You are on page 1of 65

UNIVERSITATEA BABE-BOLYAI CLUJ-NAPOCA FACULTATEA DE LITERE DEPARTAMENTUL DE LIMBI STRAINE SPECIALIZATE Asist.univ.drd. CAMELIA-DANIELA TEGLA cameliateglas@gmail.

com

ENGLISH STUDY PACK FOR STUDENTS IN PSYCHOLOGY AND SCIENCES EDUCATION SCIENCES

2012/2013

Informa ii generale
Date de identificare a cursului Date de contact ale titularului de curs: Nume: Asit. drd. Camelia-Daniela Tegla Birou: Cab.10, Departamentul LSS, Horea nr.7 Telefon: 0264/530724 E-mail: cameliateglas@gmail.com Date de identificare curs: Numele cursului Limba englez - curs practic limbaj specializat Codul cursului LLU0011, LLU0012 Anul, Semestrul anul 1, semestrele 1,2 Tipul cursului - obligatoriu

Condi ionri i cunotin e prerechizite Cursul este conditionat de de inerea de cunotin e de limba englez care situeaza studentul la nivel B1, conform grilei de autoevaluare a Cadrului comun european de referinta a limbilor: Competente n elegereascultare n elegere-citire Vorbireconversa ie Vorbireexprimare Scriere A1 A2 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 B1 3 3 3 3 3 B2 4 4 4 4 4 C1 C2 5 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 6

Trebuie avut n vedere faptul c nscrierea la examenul de licen a la finalul ciclului bachelor este conditionat de sus inerea i promovarea unui test de competen a lingvistic ntr-o limba de circula ie interna ional. Descrierea cursului Este un curs cu obiective specifice care vizeaz achizi ia de cunotin e i dezvoltarea deprinderilor de limb strin ca instrument de formare i informare academic i profesional. Tipologia programului de nv are are n vedere crearea unui profil de utilizator cu competen e axate pe studiul limbajelor de specialitate. n acest sens, studen ii i vor dezvolta capacitatea de contientizare a strii actuale a cunotin elor i deprinderilor, se vor deprinde s-i fixeze obiective reale i realiste, s-i selecteze n mod autonom materialele i s se autoevalueze. Obiectivele disciplinei: Studen ii vor putea utiliza competent limba englez, cel pu in la nivelul B2, n activitatea lor academic i n viitoarea activitate profesional: 1. Cunoaterea i n elegerea aprofundat a contextelor i rolurilor, precum i a conceptelor, metodelor i a discursului/limbajului specific diverselor situa ii de comunicare profesional n mediul academic de limba englez, cu accent pe situa ia retoric, formele de comunicare scris i oral, etapele procesului de scriere i produsele scrisului academic, precum i pe deontologia profesional. 2. Utilizarea cunotin elor aprofundate pentru explicarea i interpretarea diverselor modalit i de comunicare scris (genuri de texte tiin ifice) i oral (comunicri tiin ifice) i a conven iilor ce guverneaz redactarea textelor tiin ifice n limba englez n contextul studiilor de licenta i al comunit ii profesionale extinse (na ionale i interna ionale).

3. Transferul conceptelor/principiilor/metodelor nv ate n activit i de receptare a textului scris i de producere viznd etapele procesului de scriere, organizarea i dezvoltarea ideilor, structura textului i strategiile de comunicare verbal oral i scris la standarde specifice limbii engleze specializate pentru discursul tiin ific. 4. Utilizarea grilelor de criterii standard ale comunit ii academice/profesionale pentru evaluarea calit ii produselor comunicrii academice scrise i orale n limba englez. 5. Elaborarea unor lucrri scrise i prezentri orale originale care s utilizeze principiile i tehnicile de redactare consacrate n mediul academic, cu accent pe genurile predilecte din psihologie i tiin ele educa iei. 6. Realizarea sarcinilor de lucru individuale n contexte de autonomie/independen . 7. Participarea la realizarea de proiecte de lucru n perechi i n echip, cu accent pe asumarea de roluri n cadrul echipei de lucru n mediul academic. 8. Managementul propriei nv ri, diagnoza nevoilor de formare, monitorizarea i reflec ia asupra utilizrii eficiente a instrumentelor de munc intelectual i a resurselor/tehnicilor/strategiilor de nv are traditionale si TIC. Con inut: SEMESTRUL 1 Saptamana 1 Saptamana 2 Saptamana 3 Saptamana 4 Saptamana 5 Saptamana 6 Saptamana 7 Saptamana 8 Saptamana 9 Saptamana 10 Saptamana 11 Saptamana 12 Saptamana 13 Saptamana 14

Placement Test Introduction. The Skill and Practice of Reading; Listening Strategies Get a Glimpse on Psychology Get a Glimpse on Psychology Reporting structures; Tenses used in reports; Research report: title; abstract Pestalozzi, Father of Modern Pedagogy Pestalozzi, Father of Modern Pedagogy Reported Speech; Research Report: introduction and method Autism and Communication Autism and Communication Reported Speech; Research Report: results, discussion and references Psychology of Advertising Psychology of Advertising Academic Definitions; Relative Clauses Psychology of Advertising Emphasis; Rephrasing; Quoting APA Style Secret Lives Secret Lives Cohesion: reference, ellipsis, substitution, conjunctions; Paraphrasing Revision

Bibliografie obligatorie: 1.Side, Richard Wellman, Guy: Grammar & Vocabulary For Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency, Longman, 2001 2. Prodromou, L., Grammar and Vocabulary for First Certificate, Longman, 2001 3. Tegla, Camelia (coord.), Felea, Cristina, Mezei, Vlad English B2 C1, Social Sciences and Sport, Seria Autodidact (coord. Liana Pop), Cluj, Ed. Echinox, 2009 4. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Longman, 2003 5. http://granturi.ubbcluj.ro/autodidact 6. psychologyabout.com 7. http://esl.about.com/c/ec/1.htm 8. owl.english.purdue.edu/ 9. www.psychologytoday.com

Evaluare

Criterii de evaluare: prezen a i participarea activ la cursul practice; ndeplinirea corect si la timp a sarcinilor de lucru; nsuirea vocabularului de specialitate; corectitudinea, fluen a i adecvarea la cerin a limbii engleze (oral i scris); capacitatea de a utiliza eficient limba englez n contexte academice i profesionale specifice Metode de evaluare: examen scris la sfritul semestrului 50% din nota finala; participarea activ la cursul practic 20% din nota finala; elaborarea unui raport de cercetare 30% din nota finala
Materiale i instrumente necesare pentru curs Derularea activit ilor prevzute necesit accesul studen ilor la urmtoarele resurse: - calculator conectat la internet (pentru a putea accesa bazele de date si resursele electronice suplimentare dar i pentru a putea participa la secven ele de formare interactiv on line) - imprimant (pentru tiprirea materialelor suport, a temelor redactate, a studiilor de caz) - acces la resursele bibliografice (ex: abonament la Biblioteca British Council) - acces la echipamente de fotocopiere Elemente de deontologie academic n caz de fraud sau plagiat, vezi pozi ia UBB. Studen i cu dizabilit i: Titularul cursului i exprima disponibilitatea, n limita constrngerilor tehnice si de timp, de a adapta con inutul i metodelor de transmitere a informa iilor precum i modalit ile de evaluare (examen oral, examen on line etc) n func ie de tipul dizabilit ii cursantului. Altfel spus, avem n vedere, ca o prioritate, facilitarea accesului egal al tuturor cursan ilor la activit ile didactice si de evaluare.

MODULE I/ 1st SEMESTER

Unit 1: Introduction. The Skill and Practice of Reading


The reading process Though reading is often considered a passive skill, research in the field of psycholinguistics has demonstrated that it is actually a highly complex process of interaction between the reader and text. For example, it has been shown that the reader does not decode the text in his first language in an orderly, linear fashion, word after word, but rather his eyes move rapidly over the page, going forward and backward as he perceives meaningful groups of words and relates these to the non-verbal information at his disposal (that is, to his knowledge of the world and topic of the written text), thereby deriving meaning from the text. Reading thus can be seen as the processing of information. The reader brings to the text his own store of information deriving from his native culture, education, personal experience, and, normally some specific knowledge of the written text. At the same time, the reader possesses a linguistic competence, including knowledge of words, of how these words are deployed according to the linguistic system in order to form sentences, and the rhetorical pattern and linguistic conventions which characterize different types of text. Furthermore, in an ideal situation, the reader approaches a text with a genuine motivation to read and a reading purpose. Whatever the text, he will also have some expectations or predictions regarding its content and how the text is likely to be organized depending on its genre. As he reads, these predictions are confirmed or not confirmed by the text. Depending of his reason for reading, he will use one or more specific strategies. 1. Reading strategies When we read in our own language we use often unconsciously a variety of reading strategies and techniques depending on the text and our reason for reading. There are four principal styles of reading: Skimming involves moving your eyes rapidly over the page or pages in order to get a general idea of what the text is about, focusing on certain key words or phrases. Scanning, instead, is a strategy we use when we seek specific pieces of information in a text, such as names, dates, statistics, or whether a particular topic is treated. Here our expectations are heightened by our awareness of certain lexical fields or other textural features which are likely to signal the presence of the information we are looking for. Intensive reading is the style we use when we wish to have a very clear and complete understanding of the written text. This implies a careful de-codification of the writers discourse, usually with the aim of comprehending not only the literal meaning of the text, but also the writers deeper purpose, his position or other eventual text subtleties. Extensive reading is the term we use to describe the strategies called into play when we read longer texts either for pleasure or for information, and may involve all the strategies previously mentioned, which the reader applies according to the individual text and his interest in its various parts. Thus, the reading style we apply to any given text should be a function of the type and content of the text on the one hand, and our reading purpose on the other. It is important to use these strategies appropriately and flexibly: obviously not all texts need to be read intensively, though language learners often apply only this strategy to texts in foreign languages. In reading English for academic purposes, for example, it will often suffice to have a general idea of whether certain information is contained in an article and, if so, where, so that it might be consulted at a later date. On the other hand, information which is of interest may be located quickly and selected passages focused upon for the purpose of extracting and annotating specific information. (Source: Jordan, R.R, Academic Writing Course, Collins, London 1993)

Unit 2: Get a Glimpse on Psychology


While the subject of psychology in todays modern world does reflect the disciplines rich and colourful history, its origins however differ quite considerably from the contemporary notions of the field. In order to fully understand what psychology is all about, it is important to first go back into its history and explore its origins. How did this discipline originate? When did it originate? Contemporary psychology deals with a vast range of topics; while at the same time looks into human behavioural patterns and mental processes from the cultural level to the neural level. Psychologists study all matters pertaining to human mental issues that begin right from birth and continue up until the death of the person. So, by gaining full understanding of the history of psychology, you will be able to better understand how the individual topics are studied and what has been learnt so far. Questions put forward during the Formation of Psychology Right from the very beginning, the study of psychology has been faced with a number of difficult questions. The first question of how is psychology defined established it as a separate science, separate from philosophy and physiology. Other additional questions that psychologists were also faced with throughout the history of the subject were: What issues and topics should the subject of psychology deal with? What methods of research should be used when studying psychology? Should research be used in order to influence education, public policy and other aspects of human behaviour? Is psychology a science? Should psychology focus on internal mental processes or on observable behaviours? The Emergence of Psychology: Physiology and Philosophy While psychology did not really emerge as a separate science until the latter half of the 19th century, its initial history can be traced right back to the ancient Greeks. During the 1600s, the famous French philosopher, Rene Descartes, introduced the concept of dualism, which stressed on the fact that the body and the mind were basically two separate entities that interacted together to form the normal human experience. Many of the other issues that are still debated by psychologists today, like relative contributions of nature vs. nurture, are deep rooted in these early philosophical concepts. So why is psychology different from philosophy? While many of the early philosophers relied heavily on methods like logic and observation, the psychologists of today tend to use methods to study and come to conclusions about the human behaviour and thought. Physiology also made large contributions towards the eventual emergence of psychology as a science. Early physiology research on behaviour and brain had a very dramatic impact on psychology as it is today, ultimately leading to the application of many scientific methodologies that study the human behaviour and thought. Psychology as a Separate Scientific Discipline During the mid 19th century, Wilhelm Wundt, a German physiologist started using scientific research methods to look into reaction times. His works outlined many of the most important connections between physiology and psychology. So what were Wundts views on psychology? He looked upon the subject as a study of the human consciousness and even sought to apply certain experimental methods in order to study the internal mental processes. While this process today is known as introspection and is considered to be highly unscientific and unreliable, in those days it helped set the stage for all the future experimental methods. And although his influence began to dwindle in the years to come, this impact on the subject is definitely unquestionable. The First School of Thought One of Wundts most famous students, Edward B Titchener, went on to become one of the founders of psychologys very first school of thought. According to structuralism, the human consciousness can be broken down into small parts. Using introspection, trained students attempted to break down reactions and responses to the most basic of all perceptions and sensations. Though structuralism is notable because of its emphasis on scientific research methods, it is considered to be unreliable, subjective and limiting today. When Titchener died, the concept of structuralism also died with him. Functionalism Psychology really flourished in America in the 19th century. William James came out on top as the leading American psychologist during this period and his principles of psychology made him the

Father of American Psychology. His ideas and concepts served as the foundation for a new school of thought, which was known as functionalism. Functionalism focused on how the human behaviour works towards helping people comfortably in their respective environments. Functionalists use methods like direct observation. The functionalists however stressed on the fact that consciousness is an ever changing and more continuous process. Although functionalism is no longer considered to be a school of thought, it however did go on to influence the next generation of psychologists. Sigmund Freud Up until this point, psychology tended to stress more on the conscious human experience. However, Sigmund Freud, the famous Austrian physician changed the whole face of psychology in such a dramatic way by putting forward a theory of personality that stressed on the importance of the unconscious mind. His work with patients suffering from mental ailments like hysteria led him to believe that our early childhood experiences as well as our unconscious impulses contribute greatly towards the development of our adult behaviours and personalities. According to him, psychological disorders are basically the result of unconscious conflicts that take place within us, and that become unbalanced or extreme. His theory had a huge impact on the 20th century psychology, influencing the mental well being as well as in many other fields like literature, art and popular culture. Although many of his concepts are looked upon with scepticism today, his influence on modern psychology cannot be questioned. The Emergence of Behaviourism Psychology evolved dramatically during the 20th century and another school of thought known as behaviourism became dominant. Behaviourism was a very big change from all of the previous theoretical perspectives, and rejected emphasis on the conscious as well as the unconscious mind. Instead it strove to make the discipline a more scientific one by stressing on observable behaviour. Behaviour stresses on the fact, that the subject matter of psychology is basically the behaviour of a human being. The impact of this school of thought was enormous and it dominated the scene for almost 50 years. Even though it eventually lost its importance, the basic principles of behaviourism are still used today. Therapeutic methods like token economies and behavioural modification are often used to help kids overcome maladaptive behaviours and to learn new skills. Conditioning is used in most situations ranging from education to parenting. The Third Force or Humanistic Psychology Although behaviourism and psychoanalysis dominated the first half of the 20th century, a new school of thought, known to us as humanistic psychology emerged during the latter half of the 20th century. Referred to most as the Third Force in psychology, this theoretical concept lays emphasis on conscious experiences. Psychology as it is Today As you may have already noticed the discipline of psychology has seen enormous change and growth since its early beginnings with Wundt. The story certainly does not end right here. Psychology has since continued to change and evolve and new perspectives and ideas have been introduced. Recent psychological research focuses on many aspects of the human behaviour and experience, right from impact of cultural and social factors to biological influences on human behaviour. Today, most of the psychologists dont identify themselves with a single school of thought. Instead, they prefer focusing on certain specialty perspectives or areas, often drawing conclusions from a wide range of theoretical backgrounds. This contemporary approach has contributed new theories and ideas that still continue to shape the future of psychology.
By Natasha Bantwal, Published: 1/27/2008, http://www.buzzle.com/articles/brief-history-of-psychology.html

Language Focus: Read the fragment above and try to identify the tenses used in the text. Write down two or three verbs for each identified tense.

................................................... ...............

VERB FORMATION The following chart shows the positive, negative and interrogative (question) forms of all the principle tenses in English with a brief description of the principle usage. TENSE POSITIVE NEGATIVE QUESTION USE They don't I play tennis (do not) Does she Habitual activities - States Simple Present on work in New know him? Mondays. York. Simple Past They didn't She went to (did not) Where did she Actions happening at a defined Paris last drive to get that hat? moment in the past. week. work. He will not Decisions made at the moment (wont) be Will they visit about the future, future able to us soon? predictions, future promises come. They aren't Actions happening at the (are not) What are you present moment. Near future coming this doing? intention and scheduling. evening.

I'll (will) meet you at Simple Future the airport tomorrow. Present Continuous He's (is) working at the moment.

Past Continuous

He wasn't I was (was not) What were Interrupted past action, action watching you doing happening at a specific working TV when when she when I called? moment in time in the past. you called. arrived. I'll (will) be cooking dinner when you arrive. They will not (won't) be living in Paris this time next year. What will you be doing next Future action at a specific week at this moment in the future. time?

Future Continuous

He's (is) Future with going to fly Going to to Boston next week.

They're (are) Where are not going to you going to Future intent or planned action invite the stay? Browns. 8

1) To express an action that was begun in the past and I've (have) She hasn't How long continues into the present. seen Mick (has not) have you 2) To express an action that Present Perfect three times been to New worked at happened in the Unspecified this week. York. Smith's? past. 3) To express a recent action that has a present effect. She hadn't Had you ever I'd (had) (had not) To express an action that already seen such a been to happens before another action eaten before crazy lady Rome before in the past. they came. before that? that trip. She will not (wont) have finished her homework by the time we arrive. They haven't (have not) been studying for long. I hadn't (had not) been sleeping for long when I heard the doorbell ring. She will not (wont) have been working for long by 5 o'clock. How long will you have lived in France by the end of next year? How long have you been working on that problem? How long had you been playing tennis when she arrived? To express what will have happened or how long something will have happened up to a certain point in the future. To express the duration of a continuous activity begun in the past and continuing into the present.

Past Perfect

We'll (will) have lived here for Future Perfect twenty years by 2005. She's (has) been Present Perfect waiting for Continuous over three hours. She'd (had) been waiting for Past Perfect three hours Continuous when he finally arrived. He'll (will) have been Future Perfect sleeping for Continuous a few hours by the time we arrive.
Source: http://esl.about.com/library/grammar

To express the duration of a continuous activity begun before another activity in the past.

How long will To express the duration of an you have been activity up to a point of time in driving by 6 the future. o'clock?

If the human brain were so simple that we could understand it, we would be so simple that we couldn't. Emerson M. Pugh

Psychology is the study of the mind, along with such aspects


of mind as perception, cognition, emotion, and behaviour. In some ways, it has only been around since the late 1800's, when people like Wilhelm Wundt, William James, and Sigmund Freud separated it from its various mother disciplines such as biology, philosophy, and medicine. But in other ways, it has been around as long as human beings have been discussing human beings. I suspect that cavemen and cavewomen probably sat around the fire talking about the same things we do: How come their kids are weird, why can't men and women get along better, what's with those folks from the next valley, how come old Zook hasn't been the same since that rock hit him, and what do dreams really mean. Today, psychology tries to be a science. Science is the effort to study a subject with an explicit promise to think as logically and stick to the empirical facts as tightly as is humanly possible. Other sciences -chemistry, physics, biology, and so on -- have had great success this way. Our cave-person ancestors would be astounded at our understanding of the world around us! But the subject matter of psychology (and the other human sciences) is harder to pin down. We human beings are not as cooperative as some green goo in a test tube! It is a nearly impossible situation: To study the very thing that studies, to research the researcher, to psychoanalyse the psychoanalyst. So, as you will see, we still have a long way to go in psychology. We have a large collection of theories about this part of being human or that part; we have a lot of experiments and other studies about one particular detail of life or another; we have many therapeutic techniques that sometimes work, and sometimes don't. But there is a steady progress that is easy to see for those of us with, say, a half century of life behind us. We are a bit like medicine in that regard: Don't forget that it wasn't really that long ago when we didn't have vaccines for simple childhood diseases, or anaesthesia for operations; heart attacks and cancer were things people simply died of, as opposed to things that many people survive; and mental patients were people we just locked away or lobotomized! Some day -- sooner rather than later, I think -- we will have the same kinds of understanding of the human mind as we are quickly developing of the human body. The nice thing is you and I can participate in this process!
Source: Adapted from: General Psychology by Dr. C. George Boeree Shippensburg University http://webspace.ship.edu/cgboer/genpsy.html

Specialist Vocabulary behaviour cognition discipline emotion empirical experiment lobotomize

mind perception psychology research science theory therapeutic techniques Phrases


to be astounded at to die of to lock away to pin down to stick to

Unusual words
Zook goo

10

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities


Word charts, like the oval diagram below, help students condense and organize data about multiple traits, facts or attributes associated to a single topic. A. These definitions, as they appear in the Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, fit the words in the chart below. Match them with the words by writing the corresponding letter next to them, according to the model.

Model:

EMOTION = J. a strong human feeling such as love, hate or anger

A. the process of knowing, understanding, and learning something

B. an area of knowledge or teaching that is studied at a university


C. the thing that a person or an animal does D. based on scientific testing or practical experience, not on ideas E. a scientific test done to find out how something reacts under certain conditions, or to find out if a particular idea is true; a process in which you test a new idea or method to see if it is useful or effective F. serious study of a subject, in order to discover new facts or test new ideas G. knowledge about the world, especially based on examining, testing, and proving facts H. an idea or set of ideas that is intended to explain something about life or the world, especially an idea that has not yet been proven to be true I. to remove surgically part of someones brain in order to treat their mental problems J. a strong human feeling such as love, hate or anger

B. Use your dictionary to translate the following phrases:


to be astounded at = to die of = to lock away = to pin down = to stick to =

11

SECTION II: Language Focus

Academic textual functions, such as reporting, are signalled by characteristic language uses of tense and aspect. When reporting findings or significant aspects of peoples work, we use The Present Simple. The Past Simple is used when referring to the procedures used in individual studies. A. Read the following excerpts from two research reports and fill in with the appropriate form of the verb in brackets, according to the academic textual functions used in each of them. 1. Mood disorders (to affect _1) around forty four million Americans each year. The two most common mental disorders (to be _2) depression and bipolar disease. There are several factors which researchers (to believe_3) contribute to mental disorders. Some researchers (to think _4) that the most severe mood disorders (to be caused_5) by imbalances in the brains chemical activity. Researchers also (to assume _6) the environment can play a part in mood disorders and it may run in families. Some mood disorders (to prove _7) to be easier to diagnose due to the symptoms that the patient (to display _8), while others may be a little more difficult and (to require_9) more testing due to the mood disorder going unrecognized. The good news (to be_10) that with the proper medication and psychotherapy a person afflicted with a mood disorder can go on and live a productive life.
(Source: Adapted from: http://www.freeonlineresearchpapers.com/diagnosing-mental-disorders)

2. The most famous experiment Milgram (to conduct _1) was also his most controversial. The issue (to deal _2) with the people's right to know on what he/she is being studied. On the surface, the experiment (to look _3) legit and totally scientific. Two people (to be brought _4) in at a time and each would draw from a hat. One would be the teacher, one the learner. After going over exactly how the shock treatment (to work _5), the teacher (to go _6) to his control panel and the learner (to be hooked up _7) to electrodes. The teacher would first read lists of paired words then (to ask _8) the learner to pair up the now separated words. For each wrong answer the learner (to give _9), an increasing dose of electricity (to be given _10).
(Source: Adapted from: http://www.free-researchpapers.com/dbs/b11/smu317.shtml)

B. Identify the tenses of the verbs underlined in the following fragment and match them to the uses suggested in the table below: The research of consciousness, or states of awareness, has provided numerous interesting and influential studies. Sleep, dreams, and hypnosis are states of awareness that have intrigued psychologists because they relate to the quality of psychological interaction with the environment. States of awareness change constantly, which produces changes in behaviour. Studies in this area have made great contributions to the understanding of psychology. Researchers pursuing answers about states of awareness discovered Rapid Eye Movement sleep and how it relates to dreaming. Rosalind Cartwright, a leading researcher in this area, takes the study of consciousness to another level by suggesting that people may be able to control what they dream about. Many psychologists have theorized about why people dream. Sigmund Freud believed that dreams were windows to your unconscious; that your greatest unfulfilled wishes and fears would be expressed symbolically in your dreams. Freud's view has been highly influential, and psychotherapists still use dream interpretation during therapy.
(Source: Adapted from: http://www.free-researchpapers.com/dbs/b6/pnl224.shtml)

VERBS

TENSE

USE An action that was begun in the past and continues into the present/ An action that happened in the unspecified past/ A recent action that has a present effect. Actions that happened at a defined moment in the past. Habitual activities - States

12

SECTION III: Text Structure


Researchers communicate their results and help accumulate knowledge through conference papers, reports, on-line journals and print journals. A research paper is a true academic writing that requires inquiry into the existing literature on the topic of study and personal thoughts as compared to the established experts in the field. A research report has several sections (Title, Abstract, Introduction, Method, Results, Discussion and References) and each section provides information about the process of elaboration.
Research Report Title The title of the report must be short and descriptive. Try to use around 15 words. Abstract The abstract is a very important section of a research paper because it may be the only part people read. Therefore, it should help a person decide whether to read the paper or not. The purpose of this section is to provide a brief and comprehensive summary of the study. It should include a brief description of the problem being investigated, the methods used, the results and their implications, written in a concise, specific and accurate manner B. The information in the following paragraph has been jumbled. Listen to the recording, rearrange it, and rewrite it in order to provide a coherent abstract. Attitudes toward the Use of Animals in Psychological Research and Education: Results from a National Survey of Psychologists by S.Plous Wesleyan University Abstract: In general, the attitudes of psychology majors closely resembled the attitudes of practicing psychologists. This article reports the results of a national survey in which psychology majors were asked about the use of animals in psychological research and teaching. Opposition to the use of animals was greatest among women, among students at selective schools, and among students living in the Northeast/ Mid-Atlantic region of the country. Students tended to (a) support animal experiments involving observation or confinement, but disapprove of studies involving pain or death; (b) support mandatory pain assessments and the federal protection of rats, mice, pigeons and reptiles; and (c) support the use of animals in teaching, but oppose an animal laboratory requirement for the psychology major.

...............................................

13

Unit 3: Pestalozzi, Father of Modern Pedagogy


The principal goal of education is to create men who are capable of doing new things, not simply of repeating what other generations have done. Jean Piaget

Born in Zurich, Johann Heinrich Pestalozzi (1746 - 1827) took up Rousseau's ideas and explored how they might be developed and implemented. His early experiments in education ran into difficulties but he persisted and what became known as the 'Pestalozzi Method' came to fruition in his school at Yverdon.. Instead of dealing with words, he argued, children should learn through activity and through things. They should be free to pursue their own interests and draw their own conclusions. I wish to wrest education from the outworn order of doddering old teaching hacks as well as from the new-fangled order of cheap, artificial teaching tricks, and entrust it to the eternal powers of nature herself, to the light which God has kindled and kept alive in the hearts of fathers and mothers, to the interests of parents who desire their children grow up in favour with God and with men. (Pestalozzi quoted in Silber 1965: 134) Pestalozzi goes beyond Rousseau in that he sets out some concrete ways forward based on research. He tried to reconcile the tension, recognized by Rousseau, between the education of the individual (for freedom) and that of the citizen (for responsibility and use). His initial influence on the development of thinking about pedagogy owes much to a book he published in 1801: How Gertrude Teaches Her Children. He wanted to establish a 'psychological method of instruction' that was in line with the 'laws of human nature. As a result he placed a special emphasis on spontaneity and self-activity. Children should not be given ready-made answers but should arrive at answers themselves. To do this their own powers of seeing, judging and reasoning should be cultivated, their self-activity encouraged (Silber 1965: 140). The aim is to educate the whole child - intellectual education is only part of a wider plan. He looked to balance, or keep in equilibrium, three elements - hands, heart and head. William H. Kilpatrick in his introduction to Heinrich Pestalozzi (1951) The Education of Man - Aphorism has summarized six principles that run through Pestalozzi's efforts around schooling. Personality is sacred. This constitutes the inner dignity of each individual. As 'a little seed... contains the design of the tree', so in each child is the promise of his potentiality. 'The educator only takes care that no untoward influence shall disturb nature's march of developments'. Love of those we would educate is 'the sole and everlasting foundation' in which to work. 'Without love, neither the physical nor the intellectual powers will develop naturally'. So kindness ruled in Pestalozzi's schools: he abolished flogging - much to the amazement of outsiders. To get rid of the 'verbosity' of meaningless words Pestalozzi developed his doctrine of Anschauung - direct concrete observation, often inadequately called 'sense perception' or 'object lessons'. No word was to be used for any purpose until adequate Anschauung had preceded. The thing or distinction must be felt or observed in the concrete. Pestalozzi's followers developed various sayings from this: from the known to the unknown, from the simple to the complex, from the concrete to the abstract. To perfect the perception got by the Anschauung the thing that must be named, an appropriate action must follow. 'A man learns by action'. Out of this demand for action came an emphasis on repetition - not blind repetition, but repetition of action following the Anschauung.
Source: Adapted from http://www.pestalozziworld.com/pestalozzi/pestalozzi2.html

New Vocabulary doddering flogging everlasting hacks to kindle outworn to pursue sole untoward verbosity to wrest

Phrasal verbs to set out to run into to run through to take up Phrases to come to fruition to draw conclusions to get rid of smth. to grow up in favour with Compound words
new-fangled ready-made

self-activity Prefixes reconcile implement inadequately entrust outsiders Suffixes


education responsibility achievement psychological spontaneity kindness meaningless

14

SECTION I: VOCABULARY ACTIVITIES


A. Use your dictionary to look up the underlined word or phrase in each of the following sentences. Find the definition that best fits the context and write it next to each sentence. Model: His early experiments in education ran into difficulties. to run into = to start to experience a difficult situation 1. The 'Pestalozzi Method' came to fruition in his school at Yverdon. to come to fruition = 2. They should be free to pursue their own interests and draw their own conclusions. to pursue = 3. The educator only takes care that no untoward influence shall disturb nature's march of developments. untoward = 4. To get rid of the 'verbosity' of meaningless words Pestalozzi developed his doctrine of Anschauung. verbosity = 5. Love of those we would educate is 'the sole and everlasting foundation' in which to work. sole = B. Adding a suffix to a noun, verb or an adjective we can obtain new nouns or adjectives. In the table below there are several adjectives and nouns which were obtained like this. Mention the word formation process, according to the model: Original Word develop Category VERB Suffix -ment New Word development education fruition responsibility achievement psychological spontaneity kindness meaningless intellectual activity Category NOUN

C. There are three forms of compound words: the closed form (headquarters), the hyphenated form (sit-in) and the open form (post office). Match the words in column A with those in column B to form a new word. A. eye throw B. estate class distance middle heart president stopping back full single real half life freeze check dry time child else fore

elect minded shadow learning moon sister

like in where catching

Model: eye + catching = eye-catching

15

SECTION II: Language Focus


Reported Speech When we report statements that were made in the past we change the tense of the original (direct) speech. When we report things that are timeless, such as scientific theories, we can keep the verb in the Present Simple. There are some verbs which introduce the Reported Speech: said, told, affirmed, admit, allege, etc. A. Reformulate these sentences. Use the reporting verbs given and make all the necessary changes. Model Pestalozzis early experiments ran into difficulties. It is said that Pestalozzis early experiments had run into difficulties. 1. A man learns by action. Pestalozzi affirmed 2. He tried to reconcile the tension between the education of the individual and that of the citizen. It is asserted ... 3. Kilpatrick has summarised six principles of Pestalozzis theory of education. The author stated 4. Without love, neither the physical nor the intellectual powers will develop naturally. Pestalozzi alleged ... 5. The educator must encourage childrens self-activities. He argued ... When reporting, we may also use clauses: a that clause reporting a statement, a wh clause reporting a wh question or exclamation, a clause with if or whether reporting a polar question, or an infinitive clause reporting a directive. B. Rearrange the jumbled words to make coherent sentences inside the first and last words given. Model constitutes infers personality that inner dignity the each of He infers that personality constitutes the inner dignity of each individual. 1. children whether special or attention wondered be should given She .. not. 2. what noticed change an had their in extraordinary occurred They ... behaviour. 3. Pesatlozzis when asked learn we about would We . method. 4. they meaningless insisted not use should He .. words. 5. was that of method observation admitted direct the I .. useful. C. Read the text below and insert the word which best fits each space. Choose from the list below: report education assigned attend choice standards range conducted satisfaction private

Parents of children who _____(1) private schools are more satisfied with their schools than parents of children in public _____(2) settings, according to a new report from the National Center for Education Statistics, while parents whose children attend the public school of their _____(3) are more satisfied than those whose children attend an _____(4) public school. Released in August, the _____(5) is based on telephone interviews with parents _____(6) in the first half of 2007 on a wide _____(7) of topics: school satisfaction, parental involvement in schools, school-parent communication, _____(8) with teachers, discipline and homework levels. While the specific numbers varied, more _____(9) school parents than public school parents were very satisfied with teachers, academic _____(10), discipline, and school/parent interaction.
(Source: Adapted from http://www.educationreport.org, Parent satisfaction higher in private schools, September 16, 2008)

16

SECTION III: Text Structure


Research Report Introduction and Method Introduction The main purpose of this section is to tell your reader why you performed the study. In other words, you have to inform the reader of the research question and indicate why it is important and how it is unique when compared to previous studies. Method This section includes detailed descriptions of the sample, the materials, instruments, and the procedures so that the reader understands that the information provided is valid and reliable. A. You will read an excerpt from a research report. Six sentences have been removed from this text. Choose from the sentences A-G the one which fits each gap. There is an example at the beginning (0)
Introduction Stress is a part of everyday life (Weiten, 2001). 0 D. Without stress life would be dull; however, we must learn to cope with all forms of stress to prevent it affecting our psychological and physical health (Weiten, 2001). Kohn, Lafreniere & Gurevich (as cited in Weiten, 2001) found that routine daily hassles can have a significant effect on our mental health. 1 ___. Also, Holmes & Rahe (as cited in Weiten, 2001) and others have found that changes in life, positive or negative, require adjustment. During this time of adjustment, one may be more susceptible to stress. More changes in one's life may increase one's susceptibility to stress. However, not all life experiences are stressful. Social support is very important to reducing stress (House, Landis & Umberson, 1988). 2 ___. According to Davis, Morris & Kraus (1998), there is an inverse correlation between social support and mental health. 3___. Exercise provides an opportunity to release frustrations and increases resistance to stress, while sleep deprivation decreases it. When deprived of sleep, one might under-perform on cognitive tasks, which itself may increase stress levels (Weiten, 2001). Work stress is another important factor that has been the subject of much research. Weiten (2001) noted that "pressure has turned out to be more strongly related to measures of mental health than the SSRS" (p. 534), a measure of life change. A heavy workload, a hectic work schedule, a poor work environment, and low job security are all factors that can cause stress at work (Weiten, 2001). 4 ___. This study was designed to replicate past research and investigate the correlations between stress and daily hassles; social support; life experiences; exercise; sleep; and work levels. Method Participants There were 30 participants in this study, 15 men and 15 women. 5 ___. The mean age was 30.4. Participants were attending school, work, or both. Materials Information was gathered using the Hassles Scale (Delongis, Folkman, & Lazarus, 1988), Life Experiences Survey (Sarason, Johnson, & Siegel, 1978), Stress Test (Weiten, 2001), and Social Support Scale (Weiten, 2001) Participants were also asked to report their average hours of work or school per week, average hours of sleep per night, and average hours of exercise per week. Procedure Each participant was asked to complete the questionnaire package. Confidentiality was emphasized and participants were asked not to include their names. 6 ___
Source: Adapted from: http://www.capilanou.ca The Effects of Daily Life on Stress Levels by Chad Clippingdale & Shannon Birk

A. The researchers then scored the tests and correlated the results using the Pearson product-moment correlation. B. When one spends longer hours exposed to these factors, stress levels may become greater. C. Having someone to listen and give empathy helps to justify our feelings and makes us feel better. D. We experience stress each day, sometimes positively and sometimes negatively. E. Although minor hassles alone may not be stressful, many hassles may build up and overwhelm an individual, causing stress. F. Exercise and getting a good night sleep are also very important to coping with stress. G. Ages ranged from 13 to 59.

17

Unit 4: Autism and Communication


To effectively communicate, we must realize that we are all different in the way we perceive the world and use this understanding as a guide in our communication with others. Anthony Robbins Specialist Vocabulary

Autism is a complex neurobiological disorder that typically lasts throughout a person's lifetime. It is part of a group of disorders known as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Today, 1 in 150 individuals are diagnosed with autism, making it more common than paediatric cancer, diabetes, and AIDS combined. It occurs in all racial, ethnic, and social groups and is four times more likely to strike boys than girls. Autism was first identified in 1943 by Dr. Leo Kanner of Johns Hopkins Hospital. At the same time, a German scientist, Dr. Hans Asperger, described a milder form of the disorder that is now known as Asperger Syndrome. These two disorders are listed in the DSM IV as two of the five developmental disorders that fall under the autism spectrum disorders. The others are Rett Syndrome, PDD-NOS, and Childhood Disintegrative Disorder. All of these disorders are associated with rigid routines and repetitive behaviours, such as obsessively arranging objects or following very specific routines, but the most important characteristic is that they impair a person's ability to communicate and relate to others. The capacity to acquire and use language is a key aspect that distinguishes humans from other organisms. Language acquisition starts in infancy and it is the process by which humans acquire the capacity to perceive, produce and use words to understand and communicate. A child's acquisition of language can be broken down into different segments: phonology, which is a person's use of speech sounds; syntax - the rules of grammar; semantics, which refers to a person's ability to understand and create the meaning of language; pragmatics - the ability to use language for the purpose of communication. Breaking down language into these different segments allows professionals to clarify to what extent and which aspects of the language and communication of a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is impaired. Children with an ASD often fail to communicate using speech or any other type of language, for example eye-contact, hand gestures, body language. If a child does not wish to communicate intentionally, they will not explore their ability to vocalise, learn new sounds or listen to the language spoken around them. This will ultimately result in a delay in their language acquisition. Without this means of communication, a child will find it difficult to express themselves. A child with an ASD may not see any reason to communicate with other people and, consequently, without a reason there is no point in communicating or no need to communicate. Children with an ASD may also remove themselves from situations that require communication, limiting their opportunities to communicate. Without opportunities there cannot be a development in communication.
Source: Adapted from http://www.autismspeaks.org/, http://www.nas.org.uk Society Speech and Language Therapy The National Autistic

acquire communication impair occur phonology pragmatics repetitive behaviour relate rigid routines semantics spectrum strike syntax vocalise Acronyms AIDS ASD DSM PDD-NOS Antonyms pair impair integrate disintegrate order disorder Compounds
eye-contact lifetime neurobiological

Phrases to break down into to fall under Word family


integrate integral integration integrative disintegrate disintegration disintegrative

18

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities


A prefix is placed at the beginning of a word to modify or change its meaning. dis- shows an apposite or negative and, in verbs, it shows the stopping or removing of a condition. A. Add the prefix dis- to the following words. Use a dictionary to find their meaning. Model: appear disappear to become impossible to see any longer

ability approval associate believe compose graceful integrate junction order pleased qualify regard reputable satisfaction trust

............................................... B. Match the following words with the most suitable definition. Model: 0. explore = K 0. explore = K 1. capacity 3. delay 4. strike 6. occur 8. routine 10. acquisition 7. disintegrate A. to damage something or make it not as good as it should be B. someones ability to do something C. to happen or exist in a particular place or situation 2. vocalize D. the process by which you gain knowledge or learn a skill E. when something does not happen or start when it should do F. to break up, or make something break up, into very 5. spectrum small pieces G. to make a sound or sounds with your voice H. to damage or harm someone or something I. the usual order in which you do things, or the things you regularly do 9. impair J. a complete range of opinions, people, situations, etc. going from one extreme to its opposite K. to discuss or think about something carefully

C. Follow the link http://www.all-acronyms.com/ to find what these acronyms stand for. Choose the ones that are the most suitable to the text above. Model: ASD = autism spectrum disorders AIDS = CDD = DSM = PDD-NOS =

19

SECTION II: Language Focus


Reported Speech Other ways of reporting include using nouns such as: argument, assertion, comment, denial, explanation, observation, remark, statement, etc. A. The words in the following sentences have been jumbled. Rearrange them within the first and last words given, in order to make coherent sentences. All the sentences contain reporting nouns. Charles Aussilloux, Professor of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry at the University of Montpellier, and his team studied the patterns of autism in the population of Languedoc, France. Below, there are reported some of the results of his research. Model: was a to clearer of provide argument study major the picture The major argument of the study was to provide a clearer picture of autism. 1. first his of that observations the was evolutions autistic of were persons One . different. 2. about remark the autistic possibility of to autonomously was people live His .. encouraging. 3. was great of comment the importance on the environmental influence Of . factors. 4. autism related the was important similarities statement to Aspergers and between Another .. Syndrome. 5. of the emphasized major autistic role normal assertion the in contact development of human Aussillouxs .. children.
(Source: Adapted from http://www.abc.net.au/rn/talks/8.30/helthrpt/stories/s21141.htm)

B. Complete the second sentence so that it has the similar meaning to the first sentence, using the word given. ModelYou should focus more on the topic, the teacher told me. advised The teacher advised me to focus more on the topic. 1. Reading more articles in a foreign language is good for you too, she said. recommended She more articles in a foreign language. 2.You wrote a very good research report! the professor told her. congratulated The professor ...a very good research report. 3. Dont leave your room after dark. This is not a safe area, our instructor told us. warned Our instructor .....our room after dark. 4. If you copy the review, you will be accused of plagiarism, said the lecturer. threatened The lecturer if I copied the review. 5. Dont forget to bring your project, my colleague told me. reminded My colleague... my project. When reporting emotions or impressions we may use certain adjectives. C. Match the adjectives (A-F) with the faces (1-6) Model: 6 F A. concerned; worried; alarmed; afraid; uneasy B. angry; infuriated; outraged; annoyed; irritated C. bored; uninterested; fed up; jaded D. content; blissful; cheerful; joyful; delighted E. depressed; miserable; unhappy; disheartened F. surprised; astonished; amazed; taken aback

20

SECTION III: Text Structure


Research Report Results, Discussion and References Results The main purpose of this section is to offer your readers a summary of what you found and to give a description of the techniques used in the research, of each analysis and the results obtained Discussion In this section you must discuss and interpret your data for the reader, tell them about the implications of your findings and make recommendations References This section is at the end of your paper and contains the information necessary for your reader to find any source that you cite in the report.

Social Sciences use the APA formatting and style to cite sources.
A. Read the information contained in this section of a research report and fill in with the missing figures. Results Pearson product-moment correlations were computed to measure the relationship between stress levels and the other factors studied. The following table presents the findings. Table 1 n = 30 Correlations between Stress & Various Stress Factors Daily hassles, life experiences, and hours of Factors Stress work were all significantly correlated with Daily Hassles .47** stress. This indicates significant positive Social support relationships exist between these factors and Life experiences .42* stress levels. As hassles, life experiences or Weekly exercise work hours increase, so does stress. Hrs of sleep The correlation between social support and Hrs of work .39* stress was r = -.35 (p<.05), indicating a ** p <.01, * p <.05 significant negative relationship between the two. (That is, lower levels of social support are associated with higher levels of stress, and vice versa). However, the correlations between exercise Source: Adapted from http://www.capilanou.ca The Effects of Daily Life and stress (r= -.08) and between sleep and on Stress Levels by Chad Clippingdale & Shannon Birk stress (r = -.21) were not significant. B. You will now listen to the Discussion section of the report above. Mark the following statements true (T) or false (F). You will hear the recording twice. 1. The author suggests that even one hassle is extremely harmful. ___ 2. Social support helps people to reduce stress. ___ 3. If the work environment is stressful, people want to spend more time there. ___ 4. The participants did not report the amount of exercise they did. ___ 5. The results show that sleep is an essential factor to reduce stress. ___ C. The information below belongs to the last section of a research paper. The resources have been wrongly cited. Follow the link http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/560/01/ to find the correct way and make all the necessary changes. References Brown, J. D. (1991). Journal of Psychology and Social Psychology, 60, 555-561. Staying fit and staying well: Physical fitness as a moderator of life stress [Abstract]. Davis, M. H., Morris, M. M., & Kraus, L. A. Journal of Psychology and Social Psychology, 74, 468481Relationship-specific and global perception of social support: Associations with well-being and attachments (1998). Assessing the impact of life changes: Development of the Life Experiences Survey. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 46, 943-946. Sarason, I. G., Johnson, J. H., Siegel, J. M. (1978).

21

Unit 5: Psychology of Advertising


Advertising is making whole lies out of half truths. Edgar A. Shoaff

Advertising has been a form of glorifying or gaining publicity for goods and merchandise since very early times. In fact, advertising has been around as an informal concept since the beginning of civilizations and former methods were oral advertising or claiming the benefits of products verbally when merchants sold goods to people directly on the streets. However with the advent of paper and writing, advertising took a more formal shape. Egyptians and Ancient Greeks used the papyrus for advertising and rock painting was also used. Advertising in English in magazines as we know today dates back to the end of the 17th century and newspaper advertising in America began during the first part of the 18th century with advertisements for estates. With the growth of mass media and different forms and avenues of communication like radio, TV, newspapers, magazines, and of course the internet in the 20th century, advertising started becoming an important aspect for commercialization of products. People started understanding the potential of advertisements and it became a business with the establishment of advertising agencies with the first advertising agency in US opened in 1841. With advertising becoming a business in itself, the methods of using advertisements became even more formalized, controlled and systematic and the advertisements for products started appearing as newspaper ads, on billboards, hoardings, as handbills, leaflets, on magazines, newspapers, on TV and radio as commercials and more recently on the internet. Web advertising is now a very powerful means to take the message across to the customers. However to actually appeal to customers, advertising will have to work in accordance with the principles of psychology and sociology. Thus an advertiser or an advertising professional will also have to be a sociologist and a psychologist to really have an impact on the minds of consumers. The principles of advertising are largely based on cognitive psychology and the psychological processes of attention, perception, association and memory to bring out the complete impact or uses of a product or 'brand'. Any advertisement will have to first focus on the attention that it is able to capture of the consumers. Strong messages, strong visuals and glaring colours are sometimes used on hoardings and billboards. For commercials, attention catching clothes and attractive models are sometimes used. Once the attention is drawn with the colours and the sounds or words, the focus is on retaining consumer interests by using 'association'. Themes or products which a particular segment of customers could associate with are used. Thus for baby food, mothers and babies are featured so association would have more to do with relevance or context of the advertisement. Certain colours also have associative value and certain brands and companies use a specific colour to promote their products. The company logo or symbol is also a part of developing a brand and helps in giving identity to a brand and has a strong associative value. The association should be such that it not only serves the purpose of quick understanding and perception of the consumers but is also retained in their memory for a long time. Thus memory or retention is an important aspect of the psychology of advertising as only an advertisement that consumers can easily remember for a long time for its novelty or use of words, colours and figures will be the most effective.
Source: Adapted from http://ezinearticles.com/The-Psychology-of-Advertising

New Vocabulary advent appeal billboard commercial estate handbill hoarding glaring leaflet merchandise novelty

Synonyms memory = retention Word families


ad advertisement advertiser advertising

Phrases to bring out to draw attention to give identity to serve a purpose to take the message across to work in accordance with

22

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities


Synonyms are different words with identical or very similar meaning. They can be any part of speech (nouns, verbs, adjectives, etc.) as long as both members of the pair are the same part of speech. E.g. car and automobile; sick and ill A. Read the article again and match the following words with their synonyms. Model: 1. to appeal = to attract to claim; novelty; hoarding; advent; glaring; to attract; beginning; innovation; to declare; poster; to appeal brilliant B. Use your dictionary to translate the following phrases:

to bring out; to draw attention; across

to give identity; to serve a purpose;

to take the message

When we describe things we sometimes need to define them as well, especially in academic writing, so that is perfectly clear what we mean. We may also need to give examples of what we define, and to classify. Simple Definitions If we look in a dictionary for the word hospital we may find: hospital a large building where sick or injured people receive medical treatment. More formally in writing we would put: A hospital is a large building where sick or injured people receive medical treatment. Study these other examples. A psychiatrist is a doctor who is trained in the treatment of mental illness. Steel is a strong metal which can be shaped easily. Who is used for persons, which is used for inanimate objects and animals, where is used for places. Complete the following sentences in the same way as the examples above. a. A college ________________ students receive higher or professional education. b. A dentist _________________ treats peoples teeth. c. Steel _____________________ is produced from iron and carbon. 2. Join pairs of sentences by using relative clauses. e.g. Bronze is an alloy. It is produced from copper and tin. Bronze is an alloy which is produced from copper and tin. The sentences below have been mixed up. Join the 8 sentences on the left with the correct ones from the 10 on the right. Use the appropriate relative pronoun. 1. An engineer is a person a. It produces electricity 2. A microscope is an instrument b. He studies the way in which industry and trade produce and use wealth. 3. A generator is a machine c. He treats the diseases of animals. 4. A botanist is a person d. It makes distant objects appear nearer and larger. 5. A square is a geometric figure e. He designs machines, buildings or public works. 6. A cucumber is a vegetable f. It gives information on subjects in alphabetical order 7. An economist is a person g. He studies plants 8. An encyclopedia is a book h. It makes very small near objects appear larger i. It is long and round with a dark green skin and light green watery flesh j. It has four equal sides and four right angles

23

Academic Definitions Look at the following definition: Plastics are compounds made with long chains of carbon atoms. In full the definition would be Plastics are compounds which are made with long chains of carbon atoms. Often subjects, particularly academic subjects, omit the wh- word in the following way: Criminology is the study of crime (or illegal acts). Psychiatry is the study and treatment of mental illness. Politics is the science of government. Botany is the science of the structure of plants. Write out definitions of the subjects given below. Use the notes given next to each subject; write in the same style as above. 1. Demography study population growth and its structure. 2. Zoology science structure, forms and distribution of animals. 3. Biology science physical life of animals and plants Academic subjects may be more cautiously defined, thus: Geography may be defined as the science of the earths surface. Linguistics may be defined as the science of language. Write out definitions of the following subjects in the same way as above. 1. Sociology science nature and growth of society and social behavior. 2. Theology study religious beliefs and theories 3. Astronomy science sun, moon, stars and planets Extended Definitions It is possible for academic subjects to be defined more specifically. Normally, this can only be done if more information is given. Look at the following example (branch has the meaning of division). Psychology may be defined as the branch of biological science which studies the phenomena of conscious life and behavior. (old definition) Write out definitions of the following subjects in the same way as above. 1. Criminal psychology psychology investigates the psychology of crime and the criminal. 2. Chemistry science deals with the composition and behavior of substances. 3. Social economics economics is concerned with the measurement, causes and consequences of social problems. A definition may be extended in order to be more precise and/or to give more information about the subject. Look carefully at the following examples. Sociology may be defined as the branch of science which studies the development and principles of social organization. It is concerned with group behavior as distinct from the behavior of individuals in the group. Econometrics may be defined as the branch of economics which applies mathematical and statistical techniques to economic problems. It is concerned with testing the validity of economic theories and providing means of making quantitative predictions. Write a definition of your subject in a similar way to the above.

......................................................................................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................................................................................

24

C. Memory and retention are synonyms, but there are also other words that have a similar meaning. If you follow the link http://thesaurus.reference.com/ and search for the word memory, you will obtain the following information: Main Entry: memory Part of Speech: noun Definition: ability to hold in the mind Synonyms: anamnesis, awareness, camera-eye, cognizance, consciousness, dead-eye, flashback, memorization, mind, mind's eye, mindfulness, recall, recapture, recognition, recollection, reflection, remembrance, reminiscence, retention, retentiveness, retrospection, subconsciousness, thought
(Source: Adapted from http://thesaurus.reference.com/)

Choose ten of the synonyms and make sentences of your own.

.. .

D. Study the following extended definition of memory and notice the words marked in the text. Memory, the ability to retain information or to recover information about previous experiences, is a function of the brain. When we remember something, a process takes place in which our brains recover and reconstruct information about things we've done or learned. There are two types of memory: short-term memory (STM) and long-term memory (LTM). Short term is memory of recent knowledge and happenings, while long-term memory helps us recall events and knowledge from our pasts.
Source Adapted from http://www.aarp.org/health/brain/works/what_is_memory.html

Below is a list of words that collocate with memory. Form new words (some precede and others follow memory) and look them up in the Penguin Dictionary of Psychology by Arthur S. Reber afterimage; associative; autobiographical; biological; colour; declarative; drum; echoic; episodic; explicit; fact; false; flashbulb; genetic; holographic; iconic; immediate; implicit; inaccessible; lexical; long-term; operating characteristics;

memory

procedural; racial; reconstructive; recovered; reproductive; semantic; source; span; trace; unconscious; working

25

SECTION II: Language Focus


We may emphasise in English in several ways, such as using passives, inversion, fronting or cleft sentences. Fronting and Inversion are used to give emphasis or to be rhetorical in more formal situations, in political speeches, on the news, and also in literature. Some native speakers may also use them occasionally in day-to-day conversation. At no time At no time did I say I would accept late homework. Hardly........when This is used to refer to an event that quickly follows another. It is usually used with the past perfect. Hardly had I got into bed, when there was a knock at the door. Less used is Hardly....before. Hardly had I left before the trouble started. Little Little did I know that he was a compulsive liar. Little does she know what surprises we have in store for her. No sooner.....than This is used to refer to an event that quickly follows another. It is usually used with the past perfect, but sometimes with the simple past. No sooner had I reached the door than I realised it was locked. No sooner did I reach the door than I realised it was locked. Not + object Not a single word did she say. Not only.....but also " Not only has McDonalds, which employs over 1 million people worldwide, played a huge role in pioneering low standards now equated with the word "McJobs", but it has also decided to restrict our ability to have a public discussion about the impact of the McJobs phenomenon", Naomi Klein, "No Logo: Taking Aim at Brand Bullies" (Toronto: Vintage Canada, 2000) Not until Not until January will I have a holiday. Nowhere Nowhere had Susan seen a more beautifully decorated room. Only after This is usually used with the simple past. Only after the film started did I realise that I'd seen it before. On no account/ Under no circumstances On no account should you be absent from your seminars. Only then/if/when/later This is usually used with the simple past. Only then did I know what I had got myself into. Rarely/Seldom/Never These are most commonly used with the present perfect or past perfect and with modals such as can and could. The present simple can also be used. Seldom have I seen him looking so miserable. "Rarely does a movie make you feel so warm and so uneasy at the same time." - Review of `Hearts in Atlantis` in the Canadian Province, 28/09/01 Never in her life had she experienced this exhilarating emotion. Scarcely/Barely....when This is used to refer to an event that quickly follows another. It is usually used with the past perfect.

26

Scarcely had I arrived home when there was a knock on the door. So......that This is a common inversion, usually used with an adjective & the verb `be`. So exciting was the soap opera that I forgot to do my English homework. It can also be used with much. So much did she adore John that she would not give him up. Such....that Used with the verb `be` and a noun, it means so much or so great. A. Rephrase the following sentences, beginning with the words given. Model: I had never seen so many people queuing at the door of the supermarket. Never had I seen so many people queuing at the door of the supermarket. 1. You must never associate this colour with our product again. On no account .. 2. They did not realise much about the impact of their billboard. Little .. 3. You will not find a better advertising manager in the whole country. Nowhere .... 4. She used strong visuals and messages in the advertisement. Strong .... 5. People started calling soon after they had posted the advertisement. Hardly ..when ... 6. I did not say you can use my name on the hoarding. At no time ..... 7. The merchant did not say anything about the sales action. Not . 8. I understood the associative value of this colour only at the end of the presentation. Only then .. 9. Egyptians used the papyrus and rock painting for advertising. Papyrus.. 10. Advertisement for baby food feature mothers and babies. Mothers and babies . B. Rearrange the words to make coherent sentences using the words given. They are all examples of emphasis. Model: this it does an make like ad you products the buy Rarely does an ad like this make you buy the products it presents. 1. eyes was impressive the with brought the to my babies tears commercial it So .. that..eyes. 2. ad these quality have visuals the improved the of sent they also powerful a have Not only..but ... message. 3. advertisement I most their the new was the and music liked about What ..colours. 4. who Annie leaflets came up was the with idea of brilliant the spreading at It...entrance. 5. was the new social psychologist who wrote this powerful logo for our It .. brand. 6. agent the displayed his claimed had customers for goods No sooner .than..more. 7. the value gave of was associative our symbol the identity to that It ..products.

27

SECTION III: Text Structure


Quoting A quotation is the repetition of one expression as part of another one and it is generally punctuated by quotation marks. A. You are going to listen to an APA style set of rules used for quoting. Fill in the blanks with the missing information. You will listen to the recording twice. Quotations
- Fewer than 40 words: Include in the text, ______________ (1) by double quotation marks - 40 words or more: Set off from the text in indented block form without quotation marks. If the quotation contains _______________ (2) paragraphs, indent the start of each one 0.5". - To indicate errors in the original source, use sic, __________ (3) and bracketed: . . . biolgical [sic] - To indicate changes in the original source: a. Use an_________ (4) to indicate omission. Add a period if the omission comes between sentences. b. Use brackets to insert material. c. If someone other than the original author has italicized words for ___________ (5), add the words [italics added] in brackets after the words. - Cite quotations in the following ways (depending on quote ________ (6) and use of author name): Horner (1967) found that Children raised in stable two-parent families . . . (p. 438). He found that Children raised . . . (Horner, 1967, p. 438). Horner (1967) found the following: Children raised . . . [assuming quotation is 40 or more words long]. (p. 438) You may need to obtain copyright permission for long _____________ (7).
Source: Adapted from http://sparkcharts.sparknotes.com/study/researchstyleapamla/section4.php

B. You will read an excerpt from an article. Five sentences have been removed from this text. Choose from sentences A-E the one which fits each gap. All contain examples of quoting.
GALE AND THE NEW SCIENCE OF PSYCHOLOGY These rapid changes in advertising were noticed by Harlow Gale, who was uniquely qualified to recognize and study the effects of these newly emerging attention structures in the mass media. In 1883, while a sophomore at Yale, a chance reading of a copy of the Proceedings of the Society for Psychical Research called Gale's attention to empirical studies of mental life and reasoning (Gale 1900). _____ (1) Gale credits Professor Wilhelm Wundt for providing him with three and a half years of "inestimable profit" working in the Institute for Experimental Psychology at the University of Leipzig (Gale 1900). Letters in the archival files reveal that Gale and the progressive journalist Lincoln Steffens became friends in Germany, studied together taking courses from Wundt, and enjoyed a lifelong correspondence. _____ (2) Steffens reported, "[T]he laboratory where we sought the facts and measured them by machinery was a graveyard where the old idealism walked as a dreadful ghost" (1931, p. 149). In 1894, prepared as an experimental psychologist, a 32-year-old Harlow Gale returned to his boyhood home in Minneapolis. At that time there were no psychology departments in American universities. _____ (3) He was hired as an instructor of "physiological psychology" and given responsibility for the university's laboratory for experimental psychology. ____ (4) It was there, until 1903, that Gale taught a series of courses in psychology, including a seminar that involved students in conducting studies on "the psychology of advertising" (Gale 1904). _____ (5) Up until that time, the subject of human attention had received scant experimental attention in the laboratories of the new psychologists (Scripture 1895, p. 94).
Source: Adapted from http://www.accessmylibrary.com/article-1G1-172907089/harlow-gale-and-origins.html

A. The laboratory consisted of "a few pieces of psychological apparatus" gathered by the university's previous instructor in experimental psychology. B. Steffens quoted Professor Wundt as saying, "We want facts, nothing but facts," and that theories were only aids to experimentation, which was the test of theory. C. In 1895, in the midst of the increasing visibility of consumer advertising, Harlow Gale became interested in "people's commercial actions as influenced by street car and magazine advertising" as an application of his training in the emerging field of experimental psychology (Gale 1900). D. After completing his B.A. in 1885, he undertook postgraduate studies in economics at the University of Minnesota, philosophy at Yale and Cambridge, and experimental psychology at Leipzig (Kuna 1976a). E. In the spring of 1895, Gale joined the faculty of the University of Minnesota as a member of the Philosophy Department (Gale 1904, p. 9).

28

Unit 6: Secret Lives


In all secrets there is a kind of guilt, however beautiful or joyful they may be, or for what good end they may be set to serve. Secrecy means evasion, and evasion means a problem to the moral mind. Gilbert Parker

One mislaid credit card bill or a single dangling e-mail message on the home computer would have ended everything: the marriage, the big-time career, the reputation for decency he had built over a lifetime. So for more than 10 years, he ruthlessly kept his two identities apart: one lived in a Westchester hamlet and worked in a New York office, and the other operated mainly in clubs, airport bars and brothels. One warmly greeted clients and waved to neighbours, sometimes only hours after the other had stumbled back from a "work" meeting with prostitutes or cocaine dealers. In the end, it was a harmless computer pop-up advertisement for security software, claiming that his online life was being "continually monitored," that sent this New York real estate developer into a panic and to a therapist. The man's double life is an extreme example of how mental anguish can cleave an identity into pieces, said his psychologist, Dr. Jay S. Kwawer, director of clinical education at the William Alanson White Institute in New York, who discussed the case at a recent conference. But psychologists say that most normal adults are well equipped to start a secret life, if not to sustain it. The ability to hold a secret is fundamental to healthy social development, they say, and the desire to sample other identities (to reinvent oneself, to pretend) can last well into adulthood. And in recent years researchers have found that some of the same psychological skills that help many people avoid mental distress can also put them at heightened risk for prolonging covert activities. "In a very deep sense, you don't have a self unless you have a secret, and we all have moments throughout our lives when we feel we're losing ourselves in our social group, or work or marriage, and it feels good to grab for a secret, or some subterfuge, to reassert our identity as somebody apart," said Dr. Daniel M. Wegner, a professor of psychology at Harvard. He added, "And we are now learning that some people are better at doing this than others." Although the best-known covert lives are the most spectacular - the architect Louis Kahn had three lives; Charles Lindbergh reportedly had two - these are exaggerated examples of a far more common and various behaviour, psychologists say. Some people gamble on the sly, or sample drugs. Others try music lessons. Still others join a religious group. And there are thousands of people - gay men and women who stay in heterosexual marriages, for example - whose shame over or denial of their elemental needs has set them up for secretive excursions into other worlds. Whether a secret life is ultimately destructive, experts find, depends both on the nature of the secret and on the psychological makeup of the individual. Psychologists have long considered the ability to keep secrets as central to healthy development. Children as young as 6 or 7 learn to stay quiet about their mother's birthday present. In adolescence and adulthood, fluency with small social lies is associated with good mental health. And researchers have confirmed that secrecy can enhance attraction, or as Oscar Wilde put it, "The commonest thing is delightful if only one hides it." The urge to act out an entirely different persona is widely shared across cultures as well, social scientists say, and may be motivated by curiosity, mischief or earnest soulsearching. Certainly, it is a familiar tug in the breast of almost anyone who has stepped out of his or her daily life for a time, whether for vacation, for business or to live in another country.
Source: Adapted from The Secret Lives of Just About Everybody by29 Benedict Carey, http:/www.nytimes.com

New Vocabulary anguish brothel to cleave covert distress earnest to enhance to gamble hamlet mischief persona ruthlessly tug Compounds best-known big-time pop-up soul-searching Prefixes distress heterosexual mislaid reassert Suffixes adolescence adulthood delightful elemental reportedly reputation spectacular Word family secret secretive secrecy Phrases to act out to grab for a secret on the sly to sample drugs

A. The following words belong to the new vocabulary. Read the text again and, aided by the context, try to understand their meaning. Match the words with the most suitable definition. Model: 0. earnest = K
0. earnest = K 1. anguish 3. covert 4. distress 5. to tug 6. hamlet 8. to gamble 10. to enhance 7. persona 9. mischief 2. to cleave A. a feeling of extreme unhappiness B. to risk money or possessions on the result of something such as a card game or a race, when you do not know for certain what the result will be C. to divide something into two completely separate parts D. a very small village E. to improve something F. the way you behave when you are with other people or in a particular situation, which gives people a particular idea about your character G. bad behaviour, especially by children, that causes trouble or damage, but no serious harm H. to pull with one or more short, quick pulls I. mental or physical suffering caused by extreme pain or worry J. secret or hidden K. very serious and sincere

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities

B. Listen to Pet Shop Boys song on http://www.last.fm/music/ and fill in the blanks with the missing information:
Chorus I sometimes think that I'm too many people Too many people, too many people I sometimes think that I'm too many people Too many people, too many people at once The husband or the ................ The ......... or the communist The artist or the showbiz ............................ The lover or the ................................................. geek The question of identity is one that's always .............. me .................... I decide to be depends on who is with me Chorus The ............................... twit putting his foot in it Or the sensitive soul who's a ................................. The urban .............................. - never at home Or the country recluse - just leave me alone Extrovert or ..................................................... Love is kind, and love hurts Rebellion or ....................................................... What is my identity? Chorus The intellectual and .................................... Or the naive.............................., so immature A .................................... son and family man Or the wicked uncle who doesn't .............. How often these have tempted me The question of ..... depends on what I'm meant to be Chorus

C. Match the words in column A with the correct definition in column B. All the concepts below are related to identity and behaviour.
A 1. role model 2. jet setter 3. creep 4. identity 5. haunted 6. introvert 7. hedonist B a. troubled, disturbed b. someone who enjoys good food and wine c. rich people who travel to a lot of different parts of the world and have exciting lives d. a person who is not very intelligent and can be tricked easily e. behaviour that is acceptable because it is similar to the behaviour of everyone else f. someone whose behaviour is considered to be a good example for other people to copy g. someone who believes that pleasure is very important and who tries to spend all their time doing things that they enjoy h. an unpleasant person, especially someone who tries to please or impress people in authority i. the qualities that make someone what they are and different from other people j. someone who tends to concentrate on their thoughts and feelings rather than communicating with

8. simpleton 9.conformity 10.bon-viveur

30

other people

SECTION II: Language Focus


Cohesion refers to the grammatical and lexical means by which written sentences are joined together to make texts. Grammatical cohesion in English is made through reference, ellipsis, substitution or conjunctions. A. Study the following sentences and mention which of the procedures mentioned above was used to give cohesion to the text. The first is done for you. Model: 1. But psychologists say that most normal adults are well equipped to start a secret life, if not to sustain it. 2. Whether a secret life is ultimately destructive, experts find, depends both on the nature of the secret and on the psychological makeup of the individual. 3. Im thinking of sharing my secret with my family. So am I. 4. Got a pen? Sorry, dont use. 5. I want to change my workplace. I dont. My colleagues are generally very supportive and I hope they will understand me. 6. A remark so harmless it could have been ignored had actually reached its purpose when heard by his colleagues. The softly whispered words confirmed the earlier rumours about his having two secret lives. conjunctions

B. The order of the following sentences has been changed. Read them carefully paying attention to the grammatical means of cohesion and establish the correct order so that you obtain a coherent paragraph. A. Each evening on his commute home, John sees a beautiful woman, staring with a lost expression through the window of a dance studio. B. John Clark is a man with a wonderful job, a charming wife and a loving family, who nevertheless feels that something is missing as he makes his way every day through the city. C. But, as his lessons continue, John falls in love with dancing. D. Haunted by her gaze, John impulsively jumps off the train one night, and signs up for dance lessons, hoping to meet her. E. Even worse, when he does meet Paulina, she icily tells John she hopes he has come to the studio to seriously study dance and not to look for a date. F. His friendship with Paulina blossoms, as his enthusiasm rekindles her lost passion for dance. G. At first, it seems like a mistake: his teacher turns out to be not Paulina, but the older Miss Mitzi, and John proves just as clumsy as his equally clueless classmates on the dance-floor. H. With his secret about to be revealed, John will have to do some fancy footwork to keep his dream going and realize what it is he really yearns for. I. But the more time John spends away from home, the more his wife becomes suspicious. J. Keeping his new obsession from his family and co-workers, John feverishly trains for Chicago's biggest dance competition. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

31

SECTION III: Text Structure


A paraphrase is: your own rendition of essential information and ideas expressed by someone else, presented in a new form; one legitimate way (when accompanied by accurate documentation) to borrow from a source; a more detailed restatement than a summary, which focuses concisely on a single main idea.

A. Study the following examples and notice the changes that occurred:
Original passage Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes, and as a result they overuse quotations in the final [research] paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes. Lester, James D. Writing Research Papers. 2nd ed. (1976): 46-47.

Paraphrase In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking, it is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester 46-47).
Source: http://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/619/1/

B. The following fragments belong to the text The Secret Lives of Just About Everybody. Paraphrase them in the same way as above. But psychologists say that most normal adults are well equipped to start a secret life, if not to sustain it. The ability to hold a secret is fundamental to healthy social development, they say, and the desire to sample other identities (to reinvent oneself, to pretend) can last well into adulthood. And in recent years researchers have found that some of the same psychological skills that help many people avoid mental distress can also put them at heightened risk for prolonging covert activities.

............................................... Although the best-known covert lives are the most spectacular - the architect Louis Kahn had three lives; Charles Lindbergh reportedly had two - these are exaggerated examples of a far more common and various behaviour, psychologists say. Some people gamble on the sly, or sample drugs. Others try music lessons. Still others join a religious group. And there are thousands of people - gay men and women who stay in heterosexual marriages, for example whose shame over or denial of their elemental needs has set them up for secretive excursions into other worlds. Whether a secret life is ultimately destructive, experts find, depends both on the nature of the secret and on the psychological makeup of the individual.

................................... ............................................................................................................................................ ............................................................................................................................................

32

MODULE II/ 2nd SEMESTER

SEMESTRUL 2 Saptamana 1 Saptamana 2 Saptamana 3 Saptamana 4 Saptamana 5 Saptamana 6 Saptamana 7 Saptamana 8 Saptamana 9 Saptamana 10 Saptamana 11 Saptamana 12 Saptamana 13 Saptamana 14

Anger Fuels Better Decisions Anger Fuels Better Decisions; Passive Constructions; Summarizing Beginning Reading Beginning Reading; Varieties of Bristish and American English; Passive Constructions; Punctuation Not ADHD? Think Dyslexia Not ADHD? Think Dyslexia; Affixation; Word derivation; Modal Verbs; Usage of italics Williams Syndrome Williams Syndrome; Nouns of Greek and Latin origin; Word derivation; Root words; Conditionals; Data interpretation The Psychology of Competition The Psychology of Competition; Present and Past Subjunctive; Article Structure Opinion paragraph Argumentative essays Descriptive essays Revision

Bibliografie obligatorie: 1.Side, Richard Wellman, Guy: Grammar & Vocabulary For Cambridge Advanced and Proficiency, Longman, 2001 2. Prodromou, L., Grammar and Vocabulary for First Certificate, Longman, 2001 3. Tegla, Camelia (coord.), Felea, Cristina, Mezei, Vlad English B2 C1, Social Sciences and Sport, Seria Autodidact (coord. Liana Pop), Cluj, Ed. Echinox, 2009 4. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English, Longman, 2003 5. http://granturi.ubbcluj.ro/autodidact 6. psychologyabout.com 7. http://esl.about.com/c/ec/1.htm 8. owl.english.purdue.edu/ 9. www.psychologytoday.com

Criterii de evaluare: prezen a i participarea activ la cursul practice; ndeplinirea corect si la timp a sarcinilor de lucru; nsuirea vocabularului de specialitate; corectitudinea, fluen a i adecvarea la cerin a limbii engleze (oral i scris); capacitatea de a utiliza eficient limba englez n contexte academice i profesionale specific Metode de evaluare: examen scris la sfritul semestrului 50% din nota finala; prezentarea oral a unui proiect individual pe teme date 50%

Evaluare

33

Unit 1: Anger Fuels Better Decisions


Recent studies suggest that anger can transform even those people who are, by disposition, not very analytical into more careful thinkers.

Despite its reputation as an impetus to rash behaviour, anger actually seems to help people make better choices - even aiding those who are usually very poor at thinking rationally. This could be because angry people base their decisions on the cues that "really matter" rather than things that can be called irrelevant or a distraction. Previous research has shown that anger biases peoples thinking - turning them into bigger risk-takers and making them less trusting and more prejudiced, for instance. But little has been done to study how anger affects a persons thinking. So Wesley Moons, a psychologist at the University of California at Santa Barbara, and his colleague Diana Mackie designed three experiments to determine how anger influences thinking - whether it makes people more analytical or careful about their decisions, or whether it leads people to make faster, rasher decisions. In the first experiment, the researchers induced anger in a group of college students by either asking them to write about a past experience that had made them very angry, or by having their stated hopes and dreams harshly criticized by another participant. In a second group of students, anger was not induced. The researchers later checked to be sure that the subjects were as riled up as they were supposed to be. The two groups were then asked to read either compelling or weak arguments designed to convince them that college students have good financial habits. The strong argument cited research from numerous scientific studies, whereas the weak argument contained largely unsupported statements. The subjects were asked to logically evaluate the strength of the arguments they read and indicate how convinced they were by them. The researchers repeated the experiment with a second group of students, this time giving the subjects an additional piece of information: who had made the arguments. Some students were told that the argument was made by an organization with relevant expertise in financial matters; others were told that the argument was made by a medical organization whose expertise was irrelevant to the financial topic being considered. In both studies, the researchers found that the angry subjects were better at discriminating between strong and weak arguments and were more convinced by the stronger arguments. Those who were not made to feel angry tended to be equally convinced by both arguments, indicating that they were not as analytical in their assessments. The angry students were also better at weighing the arguments appropriately depending on which organization had made them. The researchers repeated the experiment a third time using a different argument - one that supported the implementation of a university-wide requirement for graduating seniors to take comprehensive exams. This time, they tested only those subjects who were the least analytical, or in other words, those who were the least likely to make logical decisions. This way, the researchers would be able to see whether anger also makes typically non-analytical thinkers more analytical. Once again, they found that the angry subjects were better able to discriminate between strong and weak arguments than the ones who were not angry - suggesting that anger can transform even those people who are, by disposition, not very analytical into more careful thinkers. Their findings, detailed in this months issue of the Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, suggest that anger helps people focus on the cues that matter most to making a rational decision and ignore cues that are irrelevant to the task of decision-making. This could be because anger is designed to motivate people to take action - and that it actually helps people to take the right action, the authors wrote.
(Source: Adapted from http://news.yahoo.com/s/livescience)

New Vocabulary appropriately bias compelling cue discriminate expertise impetus prejudiced rash Prefixes irrelevant unsupported Suffixes behaviour distraction logically Compound words risk-takers university-wide decision-making Synonyms aid = help anger = rile Antonyms strong weak relevant irrelevant False friends distraction= interruption, disturbance distraction= amusement Phrases to be likely to be riled up

34

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities

A. Read the relevant parts of the article again and match the following words with their meaning. Model: 1. additional j. extra 1. additional a. settled 2. appropriate b. unfair 3. to bias c. to distinguish 4. compelling d. impulsion 5. cue e. knowledge 6. to discriminate f. to unfairly influence attitudes 7. expertise g. sign 8. impetus h. convincing 9. prejudiced i. suitable 10.stated j. extra Adverbs are generally formed by adding the suffix ly to an adjective. B. Put the word in capitals in the correct form, adding the necessary suffix. Model: additional + -ly = additionally 1. They were not able to weigh the arguments ... (APPROPRIATE). 2. The researchers selected . the students in the control group (CAREFUL). 3. This statement was ...criticised by other psychologists (HARSH). 4. ..... she could not .... evaluate the strength of his argument (UNFORTUNATE, LOGICAL). 5. Some people are very poor at . thinking (RATIONAL). A compound noun is a fixed expression made up of more than one word which functions as a noun. In academic English we often use compound nouns to express new, longer concepts. C. Complete the spaces with an appropriate noun to obtain a new word and then, using a dictionary, try to explain their meaning.

reader, esteem, start, gap, human, board. Model: key . keyboard = the set of keys for operating a computer or a typewriter
1. self- .............................. = 2. generation = .. 3. mind- .. = 4. .. being = 5. key .... = ... 6. head .. = .. Prefixes like in-, im-, il-, ir-, un-, dis- are often used to give adjectives a negative or opposite meaning. In the fragment above you have the word irrelevant which was formed by using the prefix ir- in front of the word relevant. D. Use the same method of word formation to give the negative or opposite meaning of the following words: 1. appropriate ... 2. reversible . 3. mature 4. adequate ... 5. approving . 6. comfortable .. 7. advantageous ... 8. legal . 9. fair 10. replaceable .

35

SECTION II: Language Focus

Passives can be used in all tenses and with modal verbs. Study the Passive constructions in these examples from the text and then do the exercise. But little has been done to study how anger affects a persons thinking. The two groups were then asked to read either compelling or weak arguments Those who were not made to feel angry tended to be equally convinced by both arguments This could be because anger is designed to motivate people to take action A. Rephrase the following sentences, beginning with the words given. Remember that it is not always necessary to mention the agent. Model: They told the students that an organization made the argument. The students were told that the argument was made by an organization. 1. The students in group A criticised the goals of those in group B. The goals .. 2. Nobody has studied the role of anger in taking better decisions before. The role 3. Anger can improve analytical thinking. Analytical thinking ... 4. The researchers could not convince some of the subjects of the experiment. Some of the .. 5. We must inform you about the results of the experiment. You ... 6. The psychologists will publish the results of their research in a journal. The results 7. Generally, scientists design experiments for their research. Experiments . 8. Some psychologists will contest this new theory. This new theory 9. The two researchers did not induce anger in the second group of students. Anger 10. They gave the subjects some additional piece of information. The subjects . B. Rearrange the words to make coherent sentences inside the first and last words given. All sentences contain Passive constructions. Model: were feel not to made They ... angry. They were not made to feel angry. 1. logically to asked evaluate subjects arguments of strength the were The . arguments. 2. that by told argument made an were the was Students . organization. 3. be a irrelevant can or things called Certain distraction. 4. organization told the were argument that was by made medical a Others irrelevant. 5. that to designed is motivate to take anger people seems It . action.

36

SECTION III: Text Structure

The ability to summarise and paraphrase is an essential academic skill all students must develop. What is a summary? A summary is a condensed version of the main ideas of all or part of a source written in your own words. Why do we write summaries? The goal of writing a summary is to offer as accurately as possible the full sense of the original, but in a more condensed form. How do we write summaries? A. You are going to listen to a set of instructions for writing a good summary and then fill in the blanks with the missing information. You will listen to the recording twice. Writing an effective summary requires that you: Read with the Writer's Purpose in Mind Read the article (1), making (2) notes or marks and looking only for what the (3) is saying. After you've finished(4), write down in one (5) the point that is made about the subject. Then look for the writer's (6) and underline it. Underline with Summarizing in Mind Once you clearly (7) the writer's major point (or purpose) for writing, read the article again. Underline the (8) supporting the thesis; these should be words or phrases here and there rather than complete sentences. In addition, underline (9)transitional elements which show how parts are connected. Omit specific details, examples, description, and (10) explanations. Write, Revise, and Edit to Ensure the Accuracy and Correctness of Your Summary Writing Your Summary Now begin writing your summary. (11) with a sentence naming the writer and article title and (12) the essay's main idea. Then write your summary, omitting nothing important and striving for overall (13) through appropriate transitions. Be concise, using coordination and subordination to compress ideas. Conclude with a final .(14) reflecting the significance of the article - not from your own point of view but from the writer's. Throughout the summary, do not (15) your own opinions or thoughts; instead summarise what the writer has to say about the subject. Revising Your Summary After you've completed a draft, read your summary and check for .(16). Keep in mind that a (17) should generally be no more than one-fourth the length of the original. If your summary is too long, cut out words rather than ideas. Then look for non-(18) information and delete it. Write another draft -- still a draft for revision - and ask someone to read it (19). Editing Your Summary Correct grammar, spelling, and (20) errors, looking particularly for those common in your writing. Write a clean draft and proofread for copying errors.
(Source: Adapted from http://leo.stcloudstate.edu/aca)

B. Now summarise the article Anger Fuels Better Decisions in your own words, following the steps you were given in the brief guide above. The original number of words is 598.

37

Unit 2: Beginning Reading


Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body. Richard Steele Just as your little one develops language skills long before being able to speak, she also develops literacy skills long before being able to read. What you do, or don't do, has a lasting impact on your child's reading skill and literacy. Children develop much of their capacity for learning in the first three years of life, when their brains grow to 90 percent of their eventual adult weight. When you talk, sing, and read to your child, links among his brain cells are strengthened and new cells and links are formed. Play is the work of your young children. From the first lullaby to dramatization of a favorite story, music and other creative arts can stimulate language and literacy development. You can help build pre-literacy skills through dramatic play and oneon-one interaction. Many pediatricians believe that a child who has never held a book or listened to a story is not a fully healthy child. Reading aloud to young children is so critical that the American Academy of Pediatrics recommends that doctors prescribe reading activities along with other advice given to parents at regular check-ups. Despite the considerable evidence of a relationship between reading regularly to a child and that child's later reading development, six in ten babies and five in ten toddlers are not read to regularly by parents or family members. Parents are truly their children's first and most important teachers and they should not leave to schools alone the important tasks of language and literacy development. Children cannot learn to read without an understanding of phonics. All children must know their ABCs and the sounds that letters make in order to communicate verbally. The question in early childhood programs is not whether to teach "phonics" or "whole language learning," but how to teach phonics in context rather than in isolation - so that children make connections between letters, sounds, and meaning. Phonics should not be taught as a separate "subject" with emphasis on drills and rote memorization. The key is a balanced approach and attention to each child's individual needs. Many children's understanding of phonics will arise from their interest, knowledge, and ideas. Others will benefit from more formal instruction. There are many opportunities to teach the sound a letter makes when children have reason to know. For example, the first letter a child learns typically is the first letter of her name. Some teachers worry that encouraging children to learn through experience and invent their own spellings will not provide them with adequate language skills. But literacy is not so much a skill as a complex activity that involves reading, writing and oral language. Ideally, children should develop literacy through real life settings as they read together with parents or other caring adults. Children begin to make connections between printed words and their representations in the world. Adults should keep in mind that children may learn to read at different paces during kindergarten and first grade. This is true for all children, including those with special needs and those from linguistically and culturally diverse backgrounds.
Source: Adapted from National Association for the Education of Young Children, http://school.familyeducation.com/reading/cognitive-development/

New Vocabulary lullaby pace reinforced rote strengthen toddler Antonyms context isolation Compounds check-ups one-on-one pre-literacy Key words reading letters sounds meaning memorization drills language linguistics phonics verbal communication connections individual needs literacy skills Am. English vs.Br. English favorite vs. favourite pediatrician vs. paediatrician program vs. programme

38

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities


A. Read the article again and match the following words with their antonyms. Model: 1. context f. isolation 1. context a. temporary 2. lasting b. inability 3. critical c. decrease 4. development d. misunderstand 5. comprehend e. insignificant 6. capacity f. isolation B. All the concepts listed below are related to the process of reading. Use the words to fill in the spaces.

1. Many teachers suggest that . should be taught in context, not in isolation. 2. Children develop . skills before they are able to read. 3. They have to be taught the sounds the .... make. 4. This is the first step in the development of ..communication. 5. Specialists consider that, when teaching phonics, we should not emphasise the .. 6. Rote .. is another aspect that must not be insisted on. 7. Children must understand the connection between letters, .. and meaning. 8. As they progress, children begin to make ...between words and their representations. 9. Not all the children can develop adequate .. skills. 10. Children read at their pace, according to their .... and cultural background. C. Certain words may differ in spelling in American and British English, as favorite vs. favourite, which appeared in the text. Fill in the chart below with other words that correspond to each category. Use a dictionary if necessary.
Am E -or -ze -ll -og -er -e -ck or k -dg -ense other vs. Br E -our -se -l -ogue -re -oe or -ae -que -dge -ence words favorite/ favourite; color/ colour; behavior/ behaviour;

program/ programme;

39

SECTION II: Language Focus

Prepositions after Passives There are only a few prepositions that can follow the passive verbs. The most common is by. Other prepositions are with, and in. We use other prepositions when the meaning requires them. e.g. Emphasis is placed on rote memorization.
A. Choose the preposition that best completes each sentence. Tick () the correct answer. Model Five in ten toddlers are not read . regularly. a for b by c to d with 1. The argument is centred . whether or not to encourage children to learn through experience. a on b towards c of d about 2. The essay must be divided . three parts: introduction, body and conclusion. a to b for c into d with 3. My attention was drawn . the pale little boy in the corner. a with b to c for d on 4. The reading test was prepared . great patience. a by b with c for d from 5. A storm of criticism has been levelled . the board of the school. a against b towards c by d for

Model According to the protocol, we must call the president Mr. President. addressed According to the protocol, the president must be addressed as Mr. President. 1. They will deduct points if you do not solve all the tasks on the answer sheet. penalised 2. All of a sudden the dyslexic child became very emotional. overcome 3. The researcher was given an honorary doctorate in education by Cambridge University. conferred 4. There were hundreds of children in the school yard. packed 5. The results of her study came as a complete surprise to us. aback

B. For each of the sentences below, write a new sentence as similar as possible in meaning to the original sentence, using the word given, which must not be altered in any way.

Structures with get and have passive patterns The passive pattern means arrange for somebody else to do something e.g. Ill get the book brought to you, or things that happen to you e.g. Shes had her computer stolen.
C. Rearrange the words to make coherent sentences inside the first and last words given. Model has bibliography be just to That .. compiled. That bibliography just has to be compiled. 1. article has Journal published Special of the had his in John . Education. 2. get the teachers have to children their reading prepared for The .. test. 3. her had a application has for turned scholarship Jenny . down. 4. my have our photo had for class taken just I ... album. 5. car his had into broken ago a and days the few CD player George stolen.

40

SECTION III: Text Structure

Punctuation marks If in speaking we can pause, stop or change our tone of voice, in writing we need the following punctuation marks (as signals for the readers) to emphasize and clarify what we mean: (apostrophe) : (colon) , (comma) (dash) - (hyphen) (quotation marks) ; (semicolon) A. Read the following sentences and select the correctly punctuated one. Model a Dr. Bernstein recommends approaching teens at the right time and not when theyre angry busy or tired. b Dr. Bernstein recommends approaching teens at the right time and not when they're angry, busy, or tired.
c Dr. Bernstein recommends approaching teens at the right time, and not when they're angry, busy, or tired.

d Dr. Bernstein recommends approaching teens at the right time and not when they're angry, busy, or tired.
1. a Once they're teens you cant just say because I said so they won't listen. b Once they're teens, you can't just say 'because I said so' they won't listen. c Once they're teens, you can't just say because I said so they won't listen. d Once they're teens, you can't just say because I said so they won't listen. 2. a Here's how to get things moving in a positive direction set limits, stick to what you say, be reasonable. b Heres how to get things moving in a positive direction set limits stick to what you say be reasonable c Here's how to get things moving in a positive direction set limits stick to what you say, be reasonable. d Here's how to get things moving in a positive direction: set limits, stick to what you say, be reasonable. 3. a What you do or don't do has a lasting impact on your child's reading skill and literacy. b What you do or dont do, has a lasting impact on your childs reading skill and literacy. c What you do, or don't do has a lasting impact on your childs reading skill and literacy. d What you do, or don't do, has a lasting impact on your child's reading skill and literacy. 4. a Many childrens understanding of phonics will arise from their interest, knowledge, and ideas. b Many children's understanding of phonics will arise from their interest, knowledge, and ideas. c Many children's understanding of phonics will arise from their interest knowledge and ideas. d Many childrens understanding of phonics will arise from their interest knowledge and ideas. 5. a Parents are their childrens first teachers. b Parents are their childrens first teachers. c Parents are theyre childrens first teachers. d Parents are their childrens first teachers. B. You are going to listen twice to a short audio file. Pay attention to the intonation, pause or stop, so that you can fill in with the appropriate missing punctuation marks in the fragment below. Use a coloured pen. Keeping Your Teen Out of Trouble by Rose Garrett Teens and trouble think they go together like bread and butter Well you may be wrong. While teenagers do tend towards risk seeking behaviour and seem to enjoy pushing boundaries and parents' buttons troublesome behaviour can be anything but typical. According to Neil Bernstein a clinical psychologist and author of How to Keep Your Teen out of Trouble and What to Do If You Can't moodiness self-absorption and obsession with peer approval are all run of the teenage mill. However if you notice your teenager getting out of control experimenting with drugs or abusing alcohol, it may be time for a wake up call for both of you. Dont expect lightening to strike some sense into your teen. Although parents may feel that they are being pushed away during the teen years its your responsibility to firmly push back.
(Source: Adapted from http://www.education.com)

41

Unit 3: Not ADHD? Think Dyslexia


Although dyslexia is a slight disorder of the brain, it is not an intellectual disability and it has been diagnosed in people of all levels of intelligence. Although as many as one in 10 people have dyslexia, it's one of the most commonly misdiagnosed learning issues for school-age children, according to Drs. Brock and New Vocabulary Fernette Eide, physicians and co-authors of the book The Mislabelled Child. That's assessment because ADHD often acts as a red herring, throwing evaluators off the scent. "If you checklist talk to most parents or teachers, ADHD, or attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, is mislabelled the first thing on people's minds when a student's falling behind in class or is struggling to overlook in school," says Dr. Brock Eide. "But what they should be doing is thinking about pattern dyslexia. The dyslexic child is often a mislabelled child." Children with unrecognized remediation dyslexia are often seen as inattentive, careless, or slow, but, the Eides say, often nothing to sequence could be farther from the truth. "Dyslexics are overrepresented in creative and inventive struggle fields like art and architecture or computers and engineering," according to Dr. Fernette trait Eide. "As young people, their gifts and talents may be overlooked because society only urge sees their weakest link." Although dyslexia is one of the most common specific Phrases learning disabilities, it's not always identified in school. Many parents and professionals to be aware of are more aware of attention deficit disorder checklists than ones for dyslexia. That's to be due to exactly why parents need to be on the lookout, says Dr. Fernette Eide. "Parents need to to be on the lookout be alert to the possibility of dyslexia, because they may be the only one who recognizes to be presumed to their child's pattern of difficulties, so they can help get them the proper assessments, to fall behind accommodations, and remediation they need." That's all well and good. But what to throw smb. off the exactly should you look for? The authors say the following traits are red flags for scent possible dyslexia: reading is slow and effortful (especially reading aloud); tendency to wild guesses make wild guesses with new words; trouble appreciating rhymes; may skip over small False friends words (like a, an, the) while reading; mixes up order of letters; avoids reading aloud; physician listening comprehension much better than reading comprehension; letter reversals, physicist unusual spelling errors (may look like wild guesses); may avoid writing by hand; Compound words "careless" errors in math or with reading test instructions; does much better with oral age-appropriate testing. If your child shows these signs, the Eides urge, don't just assume they're being school-age lazy. There may be something else at work. ADHD might be a big buzz word in the Prefixes media, but dyslexia is far more common. And the earlier it's diagnosed, the sooner help dyscalculia can arrive. dyslexia A glossary of important terms related to learning disabilities is necessary for parents hyperactive to identify signs in their children. inattentive Attention Deficit Disorder (ADD) = A severe difficulty in focusing and maintaining misdiagnosed attention. Often leads to learning and behaviour problems at home, school, and work. It mislabelled is also called Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD); Developmental overlooked Aphasia = A severe language disorder that is presumed to be due to brain injury rather unrecognized than because of a developmental delay in the normal acquisition of language; unusual Dyscalculia = A severe difficulty in understanding and using symbols or functions Suffixes needed for success in mathematics; Dysgraphia = A severe difficulty in producing careless handwriting that is legible and written at an age-appropriate speed; Dyslexia = A severe developmental difficulty in understanding or using one or more areas of language, including listening, remediation speaking, reading, writing, and spelling; Dysnomia = A marked difficulty in Word families remembering names or recalling words needed for oral or written language; Dyspraxia disability = A severe difficulty in performing drawing, writing, buttoning, and other tasks disabilities requiring fine motor skill, or in sequencing the necessary movements. disabled
Source: Adapted from : http://www.education.com/magazine/article/ http://www.kidsource.com/kidsource/content2/l.disabilities.glossary.html

42

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities


Some suffixes, particularly at the end of adjectives, have meaning: -less (without); - like; -able; - worthy; - ful; - proof; - tight. A. Identify in the fragment above the adjectives that are formed with some of the suffixes with meaning and note them down, indicating the process of formation. Model: watertight = water + tight B. Check the meaning of the following suffixes, then choose the suitable one in order to form new words. - less - like -able - worthy - ful - proof - tight

Model: I think it is going to rain, so you will probably use your new watertight jacket. 1. The physicians needed trust persons for their research. 2. They have to pay consider..... attention to the traits displayed by children. 3. Dealing with dyslexia may sometimes be a pain .. experience. 4. Dyslexics must not feel hope ... as long as help can be provided. 5. People suffering from ADHD may display child .. behaviour. 6. We should use error - . tests in the assessment of these children. WORD FAMILIES C. Write the word forms for the following: Model: protect agree assess avoid behave comprehend consider diagnose develop educate evaluate injure persuade represent relieve require reverse select signify symbolise Noun Verb - Adjective NOUN protection VERB protect ADJECTIVE protective

A prefix is placed at the beginning of a word to modify or change its meaning. D. Listen to the following fragment and note down all the words that contain prefixes. Than check their meaning in the dictionary. You will listen to the recording twice. ....

43

SECTION II: Language Focus


The ten modal verbs are: can, may, must, will, should, could, might, ought to, shall, would. A. Identify the modals in Not ADHD? Think Dyslexia. Look at the context in which each modal verb is used and assign it to one of the categories listed below listed in the table below. Model: Possibility may Meaning Ability Conditional Future Obligation/ Desirability Obligation/ Necessity Prediction Probability/ Possibility Prohibition Modal Verb

B. Write sentences of your own using some of the modal verbs listed above and the prompts given. Model: Being on holiday, I could relax in the swimming pool all day long.

1. ..

2. ....... 3. ...... 4. .... 5. . 6. ...

7. 8. ... 9... 10. ...

44

SECTION III: Text Structure

We use italics (characters set in type that slants to the right) and underlining to distinguish certain words from others within the text. These typographical devices mean the same thing; therefore, it would be unusual to use both within the same text and it would certainly be unwise to italicize an underlined word. Usage of italics or underlining To indicate titles of complete or major works such as magazines, books, newspapers, academic journals, films, television programs, long poems, plays of three or more acts Foreign words that are not commonly used in English Words used as words Words or phrases that you wish to emphasize A. Look at the following examples and match each sentence to one of the usages above. Write the correct answer next to each sentence. Have you seen Minghellas The English Patient? You must remove the word nuance from this sentence. I simply do not care what you say! The article was published in the Journal of Social Work Education. They all wished him bon voyage and left. B. Write down the words that you would use into italics. Model: My favourite book is Isabel Allendes Portrait in Sepia. Portrait in Sepia 1. Jane loves to watch ER and Greys Anatomy because their plots are very interesting. ............................................................................................ 2. The New York Times is where I read Benedict Careys An Active Purposeful Machine That Comes Out at Night to Play. .... 3. Neil Genzlinger wrote the review of Lloyd Suhs drama The Children of Vonderly. .... 4. According to Oxford Advanced Learners Dictionary, the word dyslexia means: a slight disorder of the brain that causes difficulty in reading and speaking, but does not affect intelligence. .... 5. I am not interested in your opinion! .... 6. An au pair should be treated as a family member, not as a servant. .... 7. She said au revoir and disappeared in the night. .... 8. The biggest tabloid in Europe, by circulation, is Germanys Bild-Zeitung. .... 9. She is a mislabelled child, this is the problem! ................ 10. The word disorder appears too often in this short paragraph.

45

Unit 4: Williams Syndrome


If a person suffers the small genetic accident that creates Williams syndrome, hell live with not only some fairly conventional cognitive deficits, like trouble with space and numbers, but also a strange set of traits that researchers call the Williams social phenotype or, less formally, the Williams personality: a love of company and conversation combined, often awkwardly, with a poor understanding of social dynamics and a lack of social inhibition. Williams syndrome rises from a genetic accident during meiosis, when DNAs double helix is divided into two separate strands, each strand then becoming the genetic material in egg or sperm. Normally the two strands part cleanly, like a zippers two halves. But in Williams, about 25 teeth in one of the zippers 25 genes out of 30,000 in egg or sperm are torn loose during this parting. When that strand joins another from the other parent to eventually form an embryo, the segment of the DNA missing those 25 genes cannot do its work. The resulting cognitive deficits lie mainly in the realm of abstract thought. Many with Williams have so vague a concept of space, for instance, that even as adults they will fail at six-piece jigsaw puzzles, easily get lost, draw like a preschooler and struggle to replicate a simple T or X shape built with a halfdozen building blocks. Few can balance a check book. These deficits generally erase about 35 points from whatever I.Q. the person would have inherited without the deletion. Since the average I.Q. is 100, this leaves most people with Williams with I.Q. in the 60s. Though some can hold simple jobs, they require assistance managing their lives. The low I.Q., however, ignores two traits that define Williams more distinctly than do its deficits: an exuberant gregariousness and near-normal language skills. Williams people talk a lot, and they talk with pretty much anyone. They appear to truly lack social fear. Indeed, functional brain scans have shown that the brains main fear processor, the amygdala, which in most of us shows heightened activity when we see angry or worried faces, shows no reaction when a person with Williams views such faces. Its as if they see all faces as friendly. People with Williams tend to lack not just social fear but also social savvy. Lost on them are many meanings, machinations, ideas and intentions that most of us infer from facial expression, body language, context and stock phrasings. If youre talking with someone with Williams syndrome and look at your watch and say: Oh, my, look at the time! Well its been awfully nice talking with you . . . , your conversational partner may well smile brightly, agree that this is nice and ask if youve ever gone to Disney World. Because of this and because many of us feel uneasy with people with cognitive disorders, or for that matter with anyone profoundly unlike us people with Williams can have trouble deepening relationships. This paradox the urge to connect, the inability to fully do so sits at the centre of the Williams puzzle, whether considered as a picture of human need or, as a growing number of researchers are finding, a clue to the fundamental drives and tensions that shape social behaviour. After being ignored for almost three decades, Williams has recently become one of the most energetically researched neurodevelopmental disabilities after autism and it is producing more compelling insights.
Source: Adapted from David Dobbs, The Gregarious Brain www.newyorktimes.com

New Vocabulary compelling drive(s) helix insight meiosis phenotype realm replicate savvy stock phrasing strand urge Prefixes inability preschool uneasy Suffixes conventional personality assistance heighten conversational deepen Nouns of foreign origin amygdala meiosis Compounds half-dozen (blocks) near-normal (skills) six-piece (puzzle) Phrases to be torn loose to feel uneasy Word families gene(s) genetic genetics gregarious gregariousness

46

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities


Many nouns taken from other languages form their plurals by adding s or es to the singular. However, some have kept their foreign (Latin and Greek) plurals thesis/theses; phenomenon/ phenomena, alga/algae, etc. LATIN: um a datum/data, medium/media, stratum/strata, addendum/addenda, symposium/symposia, bacterium/bacteria but museum/museums, asylum/asylums, stadium/stadiums Datum is much less common than its Latin plural data (information, especially information organized for analysis) which in English is usually constructed as a plural: These data are inconclusive but often also as a singular, especially in scientific context This data is inconclusive. LATIN: us i cactus/cacti also cactuses, focus/foci also focuses, radius/radii, terminus/termini, nucleus/ nuclei also nucleuses, bacillus/bacilli, stimulus/stimuli but bonus/bonuses, genius/geniuses, virus/viruses LATIN: a ae alga/algae, larva/larvae, formula/formulae also formulas, antenna/antennae also antennas, vertebra/vertebrae also vertebras but arena/arenas, dillema/dillemas, diploma/diplomas, era/eras, encyclopaedia/encyclopaedias, retina/retinas, villa/villas LATIN: x ces index/indices also indexes, appendix/appendices (in books) also appendixes (anatomical), matrix/matrices LATIN: others genus/genera, stamen/stamina Words of Greek origin retain their declentional endings, but anglicised plurals for some of them are favoured: GREEK: is es analysis/analyses, axis/axes, basis/bases, crisis/crises, diagnosis/diagnoses, hypothesis/hypotheses, paranthesis/parantheses, thesis/theses GREEK: on a phenomenon/phenomena, criterion/criteria but demon/demons, neuron/neurones, proton/protons, ganglion/ganglions Some foreign nouns are at half way stage with two plurals, the original plural and the English one. As a rule, the difference is not of sense, but of style. The foreign plural is characteristic of formal usage, particularly in scientific and academic writing. In some cases the two plurals have different meanings. index/indices (algebraical signs) indexes (table of contents) genius/genii (spirits) geniuses (men of genius) There are also words borrowed from other languages that in certain circumstances retain their original endings in the plural. HEBREW: cherub/cherubim(cherubs), seraph/seraphim (seraphs) ITALIAN: bandit/banditti (bandits), virtuoso/virtuosi also virtuosos Confetti (from Italian confetto, which is not used in English) takes a singular verb. Graffiti (lacking a singular form) takes the plural. FRENCH: beau/beaux, bureau/bureau

47

A. Fill in the correct plural form of the words in brackets. Model Although extensively investigated, these phenomena still fascinate researchers (phenomenon)

1. Both the preliminary and final .. revealed that 25 genes were missing (analysis) 2. The researchers collected a great deal of .. for their report (datum) 3. There are several ... that must be considered when calculating the IQ (criterion) 4. The brain scans revealed that there was a set of ...to which the brain reacted (stimulus) 5. More ...are to be confirmed by the new experiments (hypothesis)
Word formation is one of the most useful methods to enrich your vocabulary. To the root word you may add a prefix or a suffix to form a new word: misunderstanding. B. Form new words using prefixes and/or suffixes to fill in the blanks with the aid of the words in capitals. Model Many people suffering from Williams syndrome draw like a preschooler. SCHOOL 1. The cognitive deficit was .. by the genetic accident that occurred during meiosis. HIGH 2. We were all surprised to see John behaving so ...... in a new environment. GREGARIOUS 3. The brains main fear ... is the amygdala. PROCESS 4. Jenas cognitive .. made impossible any human interaction. PAIR 5. His lack of social puzzles everybody. INHIBIT C. Each group of words written below has a root word which you must guess and write in column B; then match it with the appropriate definition in column C. The first is done for you. A biodiversity; autobiographical; biologist; biography; symbiosis admittance; emitted; omit; permitting; remittance; unremitting; submitted; transmitter dictation; indicate; dictionary; predictable; verdict infer; transfer; preferable; offer; confer; ferry apathy; pathetic; pathology; sympathy; telepathic; empathy; antipathy biological; psychologist; logic; philology analgesia; nostalgic; analgesic; neuralgia; nostalgia anthropomorphism; metamorphosis; amorphous; B bio = life C feel bear; bring; carry

send speech; word; reason; study pain form say; speak life

48

SECTION II: Language Focus


Conditionals are clauses which begin most typically with if. They go in several types and they are used to express events which are possible, likely events in the future, unlikely situations in the present or future or an event that did not happen in the past. A. Study the following examples of first, second and third Conditional then fill in with the appropriate form of the verbs in brackets. a. If a person suffers the small genetic accident that creates Williams syndrome, he will live with some fairly conventional cognitive deficits. b. If we understood their condition, maybe we could help them. c. I would have made other plans for the trip if you had told me about her disability. 1. Most likely they will leave sooner if they ... (realise) that he has a cognitive disorder. 2. The DNA ..(not be affected) if a genetic accident had not occurred during meiosis. 3. If people with Williams syndrome had a concept of space they .. (not draw) as a preschooler. 4. His IQ ... (be) higher if the deficits had not erased 35 points. 5. If we ...(not feel) uneasy in the presence of people with Williams, they could deepen relations. Conditional clauses may be introduced by other subordinators than if, for example: as/so long as, unless, on condition that, only if, provided that, etc. B. Match the clauses in column A with those in column B to form sentences. One is done for you. 11- A
1. If she had realised her report would be misinterpreted, 2. As long as you promise to behave yourself, 3. Her latest article may be downloaded freely 4. Supposing you met a Williams person, 5. In the event of a gene deletion during meiosis, 6. In case of a crisis, 7. Humans begin to have hallucinations 8. She will deepen the relation 9. If you had paid more attention to John 10. I m sure they will turn down your invitation 11. You can borrow my laptop for the project A. on condition that you take good care of it. B. provided that you have the suitable programme. C. contact us immediately. D. she would not have published it. E. on condition that you feel comfortable with her. F. you would have understood his behaviour. G. unless you apologise first. H. the person will suffer from Williams syndrome I. you can join us at the meeting J. if you keep them awake for more than 72 hours. K. would you know how to talk to him?

B. Listen to Coldplays song on http://www.last.fm/music/ and fill in the blanks with the missing information:
What If? What if there _____ (1) no lie Nothing wrong, nothing right What if there _____ (2) And no reason, or rhyme What if you _____ (3) That you don't want me there by your side That you don't want me there in your life What if I _____ (4) it wrong And no poem or song Could _____ (5) what I got wrong Or _____ (6) you feel I belong What if _____ (6) That you don't want me there by your side That you don't want me there in your life Ooh ooh-ooh, that's right Let's take a breath, _____ (7) over the side Ooh ooh-ooh, that's right How can you know it, if you _____ (8) Ooh ooh-ooh, that's right Every step that you take _____ (9) your biggest mistake It could bend or it _____(10) That's the risk that you take

49

SECTION III: Text Structure


Data refers to information which can be a measure or some observations of things. Articles, research papers, reports, etc. use tables, charts or graphs to provide information. Some useful vocabulary in talking about data includes: verbs: increase, decrease, decline, climb, fluctuate, tend; adjectives: high, low, dramatic, gradual, slight, steep; nouns: fall, point, trend, average, level. A. Read the fragment below and fill in with the most suitable word from the box. One is done for you. miserable lower graph levels climbing tend slightly average progressively point start off

Happiness is smile shaped


Research into happiness suggests that our levels of happiness change throughout our lives. People were asked how satisfied they are with their lives. Most people start off (0) happy and become __________ (1) less happy as they grow older. For many people, the most __________ (2) period in their life is their 40s. After that most people's __________ (3) of happiness climb. This __________ (4) shows average life satisfaction based on extensive research from the British Household Panel Survey between 1991 and 2003. It seems men are __________ (5) happier on average than women in their teens, but women bounce back and overtake men later in life. Women start with __________ (6) levels of average life satisfaction than men. The low __________ (7) seems to last for longer for women - throughout their 30s and 40s, only __________ (8) once women reach 50. Then women __________ (9) to overtake men. Men start slightly higher than women on __________ (10), and their lowest point is their 40s, climbing again once they reach 50.
Graph source: British Household Panel Survey 1991-2003 Andrew Oswald, Department of Economics, University of Warwick and Nattavudh Powdthavee, Institute of Education, University of London. Source: http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/programmes/happiness_formula/4787558.stm

B. Obtain information from the following charts and write a data commentary in a similar style as above.
Age-related changes in total amount of sleep and REM sleep

Source: http://faculty.washington.edu/chudler/sleep.html

50

Unit 5: The Psychology of Competition


The five S's of sports training are: stamina, speed, strength, skill, and spirit; but the greatest of these is spirit. Ken Doherty Training the body takes the right state of mind to excel in competition. A relatively new area in psychological research is sport psychology. However, the principles involved are much older. Ever since the time of the ancient Greeks a connection between the body and the mind has been recognized. For any professionals in the field of psychology it is considered scientific fact that the emotions and psychological health of an individual has a very significant bearing on their physical condition. Therefore, it stands to reason that for physical competitors searching for a slight edge, this connection needs to be explored and used to its fullest extent. State of mind There are numerous ways that athletes train their bodies. Weight training, push-ups and running are just a few of the physical training activities utilized by athletes regardless of the sport involved. There are also a variety of psychological training exercises that can be used by athletes. At the time of competitions, numerous elite competitors talk of being "in the zone". What this is referring to is the process of focusing totally on the task at hand, blocking out any distracting thoughts and giving the mind the ability to work through the task in a step-by-step fashion. Meditation is somewhat of a similar process. In and of itself, meditative work is a tool that athletes can utilize to train their minds. In the evening, prior to going to sleep, sit or lie down comfortably and allow your mind to become clear. Do not attempt to force this, as the very thought of forcing will break the meditation process. Instead, as thoughts come to you, allow them to pass again. Do not concentrate on them, but allow them to go in and out of your brain. At the beginning of this process, some individuals find it to be helpful to concentrate on a single thought. If this technique works for you then try it, but keep in mind that the final goal is complete freedom of thought. As time goes on, you will apply this state of meditation to competition Your inner voice The difference between failure and success can be a matter of simply self talk. Each of us has an inner voice that gives us a running commentary on the events in our daily lives. Learn to hear that inner voice. Literally speak out loud the word "stop" at any time that negative self talk starts, then implement positive conscience self talk, going through in a step-by-step method. When you are not in training or competition is the best time to learn to control your inner voice. By the time that you go into competition itself, your interior dialogs should be totally encouraging and supportive. Self talk and affirmations are related. The main difference between the two is that affirmations are delivered into the conscious mind. Prior to going to bed, and again just prior to a competition, look into a mirror and affirm five best strengths you have for the sport you are in. This will have the effect of building confidence in your own abilities. Learn to control any stress you may have. Stress can be either negative or positive, primarily determined by any attitude you may have towards it. Your body does not realize the difference between negative and positive stress, so it is your thoughts that must take over to establish that distinction. Instead of fear, learn to identify the feeling as excitement, and you will harness its power. There are numerous other psychological techniques that can be applied to competition. Nevertheless, the majority of the other techniques are based on the concepts of self talk, meditation, and stress management. If you can master these basic techniques you will begin to move forward on the right track towards having a competitive edge.
Source: Adapted from : Korbin Newlyn http://www.buzzle.com/articles/the-psychology-of-competition.html

New Vocabulary
athlete bearing conscience excel failure harness implement

Phrases
to stand to reason to search for a slight edge to have a competitive edge running commentary to build confidence to move on the right track Antonyms failure # success Suffixes affirmation comfortably confidence excitement meditation meditative professional psychological regardless supportive Compounds self talk step-by-step push-ups

51

SECTION I: Vocabulary Activities


A. Look up the meaning of the following phrases and give their Romanian equivalents if possible. to build confidence to have a competitive edge to give a running commentary to stand to reason to move on the right track to search for a slight edge to gain self-assurance a cpta/ ctiga ncredere

B. All the concepts listed below are related to competition. Use the words to fill in the spaces.

1. They should always listen to their ................ when they do not know what to do. 2. Recent research shows that .... helps athletes to recover faster from injuries. 3. The pressure of the competition requires a lot of ....... to be successful. 4. .... is a technique which can be used to reduce anxiety. 5. Researchers believe that self-confidence can be built with ... and positive thinking. 6. Athletes need many hours of ...... to stay in good shape. 7. One important step towards success is to build ..... in your own abilities. 8. Freedom of thought is a stage of ... that can be applied to competition. 9. Some psychological techniques are based on the concept of ...... . 10. ... makes sometimes the difference between failure and success. C. Read the article again and match the following words with their antonyms. Model: 1. success g. failure 1. success 2. prior 3. excitement 4. distinction 5. strength 6. supportive 7. harness a. weakness b. similarity c. disconnect d. subsequent e. unhelpful f. boredom g. failure

52

SECTION II: Language Focus


The subjunctive has limited uses in English. The Present Subjunctive short infinitive (all persons) I suggest he stop as soon as he becomes tired; The Past Subjunctive were (all persons) I wish she werent so shy. A. Fill in the blanks with one of these common phrases: God forbid far be it from me come what may be that as it may suffice it to say so be it

Model: Those stones burn my back! Be that as it may, they will reduce the tension in your muscles! 1. I dont want to explain. _______________________, Susan will resume the psychological training. 2. If, ____________________________, you were to fall ill, who would take your place in the team? 3. If you really want to abandon the competition, then _____________________________________.

4. _________________________, I am determined to learn these new meditation techniques. 5. _________________ to tell you what to do, but you would be mad to compete against him.
B. The words in the following sentences have been jumbled. Rearrange them within the first and last words given, in order to make coherent sentences. Model: better were wish you I wish you were better trained. 1. they essential control their emotional is that It ..... states. 2. receive athlete insisted the new of should pair coach a The ..... trainers. 3. to conscience implement self talk is very decision positive Their .... good. 4. stress learn to were manage the I would if I .. you. 5. learn desirable you to inner hear that is It .. voice. C. Choose one suitable word from the box below to fill in the gaps. Some words may be used more than once. were is found agree hadnt understand wouldnt be didnt werent

Model: I would not argue with the coach if I _____ you. I would not argue with the coach if I were you. 1. Whatever his physical training activities _________, they are insufficient to make him win a medal. 2. Id rather you ______________________________ feel fear but excitement about the competition. 3. Its time you ___________________________ the difference between positive and negative stress. 4. We recommend that the athletes ________________________ less anxious before the competition. 5. Imagine you ______________________ alone in this race. How would it affect your performance? 6. I wish they ___________________ so aggressive! Its a competition and they need to be fair play! 7. If he __________________________________ doped, he will be excluded from all competitions. 8. Whether they _____________________________ or not, our team is going to continue the match. 9. We know our coach is right, but we wish she _________________________ yell at us all the time. 10. If only I ___________________________ concentrated on my negative thoughts before the final!

53

SECTION III: Text Structure


An article is a piece of writing which offers information in magazines, newspapers, academic journals, the internet or other type of publication. In general, articles have five sections: headline, introduction, main body, conclusion and bibliography.

http://www.donolsen.com http://www.biggerfasterstronger.com

http://www.authentichappiness.sas.upenn.edu/TimeMagazine

A. Study the layout of the magazine articles printed above and rearrange the following jumbled text in order to obtain a coherent article. Use the two or three column format. Steven Pinker: How Our Minds Evolved By Robert Wright, author of Nonzero: The Logic of Human Destiny Monday, Apr.26, 2004 Decades of social-science dogma depicted the human mind as having few built-in features--kind of like a computer with no programs, a blank slate. Pinker, along with others in the young field of evolutionary psychology, disagrees. For starters, he argued in The Language Instinct, we have a genetically based word processor, engineered by natural selection. Among the other legacies of natural selection, say the new Darwinians, are such impulses as jealousy and vengefulness. So Pinker draws fire from those who ascribe all ills to the corruption of pristine souls. But evolutionary psychology has a brighter side: love and compassion are also in our genes. Besides, Pinker notes, biology isn't destiny. "Nature," he quotes Katharine Hepburn's character in The African Queen as saying, "is what we were put in this world to rise above." Every half-century, it seems, an eminent Harvard psychologist crystallizes an intellectual era. Near the end of the 19th century, William James, writing in Darwin's wake, stressed how naturally functional the mind is. In the mid--20th century, after a pendulum swing, B.F. Skinner depicted the mind as a blank slate. Now the pendulum is swinging again. Harvard, which lured Pinker from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology last year, seems poised to keep its tradition alive. Britain's Financial Times once described Steven Pinker as "a handsome man" with a hairstyle that "works equally well for Led Zeppelin front man Robert Plant." But even if the Harvard psychologist didn't look like a rock star, he would still play to packed houses on the lecture circuit. He has something rare among top-tier scholars, an ability to convey complex ideas with clarity, flair and wit. That's one reason his books--most recently, The Blank Slate--make best-seller lists even as they make waves in academia. The other reason is those waves in academia. Pinker is on the forefront of an intellectual sea change.
Source: http://www.time.com/time/magazine/article/

54

Unit 6: Paragraph and Essay Writing


Opinion Paragraph The opinion paragraph starts with a clear and original view point or attitude about a topic. Never use expressions such as In my opinion or I think. You should directly start on with your opinion as it is a truth. Instead of saying, In my opinion life is worth living fully. just write, Life is worth living fully. This stage should be heavily concentrated upon because you need to give lucid contentions that support and justify the authenticity and validity of the opinion. Convincing as well as persuasive styles should be the most common throughout the whole paragraph. An opinion without clear and vigorous arguments that support and sustain it is not at all inspiring for the reader. You should also bear in mind that arguments are not new opinions, but only an attempt to support the opinion with the most appropriate evidence. Therefore you should be careful about the way the topic sentence is managed and reinforced through logical, resistant and easy to assimilate supporting details, here arguments. The arguments must be so comprehensible that in this stage you have to avoid using assumptions or theories but you must use only facts. Examples are the most helpful tools to clarify and back up your arguments; however they should neither be volatile nor vague ones. They should be positive statements aiming at bringing about the readers involvement and understanding. The concluding sentence, on the other hand, should not raise a new opinion or present an open statement. It should be cautiously dealt with in order to echo the whole paragraph or at least to paraphrase the topic sentence. The concluding shift is crucial because it is the last thing the reader will keep in mind. The minimum deviation from the opinion stated above or the pace and logic of the paragraph will engender a deadly effect.
( Retrieved from:http://abdessalami.bravehost.com/opinion.html)

Tips for Good Opinion Paragraphs You will need to be well prepared in order to write a good opinion paragraph. Here are the steps to take before you even start writing: Pick a controversial issue - something people clearly agree or disagree with it strongly. Decide which side you will take - do you agree or disagree with it? This will be your opinion. Get as much information as you can in order to defend your point of view - you will need facts to support your point, examples of why your opinion is the correct one. Find out as much as you can about opinions that are different from yours - get as much information about the other side as you can. Be ready to change your main idea if your research shows you that your thoughts were not correct to begin with! Now you are ready to start writing! Make sure your main idea Classes that start at or before 8 o'clock in the morning are not your opinion about the subject scheduled at the best time to benefit the majority of the students who - is clear and well stated. For have to take them. example: Transition into the body of the There are many, many reasons for this. paragraph - For example: Give your second strongest Most of the students are pretty young and stay up until late at night reason to support this idea. working or socializing. They don't know how to manage their time For example: well enough yet. Give a specific example or Look at statistics from college campus studies on this subject - say statistics to support this something similar to this - A study done by _, from the _ reports that statement. For example: University of freshman students work_ hours in the evenings, and then socialize for _ hours. They only get an average of hours of

55

sleep. Give your weakest reason to People have a difficult time getting up too early in the morning. support this idea. For example: Give an example to support this describe how difficult it is for someone you know to get up and be statement too. For example: ready in time. (look around your classroom, at the students in the cafeteria - how many look tired and not ready for the day's work yet?) Give your strongest reason to People learn best when they have rested long enough, and are support this idea. For example: awake and ready to learn. Explain and give an example of The study conducted by concluded that _% of the students who someone you know, or statistics had not rested long enough, or well enough, fail their courses you have found to support this which are scheduled early in the morning, and the average grades thought. For example: from early courses are lower than grades fro the same course scheduled for later in the day. Give the strongest reason that Some people think that it is important to get your classes done and others who do not agree with over with early in the morning, so there is time for other activities you have. For example: during the day. Refute this argument - prove that This is true, early courses do free the people up for other activities it is not really the correct view. later, but what is the point of sacrificing learning, hurting chances For example: for success, in order to be able to play during a longer period of the day? Finish with a good concluding Even though early courses are good for a few people who are at sentence. For example: their best in the early morning, they are not helpful to the majority of the students. Now you are ready for the usual editing part of your writing. Make sure that: - you have a main idea - your supporting points are directly related to the main idea - your transitions are good and logical - your sentences are in the correct order - you mentioned the other side, - you refuted the argument from the other side - your sentences are well written, with as few errors as possible
(Retrieved from: http://web.clark.edu/martpe/opinion%20paragraphs.htm)

Sample Opinion Paragraph: A policy that requires public school students to wear uniforms would be a bad idea for several reasons. First of all, no style of clothing looks good on everyone. In their pre-teen and teen years, students are especially sensitive about their appearance, and having to wear clothing that doesnt fit them well will do little to help their fragile self-esteems. In addition, uniforms are expensive. Students would need to have at least two complete sets of uniforms to allow for laundering, which could be very costly for parents. Of course, since most students arent likely to wear their uniforms after school, parents also have to purchase everyday clothes like jeans, shirts, and skirts, adding significantly to the amount they must spend on clothes. Furthermore, during the school year students may outgrow their uniforms or other clothing, increasing the cost for some families. Finally, a uniform policy ignores families rights and freedom to make clothing decisions that are best for them. Certainly schools should be able to restrict clothing that features obscene or objectionable slogans or that exposes too much skin. However, making all students dress the same says that individuality is less important than conformity. To conclude, the world already has too many followers, so public schools should allow students the freedom to express their unique personalities through their clothing.

56

(Retrieved from: http://learnlab.hfcc.edu/sites/learnlab.hfcc.edu/files/sample_opinion_paragraph.pdf)

Essay writing tips: dos give your essay a clear structure. Make sure that it has an introduction which says what the aim of the essay is, a body (=the main part of the essay, usually consisting of 3 paragraphs), and a conclusion at the end which says what your point was link your ideas together so that they are connected in a logical way give supporting evidence or quotations from other people in order to support the points you want to make, and say where they come from donts dont mix different ideas in the same paragraph or sentence dont use informal spoken language, and dont use short forms such as cant or wont dont overuse phrases such as I think that You can use the form In my opinion or if you want to say what other people think, you can use phrases such as According to Freud or It was Freuds view that It is also often better to use the passive form: It has been pointed out that It has been said that dont copy other peoples work. This is known as plagiarism and will cause you to fail your essay. You can give short quotations from other writers to support your arguments, but you must say who and where the quotation is from. dont feel that you have to use very formal or complicated language. Simple is best. You know words in English, and you know what they mean, but how do you use them together to form a correct English sentence and link your ideas coherently? Here is a selection of the most common problems that students face when linking words together, and some suggestions for different ways of doing this. Listing ideas in a logical order One of the most common weaknesses in essays is that the ideas are not linked together in a clear and logical sequence. One simple way of avoiding this problem is to decide exactly which points you want to make, and then number them, using firstly, secondly, thirdly etc, and lastly. Instead of firstly you can also say first of all, in the first place, or to begin with. Instead of lastly you can say finally. Summarizing your ideas If you want to summarize your ideas at the end of an essay or report, you can begin the summary by saying in conclusion, to conclude or to sum up Adding another idea that supports the previous one The simple way to do this is to use also. Students tend to use also too much but there are other expressions that you can use instead, including furthermore, moreover (both used in formal English), what is more and besides (used especially in conversation). If you want to say that something has two different qualities, you can join them together with the word both. But remember that you can use both only with two things. If there are more, then you can say: The jacket combines stylishness, comfort, and warmth. If you want to name two qualities that something does not have, you can use neithernor. Contrasting different ideas with each other There are many different ways of pointing that there is a contrast between two ideas. Some of the linking words used are but, however, although, though, nevertheless, and yet, whereas, on the one hand on the other. Saying what the results of something is There are several expressions you can use including so, therefore, as a result, and, in formal English, consequently and thus. Saying what the reason for something is When giving the reason for something you can use: because, as, due to, and owing to. Due to and owing to are used especially in official statements, when saying that something was caused by a particular event or problem.

57

Saying what the purpose of something is You can use to, in order to, and so that. ACTIVITIES 1. Read carefully the following description of the procedure for writing an essay. It gives advice in the form of what you should do. When you have finished reading do the exercise in 2. The Stages of Writing an Essay First, the topic, subject or question should be thought about carefully: what is required in the essay should be understood. Then a note should be made of ideas, perhaps from knowledge or experience. After this, any books, journals, etc. should be noted that have been recommended, perhaps from a reading list or a bibliography. Then to the list should be added any other books, articles, etc. that are discovered while the recommended books are being found. Now is the time for the books, chapters, articles, etc. to be read, with a purpose, by appropriate questions being asked that are related to the essay topic or title. Clear notes should be written from the reading. In addition, a record of the sources should be kept so that a bibliography or list of references can be compiled at the end of the essay. Any quotations should be accurately acknowledged: authors surname and initials, year of publication, edition, publisher, place of publication, and page numbers of quotations. When the notes have been finished they should be looked through in order for an overview of the subject to be obtained. Then the content of the essay should be decided on and how it is to be organized or planned. The material should be carefully selected: there may be too much and some may not be relevant to the question. The material, or ideas, should be divided into three main sections for the essay: the introduction, the main body, and the conclusion. An outline of the essay should be written, with use being made of headings or sub-headings, if they are appropriate. The first draft should be written in a suitably formal or academic style. While doing this, the use of colloquial expressions and personal references should be avoided. When it has been completed, the draft should be read critically, and in particular, the organization, cohesion, and language should be checked. Several questions should be asked about it, for example: Is it clear? Is it concise? Is it comprehensive? Then the draft should be revised and the final draft written legibly! It should be remembered that first impressions are important. Finally, the bibliography should be compiled, using the conventional format: the references should be in strict alphabetical order. Then the bibliography should be added to the end of the essay.

58

2. All the sentences containing advice (should) are listed below. Spaces have been left for the verbs. In each space write the appropriate verb, but write it as a direct instruction (putting the verb in its imperative form) e.g. should be finished finish. The Stages of Writing an Essay a. b. c. d. e. f. g. h. i. j. k. l. m. n. o. p. q. r. s. t. u. v. w. x. y. ________________ carefully about the topic, subject or question. ________________ what is required in the essay. ________________ a note of your ideas, perhaps from your knowledge or experience. ________________ any books, journals, etc. that have been recommended, perhaps from a reading list or a bibliography. ________________ to your list any other books, articles, etc. that you discover while finding the recommended books. ________________ the books, chapters, articles, etc. with a purpose, by asking yourself appropriate questions that are related to the essay topic or title. ________________ clear notes from your reading. ________________ a record of your sources so that you can compile your own bibliography or list of references at the end of your essay. ________________ accurately any quotations: authors surname and initials, year of publication, and page numbers of quotations. ________________ through your notes when you have finished in order to obtain an overview of the subject. ________________ on the content of your essay and how you want to organize it, in other words, plan it. ________________ your material carefully: you may have too much and some may not be very relevant to the question. ________________ your material, or ideas, into three main sections for the essay: the introduction, the main body, and the conclusion. ________________ an outline of the essay, making use of headings or sub-headings, if they are appropriate. ________________ the first draft, in a suitably formal or academic style. ________________ the use of colloquial expressions and personal references. ________________ the draft critically, in particular checking the organization, cohesion and language. ________________ yourself several questions about it, for example: Is it clear? Is it concise? Is it comprehensive? ________________ the draft. ________________ the final draft. ________________ sure it is legible! ________________ first impressions are important. ________________ your bibliography, using the conventional format. ________________ that your references are in strict alphabetical order. ________________ the bibliography to the end of your essay.

(Source: Adapted from Jordan, R.R, Academic Writing Course, Nelson, 1992)

59

Argumentative and Descriptive Essays


A Brief Guide to Writing Argumentative Essays The art of argumentation is not an easy skill to acquire. Many people might think that if one simply has an opinion, one can argue it effectively, and these folks are always surprised when others don't agree with them because their logic seems so correct. Additionally, writers of argumentation often forget that their primary purpose in an argument is to "win" it--to sway the reader to accept their point of view. It is easy to name call, easy to ignore the point of view or research of others, and extremely easy to accept one's own opinion as gospel, even if the writer has not checked his or her premise in a couple of years, or, as is the case for many young writers, never questioned the beliefs inherited from others. Want to know what you think about something? Then write an argumentative essay. To be fair, however, you'll find that one of the first things you must do is become an expert on the issue. When you pick a topic, you should avoid writing about issues that cannot be won, no matter how strongly you might feel about them. The five hottest topics of our time seem to be gun control, abortion, capital punishment, freedom of speech, and probably the most recent, euthanasia, or the right to die. If possible, avoid writing about these topics because they are either impossible to "win," or because your instructor is probably sick of reading about them and knows all the pros and cons by heart (this could put you at a serious disadvantage). The topics may be fine reading material, however, because most people are somewhat aware of the problems and can then concentrate on understanding the method of argument itself. But care should be taken that if you read one side, you also read the other. Far too many individuals only read the side that they already believe in. These issues cannot be won for good reason: each touches on matters of faith and beliefs that for many people are unshakable and deeply private. Features 1. So, what do you write about? Pick a well-defined, controversial issue. Readers should understand what the issue is and what is at stake. The issue must be arguable, as noted above. After stating your thesis, you will need to discuss the issue in depth so that your reader will understand the problem fully. 2. A clear position taken by the writer. In your thesis sentence, state what your position is. You do not need to say: "I believe that we should financially support the space station." Using the first person weakens your argument. Say "Funding for the space station is imperative to maintain America's competitive edge in the global economy." The thesis can be modified elsewhere in the essay if you need to qualify your position, but avoid hedging in your thesis. 3. A convincing argument. An argumentative essay does not merely assert an opinion; it presents an argument, and that argument must be backed up by data that persuades readers that the opinion is valid. This data consists of facts, statistics, and the testimony of others through personal interviews and questionnaires or through articles and books, and examples. The writer of an argumentative essay should seek to use educated sources that are nonbiased, and to use them fairly. It is therefore best to avoid using hate groups as a source, although you can use them briefly as an example of the seriousness of the problem. Talk shows fall into the same category as they are frequently opinionated or untrue. 4. A reasonable tone. Assume that your reader will disagree with you or be skeptical. It is important, therefore, that your tone be reasonable, professional, and trustworthy.

60

A Brief Guide to Writing Descriptive Essays There are several methods writers use to describe something in an essay. They may choose vivid, fresh language, or they may use examples, or they might take something ordinary and by comparing it with something extraordinary, make it interesting, or they may use their senses. When someone asks you to describe something, the first step you might take is to jot down the first words that come to you. If I say "egg," for instance, you might write down the following string of associations: "round, white, brown, fresh, scrambled, farmer, chicken, goose, over-easy." But another student might write down "ostrich," while yet another chooses "dinosaur." Then a medical student might chime in with "ovulation, zygote, and baby." At some point, someone else may take it a step further and mention "fragility." The point is that the one little word "egg" can conjure up a number of associations, all coming at the subject in a different way. So when you are asked to describe an event or a person, start with the obvious, but don't stay there. Features 1. A well-focused subject can be ordinary or extraordinary, but you should strive to make it as interesting as possible by emphasizing what makes it interesting or new and unusual. Pick something specific, an event or a person or an animal. 2. How you treat your subject is directly related to how your reader will react to it. Give plenty of specific descriptive detail. If you're describing an event, watch people moving and hear them talking. Create a dominant impression for your reader. 3. Create a clear pattern of organization. Your introduction should work from general to specific, ending in a thesis sentence. You should have several paragraphs that develop and describe your topic, and your conclusion should restate your thesis or conclude your event. (Source: Adapted from: Jennifer Jordan-Henley)

61

Annex 1: Audio scripts MODULE 1, UNIT 2, SECTION III, EXERCISE B The information in the following paragraph has been jumbled. Listen to the recording, rearrange it, and rewrite it in order to provide a coherent abstract. You will hear the recording twice. This article reports the results of a national survey in which psychology majors were asked about the use of animals in psychological research and teaching. In general, the attitudes of psychology majors closely resembled the attitudes of practicing psychologists. Students tended to (a) support animal experiments involving observation or confinement, but disapprove of studies involving pain or death; (b) support mandatory pain assessments and the federal protection of rats, mice, pigeons and reptiles; and (c) support the use of animals in teaching, but oppose an animal laboratory requirement for the psychology major. Opposition to the use of animals was greatest among women, among students at selective schools, and among students living in the Northeast/ Mid-Atlantic region of the country. UNIT 4, SECTION III, EXERCISE B B. You will now listen to the Discussion section of the report above. Mark the following statements true (T) or false (F). You will hear the recording twice. Discussion The finding of a significant positive correlation (r = +.47, p < .01) between daily hassles and stress levels supports Kohn et al.'s research on the stress effects of daily hassles (as cited in Weiten, 2001). One hassle by itself may be small and insignificant, but when hassles start to build up they may cause a great deal of stress. The finding of a negative correlation (r = -.35, p < .05) between social support and stress also supports past research (Davis, Morris & Kraus, 1998; House, Landis & Umberson, 1988). Social support can be very important in reducing stress because it allows people to talk about, and have others listen to their problems. The significant positive correlation (r = +.42, p < .05) between life experience and stress also supports Holmes & Rahe's research (as cited in Weiten, 2001) that the more changes in life one has, the more susceptible to stress one becomes. The significant positive correlation (r = +.39, p < .05) between work hours and stress supports Weiten's (2001) research on the subject. The work environment can be a very stressful place and the more time one spends there, the higher their stress levels may become. However, the absence of the expected inverse correlation between exercise (Brown, 1991) and stress was unexpected. Brown has shown that exercise can be beneficial to reducing stress levels. Perhaps more participants were needed in order to show an accurate correlation. Social desirability bias (Weiten, 2001) may also have been a factor. The participants may have reported the amount of exercise that they believed to be socially acceptable instead of the amount of exercise they actually did. The negative correlation between sleep and stress was not significant (r = -.21). A stronger, more significant correlation was expected. A good night's sleep is essential to resisting stress. One reason for these results might be that hours of sleep in this survey were all around eight hours, while stress levels were scattered over a much larger range. Again, the small sample size might be a factor; more participants might increase the accuracy of the results. UNIT 5, SECTION III, EXERCISE A You are going to listen to an APA style set of rules used for quoting. Fill in the blanks with the missing information. You will listen to the recording twice. Quotations - Fewer than 40 words: Include in the text, surrounded by double quotation marks - 40 words or more: Set off from the text in indented block form without quotation marks. If the quotation contains multiple paragraphs, indent the start of each one 0.5".

62

- To indicate errors in the original source, use sic, italicized and bracketed: . . . biolgical [sic] - To indicate changes in the original source: a. Use an ellipsis to indicate omission. Add a period if the omission comes between sentences. b. Use brackets to insert material. c. If someone other than the original author has italicized words for emphasis, add the words [italics added] in brackets after the words. - Cite quotations in the following ways (depending on quote length and use of author name): Horner (1967) found that Children raised in stable two-parent families . . . (p. 438). He found that Children raised . . . (Horner, 1967, p. 438). Horner (1967) found the following: Children raised . . . [assuming quotation is 40 or more words long]. (p. 438) You may need to obtain copyright permission for long quotations. MODULE 2, UNIT 1, SECTION III, EXERCISE A You are going to listen to a set of instructions for writing a good summary and then fill in the blanks with the missing information. You will listen to the recording twice. Writing an effective summary requires that you: Read with the Writer's Purpose in Mind Read the article carefully, making no notes or marks and looking only for what the writer is saying. After you've finished reading, write down in one sentence the point that is made about the subject. Then look for the writer's thesis and underline it. Underline with Summarizing in Mind Once you clearly understand the writer's major point (or purpose) for writing, read the article again. Underline the major points supporting the thesis; these should be words or phrases here and there rather than complete sentences. In addition, underline key transitional elements which show how parts are connected. Omit specific details, examples, description, and unnecessary explanations. Write, Revise, and Edit to Ensure the Accuracy and Correctness of Your Summary Writing Your Summary Now begin writing your summary. Start with a sentence naming the writer and article title and stating the essay's main idea. Then write your summary, omitting nothing important and striving for overall coherence through appropriate transitions. Be concise, using coordination and subordination to compress ideas. Conclude with a final statement reflecting the significance of the article -- not from your own point of view but from the writer's. Throughout the summary, do not insert your own opinions or thoughts; instead summarize what the writer has to say about the subject. Revising Your Summary After you've completed a draft, read your summary and check for accuracy. Keep in mind that a summary should generally be no more than one-fourth the length of the original. If your summary is too long, cut out words rather than ideas. Then look for non-essential information and delete it. Write another draft -- still a draft for revision -- and ask someone to read it critically. Editing Your Summary Correct grammar, spelling, and punctuation errors, looking particularly for those common in your writing. Write a clean draft and proofread for copying errors. UNIT 2, SECTION III, EXERCISE B You are going to listen twice to a short audio file. Pay attention to the intonation, pause or stop, so that you can fill in with the appropriate missing punctuation marks in the fragment below. Use a coloured pen. Keeping Your Teen Out of Trouble by Rose Garrett

63

Teens and trouble: think they go together like bread and butter? Well, you may be wrong. While teenagers do tend towards risk-seeking behaviour, and seem to enjoy pushing boundaries and parents' buttons troublesome behaviour can be anything but typical. According to Neil Bernstein, a clinical psychologist and author of How to Keep Your Teen out of Trouble and What to Do If You Can't, moodiness, self-absorption, and obsession with peer approval are all run of the teenage mill. However, if you notice your teenager getting out of control, experimenting with drugs, or abusing alcohol, it may be time for a wake-up call for both of you. Don't expect lightening to strike some sense into your teen. Although parents may feel that they are being pushed away during the teen years, it's your responsibility to firmly push back. UNIT 3, SECTION I, EXERCISE D Listen to the following fragment and note down all the words that contain prefixes. Than check their meaning in the dictionary. You will listen to the recording twice. The dyslexic child is often a mislabeled child." Children with unrecognized dyslexia are often seen as inattentive, careless, or slow, but, the Eides say, often nothing could be farther from the truth. "Dyslexics are overrepresented in creative and inventive fields like art and architecture or computers and engineering," according to Dr. Fernette Eide. "As young people, their gifts and talents may be overlooked because society only sees their weakest link."

64

Annex 2:
Europass Curriculum Vitae
Personal information Surname(s) / First name(s) Address(es) Telephone(s) Fax(es) E-mail Nationality Date of birth Gender Desired employment / Occupational field Work experience Dates Occupation or position held Main activities and responsibilities Name and address of employer Type of business or sector Education and training Dates Title of qualification awarded Principal subjects/occupational skills covered Name and type of organisation providing education and training Level in national or international classification Personal skills and competences Mother tongue(s) Other language(s) Self-assessment Understanding Reading Speaking Spoken interaction Spoken production Writing European level * (*Common European Listening Framework of Reference for Languages) Language Language Social skills and competences Organisational skills and competences Technical skills and competences Computer skills and competences Artistic skills and competences Other skills and competences Driving licence Additional information Annexes Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired. Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired. Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired. Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired. Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired. Describe these competences and indicate where they were acquired. State here whether you hold a driving licence and if so for which categories of vehicle. Include here any other information that may be relevant, for example contact persons, references, etc. List any items attached. Specify mother tongue (if relevant add other mother tongue(s)) Add separate entries for each relevant course you have completed, starting from the most recent. Add separate entries for each relevant post occupied, starting from the most recent. Surname(s) First name(s) House number, street name, postcode, city, country Mobile: Insert photograph.

65