2001.

[3] Tomonri Kato, Kenji Kawashima, Tatsuya Funaki, Kotara Tadano, Toshiharu Kagawa, A new, high precision, quick response pressure regulator for

active control of pneumatic vibration isolation tables, Precision Engineering 34 (2010) 43–48.

[4] Marcel Heertjes, Nathan van de Wouw, Nonlinear dynamics and control of a pneumatic vibration isolator, Journal of Vibration and Acoustics 128

(2006) 439–448.

[5] D.B. DeBra, Design of laminar ﬂow restrictors for damping pneumatic vibration isolators, CIRP Annals 33 (1) (1984) 351–356.

[6] C. Erin, B Wilson, An improved model of a pneumatic vibration isolator: theory and experiment, Journal of Sound and Vibration 218 (1) (1998)

81–101.

[7] Jeung-Hoon Lee, Kwang-Joon Kim, Modeling of nonlinear complex stiffness of dual-chamber pneumatic spring for precision vibration isolations,

Journal of Sound and Vibration 301 (2007) 909–926.

[8] Jeung-Hoon Lee, Kwang-Joon Kim, A method of transmissibility design for dual-chamber pneumatic vibration isolator, Journal of Sound and Vibration

323 (2009) 67–92.

[9] Giuseppe Quaglia, Massimo Sorli, Air suspension dimensionless analysis and design procedure, Vehicle System Dynamics 35 (6) (2001) 443–475.

[10] H. Porumamilla, A.G Kelka, J.M. Vogel, Modeling and veriﬁcation of an innovative active pneumatic vibration isolation system, Journal of Dynamic

Systems, Measurement, and Control 130 (2008) 031001-1–031001-12.

[11] Yunua A. Cengel, Michael A. Boles, Thermodynamics: An Engineering Approach, 5th Edition, McGraw-Hill, 2006.

[12] ISO 6358 Standard, Pneumatic ﬂuid power—components using compressible ﬂuids—determination of ﬂow rate characteristic, 1989.

[13] Yun-Ho Shin, Kwang-Joon Kim, Performance enhancement of pneumatic vibration isolation tables in low frequency range by time delay control,

Journal of Sound and Vibration 321 (3–5) (2009) 537–553.

10

−1

10

0

10

1

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

2.5

3

(a)

(b)

x 10

4

Frequency (Hz)

S

t

o

r

a

g

e

S

t

i

f

f

n

e

s

s

(

N

/

m

m

)

10

−1

10

0

10

1

0

0.5

1

1.5

2

x 10

4

Frequency (Hz)

L

o

s

s

S

t

i

f

f

n

e

s

s

(

N

/

m

m

)

Fig. A1. Complex stiffness of membrane: (a) storage stiffness and (b) loss stiffness .

H. Pu et al. / Journal of Sound and Vibration 330 (2011) 3578–3590 3590

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