You are on page 1of 101



  Pronouns

‫ﻤﻠﻪٍ ﺴﺎﺒﻘﺔٍ ﻭﻻ ﺤﺎﺠـﺔ‬‫ ﻓﻲ ﺠ‬‫ ﻭﺘﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﺘﺠﻨﱡﺏ ﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺴﺒﻕ ﺫﻜﺭﻩ‬،‫ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤل ﻤﺤل ﺍﻷﺴـﻤﺎﺀ‬ •
.‫ ﻟﻼﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻭﺠﻤﺎل ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ‬،‫ﻟﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭﻩ‬

 •

:‫ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻨﻭﻋﺎﻥ‬:Personal Pronouns1


I, You, He, She, It, They, We -:‫ ﻭﻫﻲ‬: Subject Pronouns
me, you, him , her , it , them , us -:‫ ﻭﻫﻲ‬: Object Pronouns

.ٍ‫ ﺘﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺒﺩﻻﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻜﺭﺍﺭ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺴﺒﻕ ﺫﻜﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻠﻪٍ ﺴﺎﺒﻘﻪ‬  ü

Subject   Object 


 
Singular  Plural  Singular  Plural 
  I ‫ﺃﻨﺎ‬ We ‫ﻨﺤﻥ‬ me ‫ـﻨﻲ‬ us ‫ﻨﺎ‬
  He ‫ﻫﻭ‬ him ‫ـﻪ‬
  She ‫ﻫﻲ‬ They ‫ﻫﻥ‬/‫ﻫﻡ‬ her ‫ـﻬﺎ‬ them ‫ ـﻬﻥ‬/‫ـﻬﻡ‬

  It ‫ ﻫﻲ‬/‫ﻫﻭ‬ it ‫ ـﻬﺎ‬/ ‫ـﻪ‬

  You ‫ﺃﻨﺕ‬ You ‫ﺃﻨﺘﻡ‬ you ‫ـﻙ‬ you ‫ـﻜﻡ‬

Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

1. I am a doctor. .‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻁﺒﻴﺏ‬


2. Samy visited me yesterday. .ِ‫ﺯﺍﺭﻨﻲ ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ‬
3. He is my friend. .‫ﻫﻭ ﺼﺩﻴﻘﻲ‬
4. I welcomed him. .‫ﺒﺕﹸ ﺒﻪ‬‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺭﺤ‬
5. We visited our friend. .‫ﺭﻨﺎ ﺼﺩﻴﻘﻨﺎ‬‫ﻨﺤﻥ ﺯ‬
6. They welcomed us. .‫ﺒﻭﺍ ﺒﻨﺎ‬‫ﻫﻡ ﺭﺤ‬
7. I invited them. .‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺩﻋﻭﺘﻬﻡ‬
8. She met her uncle yesterday. .ِ‫ﻬﺎ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ‬‫ﻠﹶﺕﹾ ﻋﻤ‬‫ﻗﺎﺒ‬
9. We shall visit you tomorrow. .‫ )ﺴﻨﺯﻭﺭﻜﹸﻡ( ﻏﺩﺍﹰ‬‫ﻙ‬‫ﺴﻨﺯﻭﺭ‬
10. You should help the old man. .‫ل ﺍﻟﻌﺠﻭﺯ‬‫ﺠ‬‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻴﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺘﹸﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺭ‬

1

-:‫ ﻭﻫﻲ‬Possessive Pronouns 2

Singular   Plural  



      
  my mine our ours
  his his
theirs
  her hers their
  its its
  your yours your yours

    |
.(‫ ﻭﻜﹸﻠﹼﻬﺎ ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ )ﻴﺨﹸﺹ‬،‫( ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎﹰ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﺴﻡ‬Possessive Adjectives) ‫ ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴﺔ‬.1
.(‫ ﻭﻜﹸﻠﹼﻬﺎ ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ )ﻴﺨﹸﺹ‬،‫ﺔ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎﹰ ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺃﺨﺭ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻻ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﺴﻡ‬‫ ﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺘﺨﺼﻴﺹ ﺍﻟﻤﻠﻜﻴ‬.2

Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

1. It is my pen. .‫ ﻗﻠﻤﻲ‬‫ﺇﻨﹼﻪ‬
2. It is mine. .‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ ﻴﺨﹸﺼ‬‫ﺇﻨﹼﻪ‬
3. It is not yours. .(‫ﻙ‬‫ ﻻ ﻴﺨﹸﺼ‬‫ ﻗﻠﻤﻙ )ﺇﻨﹼﻪ‬‫ ﻟﻴﺱ‬‫ﺇﻨﹼﻪ‬
4. I found his bag. .‫ﻭﺠﺩﺕﹸ ﺤﻘﻴﺒﺘﹶﻪ‬
5. This bag is his. .‫ﻪ‬‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﺒﺔ ﺘﺨﹸﺼ‬
6. This is our garden. .‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺤﺩﻴﻘﺘﹸﻨﺎ‬
7. This garden is ours. .‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﻘﺔﹸ ﺘﺨﹸﺼ‬
8. They entered their garden. .‫ﺩﺨﻠﻭﺍ ﺤﺩﻴﻘﺘﹶﻬﻡ‬
9. That garden is theirs. .‫ﻬﻡ‬‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﻘﺔﹸ ﺘﺨﹸﺼ‬
10. Did you bring your car? ‫ﻫل ﺃﺤﻀﺭﺕ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺘﻙ؟‬
11. This car is yours. .‫ﻙ‬‫ﻴﺎﺭﺓ ﺘﺨﹸﺼ‬‫ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺴ‬
 

  Reflexive or EmphasingPronouns3
‫ﻨﻌﻜﺱ ﻤﻔﻌـﻭل ﻷﻥ‬‫ﻤﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﻀ‬‫ ﻴ‬:‫ )ﺃﻱ‬.‫ﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺄﻜﻴﺩ‬‫ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺭ‬،‫ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻋﻠﻲ ﻨﻔﺱِ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ‬‫ﺘﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻘﻊ ﺃﺜﺭ‬ •
.(‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﻫﻭ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺨﺹ‬
.‫( ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻊ‬selves) (‫ﻔﺭﺩ ﻭﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﺃﻨﻔﹸﺱ‬‫ ﻟﻠﻤ‬self (‫ﻨﻌﻜﺴﺔ ﺒﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﻨﻔﺱ‬‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻀ‬ •
:‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﻤﻘﺭﻭﻨﺔﹰ ﺒﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻟﻼﺭﺘﺒﺎﻁ ﺒﻴﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻭﻉ ﻭﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬‫ﻭﻨﹸﺠﻤل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻀ‬ •

2


Singular Plural

       

I ‫ﺃﻨﺎ‬ myself ‫ ﺒﻨﻔﺴﻲ‬/ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻲ‬ We ‫ﻨﺤﻥ‬ ourselves ‫ ﺒﺄﻨﻔﺴِﻨﺎ‬/ ‫ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻨﺎ‬

He ‫ﻫﻭ‬ himself ‫ ﺒﻨﻔﺴِﻪ‬/ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬


‫ﻫﻲ‬ ‫ ﺒﻨﻔﺴِﻬﺎ‬/ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻬﺎ‬ ‫ ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬﻥ‬/ ‫ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻬﻡ‬
She herself They ‫ﻥ‬‫ ﻫ‬/ ‫ﻡ‬‫ﻫ‬ themselves
(‫ ﺒﺄﻨﻔﺴِﻬِﻥ‬/ ‫)ﺒﺄﻨﻔﺴِﻬِﻡ‬
‫ ﻫﻲ‬/ ‫ﻫﻭ‬ ‫ ﻨﻔــﺴﻬﺎ‬/ ‫ﻨﻔــﺴﻪ‬
It itself
‫ﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻗل‬ (‫ ﺒﻨﻔﺴِﻬﺎ‬/ ِ‫)ﺒﻨﻔﺴِﻪ‬

‫ ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻜﻥ‬/ ‫ﺃﻨﻔﺴﻜﻡ‬
You ‫ﺃﻨﺕ‬ yourself ‫ ﺒﻨﻔﺴِﻙ‬/ ‫ﻨﻔﺴﻙ‬ You ‫ ﺃﻨﺘﹸﻥ‬/ ‫ﺃﻨﺘﹸﻡ‬ yourselves
(‫ ﺒﺄﻨﻔﺴﻜﻥ‬/ ‫)ﺒﺄﻨﻔﺴﻜﻡ‬

Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

1. I blamed myself. .‫ ﻟﹸﻤﺕﹸ ﻨﻔﺴﻲ‬/ ‫ﺨﺕﹸ ﻨﻔﺴﻲ‬‫ﻭﺒ‬


2. He blamed himself. .‫ُﻪ‬ ‫ ﻨﻔﺴ‬‫ ﻻﻡ‬/ ‫ﺦﹶ ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬‫ﻭﺒ‬
3. You blamed yourself. .‫ﻙ‬‫ ﻟﹸﻤﺕ ﻨﻔﺴ‬/ ‫ﺨﺕ‬‫ﺃﻨﺕ ﻭﺒ‬
4. You blamed yourselves. .‫ﻜﹸﻡ‬‫ ﺍﻨﺘﻡ ﻟﹸﻤﺘﹸﻡ ﺃﻨﻔﹸﺴ‬/ ‫ﻜﹸﻡ‬‫ﺨﹾﺘﹸﻡ ﺃﻨﻔﹸﺴ‬‫ﻭﺒ‬
5. They blamed themselves .‫ﻡ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ ﻻﻤﻭﺍ ﺃﻨﻔﺴ‬/ ‫ﻡ‬‫ﻬ‬‫ﺨﻭﺍ ﺃﻨﻔﺴ‬‫ﻭﺒ‬
6. Mr. Ahmed himself visited me. .(‫ﻴﺩ ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺒﻨﻔﺴِﻪِ )ﻟﻠﺘﻭﻜﻴﺩ‬‫ﺯﺍﺭﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺴ‬
7. The manager himself visited him. .‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ﺩﻴﺭ ﺒﻨﻔﺴِﻪِ ﻫ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﺯﺍﺭﻩ‬

   : DemonstrativeAdjectives4
.‫ﺎ ﻗﺭﻴﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺒﻌﻴﺩ‬‫ﺘﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﻺﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻟﺸﻲﺀٍ ﺇﻤ‬ •
.‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﻭﺭﺍﺌﻬﺎ ﺍﺴﻡ‬ •

 ‫ﻟﺸﹼﻲﺀ‬  ‫ﻟﺸﹼﻲﺀ‬


      
this ‫ ﻫﺫﻩ‬/ ‫ﻫﺫﺍ‬ these ‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬ that ‫ ﺘﻠﻙ‬/ ‫ ﺫﻟﻙ‬those ‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻙ‬

  |
( this, that, these, those ) ‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺃﻱ‬‫ ﻫﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴ‬DemonstrativePronouns  ü
.(noun) ‫ ﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﺴﻡ‬‫ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺭﻕ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺃﻥ‬
1. This pen is mine. .‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻘﻠﻡ ﻴﺨﺼ‬
2. This is my pen. .(‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﻗﻠﻤﻲ ) ﺒﻴﺩﻱ‬
3. Those are book. .‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻙ ﻜﹸﺘﺏ‬
. ‫ﺎ ﻀﻤﻴﺭ ﺍﻹﺸﺎﺭﺓ ﻴﺤل ﻤﺤل ﺍﻻﺴﻡ‬‫ ﺃﻤ‬ü

3


Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

1. This is my book in my hand. .‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻴﺩﻱ‬


2. That book on the shelf is not mine. .‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﻑ ﻻ ﻴﺨﺼ‬‫ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺭ‬
3. These pupils in this class are very clever. .‫ﻫﺅﻻﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻼﻤﻴﺫ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻔﺼلِ ﻤﻬﺭﺓﹰ ﺠﺩﺍﹰ‬
4. Those pupils in that class are not clever. .‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌﻙ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻼﻤﻴﺫ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻔﺼلِ ﻟﻴﺴﻭﺍ ﻤﻬﺭﺓﹰ‬

Exercise No. 1 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

*) Choose the right answer between brackets:- :‫ﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺼ‬

1. The window is green. (He – She – It) is not yellow.


2. Usama is standing up. (He – She – It) is not sitting down.
The pencils are in the box. (He – They – We) are not on the table. The plane is in the air.
3.
(She – It – He – They) is flying to Cairo.
4. My name is Ahmed. (I – Me – My) am fifteen years old.
5. (We – Our – Us) are students.
6. (Yours – You – Your) are teachers.
7. (Your – Yours – You) books are new.
8. He is doing his work; I am doing (my – mine – me).
9. He is doing his work; I am doing (my – mine – me) work.
10. The girl is drinking milk. She is drinking (she – it – they – he) from the glass.
11. The children are eating apples. They are eating (them – her – him) in the room.
12. You should do your homework by (yourself – himself – herself).
13. We finished our homework. We finished it by (ourselves – themselves – yourself).
14. I always depend on (himself – myself – herself).
15. The boys helped the old man. They helped him (ourselves – themselves – herself).
16. The doctor told Huda and Nabil to take care of (themselves – herself – yourself).
17. (Those – This – That) girls are playing basketball.
18. (This – These – That) pupils are polite.
19. (This – These – Those) bag is mine.

Patience is a key to relief.



4
‫‪‬‬

‫‪The Verb‬‬

‫ﻤِﻥ ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﺭﻭﺭﻱ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻓﻌل )‪.(Verb‬‬ ‫•‬


‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻨﻭﻋﺎﻥ‪:‬‬ ‫•‬

‫‪ (Full verb1‬ﻤﺜل‪ :‬ﻴﺴﺎﻓﺭ ‪ travel‬ـ ﻴﺯﻭﺭ ‪ visit‬ـ ﻴ‪‬ﻌﻁﻲ ‪ ،give‬ﻭﻟﻸﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺩ‪‬ﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺤـﺩﺙٍ‬
‫ﺃﺯﻤﻨﺔ‪ ،‬ﺴﻨﺩﺭﺴﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺒﻌﺩ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل‪:‬‬

‫‪1. He always travels to France.‬‬ ‫) ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ (‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎﹰ ﻴ‪‬ﺴﺎﻓﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﺭﻨﺴﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪2. He is travelling to France now.‬‬ ‫) ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ(‬ ‫ﻴ‪‬ﺴﺎﻓﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﺭﻨﺴﺎ ﺍﻵﻥ‪.‬‬

‫‪ Helping ( Auxiliary )Vereb2‬‬


‫ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺘﺩل ﻋﺎﺩﺓﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻌﺎﻥٍ ﻭﻻ ﺘﺩلّ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﺤﺩﺍﺙٍ‪.‬‬ ‫•‬
‫ﻭﺘﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔِ ﺨﻠﻭ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌلِ ﺍﻟﺩ‪‬ﺍل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﺙٍ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل‪:‬‬ ‫•‬
‫ﻴﻜﺘﺏ ‪ - write‬ﻴﺸﺘﺭﻱ ‪ ........ buy‬ﺍﻟﺦ‪ ،‬ﻭﺫﻟﻙ ﻷﻥ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻻﺒ‪‬ﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻌل )‪.(verb‬‬

‫‪‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺼِﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻔﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺼِﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل )‪.(Passive‬‬

‫ﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺇﺠﺎﺩﺓ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺒﺩﻗﺔٍ ﺘﺎﻤ‪‬ﺔ‪.‬‬

‫ﺘﻨﻘﺴﻡ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔِ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺎﺕٍ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﻜل ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔٍ ﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺏ ﺍﻷﻋﻡ‪ ،‬ﻤﺎ ﻋﺩﺍ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺍﻷﻓﻌـﺎل‬ ‫•‬
‫ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﻗﺼﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌلٍ ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩٍ ﺒﻭﻀﻊِ )‪ (not‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌلِ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻤ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓﹰ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل‪:‬‬ ‫•‬

‫‪1. They are students.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻨﹼﻬﻡ ﺘﻼﻤﻴﺫ‪.‬‬


‫‪2. They are not students.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻨﹼﻬﻡ ﻟﻴﺴﻭﺍ ﺘﻼﻤﻴﺫ‪.‬‬

‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺴﺅﺍل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻓﻌلٍ ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩٍ‪ ،‬ﺒﻭﻀﻊِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭ ﻭﻀﻊ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﺴـﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ‬ ‫•‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ )؟(‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل‪:‬‬

‫‪1. He is a doctor.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﻁﺒﻴﺏ‪.‬‬


‫?‪2. Is he a doctor‬‬ ‫ﻫل ﻫﻭ ﻁﺒﻴﺏ؟‬

‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﻴﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺏِ ﺍﻟﺯ‪‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴ‪‬ﺼﺎﻍ ﻓﻴﻪ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻓﺎﻋﻠﻪ‪.‬‬ ‫•‬
‫ﺘﹸﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﺃﻓﻌﺎﻻﹰ ﻗﻭﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻷﻨﻬﺎ ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺅﺍل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‪ ،‬ﻭﺃﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻏﻴﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻴ‪‬ﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﻓﻌل ﻀﻌﻴﻑ‪.‬‬ ‫•‬

‫‪5‬‬


Forms of Verb 

 ç

 The Infinitive 1
‫ﻰ ﻓﻲ ﻫـﺫﻩ‬‫ﺴﻤ‬‫ ﻭﻴ‬to ‫ﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺒﺩﻭﻥ‬‫ ﻭﻗﺩ ﻴ‬،‫ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺴﺒﻘﻪ‬to ‫( ﺒﺎﻹﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬base) ‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﻔﻌل‬‫ﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻷﺴﺎﺴﻴ‬‫ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭ‬
:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،(base infinitive) ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭِ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﺭﻱ‬

(to) play ‫ﻴﻠﻌﺏ‬ (to) sing ‫ﻐﻨﹼﻲ‬‫ﻴ‬ (to) be ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬

The Present 2
‫ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﺭﺩ‬are ‫ و‬،I ‫ ﻤﻊ‬am :‫ ﻓﻠﻪ ﺸﻜﻼﻥ‬to be ‫ ﻤﺎ ﻋﺩﺍ ﻓﻌل‬،to ‫ﻭﻫﻭ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ‬
:‫ﺨﺎﻁﺏ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬

play ‫ﻴﻠﻌﺏ‬ sing ‫ﻐﻨﹼﻲ‬‫ﻴ‬ am (are) ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬

The Present with 3rd person singular 3


.‫( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬s) ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺒﺈﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺤﺭﻑ‬‫ﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ ﻴﺘﻜﻭ‬‫( ﻷﻨﹼﻪ‬- s) ‫ﺃﻭ ﺸﻜل‬

plays ‫ﻴﻠﻌﺏ‬ sings ‫ﻐﻨﹼﻲ‬‫ﻴ‬ is ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬

The Past 4
‫ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌـﺎل‬،(Irregular Verbs) ‫ )ﻤﺎ ﻋﺩﺍ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺎﺫﹼﺓ‬.‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ‬‫( ﻟﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻤ‬-ed) ‫ﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﺓﹰ ﺒﺈﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺤﺭﻓﻲ‬‫ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭ‬
.(Helping Verbs) ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬

played ‫ﻟﻌﺏ‬ sang ‫ﻏﻨﹼﻲ‬ was (were) ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬

The Past Participle 5


،(Irregular Verbs) ‫ )ﻤـﺎ ﻋـﺩﺍ ﺍﻷﻓﻌـﺎل ﺍﻟـﺸﹼﺎﺫﹼﺓ‬.‫ﺸﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺭﻜﻴﺏ‬‫ ﻴ‬‫( ﻷﻨﹼﻪ‬-ed) ‫ﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺸﻜل‬‫ﺴﻤ‬‫ﻭﻴ‬
.(Helping Verbs) ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬‫ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﻤ‬

played ‫ﻟﻌﺏ‬ sung ‫ﻏﻨﹼﻲ‬ been ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬

The Present Participle 6


.‫–( ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﺴﺎﺱِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ing) ‫ ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﺈﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬‫( ﻷﻨﹼﻪ‬-ing) ‫ﻰ ﺒﺸﻜل‬‫ﺴﻤ‬‫ﻭﻴ‬

playing ‫ﻴﻠﻌﺏ‬ singing ‫ﻐﻨﹼﻲ‬‫ﻴ‬ being ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬

6

1 2 3 4 5 6
Present with 3rd Past Present
Infinitive person singular Participle Participle
Present Past
(base)
(-s form) (-ed form) (-ing form)
(to) play play plays played played playing
(to) sing sing sings sang sung singing
(to) be am (are) is was (were) been being

   |
:‫( ﻟﻪ ﺜﻤﺎﻨﻴﺔ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﻫﻲ‬to be) ‫ﺘﺔ ﻤﺎﻋﺩﺍ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﻗﺼﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺹ‬‫ ﻜل ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﻟﻬﺎ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻟﺴ‬.1

to be am is are was were been being


‫ ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﺒﺈﻀـﺎﻓﺔ‬،(s) ‫ﻔﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﺌﺏ ﺒﺈﻀﺎﻓﺔ ﺤﺭﻑ‬‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ ﻭﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‬،‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺴﺎﺱ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬‫ ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‬.2
،(present) ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻤ‬:‫ﺔ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻫﻲ‬‫ ﻭﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺤﻔﻅ ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﻨﺠﺩ ﺃﻨﻨﺎ ﻨﺤﻔﻅ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴ‬.(ing) ‫ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻭﻑ‬
(base) ‫ﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺭﺍﺝ ﺍﻷﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻷُﺨﺭﻯ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺴﺎﺱِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬‫ ﻷﻨﹼﻪ ﻴ‬،(past participle) ‫ ﻭﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل‬،(past) ‫ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬
:(to) ‫( ﺒﺩﻭﻥ‬infinitive) ‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬

Present ‫ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬ Past Past participle


smile ‫ﻴﺒﺘﺴﻡ‬ smiled smiled
bring ‫ﺤﻀِﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬ brought brought
rise ‫ﻴﺭﻓﻊ‬ rose risen

.{‫( ﺍﺴﻡ ﻤﺸﻬﻭﺭ ﻓﻲ ﻤﺩﺍﺭﺴﻨﺎ ﻫﻭ }ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻟﺙ‬P.P) (Past Participle) ‫ﻭﻟﻬﺫﺍ ﻨﺠﺩ ﻻﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل‬
‫( ﻷﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﻤﺤﺩﺩﺓ ﺒﺸﻜلِ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﻓـﺭﺍﺩ ﻭﺍﻟﺠﻤـﻊ‬Finite Verbs) ‫ﻰ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ‬‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺘﹸﺴﻤ‬‫ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻟﻤ‬.3
.‫ﺭ ﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬‫ ﻭﻜﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺘﻐﻴ‬،‫ﻭﺍﻟﺸﹼﺨﺹ‬
‫ﻰ‬‫( ﻓﺘﹸـﺴﻤ‬present participle) ‫( ﻭﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬past participle) ‫( ﻭﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل‬infinitive) ‫ﺎ ﺃﺸﻜﺎل ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬‫ ﺃﻤ‬.4
.‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺒﺯﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﺭ ﺒﻔﺎﻋلِ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ ﺸﻜﻠﻬﺎ ﺜﺎﺒﺕ ﻻ ﻴﺘﻐﻴ‬‫ ﻷﻥ‬،(Non-finites or Infinities) ‫ﺒﺎﻷﻓﻌﺎلِ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ‬
‫ﺭﻜﹼﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﺃﻓﻌﺎل ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩﺓ ﻷﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﺓﹰ ﻤﻥ ﻓﻌلٍ ﻤﺤـﺩﻭﺩٍ ﺨـﺎﺹ )ﻓﻌـل‬‫ ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﻤ‬.5
:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ( ﺃﻭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻭﻓﻌل ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺤﺩﻭﺩ‬‫ﻤ‬

1. Dina is playing. .‫ﺩﻴﻨﺎ ﺘﻠﻌﺏ‬ (finite + non-finite)


2. He has gone home. .‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺩ ﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺕ‬ (finite + non-finite)

 Finite Verb :‫ﻤﻜﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺒﺄﻥ‬‫ﻭﺒﺫﻟﻙ ﻴ‬

Do good and cast it into the sea.


  

7


 Helping Verbs 

Verb To Be Verb To Do Verb To Have Defective Verbs


      


 1- Verb To Be

be , am , is , are , was , were , been , being

Pronoun  Present  Past 


I am ‫ﺃﻜﻭﻥ‬ was ‫ﻔﺭﺩ‬‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻤ‬
He , She , It is ‫ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ‬/ ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ‬ was ‫ﻔﺭﺩ‬‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﻤ‬
We , They , You are ‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻊ‬ were ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻊ‬

     


  am, is  was
be been
are were

Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

1. I am a teacher. .‫ﺱ‬‫ﺩﺭ‬‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻤ‬
2. He is a doctor. .‫ﻫﻭ ﻁﺒﻴﺏ‬
3. Huda is not a nurse. .‫ﻤﺭﻀﺔ‬‫ﺩﻯ ﻟﻴﺴﺕ ﻤ‬‫ﻫ‬
4. I was doing my home work. .‫ﻜﻨﺕﹸ ﺃﻋﻤل ﻭﺍﺠﺒﻲ‬
5. I and Ali are neighbors. .‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻭﻋﻠﻲ ﺠﻴﺭﺍﻥ‬
6. Are you a doctor? ‫ﻫل ﺃﻨﺕﹶ ﻁﺒﻴﺏ؟‬
7. Was she angry yesterday? ‫ﻫل ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻏﺎﻀﺒﺔﹰ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱِ؟‬
8. Today, he is better. .‫ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﻫﻭ ﺃﺤﺴﻥ‬
9. You are not a teacher. .‫ﺎﹰ‬‫ﺴ‬‫ﺩﺭ‬‫ﺃﻨﺕﹶ ﻟﺴﺕﹶ ﻤ‬
10. They were given a good lesson yesterday. .ِ‫ﺃُﻋﻁﻭﺍ ﺩﺭﺴﺎﹰ ﺠﻴﺩﺍﹰ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ‬
 

8

    |
‫ﻤﻠـﺔ ﻓـﻲ‬‫ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔِ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺠ‬،‫ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ‬،‫ ﻭﺍﻟﻨﻔﻲ‬،‫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻹﺜﺒﺎﺕ‬Verb To Be ‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﻓﻌﺎل‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﺴ‬‫ ﻻﺤﻅ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠ‬.1
.ِ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬‫ ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠ‬،‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬‫ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‬،‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍﻟﺯ‬
.(n't) not ‫ ﻨﻀﻊ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ‬Verb To Be ‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﻨﻔﻲ‬.2
am , is , are , was , were (n't) not ‫ﻨﻀﻊ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ‬

Exercise No. 2 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

I) Put (am), ( is) or (are) in the spaces :- :‫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‬are ‫ ﺃﻭ‬is ‫ ﺃﻭ‬am ‫ﻀﻊ‬
1. The window........ green.
2. I ......... in the classroom.
3. We ........ students.
4. There ........ a pen and two pencils on the table.
5. There ........ two pencils and a pen on the table.

II) Put (was) or (were) in the spaces:- :‫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‬were ‫ ﺃﻭ‬was ‫ﻀﻊ‬

1. My brother ....... ill yesterday.


2. They ........ students five years ago.
3. Huda and Nabila ........ in the hospital last month.
4. There ........ no planes two hundreds years ago.
5. There ........ a map here last week .

Cowards die often.



9


 2- Verb To Do

do, does did

Pronoun ‫ﻤﻴﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻀ‬ Present ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬ Past ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬


I , We , They , You do did
He , She , It does ‫ﻤﻊ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬

do + ‫ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ = ‫ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻨﻔﺴﻪ‬ do + play = play


does + ‫ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ = s + ‫ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ does + play = plays
did + ‫ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ = ‫ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﻌل‬ did + play = played

    •
.‫ ﺘﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺃﻓﻌﺎل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻴﻐﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻔﻲ ﻭﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ‬.1
.‫( ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ‬n't) not ‫ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻨﻔﻲ ﺃﻓﻌﺎل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ‬.2

do not = don't does not = doesn't did not = didn't

Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

1. I do not like smoking. .‫ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺩﺨﻴﻥ‬‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺃُﺤِﺏ‬


2. He does not remember her name. .‫ﻫﻭ ﻻ ﻴﺘﺫﻜﹼﺭ ﺍﺴﻤﻬﺎ‬
3. We do not go to school on Friday. .‫ﻨﺤﻥ ﻻ ﻨﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔِ ﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ‬
4. Do you speak English? ‫ﺔ ؟‬‫ﻫل ﺘﺘﻜﻠﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‬
5. Did she go to school yesterday? ‫ﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱِ؟‬‫ﻫل ﻫﻲ ﺫﻫﺒ‬
6. Does he live in Gaza? ‫ﻫل ﻴﺴﻜﹸﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺯﺓ؟‬
I do my home work everyday. .‫ﺃﻋﻤل ﻭﺍﺠﺒﻲ ﻜل ﻴﻭﻡ‬
7.
(‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻓﻌل ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﹼﻪ ﻓﻌل ﺃﺼﻠﻲ )ﻀﻌﻴﻑ‬

Exercise No. 3 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

*) Put (do), (does) or (did) in the spaces:- :‫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‬did ‫ ﺃﻭ‬does ‫ ﺃﻭ‬do ‫ﻀﻊ‬
1. .………….. he bring money yesterday?
2. She ………….. not speak Arabic.
3. I ………… not care.
4. I and Huda …………. not go to school today.
5. .…………. Samy like smoking?

10


 3- Verb To Have

have, has had

Pronoun ‫ﻤﻴﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻀ‬ Present ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬ Past ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬


I , We , They , You have had
He , She , It has ‫ﻤﻊ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬

.‫ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ‬not ‫ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻨﻔﻲ ﻤﺠﻤﻭﻋﺔ ﺃﻓﻌﺎل ﻴﻤﺘﻠﻙ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ‬ ¯

has not = hasn't have not = haven't had not = hadn't

Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

1. I have a new bag. .‫ ﺤﻘﻴﺒﺔﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓﹰ‬‫ﺃﻤﺘﻠِﻙ‬


2. Samy has a larger bag. .‫ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﻴﻤﺘﻠِﻙ ﺤﻘﻴﺒﺔﹰ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓﹰ‬
3. The cat has a tail. .‫ﺍﻟﻘﻁﹼﺔ ﺘﻤﺘﻠِﻙ ﺫﻴل‬
4. I had a key but I lost it. .‫ ﻤﻔﺘﺎﺡ ﻟﻜﻨﻨﻲ ﻓﻘﺩﺘﹸﻪ‬‫ﻟﺩﻱ‬
5. We had a useful lesson yesterday. .ِ‫ﻔﻴﺩﺍﹰ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ‬‫ﺃﺨﺫﻨﺎ ﺩﺭﺴﺎﹰ ﻤ‬
6. Has Huda got any sisters? ‫ﺩﻯ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺨﻭﺍﺕ؟‬‫ﻫل ﻟﺩﻯ ﻫ‬
7. Huda has not got any sisters. .‫ﺩﻯ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﺎ ﺃﻱ ﺃﺨﻭﺍﺕ‬‫ﻫ‬
8. I have done my work. .‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻗﹸﻤﺕ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻲ‬

Exercise No. 4 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

*) Put (have ) or (has) in the spaces :- :‫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﻏﺎﺕ‬has ‫ ﺃﻭ‬have ‫ﻀﻊ‬

1. I ............... a new watch.


2. You ........... a red pen.
3. Usama ............... a green pencil.
4. We .............. dinner before we go to bed.
5. Ramzy ............... breakfast at home.
6. He ............. two sisters.

Many hands make light work.




11



 4- Defective Verbs





  ç

Present  Past  Present  Past 


shall ‫ ﺴﻭﻑ‬/ ‫ ﺴـ‬should ‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴـ‬will ‫ ﺴﻭﻑ‬/ ‫ﺴـ‬ would ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴـ‬
can ‫ ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬could ‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬must ‫ﻴﻠﺯﻡ‬/‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬
had to (ought to)
may ‫ ﺭﺒﻤﺎ‬/ ‫ ﻴﺠﻭﺯ‬might ‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺠﻭﺯ‬ought to ‫ ﻴﻠﺯﻡ‬/ ‫ﻴﺠﺏ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺠﺏ‬

   |


(‫ ﺒﻌﻀﻬﺎ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻟﻪ ﺤﺎﻀﺭ ﻭﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻭﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻟﻪ ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺜﺎﻟﺙ )ﺍﺴﻡ ﻤﻔﻌـﻭل‬‫ﻴﺕ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﻗﺼﺔ ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﻷﻥ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ ﺴ‬.1
.‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﺨﺭ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﻪ ﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬go – went – gone :‫ ﻤﺜل‬،ٍ‫ﺍﻟﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﺙ‬‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺄﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺩ‬
.(had to) ‫ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﻬﻤﺎ ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻭﻴﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻜﻤﺎﺽٍ ﻟﻬﻤﺎ‬must – ought to ‫ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل‬.2
.(‫ ﻗﺒﻠﻪ)ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻀﺎﺭﻉ‬to ‫ ﺃﻭ‬،‫( ﻓﻲ ﺃﺨﺭﻩ‬s) ‫ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﻭﺭﺍﺀ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﻗﺼﺔ ﺠﻤﻴﻌﻬﺎ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺤﺭﻑ‬.3
. We ‫ ﺃﻭ‬I ‫ﺘﻜﻠﹼﻡ‬‫ ﻤﻊ ﻀﻤﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤ‬shall ‫ ﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬.4
.(They, You, He, She, It) :‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﻭﻫﻲ‬‫ ﻤﻊ ﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﺍﻟﻀ‬will ‫ ﺘﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬.5

Examples ‫ﺃﻤـﺜﻠﺔ‬

1. I can carry this heavy bag . .‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺤﻤل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﻘﻴﻠﺔ‬
2. The train will move .‫ﺴﻴﺘﺤﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﻁﺎﺭ ﺤﺎﻻﹰ‬
3. I shall come again. .‫ﺴﺄﺤﻀﺭ ﻤﺭﺓ ﺃُﺨﺭﻯ‬
4. We should help our parents. .‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻨﹸﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻭﺍﻟِﺩﻴﻨﺎ‬
5. They may meet us in Gaza. .‫ﻘﺎﺒﻠﻭﻨﺎ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺯﺓ‬‫ﺒﻤﺎ ﻴ‬‫ﺭ‬
6. Students must get up early. .‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﻬﺽ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﻼﺏ ﻤﺒﻜﺭﻴﻥ‬
7. Can you carry this bag? ‫ﻫل ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺤﻤل ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﺒﺔ؟‬
8. She couldn't understand me yesterday. .ِ‫ﻫﻲ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻔﻬﻤﻨﻲ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ‬

He is rich that has few wants.



12


Exercise No. 5 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

*) Choose the correct answer between brackets: -:‫ﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺼ‬
1. She must (help - helps - helped) her mother.
2. Ali should (gets - get - getting) up early everyday.
3. Students must not (writes - wrote - write) on the walls.
4. My father may (buys - bought - buy) a watch to me.
5. A good student must (studies - studied -study) hard.
6. We had to (helped - help - helps) the old man yesterday.

    |
.‫ ﺃﻓﻌﺎل ﻤﺼﺩﺭﻴﺔ‬be, have, do ‫ ﺘﹸﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬.1
.it, she, he ‫ ﻤﻊ‬has, does, was, is ‫ ﺘﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻜل ﻤﻥ‬.2

Manners make the man.



13


Tenses of The Verb 

‫( ﻭﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﻬـﺫﺍ‬infinitive) ‫ﺍﻟﺦ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬.....go ‫ – ﻴﺫﻫﺏ‬visit ‫ ﻴﺯﻭﺭ‬:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،(Full Verb) ٍ‫ﺍل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﺙ‬‫ﻟﻠﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﺩ‬ •
.‫( ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻨﺼﻭﻏﻪ ﻓﻴﻪ‬Tense) ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﺯ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺼﻭﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺏ ﻓﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﺠ‬
-:‫ ﻭﻫﻲ‬،‫ﺍل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺩﺙ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﺯﻤﻨﺔ ﺃﺴﺎﺴﻴﺔ‬‫ﻟﻠﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﺩ‬ •

Present Past  Future 

Simple Continuous Perfect Simple Continuous Perfect Simple


            

 

.‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻫﻭ ﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻘﻁ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺘﻐﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺘﻌﻨﻲ ﺒﺄﻥ‬   •

1. The Present Simple Tense 

1) Formation :-  

(s) ‫ـﻀﺎﻑ‬‫ﻼﺤﻅﺔ ﺃﻨﹼﻪ ﻴ‬‫ ﻤﻊ ﻤ‬،(‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻫﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ )ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻟﻠﻔﻌل‬‫ ﺼﻭﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‬ü
:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺎ ﻴﻨﻭﺏ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺀ‬،(he , she , it) ‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ﻔﺭﺩﺍﹰ ﻏﺎﺌﺒﺎﹰ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻤ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﺠ‬
Ali - Samia - The teacher - The cat
[

1. Ali drinks tea. drink + s = drinks


2. Huda plays football. play + s = plays
3. He eats a cake. eat + s = eats
4. I play basketball play

:‫( ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻪ‬he, she, it) ‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﺴﻤﺎﹰ ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺍﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻀﻤﻴﺭﺍﹰ ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺍﹰ ﻏﺎﺌﺒﺎﹰ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺠ‬   ¯
(es) ‫ﻀﺎﻑ‬‫( ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻪ ﻴ‬sh, ch, o, x, ss) -:‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺒﺄﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻬﺎﻤﺴﺔ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‬.1
-: ‫ ﻤﺜل‬،(s) ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﺩﻻﹰ ﻤﻥ‬

wash + es = washes ‫ﻴﻐﺴل‬ watch + es = watches ‫ﺸﺎﻫﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬


wish + es = wishes ‫ﻴﺘﻤﻨﹼﻰ‬ teach + es = teaches ‫ﺱ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬
finish + es = finishes ‫ﻨﻬﻲ‬‫ﻴ‬ mix + es = mixes ‫ﻴﺨﻠﻁ‬

14

go + es = goes ‫ﻴﺫﻫﺏ‬ fix + es = fixes ‫ﺕ‬‫ﺜﹶﺒ‬‫ﻴ‬
do + es = does ‫ﻴﻔﻌل‬ pass + es = passes ‫ﺭ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻌ‬‫ ﻴ‬/ ‫ﺭ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﻴ‬
cross + es = crosses ‫ﺭ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻌ‬‫ﻴ‬ match + es = matches ‫ل‬‫ﻭﺼ‬‫ﻴ‬

‫ـﻀﺎﻑ‬‫ﺤﺫﻑ ﻭﻴ‬‫ﻴ‬ (y) ‫ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬‫( ﻭﻴﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺴﺎﻜﻥ ﻓﺈﻥ‬y) ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‬.2
-:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬ies)

try ‫ﻴﺤﺎﻭل‬ tries


cry ‫ﻴﺒﻜﻲ‬ cries
study ‫ﺱ‬‫ﻴﺩﺭ‬ studies
fly ‫ﻴﻁﻴﺭ‬ flies

( s ) ‫ـﻀﺎﻑ‬‫ ﻓﺈﻨﹼـﻪ ﻴ‬،(‫ ( ﻭﻴﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺤﺭﻑ ﻤﺘﺤﺭﻙ )ﺤﺭﻑ ﻋﻠﺔ‬y ) ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‬.3
-:‫ ( ﻤﺜل‬y ) ‫ﻟﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﺃﻱ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬

play + s = plays ‫ﻴﻠﻌﺏ‬ obey + s = obeys ‫ﻁﻴﻊ‬‫ﻴ‬


buy + s = buys ‫ﻴﺸﺘﺭﻱ‬ say + s = says ‫ﻴﻘﻭل‬
enjoy + s = enjoys ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬ stay + s = stays ‫ ﻴﺒﻘﻰ‬/ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﹸﺙ‬

( a, e, i , o, u )vowels •

2) Usage: 


:‫ل ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺘﺩ‬‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﺼﺎﻍ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﻴ‬ •
-:‫ ﻤﺜل‬(fact) .1

1. The earth moves around the sun. .‫ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﺸﻤﺱ‬‫ﺘﺘﺤﺭﻙ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬


ُ
2. They play football every week. .‫ﻫﻡ ﻴﻠﻌﺒﻭﻥ ﻜﹸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ ﻜﹸل ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻉ‬

-:‫ ﻤﺜل‬(habit) .2

1. Samy goes to school every morning. .‫ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﻴﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ ﻜل ﺼﺒﺎﺡ‬
2. Boys go to school at the age of six. .ِ‫ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔِ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺩﺴﺔِ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻌﻤﺭ‬‫ﻴﺫﻫﺏ ﺍﻷﻭﻻﺩ‬

 3) Key words


:‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﺢ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﺭﺠ‬‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻴ‬ •

always ‫ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎﹰ‬ never ‫ ﺃﺒﺩﺍﹰ‬/ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻁﻼﻕ‬


often ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎﹰ‬ generally ‫ﻋﻤﻭﻤﺎﹰ‬
usually ‫ﻋﺎﺩﺓﹰ‬ frequently ‫ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍﹰ‬/ ‫ﻤﺭﺍﺭﺍﹰ‬
sometimes ‫ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨﺎﹰ‬ rarely ‫ﻨﺎﺩﺭﺍﹰ‬
every…. (... ،‫ﻜل )ﻴﻭﻡ – ﺃﺴﺒﻭﻉ‬ seldom ‫ﻨﺎﺩﺭﺍﹰ ﻤﺎ‬

15
‫‪‬‬
‫| ‪  ‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺩ‪‬ﺍﻟﹼﺔ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻤﺎﻋﺩﺍ )‪ (every‬ﻓﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔِ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻟﻴﺱ ﺸﺭﻁﺎﹰ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺩﺍﻟﹼﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔِ ﺤﺘﻰ ﻨﺼﻭﻍ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ـﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒـﺴﻴﻁ ﺇﻻﹼ ﺇﺫﺍ‬
‫ﺃﻓﺎﺩ ﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ )‪ (fact‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﺎﺩﺓ )‪ ،(habit‬ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻪ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﻴ‪‬ﺼﺎﻍ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺜﺎل‬
‫ﺍﻷﺘﻲ‪-:‬‬
‫‪The earth moves around the sun.‬‬
‫ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪ ‬ﺘﺩﻭﺭ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﺸﹼﻤﺱ‪) .‬ﺃﻓﺎﺩ ﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔﹰ‪ ،‬ﻓﺘﻡ‪ ‬ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل )‪ (move‬ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻤﻊ ﺃﻨﹼﻪ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺩﺍﻟﹼﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺘﻭﻀﻊ )‪ (to‬ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨﺎﹰ ﻟﺘﺒﻴ‪‬ﻥ ﺃﻥ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻟﻡ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﻌ‪‬ﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺯ‪‬ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻨﺎﺴﺏ‪ ،‬ﻭﻟﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺤﺫﻓﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺼﺤﻴﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل‪.‬‬

‫‪ 4) The Present Simple Tense Negative and Interrogative:-‬‬


‫‪ ‬‬

‫)ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ‪ + don't +‬ﻓﺎﻋل(‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .1‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﺩﻭﻥ )‪ ، (s‬ﻟﻠﻨﹼﻔﻲ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬
‫)?‪...‬ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ‪ +‬ﻓﺎﻋل ‪.(Do +‬‬ ‫‪ .2‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﺩﻭﻥ )‪ ،(s‬ﻟﻼﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬
‫)ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ‪ + doesn't +‬ﻓﺎﻋل (‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .3‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﻪ )‪ (s‬ﺃﻭ )‪ (es‬ﻟﻠﻨﹼﻔﻲ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬
‫)?‪...‬ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ‪ +‬ﻓﺎﻋل ‪.(Does +‬‬ ‫‪ .4‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﻪ )‪ (s‬ﺃﻭ )‪ (es‬ﻟﻼﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬

‫‪ Examples‬‬ ‫‪Negative‬‬ ‫‪ Interrogative‬‬


‫‪I speak English.‬‬ ‫‪I don't speak English.‬‬ ‫?‪Do you speak English‬‬
‫‪1.‬‬
‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﺘﻜﻠﹼﻡ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺃﺘﻜﻠﹼ ُﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫل ﺃﻨﺕ ﺘﺘﻜﻠﹼﻡ‪ ‬ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‪‬ﺔ؟‬
‫‪Ali speaks English.‬‬ ‫‪Ali doesn't speak English.‬‬ ‫?‪Does Ali speak English‬‬
‫‪2.‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﻴﺘﻜﻠﹼﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﻴﺘﻜﻠﹼﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫل ﻋﻠﻲ ﻴﺘﻜﻠﹼﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‪‬ﺔ؟‬
‫‪Huda washes the car.‬‬ ‫‪Huda doesn't wash the car.‬‬ ‫?‪Does Huda wash the car‬‬
‫‪3.‬‬
‫ﻫ‪‬ﺩﻯ ﺘﻐﺴل ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫ‪‬ﺩﻯ ﻻ ﺘﻐﺴل ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻴﺎﺭﺓ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫل ﻫ‪‬ﺩﻯ ﺘﻐﺴل ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻴﺎﺭﺓ؟‬

‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ ‪Examples‬‬

‫‪1.‬‬ ‫‪Samy usually stays at home everyday.‬‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﻋﺎﺩﺓﹰ ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺕ ﻜل ﻴﻭﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪2.‬‬ ‫‪It often rains in winter.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎﹰ ﺘﹸﻤﻁِ ُﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺘﺎﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪3.‬‬ ‫‪Ahmed always watches TV at night.‬‬ ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎﹰ ﻴ‪‬ﺸﺎﻫﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﹼﻴل‪.‬‬
‫‪4.‬‬ ‫‪Always they watch TV at night.‬‬ ‫ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎﹰ ﻴ‪‬ﺸﺎﻫﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﹼﻴل‪.‬‬
‫‪5.‬‬ ‫‪Ameera never visits us.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻤﻴﺭﺓ ﻻ ﺘﺯﻭﺭﻨﺎ ﺃﺒﺩﺍﹰ‪.‬‬

‫‪16‬‬


Exercise No. 6 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

I) Choose the correct verbs in the brackets: -:‫ﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺼ‬
1. He sometimes (take – takes – to take) the bus to school.
2. We generally (spoke – speaks – speak) Arabic.
3. He (watch – watches – is watching) the news on TV every evening.
4. I always (meet – meets – meeting) him on the corner of this street.
5. The sun (give – giving – gives – is giving) us light.
6. He usually (drives – drive – is driving) very fast.

II) Correct the verbs between brackets: -:‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬‫ﺼﺤ‬
1. I usually drink tea after breakfast, but my sister (drink) milk.
2. He always (reach) school late.
3. He never (visit) us.
4. He rarely (answer) my letters.
5. Every Friday, he (go) to the river and (catch) fish.
6. Nagla sometimes, (enjoy) watching television.
7. He always (study) Arabic at school.
8. She usually (get) up early.
9. The moon sometimes (shine) at night.
10. He (to visit) his uncle every week.

 The exception proves the rule.

 













17



2.The Past Simple Tense 

1) Formation:-

.‫ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﻌل‬ •

1. I watched TV yesterday. .ِ‫ﺸﺎﻫﺩﺕُ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ‬


2. The wolf ran away. .‫ﺒﺘﻌﺩﺍﹰ‬‫ ﻤ‬‫ﺠﺭﻯ ﺍﻟﺫﹼﺌﺏ‬
3. Hanan met her friend at school. .ِ‫ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺕْ ﺤﻨﺎﻥ ﺼﺩﻴﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬

   |
 (irregular)(regular) 1
‫( ﺃﻭ‬ed) ‫ﺎ‬‫ﻀﺎﻑ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﺇﻤ‬‫ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴ‬(Regular Verbs)
-:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫(ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬d)
help - helped - helped ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬
smile - smiled - smiled ‫ﻴﺒﺘﺴﻡ‬
watch - watched - watched ‫ﺸﺎﻫﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬

    |
‫ﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺩﺭ )ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﺤﺭﻑٍ ﺴﺎﻜﻥٍ ﻗﺒﻠـﻪ ﺤـﺭﻑ‬‫( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻗﺩ ﻨﹸﻀﻌ‬ed) ‫ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬.1
:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،(‫ﻙ‬‫ﺘﺤﺭ‬‫ﻤ‬
travel + ed = travelled ‫ﺴﺎﻓﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬
stop + ed = stopped ‫ﻴﺘﻭﻗﹼﻑ‬

‫ـﻀﺎﻑ‬‫ﺤﺫﻑ ﻭﻴ‬‫( ﻴ‬y) ‫ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬‫ ( ﻭﻴﺴﺒﻘﻪ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺴﺎﻜﻥ ﻓﺈﻥ‬y ) ‫ﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ‬‫( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭِ ﺍﻟﻤ‬ed) ‫ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬.2
-:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،(ied)
study + ed = studied ‫ﻴﺩﺭﺱ‬ deny + ed = denied ‫ﻨﻜﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬
carry + ed = carried ‫ﻴﺤﻤل‬ cry + ed = cried ‫ﻴﺒﻜﻲ‬

‫( ﻟﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﺩﻭﻥ‬ed) ‫ﻀﺎﻑ ﻓﻘﻁ‬‫ ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻪ ﻴ‬،ٍ‫( ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻭﻤﺴﺒﻭﻗﺎﹰ ﺒﺤﺭﻑٍ ﻤﺘﺤﺭﻙ‬y) ‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬.3
-: ‫ ﻤﺜل‬،(ied) ‫( ﺇﻟﻰ‬y) ‫ل ﺍﻟـ‬‫ﺃﻥ ﻨﹸﺤﻭ‬

enjoy + ed = enjoyed ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬


play + ed = played ‫ﻴﻠﻌﺏ‬
:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،(ed) ‫( ﺒﺩﻻﹰ ﻤﻥ‬d) ‫( ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻭﻴﻀﺎﻑ ﻓﻘﻁ‬e) ‫( ﻓﺈﻥ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬e) ِ‫ﻨﺘﻬﻴﺎﹰ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻤ‬.4

invite + d = invited ‫ﻴﺩﻋﻭ‬ smile + d = smiled ‫ﻴﺒﺘﺴﻡ‬


prove + d = proved ‫ﺜﺒﺕ‬‫ ﻴ‬/‫ﺒﺭﻫﻥ‬‫ﻴ‬ exercise + d = exercised ‫ﻥ‬‫ﻴﺘﻤﺭ‬

18

‫ﺯ ﺒﻴﻥ‬‫ﺤﺘﻰ ﻨﹸﻤﻴ‬‫ ﻭﺫﻟﻙ‬،‫ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﻴﺠﺏ ﺤﻔﻅﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻅﻬﺭِ ﻗﻠﺏ‬:(Irregular Verbs)
.‫ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﺴﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺎﺫ‬


2) Usage:- 

-: ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬‫ﺼﺎﻍ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﻴ‬ •


.‫ﺭﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﺭﻴﺨﻲ‬‫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴ‬.1
.‫ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺭﻭﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻘِﺼﺹ‬.2
-:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬‫ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺩﺙٍ ﺘﻡ‬.3

I met him yesterday. .ِ‫ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ‬‫ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺘﹸﻪ‬


-: ‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ ﻟﻠﺘﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﻋﺎﺩﺓٍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬.4

When I was on holiday, I swam everyday. .‫ ﺴﺒﺤﺕﹸ ﻜلَ ﻴﻭﻡ‬،ٍ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻜﹸﻨﹾﺕﹸ ﻓﻲ ﺇﺠﺎﺯﺓ‬

 3) Key words

.‫ﺢ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬‫ﺭﺠ‬‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻟﻴﺔ ﻴ‬ •

yesterday ‫ﺃﻤﺱ‬ in olden times ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺯﻤﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬


once ‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﺭﺓ‬ ago ‫ﻤﻨﺫ‬
one day ‫ﻓﻲ ﻴﻭﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻴﺎﻡ‬ last... ‫ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬/ ‫ﺎﺒﻕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴ‬
just now ‫ﻗﺒل ﺍﻵﻥ‬ last night ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬
in the past ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬ last month ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬

 4) The Past Simple Tense Negative and Interrogative:-


 •
:‫ﻥ ﻤﻥ‬‫ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻴﺘﻜﻭ‬.1

  did not 

:‫ﻥ ﻤﻥ‬‫ ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺘﺘﻜﻭ‬.2

 Did?

Examples Negative Interrogative


They went to school. They didn't go to school. Did they go to school?
. ِ‫ﻫﻡ ﺫﻫﺒﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ .ِ‫ﻫﻡ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺫﻫﺒﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺫﻫﺒﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔِ؟‬
The wolf ran away. The wolf didn't run away. Did the wolf run away?
.‫ ﺍﻟﺫﺌﺏ‬‫ﻓﺭ‬ .‫ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻔِﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺫﺌﺏ‬ ‫؟‬‫ ﺍﻟﺫﺌﺏ‬‫ﻫل ﻓﺭ‬

19


Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

1. Ahmed travelled to Japan last week. .‫ﺴﺎﻓﺭ ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻴﺎﺒﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬
2. Samy wrote the letter. .‫ﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬‫ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﺭ‬
3. My father bought a new car last year. .‫ﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬‫ﺃﺒﻲ ﺍﺸﺘﺭﻯ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓﹰ ﺍﻟﺴ‬
4. Huda studied lesson ten a week ago. .‫ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬‫ ﺭﻗﻡ ﻋﺸﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﺴﺒﻭﻉ‬‫ﺭﺱ‬‫ﺩﻯ ﺩﺭﺴﺕ ﺍﻟﺩ‬‫ﻫ‬
5. We invited them for lunch three days ago. .‫ﺩﻋﻭﻨﺎﻫﻡ ﻟﻁﻌﺎﻡِ ﺍﻟﻐﺩﺍﺀ ﻤﻨﺫ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﻴﺎﻡٍ ﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬

Exercise No. 7 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

*) Correct the verbs in brackets: :‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬‫ﺼﺤ‬


1. Ahmed ……………. (buy) a new bicycle last week.
2. She ……………. (make) a cake yesterday.
3. Two months ago, we …………(have) a holiday.
4. Samy ……………. (to climb) a tree yesterday.
5. I ……………… (finish) my work two hours ago.

 A stitch in time saves nine.

 

20


Conjugation of Verbs 

‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﻋﻨـﺩ‬Ordinary or Regular or Weak Verbs 7


‫ـﻀﺎﻑ‬‫( ﻴ‬past participle) (‫( ﺃﻭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻟﺙ )ﺍﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل‬past tense) (‫ﺘﺤﻭﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ )ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻨﻲ‬
.(‫ﺔ‬‫ﺔ ﺃﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‬‫ )ﻭﻫﻲ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﻴ‬.d ‫ ﺃﻭ‬ed ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻋﻬﺎ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺘﻌﺩﻴل ﻨﻁﻘﻪ‬‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤ‬

 Present or infinitive Meaning  Past Past participle


       

prove ‫ﺒﺭﻫﻥ‬‫ﻴ‬ proved proved


help ‫ﻴﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ helped helped
burn ‫ﻴﺤﺭﻕ‬ burnt burnt

   |
.(d) ‫( ﻨﻀﻴﻑ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻟﻨﻬﺎﻴﺘﻬﺎ‬e) ‫ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬.1
 Present or infinitive Meaning  Past Past participle
       

arrive ‫ﻴﺼل‬ arrived arrived


change ‫ﺭ‬‫ﻐﻴ‬‫ﻴ‬ changed changed
invite ‫ﻴﺩﻋﻭ‬ invited invited

‫ـﻀﺎﻑ‬‫( ﻭﻴ‬i) ‫ﻘﻠﺏ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬‫( ﻴ‬y) ‫ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬‫ ﻓﺈﻥ‬،ٍ‫( ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻗﺎﹰ ﺒﺤﺭﻑٍ ﺴﺎﻜﻥ‬y) ‫ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬.2
.‫( ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻔﻬﺎ‬ed)

 Present or infinitive Meaning  Past Past participle


       

cry ‫ﻴﺒﻜﻲ‬ cried cried


marry ‫ﻴﺘﺯﻭﺝ‬ married married
study ‫ﻴﺩﺭﺱ‬ studied studied

‫( ﻴﺒﻘـﻰ ﻜﻤـﺎ ﻫـﻭ‬y) ‫ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬‫ﻓﺈﻥ‬،(‫ﺘﺤﺭﻙ‬‫( ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻗﺎﹰ ﺒﺤﺭﻑِ ﻋﻠﹼﺔ )ﻤ‬y) ‫ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬.3
.‫( ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺼﺭﻴﻔﻬﺎ‬ed) ‫ﻀﺎﻑ‬‫ﻭ ﻴ‬
 Present or infinitive Meaning  Past Past participle
       

enjoy ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬ enjoyed enjoyed


obey ‫ﻁﻴﻊ‬‫ﻴ‬ obeyed obeyed
play ‫ﻴﻠﻌﺏ‬ played played
stay ‫ ﻴﺒﻘﻰ‬/ ‫ﻴﻤﻜﹸﺙ‬ stayed stayed

21

‫ﻀﺎﻋﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺒﺤـﺭﻑٍ ﺴـﺎﻜﻥٍ ﻗﺒﻠـﻪ‬‫( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻗﺩ ﻴ‬ed) ‫ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬.4
.(‫ﺘﺤﺭﻙ‬‫ﻤ‬

 Present or infinitive Meaning  Past Past participle


       

stop ‫ﻴﻘِﻑ‬ stopped stopped


travel ‫ﺴﺎﻓﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬ travelled travelled

 

Present or Past Present or


 Past
 infinitive participle  infinitive  Past
Past

Meaning Meaning
    
participle
   
   
     
act ‫ﯾﻤﺜﻞ‬ acted acted describe ‫ﯾﺼﻒ‬ described described
damage ‫ﯾﺘﻠﻒ‬ damaged damaged die ‫ﯾﻤﻮت‬ died died
ask ‫ﯾﺴﺄل‬ asked asked disappear ‫ﯾﺨﺘﻔﻲ‬ disappeared disappeared
believe ‫ﯾﻌﺘﻘﺪ‬ believed believed dive ‫ ﯾﻐﻮص‬/ ‫ ﯾﻐﻄﺲ‬dived dived
attack ‫ﯾﮭﺎﺟﻢ‬ attacked attacked dream ‫ﯾﺤﻠﻢ‬ dreamed dreamed
blink ‫ﯾﻐﻤﺰ‬ blinked blinked drop ‫ﯾﺴﻘِﻂ‬ dropped dropped
arrive ‫ﯾﺼﻞ‬ arrived arrived earn ‫ ﯾﻜﺴﺐ ﻗﻮﺗﮫ‬earned earned
belong to ‫ﯾﺨﺺ‬ belonged to belonged to end ‫ﯾﻨﮭﻲ‬ ended ended
boil ‫ﯾﻐﻠﻲ‬ boiled boiled enjoy ‫ﯾﺴﺘﻤﺘﻊ‬ enjoyed enjoyed
call ‫ ﯾﻨﺎدي‬/ ‫ﯾﺘﺼﻞ‬ called called erupt (‫ ﯾﺜﻮر)اﻟﺒﺮﻛﺎن‬erupted erupted
borrow ‫ﯾﻘﺘﺮض‬ borrowed borrowed evaporate ‫ﯾﺘﺒﺨﺮ‬ evaporated evaporated
carry ‫ﯾﺤﻤﻞ‬ carried carried exercise ‫ﯾﺘﻤﺮن‬ exercised exercised
change ‫ﯾُﻐﯿُﺮ‬ changed changed explain ‫ﯾﺸﺮح‬ explained explained
chase ‫ﯾﻄﺎرد‬ chased chased explode ‫ﯾﻨﻔﺠﺮ‬ exploded exploded
check ‫ﯾﺮاﺟﻊ‬ checked checked finish ‫ﯾﻨﮭﻲ‬ finished finished
clean ‫ﯾﻨﻈﻒ‬ cleaned cleaned float ‫ﯾﻄﻔﻮ‬ floated floated
close ‫ﯾُﻐﻠِﻖ‬ closed closed fold ‫ ﯾﻄﻮي‬/ ‫ ﯾﺜﻨﻲ‬folded folded
climb ‫ﯾﺘﺴﻠﻖ‬ climbed climbed follow ‫ﯾﺘﺒﻊ‬ followed followed
compare ‫ﯾﻘﺎرن‬ compared compared form ‫ﯾُﻜّﻮن‬ formed formed
collect ‫ﯾﺠﻤﻊ‬ collected collected guess ‫ﯾُﺨﻤﻦ‬ guessed guessed
compute ‫ ﯾﺤﺼﻲ‬/ ‫ﯾﺤﺴﺐ‬ computed computed happen ‫ﯾﺤﺪث‬ happened happened
condense ‫ﯾﻜﺜﻒ‬ condensed condensed hate ‫ﯾﻜﻮه‬ hated hated
correct ‫ﯾﺼﺤﺢ‬ corrected corrected heat ‫ﯾﺄﻣﻞ‬ heated heated
cook ‫ﯾﻄﺒﺦ‬ cooked cooked hope ‫ﯾﺄﻣﻞ‬ hoped hoped
control ‫ﯾﺘﺤﻜﻢ‬ controlled controlled hurry up ‫ﯾُﺴﺮع‬ hurried up hurried up
copy ‫ﯾﻨﺴﺦ‬ copied copied introduce ‫ﯾﻘﺪم‬ introduced introduced
correct ‫ﯾﺼﺤﺢ‬ corrected corrected join ‫ﯾﺮﺑﻂ‬ joined joined
count ‫ﯾﻌﺪ‬ counted counted jump ‫ﯾﻘﻔﺰ‬ jumped jumped
crawl ‫ ﯾﺤﺒﻮ‬/‫ﯾﺰﺣﻒ‬ crawled crawled kick ‫ﯾﺮﻛﻞ‬ kicked kicked
cross ‫ﯾﻌﺒﺮ‬ crossed crossed kill ‫ﯾﻘﺘﻞ‬ killed killed
dance ‫ﯾﺮﻗﺺ‬ danced danced land ‫ﯾﺮﺳﻮ‬ landed landed

22

Present or Present or
 infinitive Meaning  Past
Past  infinitive Meaning  Past Past participle
     
participle
     
 
   
lift ‫ﯾﺮﻓﻊ‬ lifted lifted remember ‫ﯾﺘﺬﻛﺮ‬ remembered remembered
like ‫ﯾﺤﺐ‬ liked liked replay ‫ﯾﺮد‬ replayed replayed
listen ‫ﯾﻨﺼﺖ‬ listened listened report ‫ﯾﻘﺪم ﺗﻘﺮﯾﺮ ﻋﻦ‬ reported reported
live ‫ﯾﻌﯿﺶ‬ lived lived rest ‫ﯾﺮﺗﺎح‬ rested rested
load ‫ﯾﺤﻤﻞ‬ loaded loaded revise ‫ﯾﺮاﺟﻊ‬ revised revised
look after ‫ﯾﻌﺘﻨﻲ ﺑـ‬ looked after looked after sail ‫ﯾُﺒﺤﺮ‬ sailed sailed
look at ‫ﯾﻨﻈﺮ إﻟﻰ‬ looked at looked at scream ‫ﯾﺼﺮخ‬ screamed screamed
look for ‫ﯾﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ‬ looked for looked for shop ‫ﯾﺘﺴﻮّق‬ shopped shopped
look good ً‫ﯾﺒﺪو ﺟﯿﺪا‬ looked good looked good shout ‫ﯾﺼﯿﺢ‬ shouted shouted
‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺮج‬
look up ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻰ ﻛﻠﻤﺔ‬
looked up looked up slope ‫ﯾﻨﺰﻟﻖ‬ sloped sloped
love ‫ﯾﺤﺐ‬ loved loved sow ‫ﯾُﺒﺬّر‬ sowed sowed (sown)
marry ‫ﯾﺘﺰوج‬ married married start ‫ﯾﺒﺪأ‬ started started
match ‫ﯾُﻼﺋﻢ‬ matched matched stay ‫ﯾﻤﻜُﺚ‬ stayed stayed
measure ‫ﯾﻘﯿﺲ‬ measured measured stop ‫ﯾﺘﻮﻗﻒ‬ stopped stopped
mend ‫ﯾﺼﻠّﺢ‬ mended mended support ‫ﯾﺪﻋﻢ‬ supported supported
milk ‫ﯾﺤﻠﺐ‬ milked milked store ‫ﯾُﺨﺰُن‬ stored stored
/‫ﯾﺪﯾﺮ ﺟﮭﺎز‬
miss ‫ﯾﻔﺘﻘﺪ‬ missed missed switch on
‫ﯾﺸﻌﻞ اﻟﻨﻮر‬
switched on switched on
move ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺮّك‬ moved moved talk ‫ﯾﺘﺤﺪث‬ talked talked
need ‫ﯾﺤﺘﺎج‬ needed needed taste ‫ ﯾﺬوق‬/ ‫ﯾﺘﺬوق‬ tasted tasted
open ‫ﯾﻔﺘﺢ‬ opened opened tie ‫ﯾﺮﺑﻂ‬ tied tied
order ‫ﯾﺄﻣﺮ‬ ordered ordered thank ‫ﯾﺸﻜﺮ‬ thanked thanked
own ‫ﯾﻤﺘﻠﻚ‬ owned owned touch ‫ﯾﻠﻤﺲ‬ touched touched
paint ‫ﯾﺪھﻦ‬ painted painted train ‫ﯾﺪرب‬ trained trained
pass ‫ﯾﻤﺮ‬ passed passed translate ‫ﯾﺘﺮﺟﻢ‬ translated translated
ً‫ﯾﺘﺼﻞ ﺗﻠﯿﻔﻮﻧﯿﺎ‬
phone ‫ﺑـ‬ phoned phoned travel ‫ﯾﺴﺎﻓﺮ‬ travelled travelled
pick ‫ﯾﻘﻄﻒ‬ picked picked try ‫ﯾﺤﺎول‬ tried tried
plant ‫ﯾﺰرع‬ planted planted turn ‫ ﯾﻠﻒ‬/‫ﯾﺪور‬ turned turned
‫ﯾﻜﺘﺐ ﻋﻠﻰ‬
play ‫ﯾﻠﻌﺐ‬ played played type ‫اﻵﻟﺔ‬ typed typed
plough ‫ﯾﺤﺮث‬ ploughed ploughed use ‫ﯾﺴﺘﺨﺪم‬ used used
point to ‫ﯾﺸﯿﺮ إﻟﻰ‬ pointed to pointed to visit ‫ﯾﺰور‬ visited visited
post ‫ﯾﺮﺳﻞ‬ posted posted wait ‫ﯾﻨﺘﻈﺮ‬ waited waited
pour ‫ﯾﺼﺐ‬ poured poured want ‫ﯾﺮﯾﺪ‬ wanted wanted
practice ‫ﯾﺘﻤﺮن‬ practiced practiced wash ‫ﯾﻐﺴﻞ‬ washed washed
prefer ‫ﯾُﻔﻀّﻞ‬ preferred preferred watch ‫ﯾﺸﺎھﺪ‬ watched watched
/ ‫ﯾﺪّﻋﻲ‬
pretend ‫ﯾﺘﻈﺎھﺮ‬
pretended pretended water ‫ﯾﺮوي‬ watered watered
pronounce ‫ﯾﻨﻄﻖ‬ pronounced pronounced weigh ‫ﯾﺰن‬ weighed weighed
pull ‫ ﯾﺠﺮ‬/ ‫ﯾﺸﺪ‬ pulled pulled welcome ‫ﯾﺮﺣﺐ ﺑـ‬ welcomed welcomed
push ‫ ﯾﺰق‬/‫ﯾﺪﻓﻊ‬ pushed pushed work ‫ ﯾﺸﺘﻐﻞ‬/ ‫ ﯾﻌﻤﻞ‬worked worked
rain ‫ﺗﻤﻄﺮ‬ rained rained worry ‫ﯾﻘﻠﻖ‬ worried worried
receive ‫ﯾﺴﺘﻠﻢ‬ received received

23

،‫ﻨـﺔ‬‫ﻌﻴ‬‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﺘﺼﺭﻴﻔﻬﺎ ﻗﺎﻋـﺩﺓ ﻤ‬:The Irregular Verbs  7
.‫ﻓﻠﺫﻟﻙ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺤﻔﻅﻬﺎ ﻋﻥ ﻅﻬﺭِ ﻗﻠﺏ‬

 

Present
Present or Past Past
or
 infinitive  Past participle  Past participle
Meaning  infinitive Meaning
          

     
 
abide ‫ ﯾﻘﯿﻢ‬/ ‫ﯾﻤﻜﺚ‬ abode abode clothe ‫ﯾﻜﺴﻮ‬ clothed clothed
agree ‫ﯾﻮاﻓﻖ‬ agreed agreed come ‫ ﯾﺤﻀﺮ‬/ ‫ﯾﺄﺗﻲ‬ came come
am ‫أﻛﻮن‬ was been cost ‫ ﯾﺴﺎوي‬/ ‫ﯾﻜﻠّﻒ‬ cost cost
are ‫ ﯾﻜﻮﻧﻮا‬/‫ﺗﻜﻮن‬ were been creep ‫ﯾﺰﺣﻒ‬ crept crept
arise ‫ﯾﻨﮭﺾ‬ arose arose cut ‫ﯾﻘﻄﻊ‬ cut cut
awake ‫ ﯾﺴﺘﯿﻘﻆ‬/ ‫ﯾﻮﻗﻆ‬ awoke awoken dare ‫ﯾﺠﺮؤ‬ dared (durst) dared (durst)
be ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ was / were been deal ‫ﯾﺘﻌﺎﻣﻞ‬ dealt dealt
bear ‫ﺗﻠﺪ‬ bore born dig ‫ﯾﺤﻔﺮ‬ dug dug
bear ‫ﯾﺤﻤﻞ إﻟﻰ أﻋﻠﻰ‬ bore borne do/does ‫ﯾﻔﻌﻞ‬ did done
beat ‫ﯾﻀﺮب‬ beat beat (en) draw ‫ﯾﺮﺳﻢ‬ drew drawn
become ‫ ﯾﺼﯿﺮ‬/ ‫ﯾﺼﺒﺢ‬ became become dream ‫ﯾﺤﻠﻢ‬ dreamt (ed) dreamt
begin ‫ ﯾﺒﺘﺪئ‬/ ‫ﯾﺒﺪأ‬ began begun drink ‫ﯾﺸﺮب‬ drank drunk
bend ‫ ﯾﺤﻨﻲ‬/ ‫ﯾﺜﻨﻲ‬ bent bent drive ‫ ﯾﺴﻮق‬/ ‫ﯾﻘﻮد‬ drove driven
bet ‫ﯾﺮاھﻦ‬ bet bet dwell ‫ ﯾﺴﻜﻦ‬/ ‫ﯾﻘﻄﻦ‬ dwelt dwelt
bet ‫ﯾﺮاھﻦ‬ betted bet eat ‫ﯾﺄﻛﻞ‬ ate eaten
bid ‫ﯾُﻘﺪّم ﻋﻄﺎء‬ bade bidden fall ‫ ﯾﻘﻊ‬/ ‫ﯾﺴﻘﻂ‬ fell fallen
bid ‫ﯾﺄﻣﺮ‬ bid bid feed ‫ ﯾُﻐﺬّي‬/‫ﯾُﻄﻌﻢ‬ fed fed
bind ‫ﯾﺮﺑﻂ‬ bound bound feel ‫ﯾﺸﻌﺮ‬ felt felt
bite ‫ ﯾﻠﺪغ‬/‫ﯾﻌُﺾ‬ bit bitten fight ‫ ﯾﺘﺸﺎﺟﺮ‬/ ‫ﯾﻘﺎﺗﻞ‬ fought fought
bleed ‫ﯾﻨﺰف‬ bled bled find ‫ﯾﺠﺪ‬ found found
blend ‫ ﯾﻤﺰج‬/ ‫ﯾﺨﻠﻂ‬ blent blent fit ‫ﯾﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ fit (fitted) fit (fitted)
blend ‫ ﯾﻤﺰج‬/ ‫ﯾﺨﻠﻂ‬ blended blended flee ‫ﯾﮭﺮب‬ fled fled
blow ‫ ﯾﻨﻔﺦ‬/ ‫ﯾﮭﺐ‬ blew blown fling ‫ ﯾﻘﺬف‬/ ‫ ﯾﻄﯿﺢ‬/ ‫ ﯾﻄﻮي‬flung flung
break ‫ﯾﻜﺴﺮ‬ broke broken fly ‫ﯾﻄﯿﺮ‬ flew flown
breed ‫ﯾﺮﺑﻲ‬ bred bred forbid ‫ﯾﻤﻨﻊ‬ forbade forbidden
bring ‫ﯾﺤﻀﺮ‬ brought brought forecast ‫ﯾﺘﻜﮭﻦ‬/‫ﯾﺘﻨﺒﺄ‬ forecast forecast
bring up ‫ﯾﺮﺑﻲ‬ brought up brought up foretell ‫ﯾﺘﻨﺒﺄ‬ foretold foretold
broadcast ‫ﯾﺬﯾﻊ‬ broadcast broadcast forget ‫ﯾﻨﺴﻰ‬ forgot forgotten
build ‫ﯾﺒﻨﻲ‬ built built forgive ‫ ﯾﻌﻔﻮ ﻋﻦ‬/ ‫ ﯾﺴﺎﻣﺢ‬forgave forgiven
burn ‫ﯾﺤﺮق‬ burnt (burned) burnt forsake ‫ ﯾﺘﺨﻠﻰ ﻋﻦ‬/ ‫ ﯾﮭﺠﺮ‬forsook forsaken
burst ‫ﯾﻨﻔﺠﺮ‬ burst burst freeze ‫ﯾﺘﺠﻤﺪ‬ froze frozen
buy ‫ﯾﺸﺘﺮي‬ bought bought get ‫ﯾﺤﺼﻞ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ got got
can ‫ﯾﺴﺘﻄﯿﻊ‬ could ---- give ‫ ﯾﻤﻨﺢ‬/‫ﯾﻌﻄﻲ‬ gave given
cast ‫ ﯾﺮﻣﻲ‬/ ‫ﯾﻘﺬف‬ cast cast go ‫ﯾﺬھﺐ‬ went gone
catch ‫ﯾﻤﺴﻚ‬ caught caught grind ‫ﯾﻄﺤﻦ‬ ground ground
choose ‫ﯾﺨﺘﺎر‬ chose chosen grow ‫ ﯾﺰرع‬/ ‫ ﯾﻜﺒُﺮ‬/ ‫ ﯾﻨﻤﻮ‬grew grown
cling ‫ ﯾﺘﻌﻠﻖ‬/ ‫ﯾﻠﺘﺼﻖ‬ clang clung hang ‫ﯾُﻌﻠّﻖ‬ hung hung

24

Present
Present or Past
or  Past
 infinitive  Past  infinitive
participle

Meaning Past participle Meaning
         

 
   
 
hang ‫ﯾﺸﻨﻖ‬ hanged hanged say ‫ﯾﻘﻮل‬ said said
have / has ‫ﯾﻤﻠﻚ‬ had had see ‫ ﯾﻔﮭﻢ‬/ ‫ﯾﺮى‬ saw seen
have to ‫ﯾﺠﺐ أن‬ had to had to seek ‫ﯾﺒﺤﺚ ﻋﻦ‬ sought sought
hear ‫ﯾﺴﻤﻊ‬ heard heard sell ‫ﯾﺒﯿﻊ‬ sold sold
hide ‫ﯾﺨﺒﺊ‬ hid hidden send ‫ﯾﺮﺳﻞ‬ sent sent
hit ‫ﯾﻀﺮب‬ hit hit set out ‫ ﯾﻐﺮب‬/ ‫ﯾﺸﺮع ﻓﻲ‬ set out set out
hold ‫ﯾﻤﺴﻚ‬ held held set aside ً‫ﯾﻀﻊ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﺎ‬ set set
hurt ‫ ﯾﺆﻟﻢ‬/ ‫ﯾﺆذي‬ hurt hurt sew ‫ﯾﺨﯿّﻂ‬ sewed sewn
is ‫ﯾﻜﻮن‬ was been shake ‫ ﯾﺼﺎﻓﺢ‬/ ‫ﯾﮭﺰ‬ shook shaken
/ ً‫ﯾﻨﺰف دﻣﺎ‬
keep ‫ﯾﺤﻔﻆ‬ kept kept shed ً‫ﯾﺬرف دﻣﻮﻋﺎ‬
shed shed
kneel ‫ﯾﺮﻛﻊ‬ knelt knelt shine ‫ ﯾﺴﻄﻊ‬/ ‫ﯾﻠﻤﻊ‬ shone shone
‫ﯾﻀﻊ ﺣﺪوة‬
knit ً‫ﯾﻌﻘﺪ ﺧﯿﻮﻃﺎ‬ knit (knitted) knit shoe ‫ﻟﻠﺤﺼﺎن‬
shod shod
‫ﯾﻄﻠﻖ اﻟﺴﮭﻢ أو‬
know ‫ﯾﻌﺮف‬ knew known shoot ‫اﻟﺮﺻﺎص‬
shot shot
lade ‫ﯾُﺤﻤّﻞ‬ laded laden show ‫ ﯾﺒﯿﻦ‬/ ‫ﯾﻮﺿﺢ‬ showed shown
lay ‫ ﯾﺒﯿﺾ‬/ ‫ﯾﻀﻊ‬ laid laid shrink ‫ﯾﻨﻜﻤﺶ‬ shrank shrunk
lead ‫ﯾﻘﻮد‬ led led shut ‫ﯾُﻐﻠﻖ‬ shut shut
lean ‫ﯾﺘﻜﺊ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ leant (leaned) leant (leaned) sing ‫ ﯾﻨﺸﺪ‬/‫ﯾﻐﻨﻲ‬ sang sung
leap ‫ﯾﻘﻔﺰ‬ leapt leapt sit ‫ﯾﺠﻠﺲ‬ sat sat
learn ‫ﯾﺘﻌﻠﻢ‬ learned (learnt) learned (learnt) sink ‫ﯾﻐﻮص‬ sank sunk
leave ‫ﯾﻐﺎدر‬ left left slay ‫ ﯾﺴﻠﺦ‬/ ‫ﯾﺬﺑﺢ‬ slew slain
lend ‫ﯾُﻘﺮض‬ lent lent sleep ‫ﯾﻨﺎم‬ slept slept
let ‫ﯾﺪع‬ let let slide ‫ﯾﻨﺰﻟﻖ‬ slid slid
/ ‫ﯾﺮﻓﻊ ﺑﺤﺒﻞ‬
lie ‫ﯾﺮﻗﺪ‬ lay lain sling ‫ﯾﻘﺬف ﺑﻤﻘﻼع‬
slung slung
lie ‫ﯾﻜﺬب‬ lied lied smell ‫ﯾﺸﻢ‬ smelt (ed) smelt (ed)
light ‫ﯾﻀﻲء‬ lit (lighted) lit (lighted) sow ‫ﯾﺒﺬر‬ sowed sown
lose ‫ﯾﻔﻘﺪ‬ lost lost speed ‫ﯾﺰﯾﺪ اﻟﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ sped sped
/ ً‫ﯾﻨﻔﻖ ﻣﺎﻻ‬
make ‫ ﯾﻌﻤﻞ‬/ ‫ﯾﺼﻨﻊ‬ made made spend ‫ﯾﻘﻀﻲ وﻗﺘًﺎ‬
spent spent
may ّ‫ ﻟﻌﻞ‬/ ‫رُﺑّﻤﺎ‬ might ---- spill ‫ ﯾﺮﯾﻖ‬/ ‫ﯾﺴﻜﺐ‬ spilt spilled
mean ‫ ﯾﻘﺼﺪ‬/‫ﯾﻌﻨﻲ‬ meant meant spin ‫ﯾﻐﺰل‬ span spun
meet ‫ ﯾﻠﺘﻘﻲ‬/ ‫ﯾﻘﺎﺑﻞ‬ met met spit ‫ﯾﺒﺼﻖ‬ spat spat
mistake ‫ﯾﺨﻄﺊ‬ mistook mistaken split ‫ﯾﺸﻄﺮ ﺷﻄﺮﯾﻦ‬ split split
mow ‫ ﯾﺨﺰن‬/ ‫ﯾﺠﻤﻊ‬ mowed mown run ‫ﯾﺠﺮي‬ ran run
overcome ‫ﯾﺘﻐﻠﺐ‬ overcame overcome rise ‫ ﯾﺮﻓﻊ‬/ ‫ﯾﺸﺮق‬ rose risen
pay ً‫ﯾﺪﻓﻊ ﻧﻘﻮدا‬ paid paid saw ‫ﯾﻘﻄﻊ ﺑﺎﻟﻤﻨﺸﺎر‬ sawed sawn
put ‫ﯾﻀﻊ‬ put put sell ‫ﯾﺒﯿﻊ‬ sold sold
quit ‫ ﯾﮭﺠُﺮ‬/ ‫ﯾﺘﺮك‬ quit quit spoil ‫ﯾﻔﺴﺪ‬/‫ﯾﺘﻠﻒ‬ spoilt spoilt (ed)
read ‫ﯾﻘﺮأ‬ read read spread ‫ﯾﻨﺘﺸﺮ‬ spread spread
rid ‫ ﯾﺨﻠّﺺ‬/ ‫ﯾﺰﯾﻞ‬ rid rid spring ‫ﯾﻘﻔﺰ‬ sprang sprung
ride ‫ﯾﺮﻛﺐ‬ rode ridden stand ‫ﯾﻘﻒ‬ stood stood
ring ‫ﯾﺮن‬ rang rung steal ‫ﯾﺴﺮق‬ stole stolen

25

Present or
 infinitive Meaning  Past
Past

participle
   
 
 
stick ‫ ﯾﻠﺘﺼﻖ‬/ ‫ﯾﻠﺼﻖ‬ stuck stuck
sting ‫ ﯾﻠﺪغ‬/ ‫ﯾﻠﺴﻊ‬ stung stung
stink ‫ﯾﻨﺘﻦ‬ stank stunk
stride ‫ﯾﺨﻄﻮ‬ strode stridden
strike ‫ﯾﻀﺮب‬ struck struck
string ‫ ﯾﺨﺒﻂ‬/ ‫ﯾﺜﺒﺖ‬ strung strung
strive ‫ ﯾﻜﺎﻓﺢ‬/ ‫ﯾﻨﺎﺿﻞ‬ strove striven
swear ‫ ﯾﺤﻠﻒ‬/ ‫ﯾُﻘﺴﻢ‬ swore sworn
sweep ‫ﯾﻜﻨﺲ‬ swept swept
swell ‫ﯾﺘﻮرم‬ swelled swollen
swim ‫ ﯾﻌﻮم‬/ ‫ﯾﺴﺒﺢ‬ swam swum
swing ‫ ﯾﺘﺄرﺟﺢ‬/ ‫ﯾﮭﺘﺰ‬ swang swung
take ‫ﯾﺄﺧﺬ‬ took taken
teach ‫ﯾُﻌﻠّﻢ‬ taught taught
tell ‫ﯾُﺨﺒﺮ‬ told told
think ‫ ﯾﺆﻣﻦ‬/ ‫ﯾﻔﻜﺮ‬ thought thought
throw ‫ﯾﺮﻣﻲ‬ threw thrown
thrust ‫ﯾﻄﻌﻦ‬ thrust thrust
tread ‫ ﯾﺪوس‬/ ‫ﯾﻄﺄ‬ trod trodden
undergo ‫ﯾﻤﺮ ﺑـ‬ underwent undergone
understand ‫ﯾﻔﮭﻢ‬ understood understood
undertake ‫ﯾﻌﮭﺪ ﺑـ‬ undertook undertaken
upset ‫ﯾﻘﻠﺐ‬/‫ﯾﺰﻋﺞ‬/‫ﯾﻘﻠﻖ‬ upset upset
wake ‫ﯾﻮﻗﻆ‬ woke (ed) woken (ed)
wear ‫ﯾﺮﺗﺪي‬ wore worn
weave ‫ﯾﻨﺴﺞ‬ wove woven
wed ‫ ﯾﻌﻘﺪ ﻗﺮان‬/ ‫ﯾﺘﺰوج‬ wedded wedded
weep ‫ﯾﺒﻜﻲ‬ wept wept
win ‫ ﯾﺮﺑﺢ‬/‫ ﯾﻔﻮز‬/ ‫ﯾﻜﺴﺐ‬ won won
wind ‫ﯾﻠﻒ‬ wound wound
wring ‫ﯾﻌﺼﺮ‬ wrung wrung
write ‫ﯾﻜﺘﺐ‬ wrote written




26


3.The Present Continuous Tense 

1) Formation:- 

-:‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺸﻜل ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‬ •

 
I am
He, She , It is + ‫ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬+ ing
They, You, We are

1. I am watching TV now. .‫ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﺍﻵﻥ‬‫ﺃُﺸﺎﻫﺩ‬


2. Samy is eating an apple. .‫ﻴﺄﻜلُ ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﺘﻔﺎﺤﺔﹰ‬
3. We are doing our home work. .‫ﻨﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﻌﻤل ﻭﺍﺠﺒﻨﺎ‬

2) Usage:

 •

-:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﻉِ ﻭﻗﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻜﻠﱡﻡ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ ﻤ‬.1

I am writing now. .‫ ﺍﻵﻥ‬‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﻜﺘﹸﺏ‬

-:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،ِ‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﻉِ ﻤﻊ ﺤﺩﺙٍ ﺁﺨﺭٍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ ﻤ‬.2

While she is making tea, I am reading her new book. .‫ ﺃﻗﺭﺃ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬،‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺎﻱ‬

:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،ِ‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ ﻴﺴﺘﻐﺭﻕ ﺒﻁﺒﻴﻌﺘﻪ ﻭﻗﺘﺎﹰ ﻁﻭﻴﻼﹰ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺤﺩﻭﺜِﻪِ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬.3

1. They are building a new school in our street. .‫ﺇﻨﹼﻬﻡ ﻴﺒﻨﻭﻥ ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺸﺎﺭِﻋِﻨﺎ‬
2. The sun is shining this morning. .‫ﺒﺎﺡ‬‫ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺼ‬‫ﺱ‬‫ﻁﹶﻊُ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﻤ‬‫ﺘﹶﺴ‬

 3) Key words

:‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﺢ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﺭﺠ‬‫ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ﻴ‬ •

now ‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬ still ‫ﻻ ﻴﺯﺍل‬


while ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ as ‫ ﻁﺎﻟﻤﺎ‬/ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
at this moment ‫ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﺤﻅﺔ‬ Look! !‫ﺃُﻨﹾﻅﹸﺭ‬
at the present ِ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬ Listen! !‫ﻤﻊ‬‫ ﺃﺘﹶﺴ‬/!‫ﻊ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ﺍﺴ‬
as long as ‫ﻤﺎ ﺩﺍﻡ‬ Smell! !‫ ﻫل ﺘﺸﹸﻡ‬/ !‫ﺃﺘﹶﺸﹸﻡ‬

27
‫‪‬‬
‫• ‪   ‬‬
‫ﻗﺩ ﻴ‪‬ﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻟﻠﺘﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭِ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺩﺙٍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺭﺭِ ﺃﻥ ﻴ‪‬ﺤﺩ‪‬ﺙﹶ ﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼﹰ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل‪-:‬‬ ‫‪.1‬‬

‫‪He is going to buy some sugar.‬‬ ‫ﺴﻴﺸﺘﺭﻱ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺴﻜﺭ ) ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل (‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺭﻑ )‪ (e‬ﻓﺈﻥ‪ ‬ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﻴ‪‬ﺤﺫﻑ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ )‪، (ing‬ﻤﺜل‪-:‬‬ ‫‪.2‬‬

‫‪write + ing = writing‬‬ ‫ﻴﻜﺘﺏ‬ ‫‪ride + ing = riding‬‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻜﺏ‬


‫‪come + ing = coming‬‬ ‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬ ‫‪give +‬‬ ‫‪ing = giving‬‬ ‫ﻴ‪‬ﻌﻁﻲ‪ /‬ﻴﻤﻨﺢ‬
‫‪smile + ing = smiling‬‬ ‫ﻴﺒﺘﺴﻡ‬ ‫‪invite +‬‬ ‫‪ing = inviting‬‬ ‫ﻴﺩﻋﻭ‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒـ )‪ (ee‬ﻓﻼ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﺃﻱ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ )‪ ،(ing‬ﻤﺜل‪:‬‬ ‫‪.3‬‬

‫‪agree + ing = agreeing‬‬ ‫ﻴﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺒﺤﺭﻑ ﺴﺎﻜﻥ ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻕ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ ﻤﺘﺤﺭﻙ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ ﻴ‪‬ﻀﺎﻋﻑ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ )‪ ،(ing‬ﻤﺜل‪:‬‬ ‫‪.4‬‬

‫‪put + ing = putting‬‬ ‫ﻴﻀﻊ‬ ‫‪shut + ing = shutting‬‬ ‫ﻴ‪‬ﻐﻠﻕ‬


‫‪stop + ing = stopping‬‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻗﻑ‬ ‫‪travel + ing‬‬ ‫‪= travelling‬‬ ‫ﻴ‪‬ﺴﺎﻓﺭ‬
‫‪run + ing = running‬‬ ‫ﻴﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫‪dig + ing‬‬ ‫‪= digging‬‬ ‫ﻴﺤﻔﹸﺭ‬
‫‪sit + ing = sitting‬‬ ‫ﻴﺠﻠِﺱ‬ ‫‪swim + ing‬‬ ‫‪= swimming‬‬ ‫ﻴﺴﺒﺢ‬
‫‪greet + ing = greeting‬‬ ‫ﻴ‪‬ﺭﺤ‪‬ﺏ ‪ /‬ﻴ‪‬ﺤﻴﻲ‬ ‫ﻫ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﻟﻡ ﻴ‪‬ﻀﺎﻋ‪‬ﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ )‪ (t‬ﻷﻨﹼّﻪ ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻕ ﺒﺤﺭﻓﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﺤﺭﻜﻴﻥ‪.‬‬
‫‪enter + ing = entering‬‬ ‫ﻴ‪‬ﺩﺨل‬ ‫ﻫ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﻟﻡ ﻴ‪‬ﻀﺎﻋﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ )‪ ،(r‬ﻻﻥ‪ ‬ﺘﻀﻌﻴﻔﻪ ﻴ‪‬ﺼﻌ‪‬ﺏ ﺍﻟﻨﱡﻁﻕ‪.‬‬

‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺒـ )‪ (ie‬ﻓﺈﻥ‪ ‬ﻫﺫﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻓﻴﻥ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺴﺘﺒﺩﺍﻟﻬﻤﺎ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ )‪ (y‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ )‪ ،(ing‬ﻤﺜل‪:‬‬ ‫‪.5‬‬

‫‪lie + ing = lying‬‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻗﹸﺩ‪ /‬ﻴﻜﺫﺏ‬ ‫‪die + ing = dying‬‬ ‫ﻴﻤﻭﺕ‬

‫ﻻ ﻴ‪‬ﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺃﻭ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ )ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﻻ ﻴﺼﺎﻍ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫‪.6‬‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ( ﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻭﺙ )ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻤﻌﻨﺎﻫﺎ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻤﺭﺍﺭ(‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل‪-:‬‬

‫‪(Verbs of Sense) ‬ﻤﺜل‪:‬‬


‫‪‬‬

‫‪see‬‬ ‫ﻴﺭﻯ‬ ‫‪notice‬‬ ‫ﻴ‪‬ﻼﺤﻅ‬


‫‪hear‬‬ ‫ﻴﺴﻤﻊ‬ ‫‪taste‬‬ ‫ﻴﺘﺫﻭ‪‬ﻕ‬
‫‪smell‬‬ ‫ﻴﺸﹸﻡ‬ ‫‪observe‬‬ ‫ﻴ‪‬ﻼﺤِﻅ‬
‫‪touch‬‬ ‫ﻴﻠﻤِﺱ‬

‫‪(Verbs of Thinking) ‬ﻤﺜل‪:‬‬


‫‪‬‬

‫‪understand‬‬ ‫ﻴﻔﻬﻡ‬ ‫‪mean‬‬ ‫ﻴﻌﻨﻲ ‪ /‬ﻴﻘﺼﺩ‬


‫‪suppose‬‬ ‫ﻴﻔﺘﺭِﺽ‬ ‫‪believe‬‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩ‬
‫‪feel‬‬ ‫ﻴﺸﻌ‪‬ﺭ‬ ‫‪think‬‬ ‫ﻴﻅﹸﻥ ‪ /‬ﻴ‪‬ﻔﻜﹼﺭ‬
‫‪know‬‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺭِﻑ‬

‫‪28‬‬

:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،(Verbs of Emotion) 

love ‫ﺤﺏ ﺸﺨﺼﺎﹰ‬‫ﻴ‬ wish ‫ﻴﺭﻏﺏ‬


like ‫ﺤﺏ ﺸﻴﺌﺎﹰ‬‫ﻴ‬ desire ‫ﻴﺭﻏﺏ ﻓﻲ‬
hate ‫ ﻴﻜﺭﻩ‬/‫ﻴﻤﻘﹸﺕ‬ want ‫ﺭﻴﺩ‬‫ﻴ‬
dislike ‫ﻴﻜﺭﻩ‬ refuse ‫ﻴﺭﻓﹸﺽ‬
care ‫ﻐﻨﻲ‬‫ ﻴ‬/ ‫ﻴﻬﺘﻡ‬ forgive ‫ ﻴﻌﻔﻭ ﻋﻥ‬/ ‫ﺴﺎﻤﺢ‬‫ﻴ‬

:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،( Verbs of Possessing ) 




own ‫ﻴﻤﺘﻠﻙ‬ possess ‫ﻴﻤﺘﻠﻙ‬


belong ‫ ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ﻌﺯ‬‫ ﻴ‬/ ‫ﻴﺨﹸﺹ‬


 Verb To Have, Verb To Be  Helping Verbs 




 :‫ ﻤﺜل‬،


appear ‫ ﻴﺒﺩﻭ‬/‫ﻴﻅﻬﺭ‬ disobey ‫ﻴﻌﺼﻰ‬


seem ‫ ﻴﺒﺩﻭ‬/‫ﻴﻅﻬﺭ‬ suit ‫ﻼﺀﻡ‬‫ ﻴ‬/ ‫ﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬‫ﻴ‬
contain ‫ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬/ ‫ﻴﺤﺘﻭﻱ‬ fit ‫ﻼﺀﻡ‬‫ ﻴ‬/ ‫ﻨﺎﺴﺏ‬‫ﻴ‬
obey ‫ﻁﻴﻊ‬‫ﻴ‬ consist of ‫ﻥ ﻤﻥ‬‫ﻴﺘﻜﻭ‬
matter ‫ﺔ‬‫ﺸﻜﹼل ﺃﻫﻤﻴ‬‫ ﻴ‬/ ‫ﻡ‬‫ﻴﻬ‬

The Present Simple ‫ـﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒـﺴﻴﻁ‬‫ﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻴ‬‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺏ ﺍﻷﻋﻡ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺴ‬ •
.‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﹸﻤﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﺼﺎﻍ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺴ‬‫ﺔٍ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺃﻥ ﻴ‬‫ﻭﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﺩﺭ ﺠﺩﺍﹰ ﻭﻷﺴﺒﺎﺏٍ ﺒﻼﻏﻴ‬

I am understanding; he is hating her. .‫ ﻴﻜﺭﻫﻬﺎ‬‫ ﺇﻨﹼﻪ‬،‫ﺇﻨﹼﻨﻲ ﺃﻓﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻘﺎل ﺃﺒﺩﺍﹰ‬‫ﻻ ﻴ‬


I understand; he hates her. .‫ ﻴﻜﺭﻫﻬﺎ‬‫ ﺇﻨﹼﻪ‬،‫ﺇﻨﹼﻨﻲ ﺃﻓﻬﻡ‬ ‫ﻭﻟﻜﻥ ُﻴﻘﺎل‬
I am seeing you tomorrow. (Emphasis) (‫ﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺄﻜﻴﺩ‬ ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺘﹸﻔﻴ‬‫ )ﺍﻟﺠ‬.‫ﺴﺄﺭﺍﻙ ﺒﺎﻟﺘﹼﺄﻜﻴﺩِ ﻏﺩﺍﹰ‬
Are you forgetting your promise? ( Threat) (‫ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻬﺩﻴﺩ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺘﹸﻔﻴﺩ‬‫ﻫل ﺴﺘﻨﺴﻰ ﻭﻋﺩﻙ؟ )ﺍﻟﺠ‬

Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

1. The train is travelling now. .‫ ﺍﻵﻥ‬‫ﻐﺎﺩﺭ‬‫ ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﻘِﻁﺎﺭ‬


2. We are having a test at this moment. .ِ‫ﻨﺄﺨﺫﹸ ﺍﺨﺘﺒﺎﺭﺍﹰ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩِ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﺤﻅﺔ‬
3. Listen! The tractor is working. .‫ﺍﺴﻤﻊ! ﺍﻟﺸﹼّﺎﺤﻨﺔﹸ ﺘﻌﻤل‬
4. Look! The plane is crashing. .‫ﺃُﻨﻅﺭ! ﺍﻟﻁﹼﺎﺌﺭﺓ ﺘﺘﺤﻁﻡ‬
5. I am drinking tea at this moment. .ِ‫ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺎﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩِ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﺤﻅﺔ‬‫ﺏ‬‫ﺃﺸﹾﺭ‬

29

4) The Present Continuous Tense Negative and Interrogative:-


.(Verb To Be) ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬‫( ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌلِ ﺍﻟﻤ‬not) ‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ‬‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﻨﻔﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ ﻴ‬1

am, is, are + not + + ing

‫ ﻭﻭﻀﻊ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ‬،‫( ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬Verb To Be) ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺴﺅﺍل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‬.2
.‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟( ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﺠ‬

 Examples Negative Interrogative


She is working now. She is not working now. Is she working now?
1.
.‫ﺇﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﺘﻌﻤلُ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ .‫ﻫﻲ ﻻ ﺘﻌﻤلُ ﺍﻵﻥ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻫﻲ ﺘﻌﻤلُ ﺍﻵﻥ؟‬
They are playing. They are not playing. Are they playing?
2.
.‫ﺇﻨﹼﻬﻡ ﻴﻠﻌﺒﻭﻥ‬ .‫ﺇﻨﹼﻬﻡ ﻻ ﻴﻠﻌﺒﻭﻥ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻫﻡ ﻴﻠﻌﺒﻭﻥ؟‬
I am playing. I am not playing. Are you playing?
3.
.‫ﺇﻨﹼﻨﻲ ﺃﻟﻌﺏ‬ .‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺃﻟﻌﺏ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺃﻨﺕ ﺘﻠﻌﺏ؟‬

Exercise No. 8 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

I) Choose the correct verbs between brackets: :‫ﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺼ‬
1. Listen! They (shout - shouts - shouting - are shouting).
2. (Do you listen - Are you listening - Do listen) to what I (say-says-am saying)?
3. Look! Azza (type - types - typing - is typing) letters.
4. Mother (make - is making - made) coffee now.
5. Now, they (welcome - welcomes - are welcoming) the new pupil.
6. The people (is standing - stand - are standing) at the bus stop at this moment.
7. At the present time, my father (builds - building - is building) a house.
8. I (answer - am answering - is answering) the teacher’s question now.
9. She (do - does - is doing) her homework now. She usually (do-does-is doing) it in the evening.
10. . I (am wearing-not wearing-am not wearing) a coat as it is not raining.

II) Correct the verbs in brackets: :‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬‫ﺼﺤ‬
1. He (wait) for you at this moment.
2. You can’t see Ahmed now, he (have) a bath.
3. He is (drive) his car.
4. Look! it (rain) heavily.
5. Now, we (hear) very well what he say.
6. I (think) that I (know) how to use a calculator now.

 Glory to my God, the Greatest.


 

30



4.The Past Continuous Tense 

1) Formation:
-:‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬‫ ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‬ü

 

I, He, She , It was +  + ing


They, You, We were +  + ing

1. I was walking in the street. .ِ‫ﻜﹸﻨﹾﺕﹸ ﺃﻤﺸﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺎﺭﻉ‬


2. Ahmed was reading a story. .‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﻘﺭﺃ ﻗﺼﺔﹰ‬
3. They were cooking the food. .‫ﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﻌﺎﻡ‬‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﻌﺩ‬

2) Usage :


 ü

.‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻐﺭﻕ ﺤﺩﻭﺜﻪ ﻭﻗﺘﺎﹰ ﻁﻭﻴﻼﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬.1

1. They were making a party yesterday. .‫ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ‬


ِ ً‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﻘﻴﻤﻭﻥ ﺤﻔﻠﺔﹰ‬
2. They were sitting behind as she was driving her car. .‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﺠﻠﺴﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺨﻠﻑِ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﻘﻭﺩ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺘﻬﺎ‬

.‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬‫ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ ﻓﻠﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﻡ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺘﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺯ‬،‫ ﺍﺴﺘﻐﺭﻗﺎ ﻭﻗﺘﺎﹰ ﻁﻭﻴﻼﹰ‬drive ‫ ﻭ‬sit ‫ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺜﻴﻥ‬2 ç

:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﻉِ ﻤﻊ ﺤﺩﺙٍ ﺁﺨﺭٍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬.2

While she was driving her car, a policeman stopped her.


.‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﻘﻭﺩ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﻭﻗﻔﻬﺎ ﺸﹸﺭﻁﻲ‬

  ç
.‫ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺘﹸﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬‫ ﻓﻠﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﻡ‬،ً‫ ﺍﺴﺘﻐﺭﻕ ﻭﻗﺘﺎﹰ ﻗﺼﻴﺭﺍ‬stop ‫ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬.1
.‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬‫ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺘﹸﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ ﻓﻠﺫﻟﻙ ﺘﻡ‬،‫ ﺍﺴﺘﻐﺭﻕ ﻭﻗﺘﺎﹰ ﻁﻭﻴﻼﹰ‬drive ‫ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬.2

 3) Key words:

:‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﺢ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﺭﺠ‬‫ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ﻴ‬ü

while ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ as ‫ ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬/ ‫ﻁﺎﻟﻤﺎ‬


still ‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﺯل‬ when ‫ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ‬

31
‫‪‬‬
‫• ‪ ‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ‪ while‬ﺃﻭ ‪ as‬ﻟﺘﻌﺒ‪‬ﺭﺍﻥ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺩﺜﻴﻥِ ﻜﺎﻨﺎ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭﻴﻥِ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱِ ﺍﻟﻭﻗﺕ‪ ،‬ﺃﻱ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﻭﺭﺍﺌﻬﻤﺎ ﻤ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓﹰ ﻓﻌلٌ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤـﻥِ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل‪:‬‬
‫‪While he was reading the newspaper, his wife was watching TV.‬‬
‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﻘﺭﺃُ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺤﻴﻔﺔ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺯﻭﺠﺘﹶﻪ‪ ‬ﺘﹸﺸﺎﻫﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨﺎً ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺘﺕ ‪ when‬ﻨﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﻤ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻵﺨـﺭ ﻓـﻲ ﺯﻤـﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀـﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل‪:‬‬
‫‪My mother was cooking, when I came.‬‬ ‫ﺃُﻤﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﻁﺒ‪‬ﺦﹸ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺤ‪‬ﻀ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﺕﹸ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻟﻨﹸﺸﻴﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺤﺩﺙٍ ﻤﺘﺼلٍ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴﺎﺭﻴﺎﹰ ﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓٍ ﺯﻤﻨﻴﺔٍ ﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ )ﻁِﻭﺍل ﺍﻟﻴـﻭﻡ ـ ﻜـل‬
‫ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﺒﺎﺡ ـ ﻜل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺀ ـ ﻁِﻭﺍل ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻴل‪ ،(......‬ﻤﺜل‪:‬‬

‫‪1. I was shopping all afternoon.‬‬ ‫ﻜﹸﻨﹾﺕﹸ ﺃﺘﺴﻭ‪‬ﻕ ﻁِﻭﺍل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺀ‪.‬‬


‫‪2. They were studying all day.‬‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﺩﻭﺴﻭﻥ ﻁِﻭﺍل ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .4‬ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺒﻌﺩ ‪ as‬ﺃﻭ ‪ while‬ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‪.‬‬

‫‪While I was walking in the street, I saw my friend.‬‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﹸﻨﹾﺕﹸ ﺃﻤﺸﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺎﺭﻉِ‪ ،‬ﺭﺃﻴﺕﹸ ﺼﺩﻴﻘﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪4) The Past Continuous Tense Negative and Interrogative:‬‬


‫‪ ‬‬
‫ﻴ‪‬ﻨﻔﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ‪ not‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩ )‪ (Verb To Be‬ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫‪.1‬‬

‫‪ + ing‬ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ‪ were + not +‬ﺃﻭ ‪was‬‬

‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺴﺅﺍل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩ )‪ (Verb To Be‬ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‪ ،‬ﻭ ﻭﻀـﻊ ﻋﻼﻤـﺔ‬ ‫‪.2‬‬
‫ﺍﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟( ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪Examples‬‬ ‫‪Negative‬‬ ‫‪Interrogative‬‬


‫‪I was working.‬‬ ‫‪I was not working.‬‬ ‫?‪Were you working‬‬
‫‪1.‬‬
‫ﻜﹸﻨﹾﺕﹸ ﺃﻋﻤل‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻡ ﺃﻜﹸﻥ‪ ‬ﺃﻋﻤل‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫل ﻜﻨﺕﹶ ﺘﻌﻤل؟‬
‫‪They were working. They were not working.‬‬ ‫?‪Were they working‬‬
‫‪2.‬‬
‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﻭﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫل ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﻌﻤﻠﻭﻥ؟‬

‫‪Examples‬‬ ‫ﺃﻤـﺜﻠﺔ‬

‫‪1. As I was walking in the street, I saw Samy.‬‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﹸﻨﹾﺕﹸ ﺃﻤﺸﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺎﺭﻉ‪ ،‬ﺭﺃﻴﺕُ ﺴﺎﻤﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪2. While we were having supper, all lights went out.‬‬ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ ﻜﹸﻨﹼﺎ ﻨﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻁﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻌ‪‬ﺸﹶﺎﺀ‪ ،‬ﻁﹸﻔﺌِﺕ ﺍﻷﻨﻭﺍﺭ‪.‬‬

‫ﺨ ﹶﻠﺕﹾ ﻗِﻁـﺔﹲ ‪The teacher was giving us a lesson, when a cat walked‬‬
‫ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺱ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴ‪‬ﻌﻁﻴﻨﺎ ﺩﺭﺴﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺩ‪ ‬ﹶ‬
‫‪3.‬‬
‫‪into the room.‬‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﹸﺭﻓﺔِ‪.‬‬
‫‪4. He was reading a book, when the bell rang.‬‬ ‫ﻴﻘﺭﺃ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺭ‪‬ﻥ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺠﺭﺱ‪.‬‬
‫ﻜﺎﻥ ُ‬
‫‪5. Yesterday, he was watching a good film on TV.‬‬ ‫ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ‪ ،‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴ‪‬ﺸﹶﺎﻫِﺩ ﻓﻴﻠﻤﺎﹰ ﺠﻴﺩﺍﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ‪.‬‬
‫ِ‬

‫‪32‬‬


Exercise No. 9 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

I) Choose the correct verbs in brackets: :‫ﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺼ‬
1. I (meet - met - was meeting) your brother, while I was studying in London.
2. While you (played - plays - were playing) the piano, I (write - was writing - wrote) a letter.
3. I (find - found - was finding) the ring as I (dig - dug - was digging) in the garden.
When I (arriving - arrive - arrived - was arriving) at the house, he (still sleeping - was still
4.
sleeping - still slept).
5. He (sits - sat - was sitting) in a restaurant, when I (see - saw - was seeing) him.
6. What story (does Samy tell - did Samy tell - was Samy telling) you, when I came into the room.
Last night, somebody (shouted - will shout - was shouting), while I (studying - was studying
7.
- studies).
8. She (lived - was living - living) in England, when war (begin - beginning - began - was beginning).
9. The phone rang while I (get - got - was getting) a bath.
She (was talking - talked - talking) to her neighbor, when the baby (begin - began - was
10.
beginning) to cry.

II) Correct the verbs between brackets: :‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬‫ﺼﺤ‬
1. The telephone (ring) just as I (leave) the house.
2. He (have) his dinner, while I (have) a bath.
3. She (cook) all morning yesterday.
4. As they (to work), a man (to knock) at the door.
5. As we (to play), it (rain).
6. The pupil (sleep), when the teacher (come).
7. What you (do) when I came in?
8. As we (come) here, a policeman (stop) us.
9. The boy (jump) of the bus, while it (move).
10. He (watch) TV, when I (come).



 He beat me and cried out, he got the start of me and complained.

 









33


5. The Present Perfect Tense

1Formation: )
-:‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬‫ ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤ‬ü

have ‫ ﺃﻭ‬has + Past Participle (P.P)


(‫)ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﻟﻠﻔﻌل‬

I, They, We, You have + P.P


He, She, It has + P.P

Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

1. I have finished my homework. .‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻨﻬﻴﺕُ ﻭﺍﺠﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯﻟﻲ‬


2. Nader has written a letter. .‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺘﺏ ﻨﺎﺩﺭ ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔﹰ‬
3. They have met their teacher. .‫ﺴﻬﻡ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﻭﺍ ﻤ‬

2) Usage :

  ü

:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،(‫ﻨﹾﺫﹸ ﻭﻗﺕٍ ﻗﺭﻴﺏٍ )ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻜﻠﱡﻡ‬‫ ﻤ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ‬.1

We have just received this letter. .(‫ )ﻟﻡ ﻴﻤﺽِ ﻭﻗﺕ ﻁﻭﻴل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﻼﻤِﻬﺎ‬.‫ﺔ ﺘﻭﺍﹰ‬‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻠﻤﻨﺎ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺒﺭﻗﻴ‬

:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ ﻗﺩ ﺒﺩﺃ ﻭﻟﻡ ﻴﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺒﻌﺩ‬.2

Maged has learnt English recently. .(‫ )ﺒﺩﺃ ﺘﻌﻠﹸﻤﻬﺎ ﻭ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻨﺘﻪِ ﻤﻥ ﺘﻌﻠﹸّﻤِﻬﺎ‬.‫ﺔ ﺤﺩﻴﺜﺎﹰ‬‫ ﻤﺎﺠﺩ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‬‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺘﻌﻠﻡ‬

:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،ِ‫ ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯﻩ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﹰ ﻭﻨﹸﺭﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﹼﺘﻨﻭﻴﻪ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻤﺎﻡِ ﺇﻨﺠﺎﺯﻩ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻡ‬.3
We have already written the letter.
.(‫ﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬‫ )ﻨﹸﻨﻭﻩ ﻋﻥ ﺘﻤﺎﻡ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺭ‬.‫ﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﻓﻌﻼﹰ‬‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺘﺒﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺭ‬
Or: We have written the letter already.

:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،ِ‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ ﻗﺩ ﻭﻗﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻭﺁﺜﺎﺭﻩ ﻻ ﺘﺯﺍل ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬.4

‫ ﻤـﻥ‬‫ )ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺘﻡ‬.‫ﺕ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻏﻴ‬


She has changed some words in the contract.
.(‫ ﻋﻠﻴﻪِ ﻨﺘﺎﺌﺞ ﻭﺁﺜﺎﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻀﺭ‬‫ﺠﺎﻨِﺒﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻭﺘﺭﺘﹼﺏ‬

3Key words :

:‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ‬‫ﺭﺠﺢ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔِ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻴ‬‫ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠ‬ü

already ‫ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌل‬/ ‫ﻓﻌﻼﹰ‬ since ‫ﻨﹾﺫﹸ‬‫ﻤ‬ yet ‫ﺤﺘﹼﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ‬


just ‫ُْﻨﺫ ﻭﻗﺕٍ ﻗﻠﻴل‬‫ ﻤ‬/ ‫ﺍﹰ‬‫ﺘﻭ‬ for ‫ﺩﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬ never ‫ ﺃﺒﺩﺍﹰ‬/ ‫ﻁﻠﻘﺎﹰ‬‫ﻤ‬
ever (‫ﺅﺍل‬‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﺭﺓ )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴ‬ recently ‫ﺤﺩﻴﺜﺎﹰ‬ lately ‫ﻤﺅﺨﹼﺭﺍﹰ‬

34
‫‪‬‬
‫• ‪‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻐﺔِ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻪ ﻴ‪‬ﺴﺒﻕﹸ ﺒﻜﻠﻤﺔ )ﻗﺩ( ﺃﻭ)ﻟﻘﺩ(‪.‬‬

‫‪I have finished my work.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻨﻬﻴﺕﹸ ﻋﻤﻠﻲ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ‪ just‬ﺃﻭ ‪ already‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺤﺩﺙٍ ﺘﻡ ّﻤﻨﺫﹸ ﻭﻗﺕٍ ﻗﺭﻴﺏٍ‪ ،‬ﻤﻊ ﻤﺭﺍﻋﺎﺓِ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ just‬ﻗﺒـل‬
‫ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﺃﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ already‬ﻓﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﹼﺘﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﻟﻠﻔﻌل ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪have, has + already (just) + P.P‬‬ ‫‪have, has + P.P + already‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪) yet‬ﺤﺘﹼﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ( ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔِ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﻔﻲ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل‪-:‬‬

‫‪He has not received the money yet.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﺴﺘﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻘﻭﺩ ﺤﺘﹼﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ )ﺒﻌﺩ(‪.‬‬

‫‪ .4‬ﺘﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ‪) ever‬ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﺭﺓ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺅﺍل ﻟﺯﻤﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ‪.‬‬


‫‪ .5‬ﺘﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ‪) never‬ﺃﺒﺩﺍﹰ( ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺅﺍل ﺒﺎﻟﻨﹼﻔﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ‪ ever‬ﺒﻪ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .6‬ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ‪ ever‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺅﺍل ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻪ‪ ‬ﻴﻠﺯﻡ ﺼﻴﺎﻏﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ‪ ،‬ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‪ ‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺒﺎﻹﻴﺠﺎﺏ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻔـﻲ‬
‫ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‪-:‬‬

‫?‪Have you ever travelled by air‬‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺅﺍل(‬ ‫ﻫل ﺴﺎﻓﺭﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﺭﺓ ﺠﻭﺍﹰ؟‬
‫‪Yes, I have travelled by air.‬‬ ‫)ﺍﻹﺜﺒﺎﺕ(‬ ‫ﻨﻌﻡ ﻟﻘﺩ ﺴﺎﻓﺭﺕﹸ ﺠﻭﺍﹰ‪.‬‬
‫‪No, I have never travelled by air.‬‬ ‫)ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻔﻲ(‬ ‫ﻻ ﻟﻡ ﺃُﺴﺎﻓﺭ ﺃﺒﺩﺍﹰ ﺠﻭﺍﹰ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .7‬ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪) recently‬ﺤﺩﻴﺜﺎﹰ( ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻟﺙ )‪ (P.P‬ﺃﻭ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭل ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل‪-:‬‬
‫‪I have recently written a new book.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺘﺒﺕﹸ ﻤﺅﺨﺭﺍﹰ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺍﹰ‪.‬‬
‫‪Recently, I have written a new book.‬‬ ‫ﻤﺅﺨﺭﺍﹰ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺘﺒﺕﹸ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺍﹰ‪.‬‬

‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﻭﻗﺕ ﻤ‪‬ﺤ‪‬ﺩِﺩ ﻟﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .8‬ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪) since‬ﻤ‪‬ﻨﹾﺫﹸ(‬


‫‪since + 1985, yesterday, April, 7 o'clock, last …… etc‬‬
‫‪I haven't seen Ahmed since 1995.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻡ ﺃﺭﻯ ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﻤ‪‬ﻨﹾﺫﹸ ﻋﺎﻡ ‪1995‬ﻡ‪.‬‬

‫ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺩ‪‬ﺓ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺘﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‪.‬‬ ‫‪ .9‬ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪) for‬ﻟِﻤﺩﺓ(‬
‫‪for + 3 weeks, along time, an hour, six years …..etc‬‬

‫‪She has been in London for seventeen years.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻨﺩﻥ ﻟﻤ‪‬ﺩﺓِ ﺴﺒﻌﺔ ﻋﺸﺭ ﻋﺎﻤﺎً‪.‬‬

‫‪ .10‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻓﻌل ﺒﻌﺩ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ since‬ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻪ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪I have come here since you left.‬‬ ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺤﻀﺭﺕﹸ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﻤ‪‬ﻨﹾﺫﹸ ﺃﻥ ﻏﺎﺩﺭﺕ‪.‬‬

‫‪4) The Present Perfect Tense Negative and Interrogative:‬‬


‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪ ü‬ﻴ‪‬ﻨﻔﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ‪ not‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩ )ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺒﻌﺩ ‪ have‬ﺃﻭ‪.(has‬‬

‫‪35‬‬

‫ ﻭﻭﻀـﻊ‬،‫( ﻋﻠـﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـل‬has ‫ ﺃﻭ‬have ‫ ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ‬:‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ )ﺃﻱ‬‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺴﺅﺍل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ِ ﺍﻟﻤ‬ü
.‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬‫ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟( ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﺠ‬

Examples Negative Interrogative


I have finished work. I have not finished work. Have you finished work?
1.
.‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻨﻬﻴﺕﹸ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ .‫ﻟﻡ ﺃُﻨﻬﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻫل ﻗﺩ ﺃﻨﻬﻴﺕَ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل؟‬
Samia has met Mona. Samia has not met Mona. Has Samia met Mona?
2.
.‫ﻨﻰ‬‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺕ ﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﻤ‬ .‫ﻨﻰ‬‫ﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﻟﻡ ﺘﹸﻘﺎﺒل ﻤ‬ ‫ﻨﻰ؟‬‫ﻫل ﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺕ ﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﻤ‬

Exercise No. 10 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

*) Correct the verbs in the following sentences: :‫ﻤل ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﺼﺤ‬
1. I ………………. (not, see) my friend since last month.
2. Hatem ………………. (already, eat) his breakfast.
3. Hassan …………….. (never, be) to Jordan.
4. I and Ali ……………. (finish) the work yet.
5. She ………….. (not, meet ) him since she was in Paris.

It is no use crying over silt milk.



36


  6.The Past Perfect Tense 


 1) Formation: 

:‫ﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ‬‫ ﻴﺘﻜﻭ‬ü

had + past participle (P.P)


 

1. She had bought a paper. .‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺸﺘﺭﺕ ﺼﺤﻴﻔﺔﹰ‬


2. They had met their friends. .‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﻭﺍ ﺃﺼﺩﻗﺎﺌﻬﻡ‬

  2) Usage:

،‫ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻷﻭل ﻴﻭﻀـﻊ ﻓـﻲ ﺯﻤـﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀـﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﹼـﺎﻡ‬‫ ﻓﺈﻥ‬،‫ﻫﻤﺎ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔٍ ﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﺴﺒﻕ ﺃﺤﺩ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﻗﻊ ﺤﺩﺜﺎﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺠ‬ü
.‫ﻭﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺤﺩﺙ ﺒﻌﺩﻩ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬

After they had eaten their breakfast, they went to school.


.ِ‫ ﺫﻫﺒﻭﺍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬،‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻗﺩ ﺘﻨﺎﻭﻟﻭﺍ ﻁﻌﺎﻡ ﺇﻓﻁﺎﺭﻫﻡ‬

 3) Key words :




:‫ﺼﺎﻍ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ‬‫ﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻴ‬‫ﺭﺠ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻴ‬‫ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ ﻓﺈﻥ‬،‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠ‬ü

before ‫ﻗﺒل ﺃﻥ‬ until ‫ﺤﺘﹼﻰ‬


after ‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ‬ by the time ‫ﺤﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬
till ‫ﺤﺘﹼﻰ‬ as soon as ‫ﺤﺎﻟﻤﺎ‬

 •
 

.( ‫( )ﻗﺒل ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻗﺒل‬before Before) ‫ ﺃﻱ‬before ‫ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ ﻗﺒل ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬.1

 (past perfect before (past simple) 


 (had + P.P) 

.( ‫( ) ﺒﻌﺩ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ‬after After) ‫ ﺃﻱ‬after ‫ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬.2

  (Past simple) after  (Past perfect


  (had + P.P)

37

.‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ‬:‫ﺴﺒﻕ ﺒﺘﻌﺒﻴﺭ‬‫ ﻴ‬‫ﺔ ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻪ‬‫ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺭﺠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴ‬.3
‫ﺩ‬

1. After I had done my home work, I played football. .‫ ﻟﻌِﺒﺕُ ﻜﹸﺭﺓﹶ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ‬،‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻜﹸﻨﺕﹸ ﻗﺩ ﻗﹸﻤﺕُ ﺒﻭﺍﺠﺒﻲ‬
2. I had washed my face before I came to school. .ِ‫ ﻗﺒل ﺃﻥ ﺁﺘﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬،‫ﻠﹾﺕﹸ ﻭﺠﻬﻲ‬‫ﻜﹸﻨﺕﹸ ﻗﺩ ﻏﹶﺴ‬

4) The Past Perfect Tense Negative and Interrogative:


 
.(had) ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬‫ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻤ‬not ‫ﻨﻔﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ‬‫ ﻴ‬ü
ِ‫ ﻭﻭﻀﻊ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟( ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ‬،‫( ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬had) ‫ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺴﺅﺍل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬ü
.‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠ‬

Examples Negative Interrogative


She had made a cake. She had not made a cake. Had she made a cake?
1.
.‫ﺕ ﻜﻌﻜﺔﹰ‬‫ﻫﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻋﺩ‬ .‫ﺕ ﻜﻌﻜﺔﹰ‬‫ﻫﻲ ﻟﻡ ﺘﻜﹸﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻋﺩ‬ ‫ﺕ ﻜﻌﻜﺔﹰ؟‬‫ﻫل ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻋﺩ‬
We had written a letter. We had not written a letter. Had they written a letter?
2.
.‫ﻜﹸﻨﹼﺎ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺘﺒﻨﺎ ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔﹰ‬ .‫ﻨﺤﻥ ﻟﻡ ﻨﻜﹸﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺘﺒﻨﺎ ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔﹰ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺘﺒﻭﺍ ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔﹰ؟‬

Exercise No. 11 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

*) Correct the verbs between brackets: :‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬‫ﺼﺤ‬
1. Mazen …….. (drink) much tea before he ……… (finish) his supper.
2. After Nadia …….... (cook) the food, her father …… (come).
3. They ………… (leave) Rafah before I …………. (reach).
4. Samy ……. (go) to school after he ……. (take) his breakfast.
5. She ……….. (thank) him because he (save) her daughter.
6. The police ………… (arrest) the thief who ………… (steal) the bag.

If you want peace, be prepared for war.

 



38


 7.The Future Simple Tense  




 1) Formation: 

:‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ‬‫ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤ‬ •

 shall will + (infinitive)


   |
:‫ ﺃﻱ‬We ‫ ﻭ‬I ‫ﺘﻜﻠﹼﻡ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻤ‬‫( ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﺠ‬shall ‫ ﺘﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ )ﺴﻭﻑ‬.1
(I , We shall + Infinitive)

-:‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬‫ ﺃﻱ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻀ‬،‫( ﻤﻊ ﺒﺎﻗﻲ ﺤﺎﻻﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬will ‫ ﺘﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ )ﺴﻭﻑ‬.2


( He, She, It, They, You will + infinitive)

1. I shall meet Mohammed tomorrow. .‫ﺤﻤﺩﺍﹰ ﻏﺩﺍﹰ‬‫ﺴﺄُﻗﺎﺒل ﻤ‬


2. They will visit us next Friday. .‫ﻤﻌﺔِ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡ‬‫ﺴﻴﺯﻭﺭﻭﻨﻨﺎ ﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺠ‬
3. Shadia will come next month. .‫ﺸﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺴﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡ‬

 2) Usage:

  •
.‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬‫ﺙ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﺎ ﺴﻴﺤﺩ‬‫ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻨﺒﺅ ﻋﻤ‬.1

1. They will visit us tomorrow. .‫ﺴﻴﺯﻭﺭﻭﻨﻨﺎ ﻏﺩﺍﹰ‬


2. Cars will move without petrol in the future. .ِ‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬‫ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﺒﺘﺭﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‬،‫ﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺴ‬‫ﺴﺘﺘﺤﺭﻙ‬

.‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒلِ ﺒﺸﻜلٍ ﻋﺎﻡ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ ﺴﻴﻘﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‬.2

I shall see you tomorrow. .‫ﺴﺄﺭﺍﻙ ﻏﺩﺍﹰ‬



 3) Key words:

:‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬‫ﺼﺎﻍ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥِ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﺢ ﺃﻥ ﻴ‬‫ﺭﺠ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻴ‬‫ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ ﻓﺈﻥ‬،‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺠِﺩﺕ ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠ‬ü

tomorrow ‫ﻏﺩﺍﹰ‬ in the future ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬


next ..... ...‫ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩِﻡ‬/‫ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻟﻲ‬tonight ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬
next (week, month, year, …) soon ‫ﺤﺎﻻﹰ‬

39


Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

1. The match will begin soon. .‫ﺒﺎﺭﺍﺓ ﺤﺎﻻﹰ‬‫ﺴﺘﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟﻤ‬


ُ
2. Ramy will travel tomorrow. .‫ﺴﺎﻓﺭ ﺭﺍﻤﻲ ﻏﺩﺍﹰ‬‫ﺴﻴ‬
3. I shall watch TV tonight. .‫ﺴﺄُﺸﺎﻫﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬
4. It will be hot in the future. .‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬‫ﺓﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﺴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺤﺎﺭ‬
5. She will come back next year. .‫ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡ‬‫ﻫﻲ ﺴﺘﻌﻭﺩ‬

4)The Future Simple Tense Negative and Interrogative:
 

.(shall ‫ ﺃﻭ‬will) ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬‫( ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻤ‬not) ‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺒﻭﻀﻊ‬‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ü

 shall will not +

‫ ﻭﻭﻀـﻊ ﻋﻼﻤـﺔ‬،‫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬shall ‫ ﺃﻭ‬will ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺒﺘﻘﺩﻴﻡ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﺅﺍل ﻋﻠﻰ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﺴ‬ ü
.‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟( ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔِ ﺍﻟﺠ‬

 |
.‫ﺤﺎﺩﺜﺔ‬‫'( ﻭﺨﺎﺼﺔﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔِ ﺍﻟﻤ‬ll ) ‫ ﺇﻟﻰ‬shall ‫ ﺃﻭ‬will ‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ ﻜﹸﻠﹼﺎﹰ ﻤﻥ‬‫ ﻴ‬.1
.(‫ )ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ‬shan't shall not ‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ‬ Ÿ
.(‫ ) ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ‬won't will not ‫ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﺨﺘﺼﺎﺭ‬ Ÿ
:‫ ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬،‫ﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﺩ‬‫ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﻴ‬،‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬‫ﻌﻴﻥٍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ ﻟﻠﺘﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁٍ ﻤ‬،‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ ﻴ‬.2

am / is / are + going to  

1. He is going to read a new story. (‫ﺔ‬‫) ﻨﻴ‬ .‫ﺴﻴﻘﺭﺃ ﻗﺼﺔﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓﹰ‬


ُ ‫ﻫﻭ‬
2. Shadi is going to weekend in London. (Planning) (‫)ﺘﺨﻁﻴﻁ‬ .‫ﻁﻠﺔﹶ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻷُﺴﺒﻭﻉ ﻓﻲ ﻟﻨﺩﻥ‬‫ﺴﻴﻘﻀﻲ ﺸﺎﺩﻱ ﻋ‬

Examples Negative Interrogative


I shall go to school. I shan't go to school. Will you go to school?
1.
.ِ‫ﺴﺄﺫﻫﺏُ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ .ِ‫ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬‫ﻟﻥ ﺃﺫﻫﺏ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺴﺘﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔِ؟‬
He will leave school. He won't leave school. Will he leave school?
2.
.‫ﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬‫ﻴﺘﺭ‬‫ﻫﻭ ﺴ‬ .‫ﻫﻭ ﻟﻥ ﻴﺘﺭﻙَ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻫﻭ ﺴﻴﺘﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ؟‬
He'll come to school. He won't come to school. Will he come to school?
3.
.ِ‫ﻫﻭ ﺴﻴﺤﻀﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ .ِ‫ﻫﻭ ﻟﻥ ﻴﺤﻀﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺴﻴﺤﻀﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔِ؟‬

40


Exercise No.12 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

I) Choose the correct verb in the brackets:- :‫ﺤﻴﺢ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﺼ‬
1. They (will go - are going - is going) to move to a new house.
2. He (studies - will study - is studying) all morning tomorrow.
3. We (starts- shall start - will start) work next week.
4. Tomorrow, I (swam - swim - shall swim) in the sea.
5. Ali (will built - built - will build) a new house in the future.

II) Correct the verbs between brackets:- :‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬‫ﺼﺤ‬
1. She (clean) the rooms tomorrow.
2. We (see) him next Friday.
3. Ahmed (visit) us in the next Monday.
4. My father (be) forty next May.
5. I (take) the exam next Tuesday.
6. Mazen's father (arrive) to Gaza tomorrow.
7. Nadia (study) at home tomorrow.
8. We (meet) Ali next week.
9. When you (meet) them? I (meet) them at 7:00 o'clock.
10. He (leave) in a few days.



Birds of a feather flock together.

 

41


Exercise No. 13 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

 General Exercises on Tenses

I) Correct the verbs between brackets:- :‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬‫ﺼﺤ‬
1. He usually (visit) us once a month.
2. I (make) few mistakes but she (make) many mistakes.
3. He (live) in England since 1985.
4. We (finish) the project by the end of the year.
5. Many planets ( to move) round the sun.
6. He (travel) to France next week.
7. If you think it over, you (see) I am right.
8. The doctor (examine) him and (give) him some pills.
9. After I (work) for some time, I (hear) a knock at the door.
10. I (wait) her till she comes back.
11. I (wait) her till she came back.
12. Samy (come) tomorrow.
13. My uncle (become) better.
14. She (leave) London before we (reach).
15. I (not see) my friend since his absence.
16. I (see) you yesterday; you (sit) outside a café.
17. The pupils (learn) English grammar now.
18. Yesterday, I (visit) my uncle Khalil.
19. While he (learn) to drive, he (have) many accidents.
20. Before I (come) to school, I (eat) my breakfast.
21. They (buy) some fruits now.
22. A policeman always (direct) traffic there.
23. Rain (fall) heavily tonight.
24. He (travel) in Europe when he (meet) Mary in France.
25. She (see) the accident before she (go) to school.

II) Choose the correct answers between brackets: :‫ﺤﻴﺤﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺼ‬
1. I (borrow - borrows - borrowed) three books from the library last week.
2. My friend (lived - lives - has lived) in Rafah since 1980.
3. Now, he (watches - watched - is watching) TV.
4. After I (had - had had - have had) some biscuits, I had a drink.
5. While she (was making - makes - made) tea, they (open - opened - are opening) her bag.
6. I have not met Ali (for - ago - since) the last two weeks.
7. Did you (see - saw - seen) Ahmed yesterday?

42

8. Have you (did - do - done) your work?
9. She (didn't finish - hasn't finished - hadn't finished) her new book yet.
10. Generally, I (think - am thinking - thought) the story is not bad.
11. Before I (go - went - had gone) home, they (left - had left - leave).
Last night, I (sleep - am sleeping - slept) for six hours when I (receive - received - was
12.
receiving) a telephone call.
13. We (move - will move - shall move) those stones soon.
14. They (visit - will visit - had visited) the farm tomorrow.
15. Have you (never - ever - ago) visited Jerusalem?
16. I have (never - ever - ago) visited Jerusalem.
17. Samy always (go - goes - went) to school on foot.
18. While I (am walking - was walking - walked) in the street I (see - saw - seen) my friend.
19. Look! He (jumps - was jumping - is jumping).
By the time, he (finishes - had finished - finished) answering the test, the bell (ring - rang -
20.
rung).
As soon as he (had finished – finishes - finished) answering the test, the bell (ring -rang -
21.
rung).
22. She (writes - writing - write) to her parents on Fridays.
23. What (they were doing - they did - were they doing) when the teacher entered?
24. I (lived - have lived - has lived) here since I (was - were - am) a little boy.
25. He (feel - felt - feels) sick after he (eats - ate - had eaten) three cakes.

The exception proves the rule.

 















43

 

 Tense Formation Examples Negative  Interrogative

:‫× ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ‬ 1) I play football.  don't +  Do + …. ?


.‫ ﻜﹸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ‬‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﻟﻌﺏ‬
‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ‬‫ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟـﻀ‬ I, You, We, They :‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬‫ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻀ‬I, You, We, They :‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻀ‬
2) He reads a story. I don't play football. Do you play football?
:‫ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬
.‫ﺔﹰ‬‫ﻫﻭ ﻴﻘﺭﺃُ ﻗﺼ‬ .‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺃﻟﻌﺏ ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺘﻠﻌﺏ ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ؟‬
The Present Simple I, You, We, They
 doesn't + Does + +…. ?
  s + ‫× ﺃﻭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬
He, She, It :‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻀ‬ He, She, It :‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻀ‬
:‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻵﺘﻴـﺔ‬‫ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟـﻀ‬
He doesn't read a story. Does he read a story?
He, She, It .‫ﻫﻭ ﻻ ﻴﻘﺭﺃُ ﻗﺼﺔﹰ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻴﻘﺭﺃ ﻗﺼﺔ؟‬
:‫× ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ‬ 1) They watched TV.   didn't + Did +...?
.‫ﻫﻡ ﺸﺎﻫﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ‬
.‫ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﻌل‬ .‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ‬‫ﻤﻊ ﺠﻤﻴﻊ ﺍﻟﻀ‬
The Past Simple 1) They didn't watch TV. 1) Did they watch TV?
 2) He studied the lesson.
.‫ﻫﻡ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺸﺎﻫﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺸﺎﻫﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ؟‬
.‫ﺭﺱ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺩ‬‫ﺱ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻫﻭ ﺩ‬
2) He didn't study the lesson. 2) Did he study the lesson?
.‫ﺭﺱ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺩ‬‫ﺱ‬‫ﻫﻭ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺩﺭ‬ ‫؟‬‫ﺭﺱ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺩ‬‫ﻫل ﺩﺭﺱ‬
:‫ﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬‫× ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼ‬ 1) I am writing now. am, is, are + not + ing Am, Is, Are + ‫ ﻓﺎﻋل‬+  + ing … ?
.‫ ﺍﻵﻥ‬‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﻜﺘﹸﺏ‬
am, is, are + ‫ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬+ ing 1) I am not writing now 1) Are you writing now?
The Present 2) He is reading a story.
.‫ﻫﻭ ﻴﻘﺭﺃُ ﻗﺼﺔﹰ‬ .‫ ﺍﻵﻥ‬‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺃﻜﺘﹸﺏ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺃﻨﺕﹶ ﺘﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻵﻥ؟‬
Continuous
2) Is he reading a story?

2) He is not reading a story.
3) They are walking.
.ً‫ﻫﻭ ﻻ ﻴﻘﺭﺃُ ﻗﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻫﻭ ﻴﻘﺭﺃُ ﻗﺼﺔﹰ؟‬
.‫ﻡ ﻴﻤﺸﻭﻥ‬‫ﻫ‬
3) They are not walking 3) Are they walking?
‫ﻡ ﻴﻤﺸﻭﻥ؟‬‫ﻫل ﻫ‬

44


.‫ﻫﻡ ﻻ ﻴﻤﺸﻭﻥ‬

 

 Formation Examples Negative  Interrogative


 Tense
:‫ﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬‫× ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼ‬ 1) I was running. was, were + not +‫ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬+ ing Was, Were + ‫ ﻓﺎﻋﻞ‬+ ‫ اﻟﻤﺼﺪر‬+ ing.. ?
.‫ﻜﹸﻨﹾﺕﹸ ﺃﺠﺭﻱ‬
was, were + ‫ ﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬+ ing 1) I was not running. 1) Were you running?
The Past 2) She was making tea.
Continuous .‫ﻟﻡ ﺃﻜﹸﻥ ﺃﺠﺭﻱ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻜﹸﻨﹾﺕﹶَ ﺘﺠﺭﻱ؟‬
.‫ ﺸﺎﻴﺎﹰ‬‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﹸﻌِﺩ‬
  3) We were drinking milk.
2) She was not making tea. 2) Was she making tea?
.‫ ﺸﺎﻴﺎﹰ‬‫ﻟﻡ ﺘﻜﹸﻥ ﺘﹸﻌِﺩ‬ ‫ ﺸﺎﻴﺎﹰ؟‬‫ﻫل ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﹸﻌِﺩ‬
.‫ﻜﹸﻨﹼﺎ ﻨﺸﺭﺏ ﺤﻠﻴﺒﺎﹰ‬
3) We were not drinking milk. 3) Were they drinking milk?
‫ﻨﺤﻥ ﻟﻡ ﻨﻜﹸﻥ ﻨﺸﺭﺏ ﺤﻠﻴﺒﺎﹰ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﺸﺭﺒﻭﻥ ﺤﻠﻴﺒﺎﹰ؟‬
:‫ﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬‫× ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼ‬ 1) I have done my work.
have ‫ ﺃﻭ‬has +not + P.P Have ‫ ﺃﻭ‬Has + ‫ ﻓﺎﻋل‬+ P.P …..?
.‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻗﹸﻤﺕﹸ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻲ‬
The Present have‫ ﺃﻭ‬has + P.P 1) I have not done my work. 1) Have you done your work?
  Perfect 2) He has written the letter.
.‫ﻟﻡ ﺃﻗﹸﻡ ﺒﻌﻤﻠﻲ‬ ‫ﻫل ﻗﹸﻤﺕﹶ ﺒﻌﻤﻠِﻙ؟‬
.‫ﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺭ‬‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﹶﺘﹶﺏ‬
 2) He has not written the letter. 2) Has he written the letter?
3) They have played basketball.
.‫ﺴﺎﻟﺔ‬‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﺘﹸﺏ ﺍﻟﺭ‬ ‫ ﺍﻟﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔ؟‬‫ﻫل ﻜﹶﺘﹶﺏ‬
 .‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻟﻌِﺒﻭﺍ ﻜﹸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴ‬
3) They have not played basketball. 3) Have they played basketball?
.‫ﻠﺔ‬‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﻠﻌﺒﻭﺍ ﻜﹸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴ‬ ‫ﻠﺔ؟‬‫ﻫل ﻟﻌِﺒﻭﺍ ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴ‬

45

:‫ﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬‫× ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼ‬ 1) I had met Ali.
had + not + P.P Had + ‫ ﻓﺎﻋل‬+ P.P …..?
had + P.P .‫ﺎﹰ‬‫ﻜﹸﻨﹾﺕﹸ ﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺕﹸ ﻋﻠﻴ‬
1) I had not met Ali. 1) Had you met Ali?
The Past 2) She had cooked the food.
.‫ﺎﹰ‬‫ﻟﻡ ﺃﻜﹸﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺕ ﻋﻠﻴ‬ ‫ﺎﹰ؟‬‫ﻫل ﻜﻨﺕﹸ ﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺕﹶ ﻋﻠﻴ‬
 Perfect .‫ﺨﺕﹾ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ ﹶ‬‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﻁﹶﺒ‬
2) She had not cooked the food. 2) Had she cooked the food?
 3) You had done the work.
.‫ﻟﻡ ﺘﻜﹸﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻁﺒﺨﺕ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﻌﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺨﺕﹾ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﻌﺎﻡ؟‬ ‫ ﹶ‬‫ﻫل ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﻁﹶﺒ‬
.‫ﻜﹸﻨﹾﺕﹶ ﻗﺩ ﻓﻌﻠﺕﹶ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬
3) You had not done the work. 3) Had you done the work?
.‫ﻟﻡ ﺘﻜﹸﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻓﻌﻠﺕﹶ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل‬ ‫ﻫل ﻜﹸﻨﹾﺕﹶ ﻗﺩ ﻓﻌﻠﺕﹶ ﺍﻟﻌﻤل؟‬
 

 Formation Examples Negative  Interrogative


 Tense
:‫ﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬‫× ﻴﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼ‬1) I shall visit you tomorrow. shall ‫ ﺃﻭ‬will + not + ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬ Shall ‫ ﺃﻭ‬Will + ‫ ﻓﺎﻋل‬+ ‫… ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬.?
.‫ ﻏﺩﺍﹰ‬‫ﺴﺄﺯﻭﺭﻙ‬
The Future shall ‫ ﺃﻭ‬will +‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬ 1) I shan't visit you tomorrow. 1) Will you visit me tomorrow?
Simple 2) He will arrive next Friday.
we ‫ ﻭ‬I :‫ﺘﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻤﻊ‬ shall .‫ ﻏﺩﺍﹰ‬‫ﻟﻥ ﺃﺯﻭﺭﻙ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺴﺘﺯﻭﻨﻲ ﻏﺩﺍﹰ؟‬
 .‫ﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡ‬‫ﺴﻴﺼل ﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺠ‬
:‫ﺘﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻤﻊ‬ will 2) He won't arrive next Friday. 2) Will he arrive next Friday?
He, She, It, They, You .‫ﻟﻥ ﻴﺼل ﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡ‬ ‫ﻫل ﺴﻴﺼل ﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡ؟‬

 

Nobody listens until you say something wrong.

. 



46


 

 
 
 

  Key words of the Tenses 


  Tense The Present The Present The Past The Present The Past The Future
The Past Simple
Simple Continuous Continuous Perfect Perfect Simple

always ‫ﺩﺍﺌﻤﺎﹰ‬ yesterday ‫ﺃﻤــﺱ‬ now ‫ﺍﻵﻥ‬ while ‫ ﺒﻴﻨـﻤﺎ‬already ‫ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌل‬/ ‫ﻓﻌﻼﹰ‬ after ‫ﺒـﻌﺩ‬ tomorrow ‫ﻏـﺩﺍﹰ‬

often ً ‫ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎ‬ once ‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﺭﺓ‬ at the present when ‫ﻋﻨـﺩﻤﺎ‬ 


just ‫ ﻤﻨﺫ ﻭﻗﺕ ﻗﻠﻴل‬/ ‫ﺘﻭﺍﹰ‬ before ‫ﻗـﺒل‬ soon ‫ﺤـﺎﻻﹰ‬

Key Words

‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺤـﺎﻀﺭ‬
usually ‫ﻋﺎﺩﺓﹰ‬ one day at this moment ever as soon as in the future
as ‫ ﻁـﺎﻟﻤﺎ‬/ ‫ﺒﻴـﻨﻤﺎ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﻴﻭﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻴﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻫـﺫِﻩِ ﺍﻟﻠﺤﻅﺔ‬ (‫ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤـﺭﺓ )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴﺅﺍل‬ ‫ﺤـﺎﻟﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل‬‫ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‬
sometimes ‫ﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨـﺎﹰ‬ just now ‫ﻗـﺒل ﺍﻵﻥ‬ Look! !‫ ﺃُﻨﻅﹸﺭ‬still never ‫ﻁﻠﻘﺎﹰ‬‫ ﻤ‬/ ‫ﺃﺒﺩﺍﹰ‬ until ‫ﺤـﺘﹼﻰ‬ tonight ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴـﻠﺔ‬
‫ ﻻ ﻴﺯﺍل‬/‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﺯل‬ till ‫ﺤـﺘﹼﻰ‬
generally ‫ﻤﻭﻤﺎﹰ‬‫ﻋ‬ ago ‫ﻨـﺫﹸ‬‫ﻤ‬ Listen! !‫ﺍﺴﻤﻊ‬ yet ‫ ﺒﻌـﺩ‬/ ‫ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ‬by the time next … ... ‫ﺍﻟﺘﹼـﺎﻟﻲ‬
‫ﺤﻴـﻨﻤﺎ‬
every….. ….‫ ﻜﹸـل‬in olden times Smell! !‫ﺃﺘﺸﹸﻡ‬ since ‫ﻨـﺫﹸ‬‫ﻤ‬ (next month, year,
‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﻭﻗﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬

47

frequently in the past ‫ﻓـﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬ while ‫ﺒﻴـﻨﻤﺎ‬ recently ‫ﺤﺩﻴـﺜﺎﹰ‬ day…)
‫ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍﹰ‬/ ‫ﻤِـﺭﺍﺭﺍﹰ‬ ‫ﻨﺔ‬‫ ﺍﻟـﺴ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺸﹼﻬﺭ ﺍﻟﺘﹼـﺎﻟﻲ‬
(.. ،‫ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻟﻲ‬،‫ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻟﻴﺔ‬
never last …. ....‫ ﺴﺎﺒﻕﹸ‬as ‫ ﻁﺎﻟﻤﺎ‬/ ‫ﺒﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ lately ‫ﺅﺨﹼـﺭﺍﹰ‬‫ﻤ‬
‫ﺃﺒﺩﺍﹰ‬/‫( ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻹﻁﻼﻕ‬last month, year, day….)
still ‫ﻻ ﻴﺯﺍل‬
rarely ‫ﻨـﺎﺩﺭﺍﹰ‬ as long as ‫ﻤﺎﺩﺍﻡ‬ for ‫ـﺩﺓ‬‫ﻟﻤ‬

48


 Conditional Sentences (If Rules) (Conditionals)


 

.‫ ﺇﻥ‬،‫ ﻟﻭ‬،‫( ﺘﻌﻨﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ‬if) ü


.‫( ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺸﺭﻁ ﻭﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺭﺒﻁ‬if)‫ ﺘﹸﻌﺘﺒﺭ‬ü
.‫ ﺸﻴﺌﺎﹰ ﻴﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺁﺨﺭ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﹸﻔﻴﺩ ﺃﻥ‬‫ ﺃﻱ ﺍﻟﺠ‬،‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁﻴ‬‫ﺒﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫( ﻟﺘﻌ‬if) ‫ ﺘﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ü
.‫ﺔ ﻓﻌل ﺸﺭﻁ ﻭﻓﻌل ﺠﻭﺍﺏ ﺸﺭﻁ ﻭﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﻋﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺏ ﺍﻷﻋﻡ ﺴﻨﺒﻨﻴﻬﺎ ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁﻴ‬‫ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠ‬ü
:‫ﺔ ﻭﻫﻲ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁﻴ‬‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﺭﺒﻌﺔ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠ‬ü

1-The Zero Conditional 

 1) Form:


if + Present Simple Present Simple
‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬‫ﻤ‬


 2) Usage:
 100 ‫ﺍﺌﻤﺔ‬‫ ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻋﺩﺓ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺌﻕ ﺍﻟﺩ‬ü

‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬‫( ﻓﻲ ﻭﺴﻁِ ﺍﻟﺠ‬if) ‫ﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ‬‫ ﺃﻤ‬،ِ‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬‫ﺯﺀ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ ( ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺠ‬, ) ‫( ﻨﻀﻊ ﻓﺎﺼﻠﺔ‬if) ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺒـ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﺠ‬ u
.‫ﻓﻼ ﻨﻀﻊ ﻓﺎﺼﻠﺔ‬

Examples ‫ﺃﻤـﺜﻠﺔ‬

1. If water freezes, it turns into ice. (‫ )ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬.‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺜﻠﺞ‬‫ ﻴﺘﺤﻭ‬‫ ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻪ‬،‫ﻟﻭ ﻴﺘﺠﻤﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬
2. If we put sugar in water, it dissolves. (‫ )ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬.‫ ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻪ ﻴﺫﻭﺏ‬،‫ﻜﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ‬‫ﻟﻭ ﻨﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺴ‬
3. If we heat iron, it expands. (‫ )ﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔ‬.‫ ﻴﺘﻤﺩﺩ‬‫ ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻪ‬،‫ﻟﻭ ﻨﹸﺴﺨﹼﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩ‬

2.The First Conditional 

 1) Form:


if + Present Simple Future Simple
‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬‫ﻤ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬‫ﻤ‬
shall / will + ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬
.will ‫ ﺃﻭ‬shall ‫ ﺒﺩﻻﹰ ﻤﻥ‬can ‫ ﺃﻭ‬may ‫ﻭﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ×

49


 2) Usage:
.(Probable) (‫ﺤﺘﻤﻠـﺔ ﺍﻟﺤـﺩﻭﺙ‬‫ ﻤ‬‫ﺔ ﻟﻸﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻤﻜـﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﺤﻘـﻕ )ﺃﻱ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁﻴ‬‫ ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠ‬ü
 50

Examples ‫ﺃﻤـﺜﻠﺔ‬

1. If you eat too much, you'll be sick. .‫ ﻓﺴﺘﻤﺭﺽ‬،‫ﻟﻭ ﺘﺄﻜﹸل ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍﹰ‬


2. If he works hard, he will succeed. .‫ ﻓﺴﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬،ٍ‫ﻟﻭ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺒِﺠﺩ‬
3. If he works hard, he can succeed. .‫ ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬،ٍ‫ﻟﻭ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺒﺠﺩ‬
4. If he works hard, he may succeed. .‫ ﻴﺠﻭﺯ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬،ٍ‫ﻟﻭ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺒﺠﺩ‬
5. You'll fall if you are not careful. .‫ ﺇﻥ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺤﺫﺭ‬،‫ﺴﺘﻘﻊ‬
6. If he does not work hard, he will not succeed. .‫ ﻓﻠﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬،ٍ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺒﺠﺩ‬

3.The Second Conditional 

 1) Form:

 
if + Past Simple should / would + ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬
‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬‫ﻤ‬

.would ‫ ﺃﻭ‬should ‫ ﺒﺩﻻﹰ ﻤﻥ‬could ‫ ﺃﻭ‬might ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ×


 2) Usage:
-:‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﹸﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁﻴ‬‫ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠ‬ ü

Improbable
 10
If he won the prize, he would buy a new car.
.(‫ ﺴﻴﻜﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺌﺯﺓ‬‫ﺢ ﺃﻨﹸﻪ‬‫ﺭﺠ‬‫ﺤﺘﻤل ﺃﻭ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤ‬‫) ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤ‬.‫ ﻓﺴﻴﺸﺘﺭﻱ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓﹰ‬،‫ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺌﺯﺓ‬‫ ﻟﻭ ﻜﺴﺏ‬/ ‫ﺇﺫﺍ‬

 
If they had some money, they would stay at a hotel.
1.
.(‫ ﻟﺫﺍ ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻬﻡ ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﺜﻭﻥ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻨﺩﻕ‬،‫ )ﺃﻱ ﻟﻴﺱ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﻨﻘﻭﺩﺍﹰ ﺍﻵﻥ‬.ِ‫ ﻟﻤﻜﺜﻭﺍ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﻨﺩﻕ‬،‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻟﺩﻴﻬﻡ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻘﻭﺩ‬
If I were rich, I wouldn't drive an old car. .‫ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻗﹸﺩﺕﹸ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓﹰ ﻗﺩﻴﻤﺔﹰ‬،‫ﺎﹰ‬‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨﺕﹸ ﻏﻨﻴ‬
2.
.(‫ ﺃﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻨﺎ ﺯﻤﻥ ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‬:‫ )ﺃﻱ‬.‫ﻤﻜﻥ‬‫ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤ‬‫ﻥ ﺃﻨﹼﻪ‬‫ ( ﻟﻨﹸﺒﻴ‬I ) ‫( ﻤﻊ‬was) ‫( ﺒﺩﻻﹰ ﻤﻥ‬were) ‫ ﺃﻨﹼﻨﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻨﺎ‬ ♦

3. If I were you, I would (I'd) tell the police. .‫ ﻷﺨﺒﺭﺕﹸ ﺍﻟﺸﱡﺭﻁﺔ‬،‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨﺕﹸ ﻤﻜﺎﻨﻙ‬
.‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻏﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺤﺩﺙ )ﺍﻻﻓﺘﺭﺍﺽ( ﺤﻘﻴﻘﻲ‬،(I, He, She, It) ‫( ﻤﻊ‬was) ‫( ﺒﺩﻻﹰ ﻤﻥ‬were) ‫ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎﹰ ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ‬ u

50


Examples ‫ﺃﻤـﺜﻠﺔ‬

1. If he studied hard, he would (could) succeed. .(‫ ﻟﻨﺠﺢ ) ﻻﺴﺘﻁﺎﻉ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬،ٍ‫ ﺒﺠﺩ‬‫ﺱ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻟﻭ ﺩ‬
2. If I met a lion, I would climb a tree. .‫ ﻓﺴﺄﺘﺴﻠﹼﻕﹸ ﺸﺠﺭﺓﹰ‬،‫ﻟﻭ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺕﹸ ﺃﺴﺩﺍﹰ‬
3. If I were you, I'd take the money. .‫ ﻷﺨﺫﺕﹸ ﺍﻟﻨﱡﻘﻭﺩ‬،‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨﺕ ُﻤﻜﺎﻨﻙ‬
4. If I were a car, I would be Mercedes. .‫ ﻟﺭﻏﺒﺕﹸ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻨﻭﻉِ ﻤﺭﺴﻴﺩﺱ‬،‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨﺕﹸ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓﹰ‬
5. If you found a snake in your room, you should run away. .‫ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻙ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻬﺭﺏ‬،‫ﻟﻭ ﻭﺠﺩﺕﹶ ﺜﻌﺒﺎﻨﺎﹰ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺭﻓﺘِﻙ‬

3.The Third Conditional 

 1) Form:

 
if + Past Perfect should have / would have + P.P
‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺘﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺘﺎﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬‫ﻤ‬

.would have ‫ ﺃﻭ‬should have ‫ ﺒﺩﻻﹰ ﻤِﻥ‬could have ‫ ﺃﻭ‬might have ‫ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬ ü

 2) Usage:

‫ﺙ ﺃﻭ‬‫( ﺃﻭ ﻋﻥ ﺸﻲﺀٍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺤـﺩ‬Impossible) ‫ﺴﺘﺤﻴل ﺍﻟﻭﻗﻭﻉ‬‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﺘﹼﻌﺒﻴﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺸﻲﺀٍ ﻤ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁﻴ‬‫ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻭﻉ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﹸﺠ‬ ×
0 .‫ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺩﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﻑ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﺎ ﺤﺩﺙ‬

Examples ‫ﺃﻤـﺜﻠﺔ‬

If he had informed the police, he wouldn't have


1. .َ‫ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻗﹸﺘِل‬،‫ ﺍﻟﺸﱡﺭﻁﺔ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺃﺨﹶﺒ‬
been killed.
If he had studied hard, he would (could) have ‫ ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻨﺠﺢ ) ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻗـﺩ‬،ٍ‫ ﺒﺠﺩ‬‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺩﺭﺱ‬
2.
succeeded. .( ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻁﺎﻉ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬

If I had listened to his advice, I wouldn't have lost ‫ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻜﻨﺕﹸ ﻗـﺩ‬،ٍ‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨﺕﹸ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻤﻌﺕﹸ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﺼﻴﺤﺘﻪ‬
3.
the money. .(‫ﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺩﻡ‬‫) ﺘﹸﻌﺒ‬.‫ﻓﻘﺩﺕﹸ ﺍﻟﻨﱡﻘﻭﺩ‬
4. If my parents hadn't married, I wouldn't have been born. .‫ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻜﹸﻨﹾﺕﹸ ﻗﺩ ﻭﻟِﺩﺕﹸ‬،‫ﺠﺎ‬‫ ﻗﺩ ﺘﺯﻭ‬‫ﻟﻭ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﹸﻥ ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻱ‬
5. If he had made a mistake, he would have apologized. .‫ ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺍﻋﺘﺫﺭ‬،ً‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻋﻤِلَ ﺨﻁﺄ‬

51

 u
 
 
If

‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻤﺒﺩﻭﺀﺓﹰ ﺒﺄﺤﺩ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل‬‫ ﻭ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺠ‬،( if ) ‫ﺫﻓﺕ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁ‬‫ﺔﹰ ﻭﻗﺩ ﺤ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺸﺭﻁﻴ‬‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﻴ‬ ü
‫ﺅﺍل( )ﺃﻱ ﻻ ﻴﺴﺒﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬‫ﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻤﻴﺔ )ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺴ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼ‬‫( ﻭﻻ ﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺠ‬Should - Had - Were) ‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺓ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬
.‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬‫ ﻭ ﺒﺩﻭﻥ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟( ﻓﻲ ﺁﺨﺭِ ﺍﻟﺠ‬،(‫ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬
.‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁﻴ‬‫( ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﻨﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻨﻲ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠ‬should) ‫ ( ﻭ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﺩﻻﹰ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬if ) ‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺤﺫﻑ‬‫( ﻴ‬1

If he studies hard, he will succeed.


1. (‫)ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل‬ .‫ ﻓﺴﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬،ٍ‫ﻟﻭ ﻴﺩﺭﺱ ﺒﺠﺩ‬
= Should he studies hard, he will succeed.
If he succeeded, he would join the university.
2. (‫)ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻨﻲ‬ .‫ ﻓﺴﻴﻠﺘﺤﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬،‫ﻟﻭ ﻨﺠﺢ‬
= Should he succeeded, he would join the university.

.‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁﻴ‬‫( ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠ‬were) ‫ ( ﻭ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﺩﻻﹰ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬if ) ‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺤﺫﻑ‬‫( ﻴ‬2

If I were a bird, I would fly.


1. .‫ ﻟﻁِﺭﺕﹸ‬،‫ﺼﻔﻭﺭﺍﹰ‬‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﻨﺕﹸ ﻋ‬
= Were I a bird, I would fly.
If he bought that car, it would cost him much. .‫ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍﹰ‬‫ ﻟﻜﻠﹼﻔﺘﻪ‬،‫ﺎﺭﺓ‬‫ﻟﻭ ﺍﺸﺘﺭﻯ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺴﻴ‬
2.
= Were he to buy that car, it would cost him much. .if ‫ ﺒﺩﻻﹰ ﻤِﻥ‬were…. to ‫ ﺃﻨﻨﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﻤﻨﺎ‬ 

.‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁﻴ‬‫( ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﻤِﻥ ﺍﻟﺠ‬Had) ‫ ( ﻭ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﺩﻻﹰ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ‬if ) ‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺤﺫﻑ‬‫( ﻴ‬3
.‫ ﺒﻤﻔﺭﺩﻫﺎ‬had ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬ ü
.‫ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻔﻌل‬had ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل‬ ü

If I had enough money, I would buy a new house.


1. (‫)ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻨﻲ‬ .‫ ﻻﺸﺘﺭﻴﺕ ﻤﻨﺯﻻﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺍﹰ‬،‫ ﻤﺎﻻﹰ ﻜﺎﻓﻴﺎﹰ‬‫ﻟﻭ ﺃﻤﺘﻠﻙ‬
= Had I enough money, I would buy a new house.
If he studied hard, he would have succeeded.
2. (‫)ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻟﺙ‬ .‫ ﻟﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻨﺠﺢ‬،ٍ‫ ﺒﺠﺩ‬‫ﺱ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺩ‬
= Had he studied hard, he would have succeeded.
If they had obeyed me, they would have won the prize.
3. (‫)ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﺎﻟﺙ‬ .‫ ﻟﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻗﺩ ﺭﺒﺤﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺌﺯﺓ‬،‫ﻟﻭ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻁﺎﻋﻭﻨﻲ‬
= Had they obeyed me, they would have won the prize.

.unless ‫ﺔ ﺘﻨﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁﻴ‬‫( ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل ﻭﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻨﻲ ﻭﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠ‬4

unless = if…..not

.‫ﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺸﻲﺀٍ ﺴﻠﺒﻲ‬‫ﻌﺒ‬‫ﺤﻴﺙ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺠﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﺭﻁ ﻤﻨﻔﻴﺎﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻴ‬ ü


.‫ﺤﺩِﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﻌﻼﻗﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁ ﻭﻓﻌل ﺠﻭﺍﺏ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁ‬‫( ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﻤ‬unless) ‫ﻭﻴﻨﻁﺒﻕ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ü

If he does not succeed, he will not join the university.


1. .‫ ﻓﻠﻥ ﻴﻠﺘﺤﻕ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺎﻤﻌﺔ‬،‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬
= Unless he succeeds, he will not join the university.
If he did not work hard, he would not succeed.
2. .‫ ﻓﻠﻥ ﻴﻨﺠﺢ‬،ٍ‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻌﻤل ﺒﺠﺩ‬
= Unless he worked hard, he would not succeed.
52

If he had not paid money, he would not have received
the goods.
3. .‫ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﺒﻀﺎﺌﻊ‬،‫ﻟﻭ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺩﻓﻊ ﻨﻘﻭﺩﺍﹰ‬
= Unless he had paid money, he would not have
received the goods.
If he did not take this medicine, he would not be better.
4. .‫ﻥ‬‫ ﻓﻠﻥ ﻴﺘﺤﺴ‬،‫ﻭﺍﺀ‬‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺄﺨﺫ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺩ‬
= Unless he took this medicine, he would not be better.

Exercise No. 14 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

I) Choose the correct answer: :‫ﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬‫ﺍﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻹﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺍﻟﺼ‬


1. If she (had – has – have) time, she will visit us.
2. What (will – would – do) you do if you (has – had – have) a lot of money?
3. If he (came – come-comes), I (should – shall – would) forgive him.
4. (Was – Were – Am) I a car, I (will – would – shall) be Ford.
5. If she (stayed – stays – had stayed) at home, she would have received the telegram.

II) Correct the verbs between brackets: :‫ﺢ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬‫ﺼﺤ‬
1. If she (win) some money, she would have (buy) presents to her friends.
2. Unless they (obey) me, the work would (stop).
3. If you (to eat) too much, you will be sick.
4. Unless he (tell) us the truth, we would not punish him.
5. If he played well, he (win) the match.



Books and friends should be few but good.

 

53


If
  Time
 
    Form  Examples
 Usage
 
Probability
 percentage
The Zero
Conditional if + Present Simple Present Simple any time
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﯿ ﺮ ﻋ ﻦ اﻟﺤﻘ ﺎﺋﻖ‬ If water freezes, it turns into ice.
 If  %100 ‫ﻣﻀﺎرع ﺑﺴﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﻣُﻀﺎرع ﺑﺴﯿﻂ‬ .ً‫اﻟﺜﺎﺑﺘﺔ داﺋﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ أي وﻗﺖ‬ .(‫ ﻓﺈﻧّﮫ ﯾﺘﺤﻮّل إﻟﻰ ﺛﻠﺞٍ )ﺣﻘﯿﻘﺔ‬،‫ﻟﻮ ﯾﺘﺠﻤّﺪ اﻟﻤﺎء‬

1) If you clean my bike, I'll give
The First
you a dollar.
Conditional ٍ‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﯿ ﺮ ﻋ ﻦ ﺷ ﻲء‬ future .ً‫ ﻓﺴﺄُﻋﻄﯿﻚ دوﻻرا‬،‫ﻟﻮ ﺗُﻨﻈﻒ دراﺟﺘﻲ‬
if + Present Simple Future Simple
If %50 ‫ﻣُﺤﺘﻤﻞ اﻟﺤُﺪوث‬
.(‫)ﻣﻤﻜﻦ أن ﯾﺘﺤﻘﻖ‬
‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤُﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬ 2) Should he studies hard, he will
‫ﻣﻀﺎرع ﺑﺴﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﻣُﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺑﺴﯿﻂ‬ succeed.
 (will, shall + ‫)ﻣﺼﺪر اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ .‫ ﻓﺴﯿﻨﺠﺢ‬،ٍ‫ﻟﻮ ﯾﺪرس ﺑﺠﺪ‬
1) If he won the prize, he would
The Second buy a car.
conditional if + Past Simple should, would + ‫ﻣﺼﺪر اﻟﻔﻌﻞ‬ future .ً‫ ﻓﺴﯿﺸﺘﺮي ﺳﯿﺎرة‬،‫إذا ﻛﺴﺐ اﻟﺠﺎﺋﺰة‬
‫ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﯿﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻲ ٍء‬
If %10 ‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺑﺴﯿﻂ‬ ‫ﻣُﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬ .‫ﻏﯿﺮ ﻣُﺤﺘﻤﻞ اﻟﻮﻗُﻮع‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤُﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬ 2) If I were a bird, I would fly.
.‫ ﻓﺴﺄﻃﯿﺮ‬،ً‫ﻟﻮ ﻛُﻨﺖُ ﻋُﺼﻔُﻮرا‬
 3) Were I a bird, I would fly.
.‫ ﻓﺴﺄﻃﯿﺮ‬،ً‫ﻟﻮ ﻛُﻨﺖُ ﻋُﺼﻔﻮرا‬
1) If he had studied hard, he
would have succeeded.
The Third if + Past Perfect should (would) have + P.P ٍ‫* ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﯿﺮ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻲء‬ .‫ ﻟﻜﺎن ﻗﺪ ﻧﺠﺢ‬،ٍ‫ﻟﻮ ﻛﺎن ﻗﺪ درس ﺑِﺠﺪ‬
Conditional past
‫ﻣﺎﺿﻲ ﺗﺎم‬ ‫ﻣُﺴﺘﻘﺒﻞ ﺗﺎم ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬ .‫ﻣُﺴﺘﺤﯿﻞ اﻟﻮﻗﻮع‬
If %0 ‫* ﻟﻠﺘﻌﺒﯿﺮ ﻋﻦ اﻟﻨﺪم‬
‫أو اﻷﺳﻒ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﺎﺿﻲ‬
2) If I had listened to his advice,
3) I would not have lost my
money.
 .‫ﺣﺪث‬
‫ ﻟﻤﺎ ﻛُﻨﺖُ ﻗﺪ‬،ِ‫ﻟﻮ ﻛُﻨﺖُ ﻗﺪ اﺳﺘﻤﻌﺖُ إﻟﻰ ﻧﺼﯿﺤﺘﮫ‬
 ‫ﻓﻘﺪتُ ﻧُﻘﻮدي‬

54


 Active Voice and Passive Voice

.‫( ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻭﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌل‬subject) ‫ﻭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬‫( ﺘﹸﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻀ‬Active Voice) ‫ ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬.1

 ç


     

1. Ahmed rides a bicycle. .‫ﻴﺭﻜﺏ ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺩﺭﺍﺠﺔﹰ‬


2. Huda plays games. .‫ﺩﻯ ﺃﻟﻌﺎﺒﺎﹰ‬‫ﺘﻠﻌﺏ ﻫ‬

.‫( ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻘﻊ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬Object) ‫ﻭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ‬‫( ﺘﹸﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻀ‬Passive Voice) ‫ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬. .2

  ç

   Verb To Be   by  

‫ل ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬‫ ﻨﹸﺤﻭ‬،‫ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻨﺭﻏﺏ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻜﺭﻩ‬،‫ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻨﻌﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬،‫ﻭﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل‬‫* ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﹸﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﻀ‬
.‫ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬ ‫ﺇﻟﻰ‬

1. A bicycle is ridden by Ahmed. .‫ﺭﺍﺠﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺍﺤﻤﺩ‬‫ﻜﺏ ﺍﻟﺩ‬‫ﺘﹸﺭ‬


2. Games are played by Huda. .‫ﺩﻯ‬‫ﺘﹸﻠﻌﺏ ﺍﻷﻟﻌﺎﺏ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻫ‬

  ç

 Active & Passive Voice

    


 (Statement)  (Order)  (Question)

55
‫‪‬‬

‫‪ 1. Statement‬‬

‫‪ :Passive Active ‬‬ ‫‪7‬‬


‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻴﺼﺒﺢ ﻓﺎﻋﻼﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل )ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎﹰ ﻴ‪‬ﻌﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩﻩ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓﹰ (‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻨﻀﻊ ) ‪ ( Verb To Be‬ﻤ‪‬ﻨﺎﺴﺏ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ )ﺃﻱ ﻓﻲ ﻨﻔﺱ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﻨﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﻟﻠﻔﻌل ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ ﺒﻌﺩ ) ‪.( Verb To Be‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﻨﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﺍﻷﺼﻠﻲ ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻗﺎﹰ ﺒﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ ،by‬ﻭﻗﺩ ﻴ‪‬ﺸﻁﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻀﻤﻴﺭﺍﹰ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻴ‪‬ﻀﻴﻑ ﺸﻴﺌﺎﹰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠـﺔ‪،‬‬
‫ﻷﻥ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺩ‪‬ﺍﻓﻊ ﻟﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﻫﻭ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻤﻌﺭﻓﺔ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﹼﺭﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺫﻜﺭﻩ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻐﺎﻟﺏ‪ ،‬ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺭ‪‬ﻏﺒﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺇﻟﻘﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﻭﺀ‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻷﻫﻤﻴ‪‬ﺘﻪ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬ ‫‪Verb To Be  ‬‬ ‫‪by‬‬ ‫‪ ‬‬

‫| ‪   ‬‬
‫‪ 1‬‬
‫ﺃ( ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ( ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺯﻤﻨﻪ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴ‪‬ﺼﺎﻍ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻷﻥ‪ ‬ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﻴ‪‬ﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺃﻫﻡ ﺃﺠﺯﺍﺌﻬﺎ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‪ ‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ( ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ‪ ،‬ﻟﻜﻲ ﻴﺒﺩﺃ ﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭل ﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‪) .‬ﻭﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎﹰ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻤ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓﹰ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺘﹸﺼﺒﺢ ﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻗﺔﹰ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ ‪ by‬ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‪ ،‬ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﻨﹸﺠﻤـل‬
‫ﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺤﺩ‪‬ﺙ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﺘﺒﺎﺩل ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﻤﻥ ‪ active‬ﺇﻟﻰ ‪-:passive‬‬

‫‪I‬‬ ‫‪he‬‬ ‫‪she‬‬ ‫‪it‬‬ ‫‪we‬‬ ‫‪they‬‬ ‫‪you‬‬ ‫‪ ‬‬

‫‪me‬‬ ‫‪him‬‬ ‫‪her‬‬ ‫‪it‬‬ ‫‪us‬‬ ‫‪them‬‬ ‫‪you  ‬‬

‫‪To Be‬‬ ‫‪ç‬‬


‫‪‬‬

‫‪ Tenses‬‬ ‫‪Verb To Be‬‬


‫‪Present Simple‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫‪am, is, are‬‬
‫‪Past Simple‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫‪was, were‬‬
‫‪Present Continuous‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫‪am being, is being, are being‬‬
‫‪Past Continuous‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫‪was being, were being‬‬
‫‪Present Perfect‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪has been, have been‬‬
‫‪Past Perfect‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ‬ ‫‪had been‬‬
‫‪Future Simple‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫‪shall be, will be‬‬

‫‪56‬‬

 ç


be am, is, are was, were been being


‫ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻓﻌل ﻨﺎﻗﺹ ﻓـﻲ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺯﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺯﻤﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟـﺔ ﺯﻤـﻥ‬ ‫ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ ﺯﻤـﻥ‬
:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠ‬ .‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ـﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ـ‬‫ـﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﻤ‬
‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ ‫ـﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺘﹼــﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ـ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬
will, would, shall, should can, .‫ﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬‫ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﻤ‬ .‫ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ‬
could, must, had to, ought to

Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

 Active Voice  Passive Voice


Shadi studies English. English is studied by Shadi.
1.
.‫ﺔ‬‫ﺱ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺸﺎﺩﻱ ﻴ‬ .‫ﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺸﺎﺩﻱ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‬‫ﺱ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺘﹸﺩ‬
She bought many books. Many books were bought by her.
2.
.ِ‫ﻫﻲ ﺍﺸﺘﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﹸﺘﹸﺏ‬ .‫ ﺍﻟﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﹸﺘﹸﺏِ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺸﹸﺭﻱ‬
They visited the farm. The farm was visited by them.
3.
.‫ﻫﻡ ﺯﺍﺭﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺭﻋﺔ‬ .‫ ﺯﻴﺎﺭﺘﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺯﺭﻋﺔ ﺘﻡ‬
Samia is studying the map. The map is being studied by Samia.
4.
.‫ﺱ ﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ‬
 ‫ﺭ‬‫ﺘﹸﺩ‬ .‫ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ‬‫ﺱ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺘﹸﺩ‬
5. She is cooking dinner. .‫ ﻫﻲ ﺘﻁﺒﺦﹸ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺀ‬Dinner is being cooked by her. .‫ﻁﺒﺦﹸ ﺍﻟﻌﺸﺎﺀ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﻴ‬
She was arranging them. They were being arranged by her.
6.
.‫ﻫﻲ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﹸﺭﺘﹼﺒﻬﻡ‬ .‫ﺭﺘﹼﺒﻭﻥ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴ‬
They were watching television. Television was being watched by them.
7.
.‫ﺸﹶﺎﻫﺩﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ‬‫ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴ‬ .‫ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﺸﹶﺎﻫ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻠﻔﺎﺯ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴ‬
Huda is writing the letters. The letters are being written by Huda.
8.
.‫ﺴﺎﺌل‬‫ﻫﺩﻯ ﺘﻜﺘﺏُ ﺍﻟﺭ‬ .‫ﺩﻯ‬‫ﺴﺎﺌل ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻫ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺭ‬‫ﺘﹸﻜﺘﺏ‬
9. They congratulated us. .‫ ﻫﻨﹼــﺎﺅﻨﺎ‬We were congratulated by them. .‫ﻨـﱢﺌِﻨﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬‫ﻫ‬
He has mended a chair. A chair has been mended by him.
10.
.‫ﺎﹰ‬‫ ﻜﹸﺭﺴﻴ‬‫ﻠﹼﺢ‬‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺼ‬ .‫ﺎﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻪ‬‫ ﻜﹸﺭﺴﻴ‬‫ﻠﱢﺢ‬‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺼ‬
They have built the road. The road has been built by them.
11.
.‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺒﻨﻭﻯ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﺭﻴﻕ‬ .‫ﻨِﻲ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﺭﻴﻕ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺒ‬
12. He drives a car. .‫ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓﹰ‬‫ﻘﻭﺩ‬‫ ﻫﻭ ﻴ‬A car is driven by him. .ِ‫ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻪ‬‫ﺘﹸﻘﺎﹸﺩ‬
13. We met them. .‫ ﻨﺤﻥ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﻨﺎﻫﻡ‬They were met by us. .‫ﻗﹸﺒِﻠﻭﺍ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻨﺎ‬
She had prepared everything. Everything had been prepared.
14.
.‫ﺕ ﻜل ﺸﻲﺀ‬‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻋﺩ‬ .‫ﻜل ﺸﻲﺀ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺃُﻋِﺩ‬
It was making much noise. Much noise was being made by it.
15.
.‫ ﻀﺠﺔﹰ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺓﹰ‬‫ﺩِﺭ‬‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﹸﺼ‬ .‫ﺍﺌِﻬﺎ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ ﻀﺠﺔﹰ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺠ‬‫ﺩَﺭ‬‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﹸﺼ‬
16. I have remembered it. .‫ﺘﹶﻪ‬‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺘﹶﺫﹶﻜﹼـﺭ‬ It has been remembered by me. .‫ﻩ‬‫ ﻟﻲ ﺘﺫﻜﹸﺭ‬‫ﺘﻡ‬
The government will build a bridge. A bridge will be built. .‫ﺴﻴﺘﻡ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺠﺴﺭ‬
17. .‫ﺴﺘﺒﻨﻲ ﺍﻟﺤﻜﻭﻤﺔ ﺠﺴﺭﺍﹰ‬
.(‫ﺫﻓﺕ‬‫ ﻗﺩ ﺤ‬the government ‫ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬)

57

   |
:‫ﺼﺒﺢ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭلِ ﻴ‬‫ ﺘﻜﻭﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻋﻨﺩ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫( ﻓﺈﻥ‬Defective Verb) ‫ﻤﻠﺔِ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻓﻌل ﻨﺎﻗﺹ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺒﺠ‬.1

The Defective Verb + be + P.P


be

 ×


will – would – shall – should – can – could – may – might – must - ought to (had to).

 Active Voice  Passive Voice


He may bring them. They may be brought by him.
1.
.‫ﻡ‬‫ﻫ‬‫ﺤﻀِﺭ‬‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺩ ﻴ‬ .ِ‫ﺭﻭﺍ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘِﻪ‬‫ﻀ‬‫ﻫﻡ ﻗﺩ ﻴﺤ‬
They will cross the lake. The lake will be crossed by them.
2.
.‫ﺤﻴﺭﺓﹶ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺒ‬‫ﻫﻡ ﺴﻴﻌﺒﺭﻭﻥ‬ .‫ﺒﻭﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬِﻡ‬‫ﺤﻴﺭﺓ ﺴﻴﺘﻡ ﻋ‬‫ﺍﻟﺒ‬
She can not carry it. It can not be carried by her.
3.
.‫ﻫﻲ ﻻ ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺤﻤﻠﻬﺎ‬ .‫ﻻ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﹸﺤﻤلَ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘِﻬﺎ‬

-:‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺒﻪ ﺃﺤﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺭﻜﻴﺒﺎﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺠ‬.2

 have to / has to / (am, is, are + going to) +

-: ‫( ﺘﹸﺼﺒﺢ ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬Passive) ‫ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬

 have to / has to / (am, is, are + going to) + be + 

 Active Voice  Passive Voice


Everyone has to follow the orders. The orders have to be followed. .‫ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻤﺭ‬‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺇﺘﺒﺎﻉ‬
1. .‫ ﻴﺠﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻜل ﻓﺭﺩٍ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺘﹼﺒﻊ ﺍﻷﻭﺍﻤﺭ‬The ‫( ﻷ‬have) ‫ل ﺇﻟـﻰ‬‫( ﺘﺤﻭ‬has) ‫ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬
.‫ ﺠﻤﻊ‬orders
They are going to carry out the new The new project is going to be carried out.
2. project. .‫ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ ﺴﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫﹸﻩ‬
.‫ﺴﻴﻘﻭﻤﻭﻥ ﺒﺘﻨﻔﻴﺫِ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬ (‫ﻔﺭﺩ‬‫ ﻤ‬project ‫ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ‬‫ ﻷﻥ‬is ‫ ﺘﺤﻭﻟﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ‬are 
I am going to prepare the new lessons. The new lessons are going to be prepared.
3.
.‫ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ‬‫ﺭﻭﺱ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺩ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺴﺄُﺤﻀ‬ .‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓ ﺴﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻀﻴﺭ‬‫ﺭﻭﺱ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩ‬

.(Passive) ‫ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻤﻨﻔﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬Verb To Be ‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻤﻨﻔﻲ ﻓﺈﻥ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺠ‬.4

 Active Voice  Passive Voice


He does not make the mistake. The mistake is not made by him.
1.
.‫ﻘﹸﻡ ﺒﺎﻟﺨﻁﺄ‬‫ﻫﻭ ﻟﻡ ﻴ‬ .‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﺄ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺍﻟﻘﻴﺎﻡ ﺒﻪ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻪ‬
I did not write the lesson. The lesson was not written by me.
2.
.‫ﺱ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺏ ﺍﻟﺩ‬
 ‫ﻟﻡ ﺃﻜﹾﺘﹸ‬ .‫ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺘﻡ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺘﻪُ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻲ‬‫ﺱ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺩ‬

58

They have not met Ali. Ali has not been met by them.
3.
.‫ﺎﹰ‬‫ﻘﺎﺒﻠﻭﺍ ﻋﻠﻴ‬‫ﻟﻡ ﻴ‬ .‫ﺎﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬‫ﻘﺎﺒل ﻋﻠﻴ‬‫ﻋﻠﻲ ﻟﻡ ﻴ‬
She won't write the letter. The letter won't be written by her.
4.
.‫ﺴﺎﻟﺔﹶ‬‫ﻫﻲ ﻟﻥ ﺘﻜﺘﺏَ ﺍﻟﺭ‬ .‫ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﺴﺎﻟﺔﹶ ﺴﻭﻑ ﻟﻥ ﺘﹸﻜﹾﺘﹶﺏ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭ‬

‫( ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻨﺎ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤلُ ﺍﻵﺘﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨـﻲ‬Passive) ‫( ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻴﻤﺘﻠِﻙ ﻜﻔﻌلٍ ﺭﺌﻴﺴﻲ ﺇﻟﻰ‬Verb to Have) ‫ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل‬.5
-:‫ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬

  possess  own  belong to + P.P 

 Active Voice  Passive Voice


1. I have a car. .‫ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓﹰ‬‫ ﺃﻤﺘﻠِﻙ‬A car is had by me. XX ‫ﺨﻁﺄ‬
A car is owned by me.
Or: A car is possessed by me.
.(‫ﻤﺘﻠﻜﺔﹰ ﻟﻲ )ﻤﻥ ﻗِﺒﻠﻲ‬‫ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓﹰ ﻤ‬
Or: A car belongs to me.
2. I had a car. .‫ ﺍﻤﺘﻠﻜﺕﹸ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓﹰ‬A car was owned by me.
Or: A car was possessed by me.
Or: A car was belonged to me.
.‫ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓﹰ ﺍﻤﺘﹸﻠِﻜﺕ ﻤﻥ ﻗِﺒﻠﻲ‬

‫ ﺍﻟﻅﹼﺭﻑ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﻗﺒـل ﺍﻟﺘﹼـﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻟـﺙ‬‫ ﻓﺈﻥ‬،‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻴ‬‫( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠ‬Adverb of Manner) ‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻅﺭﻑ ﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬.6
.‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓﹰ‬‫ﻤ‬

 Active Voice  Passive Voice


The teacher punished the lazy boy severely. The lazy boy was severely punished by the teacher.
1.
.ٍ‫ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﻭل ﺒﻘﺴﻭﺓ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻭﻟﺩ‬‫ﺱ ﻋﺎﻗﹶﺏ‬‫ﺩﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ .‫ﺱ‬‫ﺩﺭ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻭﻟﺩ ﺍﻟﻜﺴﻭل ﺒﻘﺴﻭﺓٍ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔِ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﻭﻗِﺏ‬‫ﻋ‬
Mother cooks the food excellently. The food is excellently cooked by mother.
2.
.ٍ‫ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓٍ ﻤﻤﺘﺎﺯﺓ‬‫ﻲ ﺘﻁﺒﺦﹸ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﻌﺎﻡ‬‫ﺃُﻤ‬ .‫ﻲ‬‫ ﺒﺼﻭﺭﺓٍ ﺠﻴﺩﺓٍ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﺃُﻤ‬‫ﻁﺒﺦﹸ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﻌﺎﻡ‬‫ﻴ‬
He speaks English well. English is well spoken by him.
3.
.‫ﺔ ﺠﻴﺩﺍﹰ‬‫ﻫﻭ ﻴﺘﻜﻠﹼﻡ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‬ .‫ﺔ ﺘﹸﺘﻜﻠﹼﻡ ﺠﻴﺩﺍﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻪ‬‫ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‬

‫ﻤﻭﺠﻭﺩﺍﹰ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺼﺭﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻟﺙ ﻟﻠﻔﻌلِ ﻋﻨﺩ‬‫ ﻴﻅل‬‫ ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻪ‬،‫( ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل‬Preposition) ‫ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻠﺔِ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺠﺭ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺠِﺩ‬.7
.‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬‫ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺠ‬

 Active Voice  Passive Voice


They are looking for the map. The map is being looked for by them.
1.
.ِ‫ﺇﻨﹼﻬﻡ ﻴﺒﺤﺜﻭﻥَ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔ‬ .‫ﺙﹸ ﻋﻨﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‬‫ﺤ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﺭﻴﻁﺔﹶ ﻴ‬
She looks after her children. Her children are looked after by her.
2.
.‫ﻫﻲ ﺘﺭﻋﻰ ﺃﻭﻻﺩﻫﺎ‬ .‫ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﻥ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﺭﻋ‬‫ﺃﻭﻻﺩﻫﺎ ﻴ‬
I looked at the picture carefully. The picture was carefully looked at by me.
3.
.(ٍ‫ﻭﺭﺓِ ﺒﻌﻨﺎﻴﺔٍ )ﺒﺎﻫﺘﻤﺎﻡ‬‫ﻨﻅﺭﺕﹸ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺼ‬ .‫ﻭﺭﺓ ﻨﹸﻅِﺭ ﺇﻟﻴﻬﺎ ﺒﻌﻨﺎﻴﺔٍ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼ‬

59
‫‪‬‬
‫ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔ ﻤ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓٍ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌلِ(‪ ،‬ﻭﻤﻔﻌﻭلٍ ﺒﻪ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ )ﻭﻫﻭ ﺍﺴـﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻀـﻤﻴﺭ‬
‫ٍ‬ ‫‪ .8‬ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤل ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻤﻔﻌﻭلٍ ﺒﻪ ﻤ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ )ﺘﺄﺜﹼﺭ‪‬‬
‫ﺘﺄﺜﹼﺭ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔٍ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓٍ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌلِ(‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻋﻨﺩ ﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻥ‪ ‬ﻟﻤ‪‬ﻨﺸﺊ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﻤ‪‬ﻁﻠﻕ ﺍﻟﺤ‪‬ﺭﻴ‪‬ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺨﺘﺎﺭ ﺃﻱ‪ ‬ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻟﻴﺠﻌﻠﻪ ﻨﺎﺌﺏ‬ ‫§‬
‫ﻓﺎﻋل ﻓﻲ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‪.‬‬
‫ﻭﻴ‪‬ﻼﺤﻅ ﺍﻻﻀﻁﺭﺍﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﺭ ‪ to‬ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺒﺩﺀ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻨﻲ }ﺃﻱ‪ ‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺍﺌﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺎﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺍﻟﺜـﺎﻨﻲ‬ ‫§‬
‫)ﺍﻟﹸﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ( ﻨﻀﻊ ‪ to‬ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺍﻷﻭل )ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ({‪.‬‬

‫‪They gave me a present.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻡ ﺃﻋﻁﻭﻨﻲ ﻫﺩﻴ‪‬ﺔﹰ‪.‬‬

‫ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ )‪(1‬‬ ‫ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻤ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ )‪(2‬‬

‫ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓﹰ ﻴ‪‬ﺴﻤﻰ ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ )ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺍﻷﻭل( ﻭﺍﻵﺨﺭ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻤ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫§‬

‫‪ Active Voice‬‬ ‫‪ Passive Voice‬‬


‫‪They gave me a present.‬‬ ‫‪A present was given to me by them.‬‬
‫ﺃﻋﻁﻭﻨﻲ ﻫﺩﻴ‪‬ﺔﹰ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﺩﻴ‪‬ﺔﹰ ﺃُﻋﻁِﻴﺕ ﻟﻲ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪1.‬‬
‫‪Or: I was given a present by them.‬‬
‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃُﻋﻁﻴﺕ ﻫﺩﻴ‪‬ﺔﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ‪.‬‬
‫‪He taught them many lessons.‬‬ ‫‪They were taught many lessons by him.‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﹼﻤ‪‬ﻬ‪‬ﻡ ﺩ‪‬ﺭﻭﺴﺎﹰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓﹰ‪.‬‬ ‫ﻋ‪‬ﻠﱢﻤﻭﺍ ﺩ‪‬ﺭﻭﺴﺎﹰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘِﻪِ‪.‬‬
‫‪2.‬‬
‫‪Or: Many lessons were taught to them by him.‬‬
‫ﺩ‪‬ﺭﻭﺴﺎﹰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓﹰ ﻋ‪‬ﻠﱢﻤ‪‬ﺕﹾ ﻟﻬﻡ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻪ‪.‬‬

‫ﺠﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺼﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‪ ،‬ﻓﻤﺜﻼﹰ ﻻ ﻴﺠـﻭﺯ‬


‫‪ .9‬ﻻ ﻴﺠﻭﺯ ﺒﺄﻱ ﺤﺎلٍ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺼﻭﻍﹶ ﺠﻤﻠﺔﹰ ﻤﻔﻌﻭﻟﻬﺎ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻭﻤﺴﺒﻭﻕٍ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ ٍ‬
‫ﺃﻥ ﻨﺼﻭﻍ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‪:‬‬

‫‪Samy went to school.‬‬ ‫ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﺭﺴﺔِ‪.‬‬

‫ﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺠﺭ‬

‫‪ .10‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺠﺎﺀ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل )ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ‪ ،(to +‬ﻓﺈﻥ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻴﻅل ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬـﻭل‪ ،‬ﻭﺍﻷﻓﻌـﺎل ﺍﻟﺘـﻲ ﻴـﺄﺘﻲ‬
‫)ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ‪ (to +‬ﺒﻌﺩ ﻤﻔﻌﻭﻟِﻬﺎ ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل‪-:‬‬

‫‪tell‬‬ ‫‪ advise‬ﻴ‪‬ﺨﺒﺭ‬ ‫‪ send‬ﻴﻨﺼﺢ‬ ‫ﻴ‪‬ﺭﺴِل‬


‫‪ask‬‬ ‫‪ expect‬ﻴﺴﺄل‬ ‫‪ offer‬ﻴﺘﻭﻗﹼﻊ‬ ‫ﻴﻌﺭﺽ‬

‫‪ Active Voice‬‬ ‫‪ Passive Voice‬‬


‫‪He advised me to give up smoking.‬‬ ‫‪I was advised to give up smoking.‬‬
‫ﻫﻭ ﻨﺼﺤﻨﻲ ﺒﺄﻥ‪ ‬ﺃُﻗﻠِﻊ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺩﺨﻴﻥِ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﻨﹸﺼِﺤﺕﹸ ﺒﺄﻥ‪ ‬ﺃُﻗﻠِﻊ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺩﺨﻴﻥِ‪.‬‬

‫‪60‬‬

-:‫ﺒﻨﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬‫ﻭﺃﺤﻴﺎﻨﺎﹰ ﻴ‬ §

 Active Voice  Passive Voice


I never expected the police to arrest the thief. I never expected the thief to be arrested.
.ِ‫ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﺹ‬‫ ﺘﹸﻠﻘﻲ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺽ‬‫ﻟﻡ ﺃﺘﻭﻗﹼﻊ ﺒﺄﻥ‬ .ِ‫ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬‫ ﺃُﻟﻘِﻲ‬‫ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﺹ‬‫ﻟﻡ ﺃﺘﻭﻗﹼﻊ ﺒﺄﻥ‬

‫ﻤﻠـﺔ ﻤﺠﻬـﻭل‬‫ ﻓﺎﻋـل ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﻀﻴﻑ ﺸﻴﺌﺎﹰ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻨـﻰ )ﺃﻱ‬‫ ﺃﻭ ﻻ ﻴ‬،‫ﻔﻬﻡ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻀﻤﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ‬‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻴ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻴ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﺎﻋل ﺍﻟﺠ‬.11
-:‫ ﻤﺜل‬، (Passive) ‫ﻤﻠﺔِ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬‫ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺤﺫﻓﻪ‬‫ ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻪ ﻴ‬،(‫ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺨﺼﻴﺔ‬

people ‫ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﺱ‬somebody ‫ ﻤﺎ‬‫ ﺸﺨﺹ‬nobody ‫ﻻ ﺃﺤﺩ‬


someone ‫ ﻤﺎ‬‫ ﺃﺤﺩ‬the police ‫ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁﺔ‬the government ‫ﻜﻭﻤﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺤ‬

 Active Voice  Passive Voice


The police arrested the thief. The thief was arrested.
1. .‫ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁﺔ ﺃﻭﻗﻔﺕ )ﺃﻟﻘﺕ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺽ ﻋﻠﻰ( ﺍﻟﹼﻠﺹ‬ .(‫ﺍﻟﹼﻠﺹ ﺃُﻭﻗِﻑ )ﺃُﻟﻘِﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺒﺽ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ‬
.‫ﺫِﻓﺕ ﻷﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﺔ ﻀﻤﻨﺎﹰ‬‫ ﻗﺩ ﺤ‬The police ‫ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬
Someone stole her jewels yesterday. Her jewels were stolen yesterday.
.ِ‫ ﻤﺎ ﺴﺭﻕﹶ ﺠﻭﺍﻫﺭﻫﺎ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ‬‫ﺃﺤﺩ‬ .ِ‫ﺭِﻗﺕ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ‬‫ﺠﻭﺍﻫﺭﻫﺎ ﺴ‬
2.
‫ﺫﻓﺕ ﻷﻨﻬﺎ ﻤﻔﻬﻭﻤﺔ ﻀﻤﻨﺎﹰ ﻭﻻ ﺘﹸـﻀﻴﻑ‬‫ ﻗﺩ ﺤ‬Someone ‫ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬ 
.‫ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺸﻴﺌﺎﹰ‬
Nobody has attacked him yet. He has not attacked yet.
3. .(‫ ﺃﺤﺩﺍﹰ ﺒﻌﺩ )ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ‬‫ﻬﺎﺠﻤﻪ‬‫ﻟﻡ ﻴ‬ .(‫ﻡَ ﺒﻌﺩ )ﺤﺘﻰ ﺍﻵﻥ‬‫ﻬﺎﺠ‬‫ﻫﻭ ﻟﻡ ﻴ‬
.‫ﺫِﻓﺕ‬‫ ﻗﺩ ﺤ‬Nobody ‫ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

-:‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻠﻭﻤﺔ ﺒﺈﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﻌﺒﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺃﺕ ﺍﻟﺠ‬.12

People say ‫ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ‬ Scientists know ‫ﺍﻟﻌﻠﻤﺎﺀ ﻴﻌﻠﻤﻭﻥ‬ One newspaper reports ‫ﺤﻑ ﺘﻨﺸﺭ‬‫ﺇﺤﺩﻯ ﺍﻟﺼ‬

Doctors believe ‫ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﺀ ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩﻭﻥ‬ People think ‫ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩﻭﻥ‬The police allege ‫ﻋﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁﺔ ﺘﺩ‬

-:‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬‫ل ﻋﻨﺩ ﺒﻨﺎﺀِ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﺘﹸﺤﻭ‬

 Active Voice  Passive Voice


People say…. ‫ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ‬It is said.... .... ‫ﻘﺎل ﺒﺄﻥ‬‫ﻴ‬
People said …. ‫ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﺱ ﻗﺎﻟﻭﺍ‬It was said …. .... ‫ﻗﻴل ﺒﺄﻥ‬
Doctors believe.... ‫ ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﺀ ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﻥ‬It is believed …. .... ‫ﻌﺘﻘﺩ ﺒﺄﻥ‬‫ﻴ‬
People knew.… ‫ ﻋﺭِﻓﻭﺍ‬/ ‫ً ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﺱ ﻋﻠِﻤﻭﺍ‬It was known …. .... ‫ﻤﻌﺭﻭﻓﺎ‬
ً ‫ﻜﺎﻥ‬
The police allege…. ‫ﻋﻲ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁﺔ ﺘﺩ‬It is alleged…. .... ‫ﻋﻲ‬‫ﺃُﺩ‬

61


Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

 Active Voice  Passive Voice


People say that he is mad. It is said that he is mad.
1. .‫ ﻤﺠﻨﻭﻥ‬‫ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻪ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﺱ‬ Or: He is said to be mad.
.‫ ﻤﺠﻨﻭﻥ‬‫ﻘﺎل ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻪ‬‫ ﻴ‬/ َ‫ﻗِﻴل‬
People say that peace will prevail soon. It is said that peace will prevail soon.
2. .‫ ﻗﺭﻴﺒﺎﹰ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ ﺴﻴﻌ‬‫ﻼﻡ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺴ‬‫ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﻥ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﺱ‬Or: The peace is said to be prevailed soon.
.‫ ﻗﺭﻴﺒﺎﹰ‬‫ﻡ‬‫ ﺴﻴﻌ‬‫ﻼﻡ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺴ‬‫ﻘﺎل ﺒﺄﻥ‬‫ﻴ‬
The police allege that the thief escaped. It is alleged that the thief escaped.
3. .‫ ﻫﺭﺏ‬‫ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﺹ‬‫ﻋﻲ ﺒﺄﻥ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁﺔ ﺘﺩ‬Or: The thief is said to be escaped.
.‫ ﻫﺭﺏ‬‫ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﺹ‬‫ﻋﻰ ﺒﺄﻥ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ ﻴ‬‫ﺇﻨﻪ‬
People think that the Earth is not exactly round. It is thought that the Earth is not exactly round.
4. .‫ ﻟﻴﺴﺕ ﻤﺴﺘﺩﻴﺭﺓﹰ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﹰ‬‫ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﻌﺘﻘﺩﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﻥ‬Or: The Earth is thought to be not exactly round.
.‫ﺴﺘﺩﻴﺭﺓ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﹰ‬‫ ﻤ‬‫ ﻏﻴﺭ‬‫ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬‫ ﺒﺄﻥ‬‫ﻌﺘﻘﺩ‬‫ ﻴ‬‫ﺇﻨﹼﻪ‬

‫( ﻴﻌﻭﺩ‬Reflexive Pronoun) ‫ﻨﻌﻜﺱ‬‫ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﻀﻤﻴﺭ ﻤ‬،(َ‫ل‬‫ﻌ‬‫ﺠ‬‫ ﻴ‬/ ‫ﻉ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ )ﻴ‬Let ‫ ﻭﻫﺫﺍ ﺸﺎﺌﻊ ﻤﻊ‬،‫ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﻭﺍﺤﺩ‬.13
-:‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل‬

 Active Voice  Passive Voice


Don't let people hear you. Don't let yourself (or: yourselves) be heard.
1.
.‫ﻭﻙ‬‫ﻻ ﺘﺩﻉ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﺴﻤﻌ‬ .‫ﻻ ﺘﺩﻉ ﻨﻔﺴﻙ )ﺼﻭﺘﻙ( ﻤﺴﻤﻭﻋﺔﹰ‬
He let people cheat him. He let himself be cheated.
2.
.‫ﻫﻭ ﺠﻌل ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﻐﺸﻭﻩ‬ .‫ﻫﻭ ﺠﻌل ﻨﻔﺴﻪ ﺘﹸﻐﺵ‬

 Smile . . . tomorrow may be worse.

 . 

62


2.Order

.‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴ‬‫ ﺇﺫ ﻴﻐﻠﹸﺏ ﺍﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻟﺠ‬،‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﻨﺎﺩﺭ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﺨﺩﺍﻡ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴ‬‫ ﺒﻨﺎﺀ‬‫ﺇﻥ‬ §
-:‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬‫ ﺠ‬‫ ﻓﺈﻥ‬،‫ﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﻌﻠﻭﻡ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺃﻤﺭﻴ‬‫ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺠ‬ §

 Let + object + be + P.P


 be

 Active Voice  Passive Voice


Open the window. Let the window be opened.
1.
.‫ﺍﻓﺘﺢ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﻓـﺫﺓﹶ‬ .‫ﺍﺠﻌل ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﻓﺫﺓﹶ ﻤﻔﺘﻭﺤﺔﹰ‬
Keep this medicine away from heat. Let this medicine be kept away from heat.
2.
.‫ﻭﺍﺀ ﺒﻌﻴﺩﺍﹰ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﺍﺤﺘﻔﻅ ﺒﻬﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺩ‬ .‫ﻭﺍﺀ ﻤﺤﻔﻭﻅﺎﹰ ﺒﻌﻴﺩﺍﹰ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﺍﺭﺓ‬‫ﻉ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺩ‬‫ﺩ‬
Clean the room. Let the room be cleaned.
3.
.‫ﻨﻅِّﻑ ﺍﻟﻐﹸﺭﻓـﺔﹶ‬ .‫ﺍﺠﻌل ﺍﻟﻐﹸﺭﻓﺔﹶ ﻨﻅﻴﻔﺔﹰ‬
Give me your book. .‫ﺃﻋﻁﻨﻲ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻙ‬ Let your book be given to me.
.‫ﻌﻁﻰ ﻟﻲ‬‫ﻉ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻙ ﻴ‬‫ﺩ‬
4.
Or: Let me be given your book.
.‫ﻋﻨﻲ ﺃُﻋﻁﻰ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻙ‬‫ﺩ‬

If you think education is expensive -- try ignorance.

.

63


3. Question 


 ç


 Question

begins with a question word begins with a helping verb


(Yes, NO question) (Wh- question)
  

 (Yes, NO question) ç
.(‫ ﻭﺘﹸﺤﺫﻑ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟‬،‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬‫ ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻤ‬،‫ ٍﺔ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔٍ ﺨﺒﺭﻴ‬‫ﺅﺍل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠ‬‫ل ﺍﻟﺴ‬‫ﺤﻭ‬‫ ﻴ‬.1
.‫( ﻜﻤﺎ ﺴﺒﻕ‬Passive ) ‫ﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﻴ‬‫ل ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ ﺘﹸﺤﻭ‬.2
‫ ﻭﺍﻥ‬،‫ﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻗﺒـل ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋـل‬‫ ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻤ‬،‫ﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺼﻴﻐﺔِ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ‬‫ﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻴ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﻴ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ ﺘﹸﻭﻀﻊ‬.3
.ِ‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬‫ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )؟( ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠ‬

 (Wh- question) ç


 
‫( ﻤﻊ ﺇﺘﹼﺒـﺎﻉ‬‫ﻥ‬‫( )ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻤ‬By whom) ‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﻋل ( ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﺘﹸﺤﻭ‬‫ﻥ‬‫( ) ﻤ‬Who) ‫ﺅﺍل ﺒﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟﺴ‬.1
(By whom Who) .‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴ‬
‫ ﻟﻠﻔﺎﻋـل( ﻤـﻊ ﺇﺘﹼﺒـﺎﻉ‬‫ـﻥ‬‫( )ﻤ‬Who) ‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﻌﻭل( ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﺘﹸﺤﻭ‬‫ﻥ‬‫( )ﻤ‬Whom) ‫ﺅﺍل ﺒﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟﺴ‬.2
(Who Whom) .‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺨﻁﻭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﺴ‬

 Active Voice  Passive Voice


Did she help him? 1. She helped him.
‫؟‬‫ ﻫل ﻫﻲ ﺴﺎﻋﺩﺘﻪ‬2. He was helped by her.
1. 3. Was he helped by her?
‫ﻭﻋِﺩ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ؟‬‫ﻫل ﺴ‬
Can anyone answer this question? 1. Anyone can answer this question.
‫ﺅﺍل؟‬‫ ﺸﺨﺹ ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺴ‬‫ ﻫل ﺒﺈﻤﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻱ‬2. This question can be answered.
2. 3. Can this question be answered?
‫ﺅﺍل؟‬‫ﻫل ﺒﺎﻹﻤﻜﺎﻥِ ﺤل ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺴ‬
Does she break the plates? 1. She breaks the plates.
‫ﺭ ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﻕ؟‬‫ ﻫل ﻫﻲ ﺘﹸﻜﹶﺴ‬2. The plates are broken by her.
3. 3. Are the plates broken by her?
‫ﺭ ﺍﻷﻁﺒﺎﻕ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﺎ؟‬‫ﻫل ﺘﹸﻜﺴ‬
Were they playing football? 1. They were playing football.
‫ ﻫل ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻴﻠﻌﺒﻭﻥ ﻜﹸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ؟‬2. Football was being played by them.
4. 3. Was football being played them by?
‫ﻫل ﻟﹸﻌِﺒﺕ ﻜﹸﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ؟‬

64

Have they painted the walls? 1. They have painted the walls.
‫ﺩﺭﺍﻥ؟‬‫ ﻫل ﻫﻡ ﻗﺩ ﺩﻫﻨﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺠ‬2. The walls have been painted by them.
5. 3. Have the walls been painted by them?
‫ﺩﺭﺍﻥ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻬﻡ؟‬‫ﻫِﻨﺕ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﻫل ﻗﺩ ﺩ‬
Why are you making a fuss? 1. You are making a fuss.
‫ﺔﹰ؟‬‫ﻠﹶﺒ‬‫ ﺠ‬‫ﺩﺜﹸﻭﻥ‬‫ ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺘﹸﺤ‬2. A fuss is being made by you.
6. 3. Why is a fuss being made by you?
‫ﺔﹰ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻜﻡ؟‬‫ﻠﹶﺒ‬‫ﺙﹸ ﺠ‬‫ﺩ‬‫ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺘﹸﺤ‬
Will Ali write the lesson? 1. Ali will write the lesson.
‫ﺭﺱ؟‬‫ ﺍﻟﺩ‬‫ ﻋﻠﻲ‬‫ ﻫل ﺴﻴﻜﺘﹸﺏ‬2. The lesson will be written by Ali.
7. 3. Will the lesson be written by Ali?
‫ﺭﺱ ﺴﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻜﺘﻭﺒﺎً ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻋﻠﻲ؟‬‫ﻫل ﺍﻟﺩ‬
Where did she hide it? 1. She hid it.
‫؟‬‫ـﺄﺘﻪ‬‫ ﺃﻴﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺨﺒ‬2. It was hidden by her.
8. 3. Where was it hidden by her?
‫ﺊ ﺒﻭﺍﺴـﻁﺘﻬﺎ؟‬‫ﺃﻴﻥ ﺨﹸﺒ‬
Who killed the cat? 1. The cat was killed.
‫ ﻤﻥ ﻗﹶﺘﹶلَ ﺍﻟﻘِﻁﹼﺔ؟‬2. Was the cat killed?
9. 3. By whom was the cat killed?
‫ ﻗﹸﺘِﻠﺕ ﺍﻟﻘِﻁﹼﺔ؟‬‫ﻥ‬‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻤ‬
Who will carry out the project? 1. The project will be carried out.
‫ﻨﻔﹼﺫﹸ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ؟‬‫ ﺴﻴ‬‫ ﻤﻥ‬2. Will the project be carried out?
10. 3. By whom will the project be carried out?
‫ﻨﻔﺫﹸ ﺍﻟﻤﺸﺭﻭﻉ؟‬‫ ﺴﻴ‬‫ﻥ‬‫ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺔ ﻤ‬
Whom did you meet? 1. I met someone.
‫ﺍﻟﺘﻘﻴﺕ؟‬
َ ‫ﻥ‬‫ ﺒﻤ‬2. Someone was met by me.
11. 3. Was someone met by me?
4. Who was met by you?
‫ ﻗﹸﻭﺒِلَ ﺒﻭﺍﺴﻁﺘﻙ؟‬‫ﻥ‬‫ﻤ‬

All great discoveries are made by mistake.

. 



65



Exercise No. 15 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

General Exercises on Active Voice and Passive Voice


 

Change Into Passive Voice: :‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺒﻨﻲ ﻟﻠﻤﺠﻬﻭل‬‫ﺤﻭ‬

1. Kamel wrote many letters. .‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓ‬


ٍ ٍ‫ ﻜﺎﻤل ﺨﻁﺎﺒﺎﺕ‬‫ﻜﹶﺘﹶﺏ‬
2. They may have to cancel the meeting. .‫ﻘﺎﺒﻠﺔ‬‫ﻭﻥ ﻷﻥ ﻴﻠﻐﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﻤﺎ ﻴﻀﻁﺭ‬‫ﺒ‬‫ﻫﻡ ﺭ‬
3. He was carrying two big bags . .‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺤﻤل ﺤﻘﻴﺒﺘﻴﻥ ﻜﺒﻴﺭﺘﻴﻥ‬
4. I shall help him. .‫ﻩ‬‫ﺴـﺄُﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬
5. She ate an apple. .‫ﺔﹰ‬‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﻜﹶﻠﹶﺕﹾ ﺘﹸﻔﹶﺎﺤ‬
6. Passing cars have crushed it. .‫ﺓ‬‫ﻴﺎﺭﺍﺕ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺭ‬‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﺩﻫﺴﺘﻬﺎ ﺍﻟﺴ‬
7. The man is carrying a heavy box. .‫ﻨﺩﻭﻗﺎﹰ ﺜﻘﻴﻼﹰ‬‫ل ﺼ‬‫ﺠ‬‫ﻴﺤﻤل ﺍﻟﺭ‬
8. Someone taught him French and gave him a dictionary. .‫ﺔ ﻭﺃﻋﻁﺎﻩ ﻗﺎﻤﻭﺴﺎﹰ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﻨﺴﻴ‬‫ﻪ‬‫ ﻤﺎ ﻋﻠﹼﻤ‬‫ﺸﺨﺹ‬
9. She was washing clothes. .‫ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺘﻐﺴل ﺍﻟﻤﻼﺒﺱ‬
10. You can keep these papers. .‫ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺴﺘﺒﻘﻲ ﻫﺫﻩ )ﺘﺤﺘﻔﻅ ﺒﻬﺫﻩ( ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬
11. They could not open the door. .‫ﻟﻡ ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻌﻭﺍ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻔﺘﺤﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‬
12. She has written twenty letters to her friends. .‫ﺕﹾ ﻋﺸﺭﻴﻥ ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔﹰ ﻟﺼﺩﻴﻘﺘﻬﺎ‬‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﹶﺘﹶﺒ‬
13. He is looking for his bag. .ِ‫ﻫﻭ ﻴﺒﺤﺙ ﻋﻥ ﺤﻘﻴﺒﺘِﻪ‬
He gave them many useful lessons. .‫ﺭﻭﺴﺎﹰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺓﹰ ﻤﻔﻴﺩﺓﹰ‬‫ﻡ ﺩ‬‫ﺃﻋﻁﺎﻫ‬
14. a) Begin with: They……..
b) Begin with: Many useful lessons…….
I showed him my new book. .‫ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻴﺩ‬‫ﺃﺭﻴﺘﹸﻪ‬
15. a) Begin with: He………
b) Begin with: My new book…….
He offered us a big house in Gaza. .‫ﺓ‬‫ﻡ ﻟﻨﺎ ﻤﻨﺯﻻﹰ ﻀﺨﻤﺎﹰ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺯ‬‫ﻗﺩ‬
16. a) Begin with: We…….
b) Begin with: A big house in Gaza………..
17. People say that there is no water on the moon. .ِ‫ ﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻤﺎﺀ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻘﻤﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﺱ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻪ‬
18. I am having a car. .‫ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓﹰ‬‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺍﻤﺘﻠﻙ‬
19. Don't open the door. .‫ﻻ ﺘﹸﻐﻠﻕﹶ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‬
20. Give this book to Emad. .‫ ﻟﻌﻤﺎﺩ‬‫ﺃﻋﻁِ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬
21. I don't want any buildings here. .‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ ﺃﻱ ﻤﺒﺎﻥٍ ﻫ‬‫ﻻ ﺃﺭﻴﺩ‬
22. You must leave everything as it is. .‫ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺘﺭﻙ ﻜل ﺸﻲﺀٍ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ‬
23. They have not cleaned the room. .‫ﺠﺭﺓ‬‫ﻨﻅِﻔﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺤ‬‫ﻟﻡ ﻴ‬

66

24. I have looked up this word. .ِ‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺸﻔﺕﹸ ﻋﻥ ﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﻤﻭﺱ‬
25. People say that she is innocent. .‫ ﻴﻘﹸﻭﻟﻭﻥ ﺇﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﺒﺭﻴﺌﺔﹰ‬‫ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﺱ‬
26. People said that she is innocent. .‫ ﺇﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﺒﺭﻴﺌﺔﹰ‬‫ﻗﺎل ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﺱ‬
27. Bring all necessary things. .‫ﺔ‬‫ﺭﻭﺭﻴ‬‫ﻀِﺭ ﻜلَ ﺍﻷﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻀ‬‫ﺃﺤ‬
28. Where have you left my car? ‫ﺃﻴﻥ ﺘﺭﻜﺕﹶ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺘﻲ؟‬
29. Do people speak English all over the world? ‫ﺔ ﻓﻲ ﻜل ﺃﻨﺤﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ؟‬‫ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‬‫ﻫل ﻴﺘﻜﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺎﺱ‬

30. Will they allow us five minutes break? ‫ﻫل ﺴﻴﺴﻤﺤﻭﻥ ﻟﻨﺎ ﺒﺨﻤﺴﺔِ ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ ﻟﻠﺭﺍﺤﺔِ؟‬
31. Did you buy any spare parts? ‫ ﻗﻁﻊ ٍ ﻟﻠﻐﻴﺎﺭِ؟‬‫ﻫل ﺍﺸﺘﺭﻴﺕﹶ ﺃﻱ‬
32. Who asked both boys to leave? ‫ﻟﹶﺩﻴﻥ ﺒﺄﻥ ﻴﻐﺎﺩﺭﺍ؟‬‫ ﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻭ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬
33. Who showed him the way? ‫ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﺭﻴﻕِ )ﺍﻟﻁﹼﺭﻴﻘﺔِ(؟‬‫ ﺃﺭﺸﺩﻩ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬
34. Who has cooked the food? ‫ﺦ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﻌﺎﻡ؟‬
‫ ﹶ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻗﺩ ﻁﹶﺒ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬
35. Who told this story? ‫ﺔ؟‬‫ ﺃﺨﺒﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼ‬‫ﻤﻥ‬
36. When did they find the ring? ‫ﻤﺘﻰ ﻭﺠﺩﻭﺍ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺘﻡ؟‬
37. Is Ali writing the letter now? ‫ﺴﺎﻟﺔ ﺍﻵﻥ؟‬‫ ﺍﻟﺭ‬‫ﻫل ﻴﻜﺘﺏ ﻋﻠﻲ‬
38. Has anybody answered your question? ‫ ﻤﺎ ﺴﺅﺍﻟﻙ؟‬‫ﻫل ﺃﺠﺎﺏ ﺃﺤﺩ‬
39. Do they gain much money? ‫ﻭﻥ ﻤﺎﻻﹰ ﻜﺜﻴﺭﺍﹰ؟‬‫ﻫل ﻴﺭﺒﺤ‬
40. Why did not they tell me the truth? ‫ﻭﻨﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﻘﻴﻘﺔِ؟‬‫ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺨﺒﺭ‬

For a "TRUE" problem, there is no solution.

.

67


 Direct and Indirect Speech


Reported Speech

‫ﻜﺘﺏ ﻋﺎﺩﺓﹰ ﻫـﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻜـﻼﻡ‬‫ ﻭﻴ‬،‫ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ‬‫ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻨﻘل ﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺨﺹ ﺤﺭﻓﻴﺎﹰ ﺩﻭﻥ ﺃﻱ‬-:() Direct Speech ç
.(‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﻼﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻻﻗﺘﺒﺎﺱ )ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬
‫ﻜﺘﺏ ﺍﻟﻜـﻼﻡ‬‫ﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻴ‬‫ ﻭﻫ‬،‫ ﻭﻫﻭ ﻨﻘل ﻓﺤﻭﻯ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻜﻼﻡ ﺸﺨﺹ ﺁﺨﺭ‬-:() Indirect Speech ç
.‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﻋﻼﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻗﺘﺒﺎﺱ ﻭﻴﺘﻡ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭﺍﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ‬
-:‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺘﺤﻭﻴﻠﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻜﻼﻡٍ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭٍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻜﻼﻡ ٍﻏﻴﺭ ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭٍ ﻫﻲ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﺠ‬ 7

 Sentences 

       


   
(Statement) (Question) (Command) (Request) (Exclamation)

begin with begin with


a question word a helping verb
   
 (Yes / No - questions)

 
 What, Where, Who :‫ ﻤﺜل‬ Are, Do, Have, Will :‫ﻤﺜل‬

 1. Statement

indirect(direct)  7
 :‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻤﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓﹰ( ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﻭل ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‬‫ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺩﺍﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠ‬:‫ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ )ﺃﻱ‬1

 Direct Speech  Indirect Speech

say ‫ ﻴﻘﹸﻭل‬say - declare ‫ﺡ ﺒـ‬‫ﺼﺭ‬‫ ﻴ‬/ ‫ﻌﻠِﻥ‬‫ﻴ‬


says ‫ ﻴﻘﹸﻭل‬says - declares ‫ﺡ ﺒـ‬‫ﺼﺭ‬‫ ﻴ‬/ ‫ﻌﻠِﻥ‬‫ﻴ‬
say to ‫ ﻴﻘﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ‬tell - declare ‫ﺡ ﺒـ‬‫ﺼﺭ‬‫ ﻴ‬/‫ﺨﺒِـﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬
says to ‫ ﻴﻘﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ‬tells - declares ‫ﺡ ﺒـ‬‫ﺼﺭ‬‫ ﻴ‬/ ‫ﺨـﺒِﺭ‬‫ﻴ‬
said ‫ ﻗﺎل‬said - declared ‫ﺡ ﺒـ‬‫ ﺼﺭ‬/ ‫ﻗﺎل‬
said to ‫ ﻗﺎل ﺇﻟﻰ‬told - declared ‫ﺡ ﺒـ‬‫ ﺼﺭ‬/‫ﺃﺨﺒـﺭ‬
shall say ‫ ﺴﻴﻘﻭل‬shall say - shall declare ‫ﺡ ﺒـ‬‫ﺼﺭ‬‫ ﺴﻴ‬/‫ﺨﺒﺭ‬‫ﺴﻴ‬

68
‫‪‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﺘﹸﺤﺫﻑ ﻋﻼﻤﺘﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻨﺼﻴﺹ )ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ( ﻭﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ )‪ (that‬ﻜﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺭﺒﻁ ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ )ﺃﻥ‪ (‬ﻭﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺤﺫﻓﻬﺎ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺘﹸﻐﻴ‪‬ﺭ ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﺒﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭٍ ﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺯ‪‬ﻤﻥ )ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل( ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺘﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻓﺄﻥ‪ ‬ﺍﻟـﺯ‪‬ﻤﻥ‬
‫ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻻ ﻴﺘﻐﻴ‪‬ﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .5‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺯ‪‬ﻤﻥ )ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل( ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺘﺎﻡ ﻓﺄﻥ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺯ‪‬ﻤﻥ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻴﺘﻐﻴ‪‬ـﺭ‬
‫ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﺠﺩﺍﻭل ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻴﺔ‪-:‬‬

‫‪ Direct Speech‬‬ ‫‪ Indirect Speech‬‬

‫‪Present Simple‬‬ ‫‪ Past Simple‬ﻤﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬


‫‪Past Simple‬‬ ‫‪ Past Perfect‬ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺘﺎﻡ‬
‫‪Present Perfect‬‬ ‫‪ Past Perfect‬ﻤﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺘﺎﻡ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺘﺎﻡ‬
‫‪Present Continuous‬‬ ‫‪ Past Continuous‬ﻤﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬
‫‪Past Continuous‬‬ ‫‪ Past Perfect Continuous‬ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬ ‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺘﺎﻡ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬

‫‪ ‬ﺸﻜل )ﺼﻴﻐﺔ( ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻫﻲ‪. had + been +  + ing :‬‬ ‫×‬

‫‪ Direct Speech‬‬ ‫‪ Indirect Speech‬‬

‫‪shall‬‬ ‫‪ should‬ﺴﻭﻑ‪ /‬ﺴـ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴـ‬


‫‪will‬‬ ‫‪ would‬ﺴﻭﻑ ‪ /‬ﺴـ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴـ‬
‫‪can‬‬ ‫‪ could‬ﻴﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴـ‬
‫‪may‬‬ ‫‪ might‬ﺭﺒﻤﺎ ‪ /‬ﻴﺠﻭﺯ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺠﻭﺯ‪ /‬ﺭ‪‬ﺒ‪‬ﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ‬
‫‪must‬‬ ‫)‪ had to (must‬ﻴﺠﺏ ‪ /‬ﻴ‪‬ﻠﺯِﻡ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺠﺏ‬
‫‪ought to‬‬ ‫‪ to ought‬ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺠﺏ‬

‫‪should +‬‬ ‫‪ should have + P.P‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴـ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺴـ‬

‫‪would +‬‬ ‫‪ would have + P.P‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴـ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺴـ‬

‫‪could +‬‬ ‫‪ could have + P.P‬ﺍﺴﺘﻁﺎﻉ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻁﺎﻉ‬

‫‪might +‬‬ ‫‪ might have + P.P‬ﻴﺠﻭﺯ ﺃﻥ‬ ‫ﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺠﻭﺯ‬

‫‪ .6‬ﻫ‪‬ﻨﺎﻙ ﺃﻟﻔﺎﻅ )ﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ( ﺘﺘﻐﻴ‪‬ﺭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻜﻼﻡٍ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ‪ ،‬ﻫﺫﺍ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺯ‪‬ﻤﻥ ﺨـﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻗـﻭﺍﺱ )ﻓﻌـل‬
‫ﺍﻟﻘﻭل( ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﺘﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺎﻀﻲ ﻤﺴﺘﻤﺭ‪ ،‬ﺃﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘـﻭل ﻤ‪‬ـﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺒـﺴﻴﻁ ﺃﻭ ﻤ‪‬ـﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻤ‪‬ـﺴﺘﻤﺭ‬
‫ﺃﻭ ﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺘﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻘﺒل ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‪ ،‬ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻐﻴ‪‬ﺭ ﻭﺘﺒﻘﻰ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ‪ ،‬ﻭﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ ﺠﺩﻭل ﻴﻭﻀﺢ ﺫﻟﻙ‪-:‬‬

‫‪69‬‬


 Direct Speech  Indirect Speech

this ‫ ﻫﺫﻩ‬/ ‫ ﻫﺫﺍ‬that ‫ ﺘﻠﻙ‬/ ‫ﺫﻟﻙ‬


these ‫ ﻫﺅﻻﺀ‬those ‫ﺃﻭﻟﺌـﻙ‬
here ‫ ﻫﻨـﺎ‬there ‫ﻫﻨـﺎﻙ‬
thus ‫ ﻫﻜـﺫﺍ‬so ‫ ﻫﻨﺎﻟﻙ‬/ ‫ﻫﻨﺎﻙ‬
now ‫ ﺍﻵﻥ‬then / at once ‫ ﻓﻭﺭﺍﹰ‬/‫ ﺁﻨﺫﺍﻙ‬/ ‫ﻋﻨﺩﺌﺫ‬
that day ‫ﻓﻲ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬
today ‫ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬
the same day ‫ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬
that night ‫ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬
tonight ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬
the same night ‫ﻨﻔﺱ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬
yesterday ‫ ﺃﻤﺱ‬the day before / the previous day ‫ﺎﺒﻕ‬‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺴ‬
the day before yesterday ‫ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻷﻤﺱ‬two days before ‫ﻗﺒل ﻴﻭﻤﻴﻥ‬
yesterday afternoon ‫ ﻤﺴﺎﺀ ﺃﻤﺱ‬the previous afternoon ‫ﺎﺒﻕ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤﺴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺴ‬
tomorrow ‫ ﻏﺩﺍﹰ‬the following day / the next day ‫ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻟﻲ‬
tomorrow morning ‫ ﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻐﺩ‬the following morning ‫ﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻟﻲ‬
the day after tomorrow ٍ‫ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺒﻌﺩ ﻏﺩ‬in two days' time ‫ﻓﻲ ﻏﻀﻭﻥ ﻴﻭﻤﻴﻥ‬/ ٍ‫ﺒﻌﺩ ﻏﺩ‬
the previous …..
last .... ‫ﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬/ ‫ﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬ ...‫ﺎﺒﻕ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴ‬
the .....before
the previous night
last night ‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺴ‬
the night before
ago ‫ ﻤﻨـﺫ‬before / previous ‫ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒـل‬
a year before ‫ﻤﻥ ﻗﺒل ﺴﻨﺔ‬
a year ago ‫ﻤﻨـﺫ ﺴﻨﺔ‬
the previous year ‫ﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴ‬
come here ‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ ﺘﻌﺎﻟﻰ ﻫ‬go there ‫ﻨﺎﻙ‬‫ﺍﺫﻫﺏ ﻫ‬
bring this ‫ ﺍﺤﻀﺭ ﻫﺫﺍ‬take that ‫ﺨﹸـﺫ ﺫﻟﻙ‬
He said, "yes ". ."‫ "ﻨﻌﻡ‬:‫ ﻗﺎل‬He agreed. .‫ﻫﻭ ﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬
He said," No". ." ‫ " ﻻ‬:‫ ﻗﺎل‬He refused. / He disagreed. .‫ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻭﺍﻓﻕ‬/ ‫ﻫﻭ ﺭﻓﺽ‬
He said, "Good morning". ."‫ "ﺼﺒﺎﺡ ﺍﻟﺨﻴﺭ‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬ He wished …. good morning. .‫ﻫﻭ ﺘﻤﻨﻰ ﺼﺒﺎﺤﺎﹰ ﻁﻴﺒﺎﹰ‬
He said, "thank you". ." ‫ " ﺃﺸﻜﺭﻙ‬:‫ ﻗﺎل‬He thanked me. .‫ﻫﻭ ﺸﻜﺭﻨﻲ‬

.‫ﻀﺎﺭﻋﺎﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼﹰ‬‫ﻤﻥ )ﺯﻤﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل( ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻤ‬‫ﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺯ‬‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻐﻴ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺴ‬  ×
 
 
 
 

70


Examples ‫ﺃﻤـﺜﻠﺔ‬

 Direct Speech  Indirect Speech


He said to me, "I shall see you tomorrow". He told me that he would see me the next day.
1.
."‫ "ﺴﺄﺭﺍﻙ ﻏﺩﺍﹰ‬:‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ‬ .‫ ﺴﻴﺭﺍﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻟﻲ‬‫ﺃﺨﺒﺭﻨﻲ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻪ‬
They say, "We shall play basketball tomorrow". They say that they will play basketball tomorrow.
2. ."‫ﻠﺔ ﻏﺩﺍﹰ‬‫ "ﺴﻨﻠﻌﺏ ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴ‬:‫ﻫﻡ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﻥ‬ .‫ﻠﺔ ﻏﺩﺍﹰ‬‫ﻫﻡ ﻴﻘﻭﻟﻭﺍ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻬﻡ ﺴﻴﻠﻌﺒﻭﻥ ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺴ‬
.(‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬‫ﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻻ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻓﻼ ﺘﺘﻐﻴ‬‫ﻨﺎ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﻤ‬‫ﻫ‬ •
She says, "I am very happy today". She says that she is very happy today.
3. ."‫ "ﺃﻨﺎ ﺴﻌﻴﺩﺓ ﺠﺩﺍﹰ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬:‫ﻫﻲ ﺘﻘﻭل‬ .‫ﻫﻲ ﺘﻘﻭل ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﺴﻌﻴﺩﺓﹲ ﺠﺩﺍﹰ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬
.‫ﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻻ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ‬‫( ﻤﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﻓﻼ ﺘﺘﻐﻴ‬says) ‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬ •
We say, "We are playing football now". We say that we are playing football now.
4. ."‫ "ﻨﺤﻥ ﻨﻠﻌﺏ ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻵﻥ‬:‫ﻨﺤﻥ ﻨﻘﻭل‬ .‫ﻨﺤﻥ ﻨﻘﻭل ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻨﺎ ﻨﻠﻌﺏ ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻵﻥ‬
.‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ‬‫( ﻤ‬says) ‫ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻷﻥ‬‫ﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻻ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻐﻴ‬‫ﻫ‬ •
We told Ali that we were playing football at once.
We said to Ali, "We are playing football now".
5. .‫ﺎﹰ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻨﺎ ﻜﹸﻨﹼﺎ ﻨﻠﻌﺏ ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ ﺁﻨﺫﺍﻙ‬‫ﻨﺤﻥ ﺃﺨﺒﺭﻨﺎ ﻋﻠﻴ‬
."‫ "ﻨﺤﻥ ﻨﻠﻌﺏ ﻜﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﻘﺩﻡ ﺍﻵﻥ‬:ٍ‫ﻨﺤﻥ ﻗﹸﻠﻨﺎ ﻟﻌﻠﻲ‬
.‫( ﻤﺎﻀﻲ‬said to)‫ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻷﻥ‬‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﺤﺩﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠ‬
He said to me, "I went to Rafah with my He told me that he had gone to Rafah with
6. father yesterday". his father the day before.
."‫ "ﺫﻫﺒﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺭﻓﺢ ﻤﻊ ﺃﺒﻲ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ‬:‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ‬ .‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺭﻓﺢ ﻤﻊ ﺃﺒﻴﻪِ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡِ ﺍﻟﺴﺎﺒﻕ‬‫ﺃﺨﺒﺭﻨﺎ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻪ‬
Maged says to his sister, "I remember my Maged tells his sister that he remembers his
7. father's advice to me". father's advice to him.
."‫ "ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﺘﺫﻜﹼﺭ ﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﺃﺒﻲ ﻟﻲ‬:ِ‫ﻤﺎﺠﺩ ﻴﻘﻭل ﻷﺨﺘِﻪ‬ .‫ ﻟﻪ‬‫ ﻴﺘﺫﻜﺭ ﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﺃﺒﺎﻩ‬‫ﺨﺒِﺭ ﺃُﺨﺘﻪ ﺃﻨﹼﻪ‬‫ﻤﺎﺠﺩ ﻴ‬
I said to the boy, "You have neglected your
I told the boy that he had neglected his duties.
8. duties".
.ِ‫لَ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎﺘِﻪ‬‫ﻤ‬‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻫ‬‫ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻪ‬‫ﻟﹶﺩ‬‫ﺃﺨﺒﺭﺕﹸ ﺍﻟﻭ‬
."‫ﺕ ﻓﻲ ﻭﺍﺠﺒﺎﺘِﻙ‬
‫ "ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻫﻤﻠ ﹶ‬:ِ‫ﻗﹸﻠﺕﹸ ﻟﻠﻭﻟﹶﺩ‬
He said," I must go now". He said that he had to go at once.
9.
."‫ ﺍﻵﻥ‬‫ﺏ‬‫ "ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﹾﻫ‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬ .‫ ﻓﻭﺭﺍﹰ‬‫ﺏ‬‫ﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺫﹾﻫ‬‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺘﻌﻴ‬‫ﻗﺎل ﺇﻨﹼﻪ‬
He said, "I must not go there". He said that he had not to go there.
10.
."‫ﻨﺎﻙ‬‫ " ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻻﹼ ﺃﺫﻫﺏ ﻫ‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬ .‫ﻨﺎﻙ‬‫ ﻫ‬‫ﺏ‬‫ﺫﹾﻫ‬‫ﻥ ﻋﻠﻴﻪ ﺃﻥ ﻴ‬‫ ﻟﻡ ﻴﻜﻥ ﻴﺘﻌﻴ‬‫ ﺇﻨﹼﻪ‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬

   |
.‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔِ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡِ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﻤ‬‫ ﻓﻲ ﺃﻭلِ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﻪ‬‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻓﻀﻌ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡِ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺁﺨﺭِ ﺍﻟﺠ‬.1

 Direct Speech  Indirect Speech


The boy said that he had written his lessons
"I wrote my lessons yesterday", the boy said.
1. the day before.
.‫"ﻜﺘﺒﺕﹸ ﺩﺭﻭﺴﻲ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱِ" ﻗﺎل ﺍﻟﻭﻟﺩ‬
.‫ﺎﺒﻕ‬‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺘﺏ ﺩﺭﻭﺴﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡِ ﺍﻟﺴ‬‫ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻪ‬‫ﻗﺎل ﺍﻟﻭﻟﺩ‬
"You have written a good letter", said my father. My father said that I had written a good letter.
2.
.‫"ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺘﺒﺕﹶ ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔﹰ ﺠﻴﺩﺓﹰ" ﻗﺎل ﺃﺒﻲ‬ .‫ﺃﺒﻲ ﻗﺎل ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻨﻲ ﻜﹸﻨﺕﹸ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺘﺒﺕﹸ ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔﹰ ﺠﻴﺩﺓﹰ‬

71

‫ـﺭ‬‫( ﻓﺤﻴﻨﺌﺫٍ ﻻ ﺘﺘﻐﻴ‬shall say ‫ ﺃﻭ‬says to ‫ ﺃﻭ‬say to ‫ ﺃﻭ‬says ‫ ﺃﻭ‬say) :‫ﻀﺎﺭﻋﺎﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻤﺴﺘﻘﺒﻼﹰ ﻤِﺜل‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﻤ‬.2
.‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﻭﺇﻨﹼﻤﺎ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭ‬‫ﺃﺯﻤﻨﺔ ﺍﻟﺠ‬

 Direct Speech  Indirect Speech


He says, "I feel hungry". He says that he feels hungry.
1.
."‫ "ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﻭﻉ‬:‫ﻫﻭ ﻴﻘﻭل‬ .ِ‫ ﻴﺸﻌﺭ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﻭﻉ‬‫ﻫﻭ ﻴﻘﻭل ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻪ‬
I shall say to him, "There is no room for you I shall say to him that there is no room for
2. in the house". him in the house.
."ِ‫ ﻏﹸﺭﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺕ‬‫ "ﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻟﹶﻙ‬:‫ﺴﺄﻗﻭل ﻟﹶﻪ‬ .ِ‫ ﻏﹸﺭﻓﺔ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺒﻴﺕ‬‫ ﻻ ﺘﻭﺠﺩ ﻟﹶﻪ‬‫ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻪ‬‫ﺴﺄﻗﻭل ﻟﹶﻪ‬
Ahmed says to Ali, "I shall buy a new car Ahmed tells Ali that he will buy a new car
3. tomorrow". tomorrow.
."‫ "ﺴﺄﺸﺘﺭﻱ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓﹰ ﻏﺩﺍﹰ‬:ٍ‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﻴﻘﻭل ﻟﻌﻠﻲ‬ .‫ ﺴﻴﺸﺘﺭﻱ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺓً ﻏﺩﺍﹰ‬‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺃﺨﺒﺭ ﻋﻠﻴﺎﹰ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻪ‬

-:‫ﻤﻥ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ) ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺯﻤﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل( ﻤﺜل‬‫ﻀﺎﺭﻉ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﻤﻬﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﺯ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﺎﺌﻕ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﺒﺘﺔ ﺘﻭﻀﻊ ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‬.3

 Direct Speech  Indirect Speech


He said," The earth is round". He said that the earth is round.
1.
"‫ "ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻜﺭﻭﻴﺔ‬:‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل‬ .‫ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﻜﺭﻭﻴﺔ‬‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل ﺒﺄﻥ‬
Our teacher said to us, "The earth moves Our teacher told us that the earth moves round
2. round the sun". the sun.
."ِ‫ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﺸﹼﻤﺱ‬‫ "ﺘﺘﺤﺭﻙ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‬:‫ﺩﺭﺴﻨﺎ‬‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻨﺎ ﻤ‬ .ِ‫ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺘﺘﺤﺭﻙ ﺤﻭل ﺍﻟﺸﹼﻤﺱ‬‫ﺩﺭﺴﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺃﺨﺒﺭﻨﺎ ﻤ‬

.‫ﺨﺭﺝ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺭﺌﻴﺴﻴﺔ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺨﺎﻁﺏ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻓﺈﻨﻪ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﻴ‬.4

 Direct Speech  Indirect Speech


I said," I want to speak to you, Ali". I told Ali that I wanted to speak to him.
."‫ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺘﻜﻠﹼﻡ ﺇﻟﻴﻙ ﻴﺎ ﻋﻠﻲ‬‫ "ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﺭﻴﺩ‬:‫ﻗﹸﻠﺕﹸ‬ .ِ‫ﺎﹰ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻨﻲ ﺃﺭﺩﺕﹸ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺘﻜﻠﹼﻡ ﺇﻟﻴﻪ‬‫ﺃﺨﺒﺭﺕﹸ ﻋﻠﻴ‬

ٍ‫ ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻨﺎ ﻨﺩﻤﺠﻬﺎ ﻤﻌﺎﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺠﻤﻠـﺔٍ ﻭﺍﺤـﺩﺓ‬،‫ﻤل‬‫ﺔٍ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻭﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﹼﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻠﺠ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔٍ ﺇﺨﺒﺎﺭﻴ‬‫ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﻟﺩﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺠ‬.5
‫( ﻭﻨـﻀﻊ‬... ‫ ﺒﻤﻌﻨـﻰ )ﻭﺃﻥ‬that ‫( ﻭﻨﻀﻊ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟـﺸﹼﻭﻟﺔ ﻜﻠﻤـﺔ‬Comma) (‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﻭﺃُﺨﺭﻯ ﺸﻭﻟﺔ )ﻓﺎﺼﻠﺔ‬‫ﻔﹾﺼِل ﺒﻴﻥ ﻜل ﺠ‬‫ﻭﻴ‬
.‫ﺔ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭﺓ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﻴ‬‫( ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺠ‬and added that) ‫ …( ﺃﻭ‬and that …)

 Direct Speech  Indirect Speech


She said to him, "I cannot pay. I lost my bag. She told him that she could not pay, that she
I hung it to this chair. Now, I do not find it". had lost her bag, that she had hung it to that
chair and then she did not find it.
1. ‫ ﺃﻨﺎ‬.‫ﺕﹸ ﺤﻘﻴﺒﺘﻲ‬‫ ﺃﻨﺎ ﻓﹶﻘﹶﺩ‬.‫ "ﺃﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺩﻓﻊ‬:‫ ﻭﺃﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﻜﺎﻨـﺕ ﻗـﺩ ﻫﻲ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻪ‬،‫ ﺃﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﻟﻡ ﺘﻜﹸﻥ ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺩﻓﻊ‬‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﺨﺒﺭﺘﻪ‬
.‫ﻫﺎ‬‫ ﺃﻨﺎ ﻻ ﺃﺠﺩ‬،‫ ﺍﻵﻥ‬.‫ ﻭﺃﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﹼﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﹸﺭﺴﻲ‬،‫ ﻭﺃﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﻋﻠﹼﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻜﹸﺭﺴﻲ‬،‫ﻓﻘﺩﺕ ﺤﻘﻴﺒﺘﻬﺎ‬

.‫ﺒﻌﺩﺌﺫٍ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺠﺩﻫﺎ‬
I prepared my passport yesterday", Mary said. Mary said that she had prepared her passport
"Tomorrow I shall travel abroad ". the day before and that (and added that) the
2. ‫ "ﻏﺩﺍﹰ ﺴﺄُﺴﺎﻓﺭ‬.‫ﺯﺕﹸ ﺠﻭﺍﺯ ﺴﻔﺭﻱ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ" ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻤﺎﺭﻱ‬‫ "ﺃﻨﺎ ﺠﻬ‬next day she would travel abroad.
ِ‫ﺎﺒﻕ‬‫ﺯﺕ ﺠﻭﺍﺯ ﺴﻔﺭﻫﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡِ ﺍﻟﺴ‬‫ﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺠﻬ‬
."‫ﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝِ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‬
.ِ‫ﻭﺃﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡِ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ ﺴﺘﹸﺴﺎﻓﺭ ﻟﺨﺎﺭﺝِ ﺍﻟﺒﻼﺩ‬

72

Khalil said to Ahmed, "You have come very Khalil told Ahmed that he had come very late
late. I was about to leave when I saw you". and that he had been about to leave when he
3. ‫ ﻜﹸﻨﹾﺕﹸ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻭﺸﻙِ ﺃﻥ‬.‫ "ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﺘﻴﺕﹶ ﻤﺘﺄﺨﺭﺍﹰ ﺠﺩﺍﹰ‬:‫ﻗﺎل ﺨﻠﻴل ﻷﺤﻤﺩ‬ had seen him.
‫ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻋﻠﻰ‬‫ﺘﺄﺨﺭﺍﹰ ﺠﺩﺍﹰ ﻭﺃﻨﹼﻪ‬‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻤ‬‫ ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺃﻨﹼﻪ‬‫ﺨﻠﻴل ﺃﺨﺒﺭ‬
."‫ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻴﺘﻙ‬‫ﺃﺨﺭﺝ‬
.‫ﺝ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺭﺁﻩ‬‫ﻭﺸﻙِ ﺃﻥ ﻴﺨﺭ‬

.ِ‫ﻤﻠﺘِﻪ‬‫( ﺜﻡ ﻨﻀﻊ ﻜل ﻓﺎﻋل ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺠ‬and) ‫ ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻬﻤﺎ ﺘﹸﺭﺘﺒﻁﺎﻥ ﺒـ‬،‫ﻤﻠﺘﻴﻥ ﺨﺒﺭﻴﺘﻴﻥ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻟﻜل ﻤﻨﻬﻤﺎ ﻓﺎﻋل‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺠﺩﺕ ﺠ‬.6

 Direct Speech  Indirect Speech


Samy said, "I found this book". "It is my Samy said that he had found that book and Ahmed
book", said Ahmed. said that it was his book.
.‫ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻲ" ﻗﺎل ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬‫ "ﺇﻨﹼﻪ‬."‫ "ﻭﺠﺩﺕﹸ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬:‫ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﻗﺎل‬ .‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﻪ‬‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻭﺠﺩ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﹰ ﻭﻗﺎل ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻪ‬‫ﻗﺎل ﺴﺎﻤﻲ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻪ‬

Always has been * always will be



73


Exercise No. 16 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

*) Put the following sentences into indirect speech (Reported Speech):-


:‫ﻤل ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ﻟﻶﺨﺭﻴﻥ ﺒﺼﻴﻐﺔٍ ﺃُﺨﺭﻯ‬‫ﺃُﻨﻘﹸل ﺍﻟﺠ‬

''I'll bring you some tea when you have finished'', he ‫"ﺴﺄُﺤﻀِﺭ ﻟﻜﻡ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺎﻱ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺘﻜﻭﻨـﻭﺍ ﻗـﺩ‬
1.
said to them. .‫ﺍﻨﺘﻬﻴﺘﻡ" ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻬﻡ‬
2. I said to her, ''I have something to show you''. ."‫ ﻟﻙ‬‫ﻪ‬‫ "ﻤﻌﻲ ﺸﻴﺌﺎﹰ ﻷُﺭﻴ‬:‫ﻗﹸﻠﺕﹸ ﻟﻬﺎ‬
3. She said to him, ''I lost my keys yesterday''. ."ِ‫ "ﻓﻘﺩﺕﹸ ﻤﻔﺎﺘﻴﺤﻲ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻪ‬
4. He says, ''Adel has written me a long letter''. ."‫ "ﻟﻘﺩ ﻜﺘﺏ ﻟﻲ ﻋﺎﺩل ﺭﺴﺎﻟﺔﹰ ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔﹰ‬:‫ﻫﻭ ﻴﻘﻭل‬
5. She said, ''It is foggy today as it was yesterday''. ."ِ‫ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ‬‫ "ﺒﺎﻟﺠﻭِ ﻀﺒﺎﺏ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ‬

Hassan says, ''When I get up, I find a cup of milk ‫ ﻜﻭﺒﺎﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﺒﻥ‬‫ ﺃﺠﺩ‬،‫ "ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﺍﺴﺘﻴﻘﻅ‬:‫ﺤﺴﻥ ﻴﻘﻭل‬
6.
beside my bed". ."‫ﺒﺠﻭﺍﺭ ﺴﺭﻴﺭﻱ‬
She said to him, ''I stayed with my brother in our house
7. ."‫ "ﺃﻨﺎ ﻤﻜﺜﺕﹸ ﻤﻊ ﺃﺨﻲ ﺒﻤﻨﺯﻟﻨﺎ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻪ‬
this morning''.
8. He said to us, ''The sun shines every morning". ."‫ "ﺍﻟﺸﹼﻤﺱ ﺘﹸﺸﺭﻕ ﻜلّ ﺼﺒﺎﺡ‬:‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻨﺎ‬
9. He said," I must go again next week". ."‫ "ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﻫﺏ ﻤﺭﺓﹰ ﺃُﺨﺭﻯ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷُﺴﺒﻭﻉِ ﺍﻟﻘﺎﺩﻡ‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬

10. He said, "I hope to go there''. ."‫ﻨﺎﻙ‬‫ "ﺃﻨﺎ ﺁﻤل ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﻫﺏ ﻫ‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬
11. He says, "I am busy today"." I have bought a new book". ."ً‫ "ﻟﻘﺩ ﺍﺸﺘﺭﻴﺕﹸ ﻜﺘﺎﺒﺎﹰ ﺠﺩﻴﺩﺍ‬."‫ "ﺃﻨﺎ ﻤﺸﻐﻭلٌ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‬:‫ﻴﻘﻭل‬

12. She said, "Iron is heavier than gold". ." ‫ "ﺍﻟﺤﺩﻴﺩ ﺃﺜﻘل ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺫﹼﻫﺏ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ‬

He said to them, "Good morning. I have brought all ‫ﺕ ﻜﹸـل‬


‫ ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﺤـﻀﺭ ﹸ‬.‫ﻜﻡ‬‫ "ﻁﺎﺏ ﺼﺒﺎﺤ‬:‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻬﻡ‬
13.
papers. I hope to reach an agreement". ."ٍ‫ ﺃﻨﺎ ﺁﻤل ﺃﻥ ﻨﺼل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﺘﻔﺎﻕ‬.‫ﺍﻷﻭﺭﺍﻕ‬
14. She said to him," I want to come with you to see with myself'". ."‫ "ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃُﺭﻴﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﻫﺏ ﻤﻌﻙ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺃﺭﻯ ﺒﻨﻔﺴﻲ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻪ‬

15. The man said, "Spring is the best season of the year". ."‫ﻨﺔ‬‫ﺒﻴﻊ ﻫﻭ ﺃﺤﺴﻥ ﻓﺼﻭلِ ﺍﻟﺴ‬‫ "ﺍﻟﺭ‬:‫ل‬‫ﺠ‬‫ﻗﺎل ﺍﻟﺭ‬

She said to him," No. I cannot sign this contract unless ‫ ﻻ ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺃُﻭﻗﹼﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻌﻘﺩ‬.‫ "ﻻ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻪ‬
16.
you pay 300.000 dollars for me now". ."‫ ﺩﻭﻻﺭ ﺍﻵﻥ‬300.000 ‫ﻤﺎ ﻟﻡ ﺘﺩﻓﻊ ﻟﻲ‬
17. She said to him, "My bag was full of money". ."ِ‫ " ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﺤﻘﻴﺒﺘﻲ ﻤﻤﻠﻭﺀﺓ ﺒﺎﻟﻨﱡﻘﻭﺩ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻪ‬

She said to me, "I shall help you. I can lend you some ‫ ﺒﻌـﺽ‬‫ ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺃُﻋِﺭﻙ‬.‫ﻙ‬‫ "ﺴﺄُﺴﺎﻋﺩ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻪ‬
18.
books. I have many useful books on this subject". ."‫ﻔﻴﺩﺓﹰ ﻓﻲ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬‫ ﻋﻨﺩﻱ ﻜﹸﺘﺒﺎﹰ ﻤ‬.‫ﺍﻟﻜﹸﺘﺏ‬
19. He said to me, "I have phoned you twice''. ."‫ "ﻟﻘﺩ ﺍﺘﱟﺼﻠﺕﹸ ﺒﻙ ﻤﺭﺘﻴﻥ‬:‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ‬
He says, "We are living in a house near to my school. ‫ "ﻨﺤﻥ ﻨﻌﻴﺵ ﻓـﻲ ﻤﻨـﺯلٍ ﻗﺭﻴـﺏٍ ﻤـﻥ‬:‫ﻫﻭ ﻴﻘﻭل‬
I needn't to take the bus. I can reach my school in
20. 5 minutes". ‫ ﺃﻨﺎ ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬.‫ ﻻ ﺃﺤﺘﺎﺝ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺭﻜﺏ ﺍﻷُﺘﻭﺒﻴﺱ‬.‫ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺘﻲ‬
." ‫ ﺩﻗﺎﺌﻕ‬5 ‫ﺃﻥ ﺃﺼل ﻤﺩﺭﺴﺘﻲ ﻓﻲ‬

74


2.Questions 

begin with begin with


a question word a helping verb
   
 What, Where, Who :‫ ﻤﺜل‬ (Yes / No - questions)
 
   Are, Do, Have, Will :‫ﻤﺜل‬

Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

He said to me, "Where did you go yesterday?". (Direct) ."‫ "ﺃﻴﻥ ﺫﻫﺒﺕﹶ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱِ؟‬:‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ‬
1.
He asked me where I had gone the day before. (Indirect) .ِ‫ﻫﻭ ﺴﺄﻟﻨﻲ ﺃﻴﻥ ﺫﻫﺒﺕﹸ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱ‬
Salem said, "Are you staying long, Nabil?''. (Direct) ."‫ "ﻫل ﺴﺘﻤﻜﺙ ﻁﻭﻴﻼﹰ ﻴﺎ ﻨﺒﻴل؟‬:‫ﺴﺎﻟﻡ ﻗﺎل‬
2.
Salem asked Nabil if he was staying long. (Indirect) .‫ﺴﺎﻟﻡ ﺴﺄل ﻨﺒﻴل ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﻤﻜﺙ ﻁﻭﻴﻼﹰ‬

Indirect Direct ç

.‫ﺘﻜﻠﹼﻡ ﻴﺒﻘﻰ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻤ‬.1


-:‫ل ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻜﺎﻷﺘﻲ‬‫ﺤﻭ‬‫ ﻴ‬.2

 Direct Speech  Indirect Speech

ask ‫ﻴﺴﺄل‬
enquire ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻔﺴﺭ‬
saysay to ‫ ﻴﻘﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ‬/ ‫ﻴﻘﻭل‬
want to know ‫ﻴﺭﻴﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻌﺭِﻑ‬
question ‫ ﻴﺴﺘﺠﻭﺏ‬/ ‫ﻴﺴـﺄل‬
asks ‫ﻴﺴـﺄل‬
sayssays to ‫ ﻴﻘﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ‬/ ‫ ﻴﻘﻭل‬enquires ‫ﻴﺴﺘﻔﺴﺭ‬
wants to know ‫ﻴﺭﻴﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻌﺭِﻑ‬
asked ‫ﺴﺄل‬
said / said to ‫ ﻗﺎل ﺇﻟﻰ‬/ ‫ ﻗﺎل‬enquired (inquired) ‫ﺍﺴﺘﻔﺴﺭ ﻋﻥ‬
wanted to know ‫ﺃﺭﺍﺩ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻌﺭِﻑ‬
shall say ‫ﺴﻴﺴـﺄل‬
shall say ‫ﺴﻴﻘﻭل‬
shall enquire ‫ﺴﻴﺴﺘﻔﺴﺭ‬
.(‫ ﻨﺤﺫﻑ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ )ﻋﻼﻤﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻨﺼﻴﺹ‬.3

75
‫‪‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺅﺍل ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﺒﻔﻌلٍ ﻤﺴﺎﻋﺩٍ )‪(Defective Verbs - Verb to Have - Verb to Do - Verb to Be‬‬
‫ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ‪ if‬ﺃﻭ ‪ whether‬ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ )ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ‪ (...‬ﻜﺄﺩﺍﺓِ ٍ‬
‫ﺭﺒﻁ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .5‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺅﺍل ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﺒﺄﺩﺍﺓِ ﺍﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡٍ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل‪:‬‬
‫‪When - Why - Who - Which - Whom - Whose - What - Where - How - How many - How much … etc‬‬
‫ﻓﻌﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﻤ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﺘﹸﺤﺫﻑ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‪ ،‬ﻭﺘﹸﻭﻀﻊ ﺃﺩﺍﺓ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ )ﻜﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺭﺒﻁ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ .6‬ﻨﹸﺤﻭ‪‬ل ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺅﺍل )ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﻔﻌل ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺎﻋﺩ ﻴﺴﺒﻕ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل( ﺇﻟﻰ ﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔٍ ﺨﺒﺭﻴ‪‬ﺔٍ )ﺒﻭﻀﻊ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﻔﻌل(‪.‬‬
‫‪ .7‬ﻨﹸﺤﻭ‪‬ل ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻀﻤﺎﺌﺭٍ ﺃُﺨﺭﻯ ﺘﻌﻭﺩ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﻜﻠﹼﻡ )ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل( ﻭﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺨﺎﻁﺏ )ﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ .8‬ﻨﺤﺫﻑ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ )?( ﻷﻥ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺅﺍل ﺃﺼﺒﺢ ﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔﹰ ﻭﻨﻀﻊ ﻨﻘﻁﺔﹰ )‪.(.) (Full stop‬‬
‫‪ .9‬ﺒﺎﻟﻨﹼﺴﺒﺔ ﻟﻸﻓﻌﺎل ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‪:‬‬
‫ﺃ( ﻻ ﻴﺤﺩﺙ ﺃﻱ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ )ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ( ﺃﻭ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻘﺒل‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ( ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺯﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻲ )ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺴﺘﻤﺭ( ﻓﺈﻥ‪ ‬ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﻭﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﺘﹸﻐﻴ‪‬ﺭ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻓﻲ‬
‫ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﻴ‪‬ﺔ‪.‬‬

‫‪ Direct Speech‬‬ ‫‪ Indirect Speech‬‬


‫‪Ameera said, "Did you watch the film Ameera asked Azza if she had watched the‬‬
‫‪1.‬‬ ‫‪yesterday, Azza?".‬‬ ‫‪film the day before.‬‬
‫ﺃﻤﻴﺭﺓ ﺴﺄﻟﺕ ﻋﺯ‪‬ﺓ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺸﺎﻫﺩﺕ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻡ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡِ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺎﺒﻕ‪ .‬ﺃﻤﻴﺭﺓ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ‪" :‬ﻫل ﺸﺎﻫﺩﺕِ ﺍﻟﻔﻴﻠﻡ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱِ ﻴﺎ ﻋﺯ‪‬ﺓ؟"‪.‬‬
‫‪She says to Ali, "Are you happy today?".‬‬ ‫‪She asks Ali if he is happy today.‬‬
‫‪2.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻌﻠﻲٍ‪ ":‬ﻫل ﺃﻨﺕ ﺴﻌﻴﺩ‪ ‬ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ؟"‪.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺘﺴﺄل ﻋﻠﻴﺎﹰ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴﻌﻴﺩﺍﹰ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫﻨﺎ ﻟﻡ ﻴﺤﺩ‪‬ﺙ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺯ‪‬ﻤﻥ ﺩﺍﺨل ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻭﻻ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻷﻥ‪ ‬ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﻤ‪‬ﻀﺎﺭﻉ‪.‬‬
‫"?‪I said to Mazen, "Have you met the teacher‬‬ ‫‪I asked Mazen if he had met the teacher.‬‬
‫‪3.‬‬
‫ﻗﹸﻠﺕﹸ ﻟﻤﺎﺯﻥ‪" :‬ﻫل ﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﺒﻠﺕَ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺩﺭ‪‬ﺱ؟"‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴﺄﻟﺕﹸ ﻤﺎﺯﻥ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﻗﺎﺒل ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺩﺭ‪‬ﺱ‪.‬‬
‫‪She said, " Have they departed?".‬‬ ‫‪She wanted to know whether they had departed.‬‬
‫‪4.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ‪" :‬ﻫل ﻫﻡ ﻗﺩ ﺭﺤﻠﻭﺍ؟"‪.‬‬ ‫ﺃﺭﺍﺩﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻗﺩ ﺭﺤﻠﻭﺍ‪.‬‬
‫‪I said to the boys "Were you busy I asked the boys if they had been busy the‬‬
‫‪5.‬‬ ‫‪yesterday?".‬‬ ‫‪day before.‬‬
‫ﻗﹸﻠﺕﹸ ﻟﻸﻭﻻﺩ‪" :‬ﻫل ﻜﹸﻨﺘﹸﻡ ﻤﺸﻐﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱِ؟"‪.‬‬ ‫ﺴﺄﻟﺕﹸ ﺍﻷﻭﻻﺩ ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻨﻭﺍ ﻤﺸﻐﻭﻟﻴﻥ ﺒﺎﻷﻤﺱِ‪.‬‬
‫‪Beesan said to me, "Can you solve the Beesan wanted to know if I could solve the‬‬
‫‪6.‬‬ ‫‪problem?".‬‬ ‫‪problem.‬‬
‫ﺒﻴﺴﺎﻥ ﺃﺭﺍﺩﺕ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻌﺭﻑ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﹸﻨﺕﹸ ﻗﺩ ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻌﺕﹸ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺤ ّل ﺍﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪ .‬ﺒﻴﺴﺎﻥ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻲ‪" :‬ﻫل ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﹶﺤِلﱢ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺸﻜﻠﺔ؟"‪.‬‬
‫‪Nora said to her friend, ''Could you solve Nora asked her friend if she could have solved‬‬
‫‪7.‬‬ ‫"?‪the question‬‬ ‫‪the question.‬‬
‫ﻨﻭﺭﻩ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﺼﺩﻴﻘﺘﻬﺎ‪" :‬ﻫل ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻌﺕﹶ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺤلّ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺅﺍل؟"‬ ‫ﻨﻭﺭﻩ ﺴﺄﻟﺕ ﺼﺩﻴﻘﺘﻬﺎ ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻗﺩ ﺤﻠﹼﺕ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﺅﺍل‪.‬‬
‫‪He said to his father, "Will you buy a car He asked his father if he would buy a car the‬‬
‫‪8.‬‬ ‫"?‪tomorrow‬‬ ‫‪next day.‬‬
‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻭﺍﻟﺩﻩِ ‪" :‬ﻫل ﺴﺘﺸﺘﺭﻱ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓﹰ ﻏﺩﺍﹰ؟"‬ ‫ﺴﺄل ﻭﺍﻟﺩﻩ‪ ‬ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺴﻴﺸﺘﺭﻱ ﺴﻴﺎﺭﺓﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭ ِﻡ ﺍﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪.‬‬
‫‪I said to Ali, "Don't you believe this story?" I asked Ali if he didn't believe that story.‬‬
‫‪9.‬‬
‫ﻗﹸﻠﺕﹸ ﻟﻌﻠﻲٍ‪" :‬ﺃﻻ ﺘﹸﺼﺩﻕ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻘﺼ‪‬ﺔ؟"‬ ‫ﺴﺄﻟﺕﹸ ﻋﻠﻴﺎﹰ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻻ ﻴ‪‬ﺼﺩﻕ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻘﺼ‪‬ﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪"What are you doing now?'' said John.‬‬ ‫‪John asked what I was doing at once.‬‬
‫‪10.‬‬
‫"ﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺘﻔﻌل ﺍﻵﻥ؟"‪ :‬ﻗﺎل ﺠﻭﻥ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺠﻭﻥ ﺴﺄل ﻋﻤ‪‬ﺎ ﻜﹸﻨﺕﹸ ﺃﻓﻌل ﺁﻨﺫﺍﻙ‪.‬‬

‫‪76‬‬

I said to him, "When will you travel to I wanted to know when he would travel to
11. London?" London.
"‫ "ﻤﺘﻰ ﺴﺘﹸﺴﺎﻓﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻟﻨﺩﻥ؟‬:‫ﻗﹸﻠﺕﹸ ﻟﻪ‬ .‫ﺴﺎﻓﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻟﻨﺩﻥ‬‫ﺃﺭﺩﺕﹸ ﺃﻥ ﺃﻋﺭﻑ ﻤﺘﻰ ﺴﻴ‬
"Who has finished his work?" said the man. The man asked who had finished his work.
12.
.‫ل‬‫ﺠ‬‫ ﻗﺩ ﺃﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ؟" ﻗﺎل ﺍﻟﺭ‬‫ﻥ‬‫"ﻤ‬ .‫ل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺃﻨﻬﻰ ﻋﻤﻠﻪ‬‫ﺠ‬‫ﺴﺄل ﺍﻟﺭ‬
He said to Adel, "Where do you learn English?" He asked Adel where he learnt English.
13. "‫ﺔ؟‬‫ "ﺃﻴﻥ ﺘﺘﻌﻠﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‬:‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻌﺎﺩل‬ .‫ﺔ‬‫ﻫﻭ ﺴﺄل ﻋﺎﺩل ﺃﻴﻥ ﺘﻌﻠﹼﻡ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‬

   |
‫ل‬‫ ﻭﻨﺤـﻭ‬،told ‫ ﺃﻭ‬said ‫ـﺔ‬‫ﻤﻠـﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﻴ‬‫ ﻭﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺠ‬،asked ‫ﺅﺍل‬‫ ﻓﻨﻀﻊ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻟﺴ‬،‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺨﺒﺭﻴ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺠﺩ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﺴﺅﺍل ﻭﺠ‬.1
.‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﻴ‬‫ﺔ ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﻴ‬‫ل ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ ﻭﻨﺤﻭ‬،‫ﺅﺍل‬‫ﺅﺍل ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺴ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴ‬

 Direct Speech  Indirect Speech


He said to me, "It is too late. Where are you He told me that it was too late and asked
going now?" where I was going then.
"‫ ﺍﻵﻥ؟‬‫ ﺃﻴﻥ ﺃﻨﺕ ﺫﺍﻫﺏ‬.‫ﺘﺄﺨﺭﺓﹲ ﺠﺩﺍﹰ‬‫ "ﺇﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﻤ‬:‫ ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ‬.‫ﺘﺄﺨﺭﺓ ﺠﺩﺍﹰ ﻭﺴﺄﻟﻨﻲ ﺃﻴﻥ ﻜﹸﻨﺕ ﺫﺍﻫﺒﺎﹰ ﺁﻨﺫﺍﻙ‬‫ﻫﻭ ﺃﺨﺒﺭﻨﻲ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻤ‬

.and asked ‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺠﺩ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﺴﺅﺍﻟﻴﻥ ﻓﻨﺭﺒﻁﻬﻤﺎ ﺒـ‬.2

 Direct Speech  Indirect Speech


"Do you want to go to the sea?" "How will you go Ramy asked if I wanted to go to the sea
there?" said Ramy. and asked how I should go there.
.‫ ﻗﺎل ﺭﺍﻤﻲ‬: "‫ﻨﺎﻙ؟‬‫ " ﻜﻴﻑ ﺴﺘﺫﻫﺏ ﻫ‬،"‫ ﺇﻟـﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤـﺭِ "ﻫل ﺘﹸﺭﻴﺩ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺒﺤﺭِ؟‬‫ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺫﻫﺏ‬‫ﺴﺄل ﺭﺍﻤﻲ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﹸﻨﺕﹸ ﺃُﺭﻴﺩ‬
.‫ﻨﺎﻙ‬‫ ﻫ‬‫ﻭﺴﺄل ﻜﻴﻑ ﻜﹸﻨﺕﹸ ﺴﺄﺫﻫﺏ‬

   |
:‫ﻎ ﺍﻻﺴﺘﻔﻬﺎﻡ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻴﻠﻲ‬‫ ﻴﺘﻡ ﺘﺤﻭﻴل ﺒﻌﺽ ﺼِﻴ‬.1

 Direct   Indirect

What about..? ‫؟‬...‫ ﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻋﻥ‬suggest ‫ﻴﻘﺘﺭﺡ‬


Why don't you ..? ‫؟‬.....‫ ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻟﻡ‬advise ‫ﻴﻨﺼﺢ‬
Could I have... ? ‫؟‬.....‫ ﻫل ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ‬ask ‫ﻴﻁﻠﹸﺏ‬
offered ‫ﺽ‬‫ـﺭ‬‫ﻋ‬
Would you like….? ‫؟‬....‫ﻫل ﺘﺭﻏﺏ‬
offered to + ‫ﻤﺼﺩﺭ‬ ......‫ ﺒﺄﻥ‬‫ﺽ‬‫ـﺭ‬‫ﻋ‬

‫؟( ﻫـﺫﻩ‬...‫ ) ﻫل ﺴـ‬Will you...? / (‫؟‬.... ‫ )ﻫل ﺴـ‬Would you…? / (‫؟‬....‫ )ﻫل ﺍﺴﺘﻁﻌﺕ‬Could you ...? .2
.‫ﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ‬‫ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺘﹸﻌﺒ‬
ٍ‫ل ﻜـﺴﺅﺍلٍ ﻋـﺎﺩﻱ‬‫ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺤﻭ‬،asked …. to ‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫؟( ﺘﺤﻭ‬....‫ ﻫل ﺘﺴﻤﺢ‬، ‫؟‬......‫ )ﻫل ﺘﹸﻤﺎﻨﻊ‬Would you mind….? .3
.(if ) ‫ﻭﺘﻅل ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻲ ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻗﺔ ﺒـ‬

77


Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

 Direct Speech  Indirect Speech


"What about flying?" he said. He suggested flying.
1. ."‫ "ﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﻴﺭﺍﻥ ؟‬:‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل‬ .‫ﻫﻭ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺡ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﻴﺭﺍﻥ‬
."‫ "ﻤﺎ ﺭﺃﻴﻙ ﺒﺎﻟﻁﹼﻴﺭﺍﻥ؟‬:‫ﺃﻭ ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل‬
"Why don't you ask him?" she said to me". She advised me to ask him.
2.
."‫؟‬‫ "ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﻻ ﺘﺴﺄﻟﹶﻪ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻲ‬ .‫ ﺃﺴـﺄﻟﹶﻪ‬‫ﻫﻲ ﻨﺼﺤﺘﻨﻲ ﺒﺄﻥ‬
"Could I have a cup of tea?" she said to me. She asked me for a cup of tea.
3.
."‫ "ﻫل ﺃﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺘﻨﺎﻭل ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ ﺸﺎﻱ؟‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻲ‬ .‫ﻫﻲ ﻁﻠﺒﺕ ﻤﻨﹼﻲ ﻓﻨﺠﺎﻥ ﺸﺎﻱ‬
"Could you sign the book, please?" he said. He asked me to sign the book.
4.
"‫ ﻤﻥ ﻓﻀﻠﻙ؟‬،‫ "ﻫل ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﹸﻭﻗﹼﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬ .‫ ﻤﻨﹼﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺃُﻭﻗﹼﻊ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ‬‫ﻁﻠﺏ‬
"Would you mind opening the door?" he He asked me to open the door.
said. .‫ﺴـﺄﻟﻨﻲ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﹸﻨﺕﹸ ﺃُﻤﺎﻨﻊ ﺒﻔﺘﺢِ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‬
5. ."‫ "ﻫل ﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﻔﺘﺢِ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ؟‬:‫ ﻗﺎل‬Or: He asked me if I would mind opening the
door.
.‫ﺴـﺄﻟﻨﻲ ﻤﺎ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﹸﻨﺕﹸ ﺍﺭﻏﺏ ﺒﻔﺘﺢِ ﺍﻟﺒﺎﺏ‬
''Would you like a drink?" he said. He offered me a drink.
6.
."‫ "ﻫل ﺘﺭﻏﺏ ﺒﻤﺸﺭﻭﺏٍ؟‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬ .‫ ﻟﻲ ﻤﺸﺭﻭﺒﺎﹰ‬‫ﺽ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻋ‬
''Shall I wait you, I shall wait for you if you He offered to wait for me.
7. like?" he said. .‫ ﺃﻥ ﻴﻨﺘﻅِﺭﻨﻲ‬‫ﺽ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﻫﻭ ﻋ‬
‫ ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل‬:"‫ﻙ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﹸﻨﺕﹶ ﺘﺭﻏﺏ؟‬‫ ﺴﺄﻨﺘﻅﺭ‬،‫ﻙ‬‫"ﻫل ﺃﻨﺘﻅﺭ‬

It is the end that counts


 

78


Exercise No. 17 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

Change Into Indirect Speech:- :‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﻤ‬‫ﺤﻭ‬

Soha said, "What do you want to do on


1. ."‫ﻤﻌﺔ ﻴﺎ ﻨﺎﺩﻴﺔ؟‬‫ "ﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺘﺭﻏﺒﻲ ﻓﻲ ﻓﻌﻠﻪِ ﻴﻭﻡ ﺍﻟﺠ‬:‫ﻬﺎ‬‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﺴ‬
Friday, Nadia?".
Mona said, "How are you going to travel to
2. ."‫ "ﻜﻴﻑ ﺴﺘﹸﺴﺎﻓﺭﻴﻥ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻓﺭﻨﺴﺎ ﻴﺎ ﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ؟‬:‫ﻨﻰ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ‬‫ﻤ‬
France, Samia?".
3. I said to my friend, "When did you arrive?". ."‫ "ﻤﺘﻰ ﻭﺼﻠﺕﹶ؟‬:‫ﻗﹸﻠﺕﹸ ﻟﺼﺩﻴﻘﻲ‬
Mr. Hesham said, "Where was the voice
4. ."‫ﻭﺕ؟‬‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺼ‬‫ "ﻤِﻥ ﺃﻴﻥ‬:‫ﻴﺩ ﻫِﺸﹶﺎﻡ ﻗﺎل‬‫ﺍﻟﺴ‬
coming from?".
5. I said, "Did I make anything wrong?". ."‫ "ﻫل ﺃﻨﺎ ﻓﻌﻠﺕﹸ ﺃﻱ ﺨﻁﺄ؟‬:‫ﻗﹸﻠﺕﹸ‬
6. "Would you mind waiting?" he said. ."‫ "ﻫل ﺘﺴﻤﺢ ﺒﺎﻻﻨﺘﻅﺎﺭ؟‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬

He said to her, "How did you come here?" ‫ "ﻜﻴﻑ ﺤﻀﺭﺕِ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻫﻨﺎ؟" "ﻫل ﺤﻀﺭﺕِ ﺇﻟﻰ‬:‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻬﺎ‬
7.
"Did you come here on foot?". ."‫ﻨﺎ ﻤﺸﻴﺎﹰ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻷﻗﺩﺍﻡِ؟‬‫ﻫ‬
8. She said, "Why do you blame me?". ."‫ "ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺘﹸﻭﺒﺨﻨﻲ )ﺘﻠﻭﻤﻨﻲ(؟‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ‬
9. Mohammed said, "Is the flat cheap?". ."‫ "ﻫل ﺍﻟﺸﹼﻘﹼﺔ ﺭﺨﻴﺼﺔ؟‬:‫ﻗﺎل ﻤﺤﻤﺩ‬
10. "Could you wait a moment?" he said. ."‫ "ﻫل ﺘﻨﺘﻅﺭ ﻟﺤﻅﺔ؟‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬
"Would you like a lift?" Tariq said, "Which ٍ‫ ﻁﺭﻴـﻕ‬‫ ﻤـﻥ ﺃﻱ‬:‫ ﻗﹸﻠـﺕﹸ‬."‫ "ﻫل ﺘﺭﻏﺏ ﺒﺘﻭﺼﻴﻠﺔٍ؟‬:‫ﻗﺎل ﻁﺎﺭﻕ‬
11.
way are you going?" I said. ."‫ﺴﺘﺫﻫﺏ؟‬
She said to me, "Can you do it before
12. ."‫ "ﻫل ﺘﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ ﺘﻌﻤﻠﻬﺎ ﻗﺒل ﻴﻭﻡ ﻏﺩٍ؟‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻲ‬
tomorrow?"
13. Her husband said, "What is a suitable dress?". ."‫ "ﻴﺎ ﻟﻪ ﻤﻥ ﻓﺴﺘﺎﻥٍ ﺠﻤﻴل؟‬:‫ﻗﺎل ﺯﻭﺠﻬﺎ‬
"Why are you looking through the keyhole?"
14. ."‫ﻔﺘﺎﺡ؟‬‫ "ﻟﻤﺎﺫﺍ ﺘﻨﻅﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺨﻼل ﺜﹸﻘﺏ ﺍﻟﻤ‬:‫ﻗﹸﻠﺕﹸ ﻟﻪ‬
said to him.
"Where were you last night, Mr. Hazem?"
15. ."‫ "ﺃﻴﻥ ﻜﹸﻨﹾﺕﹶ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤﺎﻀﻴﺔ ﻴﺎ ﺴﻴﺩ ﺤﺎﺯﻡ؟‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬
he said.
She said, "Need we go to the shops in order to ‫ "ﻫل ﻨﺤﻥ ﺒﺤﺎﺠﺔٍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺃﻥ ﻨﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﺤﻼﺕِ ﻟﻨﺭﻯ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ‬
16.
see suitable dresses and unsuitable prices?". ."‫ﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ؟‬‫ﻨﺎﺴﺒﺔ ﻭﺍﻷﺴﻌﺎﺭ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﻤ‬‫ﺍﻟﻔﺴﺎﺘﻴﻥ ﺍﻟﻤ‬
"How long are you staying in Gaza, Khalil?"
17. ."‫ "ﻜﻡ ﺴﺘﻤﻜﺙ ﻓﻲ ﻏﺯﺓ ﻴﺎ ﺨﻠﻴل؟‬:‫ﻗﺎل ﺤﺴﺎﻥ‬
Hassan said.
18. He says, "Is the weather good today?". ."‫ "ﻫل ﺍﻟﺠﻭ ﺠﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ؟‬:‫ﻴﻘﻭل‬
19. He said, "Is the weather good today?". ."‫ "ﻫل ﺍﻟﺠﻭ ﺠﻴﺩ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡ؟‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬
He said to me, "Did you answer this
."‫ "ﻫل ﺃﺠﺒﺕﹶ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻤﺭﻴﻥ؟‬:‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ‬
exercise?".
20. I replied, "Yes". ." ‫ "ﻨﻌﻡ‬:‫ﺃﺠﺒﺕﹸ‬
Or: I replied, "No". ."‫ "ﻻ‬:‫ ﺃﺠﺒﺕﹸ‬:‫ﺃﻭ‬

79
‫‪‬‬

‫‪ 3. Command (Order) ‬‬


‫‪4. Request‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪  .1‬ﻤﺜل‪-:‬‬

‫‪The teacher said to us, "Clean the floor".‬‬ ‫)‪(Direct‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺩﺭﺱ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻨﺎ‪" :‬ﻨﻅﹼﻔﹸﻭﺍ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪."‬‬
‫‪The teacher ordered us to clean the floor.‬‬ ‫)‪(Indirect‬‬ ‫ﺃﻤ‪‬ﺭ‪‬ﻨﺎ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺩﺭ‪‬ﺱ ﺒﺄﻥ‪ ‬ﻨﻨﻅﹼﻑ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ‪.‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﻤﺜل‪-:‬‬

‫‪My father said to me, "Don't be late".‬‬ ‫)‪(Direct‬‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻲ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ‪" :‬ﻻ ﺘﺘﺄﺨﹼﺭ"‪.‬‬
‫‪My father advised me not to be late.‬‬ ‫)‪(Indirect‬‬ ‫ﺃﺒﻲ ﻨﺼﺤﻨﻲ ﺒﺎﻻ ﺃﺘﺄﺨﹼﺭ‪.‬‬
‫‪‬‬

‫‪‬ﻤﺜل‪-:‬‬

‫‪1. "Give me your pen, please, Omar "said Mazen.‬‬ ‫ﻗﺎل ﻤﺎﺯﻥ‪" :‬ﻤﻥ ﻓﻀﻠﻙ‪ ،‬ﺃﻋﻁﻨﻲ ﻗﻠﻤﻙ ﻴﺎ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﺭ"‪.‬‬
‫‪2. Mazen asked Omar to give him his pen.‬‬ ‫ﻤﺎﺯﻥ ﻁﻠﺏ ﻤﻥ ﻋ‪‬ﻤﺭ ﺒﺄﻥ ﻴ‪‬ﻌﻁﻴﻪ‪ ‬ﻗﻠﻤﻪ‪.‬‬

‫| ‪   ‬ﻴﺒﺩﺃ ﻜﻼﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻭﺍﻟﻁﻠﺏ ﺒﺎﻟﻔﻌل )ﻤﺼﺩﺭ ﺍﻟﻔﻌل(‪.‬‬

‫‪  ç‬‬

‫‪ .1‬ﻨﹸﻐﻴ‪‬ﺭ ﻓﻌل ﺍﻟﻘﻭل ﺨﺎﺭﺝ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺏِ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺄﺘﻲ‪:‬‬


‫ﺃ( ‪ said to‬ﺘﹸﺤﻭ‪‬ل ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ ordered‬ﺃﻭ ‪) command‬ﺃﻤ‪‬ﺭ‪ ،(‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺨﺹٍ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﺴِﻨﺎﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺭ‪‬ﺘﺒﺔﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻘﺎﻤـﺎﹰ ﺇﻟـﻰ‬
‫ﺸﺨﺹٍ ﺁﺨﺭ ﺃﺼﻐﺭ ﺴِﻨﺎﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺭ‪‬ﺘﺒﺔﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻘﺎﻤﺎﹰ‪.‬‬
‫ﺏ( ‪ said to‬ﺘﹸﺤﻭ‪‬ل ﺇﻟﻰ ‪) prayed‬ﻴﺘﻭﺴ‪‬ل( ﺃﻭ ‪) begged‬ﻴﺭﺠ‪‬ﻭ(‪ ،‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺨﺹٍ ﺃﺼﻐﺭ ﺴِﻨﺎﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺭ‪‬ﺘﺒـﺔﹰ ﺃﻭ‬
‫ﻤﻘﺎﻤﺎﹰ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺸﺨﺹٍ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ ﺴِﻨﺎﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺭ‪‬ﺘﺒﺔﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻤﻘﺎﻤﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻭﻋﺎﺩﺓ ﻤﺎ ﻴﺒﺩﺃ ﺒﻜﻠﻤﺔ ‪ Please‬ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﹸﺤﺫﻑ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺤﻭﻴل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﻤ‪‬ﺒﺎﺸﺭ‪.‬‬
‫ﺝ( ‪ said to‬ﺘﹸﺤﻭ‪‬ل ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ asked‬ﺃﻭ ‪ ،told‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﺼﺎﺩﺭﺍﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺸﺨﺹٍ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺸﺨﺹٍ ﺁﺨﺭ ﻤ‪‬ﺘﺴﺎﻭٍ ﻤﻌﻪ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺴ‪‬ﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺭ‪‬ﺘﺒﺔ‪.‬‬
‫ﺩ( ‪ said to‬ﺘﹸﺤﻭ‪‬ل ﺇﻟﻰ ‪) advised ... to‬ﻨﹶﺼﺢ‪ ،(‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ ﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔﹰ ﺒﻔﻌل ﺸﻲﺀ‪.‬‬
‫ﻫـ( ‪ said to‬ﺘﺤﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ‪ advised ... not to ...‬ﻭ ‪ ordered ... not to‬ﻭ ‪ ،begged ... not to‬ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ ﻴﺘﻀﻤﻥ‬
‫ﻨﺼﻴﺤﺔ ﺒﻌﺩﻡ ﻓﻌل ﺸﻲﺀ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻷﻭل )ﺃﻤﺭ ﺒﻔﻌل ﺸﻲﺀ( ﻨﺤﺫﻑ ﻋﻼﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻨﺼﻴﺹ )ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ( ﻭﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ )ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ‪ (to +‬ﻜﺄﺩﺍﺓ ﺭﺒﻁ ﺒﻤﻌﻨـﻰ )ﺃﻥ(‬
‫ﺃﻤ‪‬ﺎﹼ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﻭﻉ ﺍﻟﺜﹼﺎﻨﻲ )ﻨﻬﻲ ﻋﻥ ﻓﻌل ﺸﻲﺀ( ﻨﺤﺫﻑ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻭﻨﺴﺘﺒﺩل ‪ Don't‬ﺒـ )ﺍﻟﻤﺼﺩﺭ ‪ (not to +‬ﺒﻤﻌﻨﻰ ) ﺃﻥ ﻻ‪.(....‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﺘﹸﺤﻭ‪‬ل ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺏِ ﺍﻟﻤﻌﻨﻰ )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺏِ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋل ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ( )ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺏِ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺘﻜﻠﹼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺨﺎﻁﺏ(‪.‬‬
‫‪ .4‬ﺘﹸﺤﻭ‪‬ل ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺏِ ﻤﺎ ﺠﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﺩﻭل )ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠ‪‬ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﻴ‪‬ﺔ(‪.‬‬

‫‪80‬‬


Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

 Direct Speech  Indirect Speech


He said to the manager, "Let me have an other He begged the manager to give him an other
1. chance to improve my honesty and ability". chance to prove his honesty and ability.
."‫ "ﺩﻋﻨﻲ ﺃﻨﹶل ﻓﹸﺭﺼﺔﹰ ﺃُﺨﺭﻯ ﻟﻜﻲ ﺃُﺜﺒﺕ ﺃﻤﺎﻨﺘﻲ ﻭﻗﹸﺩﺭﺘﻲ‬:‫ﺩﻴﺭ‬‫ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻠﻤ‬.‫ ﻭﻗﹸﺩﺭﺘﻪ‬‫ﺜﺒﺕ ﺃﻤﺎﻨﺘﻪ‬‫ﻨﹶلْ ﻓﹸﺭﺼﺔﹰ ﺃُﺨﺭﻯ ﻟﻜﻲ ﻴ‬‫ ﻴ‬‫ﺩﻴﺭ ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺎ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﺠ‬‫ﺭ‬
The manager said to him, "Give her an other The manager ordered him to give her an
2. dress". other dress.
."‫ "ﺃﻋﻁِﻬﺎ ﺜﻭﺒﺎﹰ ﺃﺨﺭ‬:‫ﺩﻴﺭ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻪ‬ .‫ﻌﻁِﻬﺎ ﺜﻭﺒﹰﺎ ﺃﺨﺭ‬‫ ﻴ‬‫ ﺍﻟﻤﺩﻴﺭ ﺃﻥ‬‫ﻩ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ﺃﻤ‬
Ali said to his friend, "Give me your bicycle Ali asked his friend to give him his bicycle
3. for half an hour". for half an hour.
."‫ﺩﺓ ﻨﺼﻑ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬‫ ﻟﻤ‬‫ﺍﺠﺘﻙ‬‫ "ﺃﻋﻁﻨﻲ ﺩﺭ‬:ِ‫ ﻟﺼﺩﻴﻘﻪ‬‫ﻗﺎل ﻋﻠﻲ‬ .‫ ﻟﻤﺩﺓ ﻨﺼﻑ ﺴﺎﻋﺔ‬‫ﺍﺠﺘﻪ‬‫ ﺩﺭ‬‫ﻌﻁﻴﻪ‬‫ ﻴ‬‫ ﺒﺄﻥ‬‫ ﺼﺩﻴﻘﻪ‬‫ﺴﺄل ﻋﻠﻲ‬
The pupil said to the teacher, "Please, explain The pupil begged the teacher to explain that
4. this point again". point again.
."‫ﺓﹰ ﺃُﺨﺭﻯ‬‫ ﺍﺸﺭﺡ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻨﱡﻘﻁﺔ ﻤﺭ‬،‫ "ﻤﻥ ﻓﻀﻠﻙ‬:‫ﺱ‬‫ﺩﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻠﻤﻴﺫ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻠﻤ‬ .‫ ﻴﺸﺭﺡ ﺘﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﻨﱡﻘﻁﺔ ﻤﺭﺓﹰ ﺃُﺨﺭﻯ‬‫ﺱ ﺃﻥ‬‫ﺩﺭ‬‫ﺎ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﺠ‬‫ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻠﻤﻴﺫ ﺭ‬
The teacher said to the boys, "Write your The teacher advised the boys to write their
5. names clearly". names clearly.
."ٍ‫ "ﺃُﻜﺘﺒﻭﺍ ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺌَﻜﹸﻡ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ‬:‫ﺱ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻸﻭﻻﺩ‬‫ﺩﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬ .ٍ‫ ﻴﻜﺘﺒﻭﺍ ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺌﻬﻡ ﺒﻭﻀﻭﺡ‬‫ ﺒﺄﻥ‬‫ ﺍﻷﻭﻻﺩ‬‫ﺢ‬‫ﺱ ﻨﹶﺼ‬‫ﺩﺭ‬‫ﺍﻟﻤ‬
She said to her husband, "Don’t trouble She advised her husband not to trouble
6. troubles till troubles trouble you". troubles till troubles trouble him.
."‫ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﺴﺘﺜﻴﺭﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﻋﺏ‬،‫ "ﻻ ﺘﺴﺘﺜﻴﺭٍ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﻋﺏ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﺯﻭﺠﻬﺎ‬ .‫ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﻋﺏ‬‫ ﺤﺘﻰ ﺘﺴﺘﺜﻴﺭﻩ‬،‫ﺴﺘﺜﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﻤﺘﺎﻋﺏ‬‫ﻬﺎ ﺃﻻ ﻴ‬‫ﺠ‬‫ﻭ‬‫ﻨﺼﺤﺕ ﺯ‬
The mother said to the child," Don't be afraid. The mother told the child not to be afraid.
7.
."‫ "ﻻ ﺘﹶﺨﻑﹾ‬:ِ‫ﺍﻷُﻡ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻠﻁﻔل‬ .‫ ﻻ ﻴﻜﻭﻥ ﺨﺎﺌﻔﺎﹰ‬‫ﺍﻷُﻡ ﺃﺨﺒﺭﺕ ﺍﻟﻁِﻔِل ﺒﺄﻥ‬

   |

،that ‫ ﺃﻱ ﻴـﺴﺒﻘﻬﺎ‬،‫ـﺔ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﻴ‬‫ل ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﺔ ﺘﹸﺤﻭ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﻴ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ ﻓﺈﻥ‬،(‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺃﻤﺭﻴ‬‫ﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺍﻷﻤﺭ )ﺠ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺨﺒﺭﻴ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺠﺩﺕﹶ ﺠ‬.1
.asked ‫ ﻴﺴﺒﻘﻪ‬‫ ﺃﻱ‬،‫ﺅﺍل‬‫ل ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺴ‬‫ﺤﻭ‬‫ ﻭﺇﺫﺍ ﻭﺠﺩ ﺴﺅﺍل ﻴ‬،‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴ‬‫ل ﺒﻁﺭﻴﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﺔ( ﺘﹸﺤﻭ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻷﻤﺭﻴ‬‫ﻭﺍﻷﻤﺭ )ﺍﻟﺠ‬

 Direct Speech  Indirect Speech


The doctor said to me, "Stay in bed and take The doctor advised me to stay in bed and
this medicine. I shall visit you tomorrow". take that medicine and said that he would
1. ‫ ﺃﻨـﺎ‬.‫ﻭﺍﺀ‬‫ "ﺍﺒﻕﹶ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﺵِ ﻭﺨﹸﺫ ﻫـﺫﺍ ﺍﻟـﺩ‬:‫ﺍﻟﻁﹼﺒﻴﺏ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ‬
visit me the next day.
."‫ﻭﺍﺀ ﺴﺄﺯﻭﺭﻙ ﻏﺩﺍﹰ‬‫ ﺃﺒﻘﻰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺍﺵِ ﻭﺃﺨﹸﺫﹸ ﺫﻟـﻙ ﺍﻟـﺩ‬‫ﺍﻟﻁﹼﺒﻴﺏ ﻨﺼﺤﻨﻲ ﺒﺄﻥ‬
.‫ ﺴﻴﺯﻭﺭﻨﻲ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻴﻭﻡِ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺎﻟﻲ‬‫ﻭﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻪ‬
The poor man said to me, "Please, give me The poor man begged me to give him some
some food to eat, will you help me cross the food to eat and asked if I should help him to
road?" cross the road.
2.
‫ ﺃﻋﻁﻨﻲ ﺒﻌـﺽ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﻌـﺎﻡ‬،‫ "ﻤﻥ ﻓﻀﻠﻙ‬:‫ل ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﺭ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭﺠ‬ ‫ ﺒﻌـﺽ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﻌـﺎﻡ ﻟﻴﺄﻜﹼـل‬‫ ﻷُﻋﻁﻴﻪ‬‫ﺴل ﺃﻟﻲ‬‫ل ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﺭ ﺘﻭ‬‫ﺠ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭ‬
"‫ ﺃﻗﻁﻊ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﺭﻴﻕ؟‬‫ ﻫل ﺘﹸﺴﺎﻋﺩﻨﻲ ﺒﺄﻥ‬،‫ﺤﺘﻰ ﺃﻜﹸل‬ .‫ ﻟﻴﻘﻁﻊ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﺭﻴﻕ‬‫ﻭﺴﺄﻟﻨﻲ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻤﺎ ﻜﹸﻨﺕﹸ ﺴﺄُﺴﺎﻋﺩﻩ‬

81

.(‫ )ﻴﻘﺘﺭﺡ‬suggest ‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫( )ﺩﻋﻨﺎ( ﻋﺎﺩﺓﹰ ﻤﺎ ﺘﹸﻌﺒِّﺭ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻗﺘِﺭﺍﺡٍ ﻭﺘﹰﺤﻭ‬Let us) Let's .2

 suggested thatshould

 Or:suggested  gerund + .....

Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

 Direct Speech  Indirect Speech


"Let's go to the cinema", Mary said. Mary suggested that they (we) should go to
."‫ﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬‫ﻭﻨﺎ ﻨﺫﻫﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺴ‬‫ "ﺩﻋ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻤﺎﺭﻱ‬ the cinema.
1. .‫ﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬‫ ﻴﺫﻫﺒﻭﺍ )ﻨﺫﻫﺏ( ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺴ‬‫ﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺤﺕ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻬﻡ ﻴﺠﺏ ﺃﻥ‬
Or: Mary suggested going to the cinema.
.‫ﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬‫ﻤﺎﺭﻱ ﺍﻗﺘﺭﺤﺕ ﺍﻟﺫﹼﻫﺎﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺴ‬
He said, "Let's not say anything about this He suggested not saying anything about that
subject". subject.
."‫ ﺸﻲﺀ ﻋﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬‫ﻭﻨﺎ ﻻ ﻨﹶﻘﹸل ﺃﻱ‬‫ "ﺩﻋ‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬ .‫ ﺸﻲﺀٍ ﻋﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬‫ ﺒﻌﺩﻡ ﻗﻭل ﺃﻱ‬‫ﺡ‬‫ﺍﻗﹾﺘﹶﺭ‬
2. Or: He suggested saying nothing about that
subject.
.‫ ﺸﻲﺀ ﻋﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﻀﻭﻉ‬‫ ﻋﺩﻡ ﻗﻭل ﺃﻱ‬‫ﺡ‬‫ﺍﻗﹾﺘﹶﺭ‬

  3

.asked ‫ ﺇﻟﻰ‬said ‫ل‬‫ﺃ( ﻨﹸﺤﻭ‬


.Please ‫ﺏ( ﻨﺤﺫﻑ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

 Direct Speech  Indirect Speech


"Please, take a seat", he said to me. He asked me to take a seat.
."‫ ﺍﺠﻠﺱ‬،‫ "ﻤﻥ ﻓﻀﻠﻙ‬:‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ‬ .‫ﻁﻠﺏ ﻤِﻨﹼﻲ ﺃﻥ ﺃﺠﻠﺱ‬

A chip of the old block.


 

82


Exercise No. 18 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

*) Change Into Indirect Speech:- :‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬‫ل ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﻤ‬‫ﺤﻭ‬

1. He said to his friend, "Lend me your camera". ."‫ "ﺃﻋﺭﻨﻲ ﺁﻟﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺼﻭﻴﺭ ﺨﺎﺼﺘﻙ‬:ِ‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﺼﺩﻴﻘﻪ‬
The officer said to the soldier, "Bring me
2. ."‫ "ﺃﺤﻀﺭ ﻟﻲ ﺤﻘﻴﺒﺔﹶ ﺍﻟﺨﺭﺍﺌﻁ‬:‫ﻨﺩﻱ‬‫ﺎﺒﻁ ﻟﻠﺠ‬‫ﻗﺎل ﺍﻟﻀ‬
the bag of maps".
Heba said to Latefa, "Give me your English
3. ."‫ﺔ ﺨﺎﺼﺘﻙ‬‫ "ﺃﻋﻁﻨﻲ ﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‬:‫ﻫِﺒﺎ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟِﻠﻁﻴﻔﺔ‬
book".
4. The father said to his son, "Don't go alone". ."‫ "ﻻ ﺘﺫﻫﺏ ﻟﻭﺤﺩِﻙ‬:ِ‫ﺍﻷﺏ ﻗﺎل ﻻﺒﻨﻪ‬
5. She said, "Forgive me". ."‫ ﺴﺎﻤﺤﻨﻲ‬/ ‫ "ﺍﺼﻔﺢ ﻋﻨﹼﻲ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ‬
6. "Go on, Nagi, hit him", she said. ." ‫ ﺍﻀﺭﺒﻪ‬،‫ "ﺍﺴﺘﻤﺭ ﻴﺎ ﻨﺎﺠﻲ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ‬
"Please, don't smoke", said the lady to the
7. .‫ل ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻴﺠﻠﺱ ﺒﺠﺎﻨﺒﻬﺎ‬‫ﻴﺩﺓ ﻟﻠﺭﺠ‬‫ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﺍﻟﺴ‬:"‫ ﻻ ﺘﹸﺩﺨﹼﻥ‬،‫"ﻤﻥ ﻓﻀﻠﻙ‬
man sitting beside her.
"Wait for me at the bridge, Can you bring ‫ ﻫـل ﺘـﺴﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ‬.‫ـﺴﺭ‬‫ "ﺍﻨﺘﻅﺭﻨﻲ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﺠ‬:‫ﻗﺎل ﺼﺩﻴﻘﻲ‬
8. this bag with you?" said my friend.
."‫ﺘﹸﺤﻀﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺤﻘﻴﺒﺔ ﻤﻌﻙ؟‬

Nader said to me, "Go and tell my father ‫ "ﺍﺫﻫﺏ ﻭﻗﹸل ﻷﺒـﻲ ﺒـﺄﻨﹼﻨﻲ ﻻ ﺃﺴـﺘﻁﻴﻊ ﺃﻥ‬:‫ﻨﺎﺩﺭ ﻗﺎل ﻟﻲ‬
9.
that I cannot come home tonight". ."‫ﺃﺤﻀﺭ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻤﻨﺯلِ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻠﻴﻠﺔ‬
He said to her, "Don't waste our money in
10. ."‫ﻌِﻲ ﺃﻤﻭﺍﻟﻨﺎ ﺒﻬﺫﻩِ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﺭﻴﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺤﻤﻘﺎﺀ‬‫ "ﻻ ﺘﹸﻀﻴ‬:‫ﻗﺎل ﻟﻬﺎ‬
this foolish way".

Every cloud has a silver lining


 .

83


 5. Exclamation 


 

‫ﻕ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ ﺘﻘﺭﻴﺒﺎﹰ ﻨﻔـﺱ‬‫ﻁﺒ‬‫ ﻭﻴ‬،‫ﻫﺸﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻨﹼﺩﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺴﻑ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻔﺭﺤﺔ‬‫ﺢ ﺍﻟﺩ‬‫ﻀ‬‫ﺔ ﻭﻟﻜﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﺘﹸﻭ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺨﺒﺭﻴ‬‫ ﻋﺒﺎﺭﺓ ﻋﻥ ﺠ‬ ç
.‫ﺔ ﻤﻊ ﺸﻲﺀٍ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﻴ‬‫ﻗﻭﺍﻋﺩ ﺍﻟﺠ‬
‫ﺏ ﻓـﻲ‬‫ ﻭﻨﻌﺭﻓﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺘﻌﺠ‬how , what :‫ ﻤﺜل‬، ç
:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭﺓﹰ‬‫ﺏ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ ﻤ‬‫ ﻭﻨﻌﺭﻓﻬﺎ ﺒﻭﺠﻭﺩ ﻋﻼﻤﺔ ﺘﻌﺠ‬ ،(!) ‫ﻤﻠﺔ‬‫ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺠ‬

Ugh! ‫ﻋﺏ‬‫ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺘﻌﻨﻲ ﺍﻻﺸﻤﺌﺯﺍﺯ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺭ‬Alas! !‫ ﻴﺎ ﻟﻸﺴﻰ‬Oh! !‫ ﺃﻭﻩ‬Hurrah! !‫ﻤﺭﺤﻰ‬

  ç
.ٍ‫ﺒﻁ‬‫ ﻜﺄﺩﺍﺓِ ﺭ‬that ‫ ﺍﺤﺫﻑ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ ﻭﻀﻊ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬.1
-:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫لُ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬‫ﺏ ﻭﻀﻊ ﺒﺩﻻﹰ ﻤﻨﻬﺎ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﹶﺘﺩ‬‫ﺠ‬‫ ﺍﺤﺫﻑ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﱠﻌ‬.2

1. say, cry, exclaim with joy …. .... ٍ‫ﺏ ﺒِﻔﺭﺡ‬‫ ﺘﻌﺠ‬/ ‫ ﺼﺎﺡ‬/ ‫ﻗﺎل‬
2. say, cry, exclaim with anger …. .... ٍ‫ﺏ ﺒِﻐﻀﺏ‬‫ ﺘﻌﺠ‬/ ‫ ﺼﺎﺡ‬/ ‫ﻗﺎل‬
3. say, cry, exclaim with sorrow …. .... ٍ‫ﺏ ﺒﺄﺴﻑ‬‫ ﺘﻌﺠ‬/ ‫ ﺼﺎﺡ‬/ ‫ﻗﺎل‬
4. say, cry, exclaim with admiration …. .... ٍ‫ﺏ ﺒﺈﻋﺠﺎﺏ‬‫ ﺘﻌﺠ‬/ ‫ ﺼﺎﺡ‬/ ‫ﻗﺎل‬
5. say, cry, exclaim with sadness…. .... ٍ‫ﺯﻥ‬‫ﺏ ﺒِﺤ‬‫ ﺘﻌﺠ‬/ ‫ ﺼﺎﺡ‬/ ‫ﻗﺎل‬
6. say, cry, exclaim with regret ….. .... ٍ‫ﻡ‬‫ﺏ ﺒِﻨﹶﺩ‬‫ ﺘﻌﺠ‬/ ‫ ﺼﺎﺡ‬/ ‫ﻗﺎل‬
7. say, cry, exclaim with horror ….. .... ٍ‫ﺏ ﺒِﻔﺯﻉ‬‫ ﺘﻌﺠ‬/ ‫ ﺼﺎﺡ‬/ ‫ﻗﺎل‬
8. say, cry, exclaim with pleasure …. .... ٍ‫ﻭﺭ‬‫ﺏ ﺒِﺴﺭ‬‫ ﺘﻌﺠ‬/ ‫ ﺼﺎﺡ‬/ ‫ﻗﺎل‬

.(‫ﺨﺎﻁﺏ‬‫ﺘﻜﻠﹼﻡ ﻭﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﻤﺎﺌﺭ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺤﺴﺏ ﺍﻟﻔﺎﻋلِ ﻭﺍﻟﻤﻔﻌﻭل ﺒﻪ )ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﺭ ﺍﻟﻀ‬‫ ﻏﻴ‬.3


ٍ‫ﺘﻌﻠﹼﻘﺔ ﺒﺤﺎﻟﺔ‬‫ ﺍﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﻤ‬‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭٍ ﻤﺎ ﻟﻡ ﺘﹶﻜﹸﻥ‬‫ﻴﻠﻪ ﺇﻟﻰ ﻜﻼﻡٍ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤ‬‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺘﺤﻭ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫( ﻷﻓﻌﺎل ﺠ‬Tense) ‫ﻤﻥ‬‫ﺭ ﺍﻟﺯ‬‫ ﻴﺘﻐﻴ‬.4
.‫ﺔ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻟﺨﺒﺭﻴ‬‫ﺭ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻷﻟﻔﺎﻅ ﻜﻤﺎ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺤﺎل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ ﻭﺘﺘﻐﻴ‬،(‫ﺭ )ﺁﺨﺭﻴﻥ‬‫ﺤﺎﻀﺭﺓٍ ﻤﺎﺜﻠﺔٍ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻨﻘل ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻐﻴ‬

Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

 Direct Speech  Indirect Speech


He said, "Alas! My shop is completely He said with sorrow that his shop was
1. damaged". completely damaged.
."‫ﺭ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﹰ‬‫ﺩﻤ‬‫ "ﻴﺎ ﻟﻸﺴﻰ! ﻤﺤل ﺘِﺠﺎﺭﺘﻲ ﻤ‬:‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل‬ .‫ﺭﺍﹰ ﺘﻤﺎﻤﺎﹰ‬‫ﺩﻤ‬‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤ‬‫ ﻤﺤل ﺘِﺠﺎﺭﺘﻪ‬‫ﺯﻥٍ( ﺇﻥ‬‫ﻗﺎل ﺒﺄﺴﻰ )ﺒﺤ‬
He said," Hurrah! I've won the first prize". He cried with joy that he had won the first
2. ."‫ﻰ! ﻟﻘﺩ ﻓﹸﺯﺕﹸ ﺒﺎﻟﺠﺎﺌﺯﺓِ ﺍﻷُﻭﻟﻰ‬‫ﺤ‬‫ﺭ‬‫ "ﻤ‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬ prize.
.‫ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻗﺩ ﺭﺒﺢ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﺌﺯﺓ ﺍﻷُﻭﻟﻰ‬‫ﺼﺎﺡ ﺒﻔﺭﺡٍ ﻗﺎﺌﻼﹰ ﺇﻨﹼﻪ‬

84

He said, "How foolish I have been!". He said with regret that he had been foolish.
3.
."‫ "ﻜﻡ ﻜﹸﻨﺕﹸ ﻏﺒﻴﺎﹰ‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬ .‫ ﻗﺩ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻏﺒﻴﺎﹰ‬‫ﻗﺎل ﺒﻨﺩﻡٍ ﺒﺄﻨﹼﻪ‬
Fadi said, "What a great idea". Fadi said with admiration that the idea was
4. ."ٍ‫ "ﻴﺎ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﻓﻜﺭﺓٍ ﻋﻅﻴﻤﺔ‬:‫ ﻗﺎل ﻓﺎﺩﻱ‬very great.
.‫ ﺍﻟﻔﻜﺭﺓ ﻜﺎﻨﺕ ﻋﻅﻴﻤﺔ ﺠﺩﺍﹰ‬‫ﻗﺎل ﻓﺎﺩﻱ ﺒﺈﻋﺠﺎﺏٍ ﺒﺄﻥ‬
5. He said, "Thank you". ."‫ "ﺸﹸﻜﺭﺍﹰ ﻟﻙ‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬ He thanked me. .‫ﻨﻲ‬‫ﺸﹶﻜﹶﺭ‬
6. He said, "Congratulation". ."‫ "ﺘﻬﺎﻨﻲ‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬ He congratulated me. .‫ﻨﹼــﺄﻨﻲ‬‫ﻫ‬
7. He said, "Liar". ."‫ "ﻜﺫﺍﺏ‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬ He called me a liar. .‫ﺎﻨِﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﻜﺫﹼﺍﺏ‬‫ﻋ‬‫ﺩ‬

 The absent party is not faulty.


 



Exercise No. 19 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

*) Change the following sentences into indirect ( Reported) speech:-


-:‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬‫ﻤل ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﻜﻼﻡ ﺍﻟﻐﻴﺭ ﻤ‬‫ﻭل ﺍﻟﺠ‬‫ﺤ‬
She said, "What a fool! You have spoilt
1. ."ٍ‫ "ﻴﺎ ﻟﻙ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺤﻤﻕٍ! ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻓﺴﺩﺕﹶ ﻜلّ ﺸﻲﺀ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﹶﻪ‬
everything."
2. He said, "Happy Christmas." ."‫ ﺴﻌﻴﺩ‬‫ "ﻋﻴﺩ‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬
The poor man said, "Alas! I have lost my
3. ."‫ "ﻴﺎ ﻟﻸﺴﻑِ! ﻟﻘﺩ ﺃﻀﻌﺕﹸ ﻁِﻔﻠﻲ ﺍﻟﻭﺤﻴﺩ‬:‫ل ﺍﻟﻔﻘﻴﺭ ﻗﺎل‬‫ﺠ‬‫ﺍﻟﺭ‬
only child."
She said, "Hurry! My daughter has
4. ."‫ "ﻤﺭﺤى! ﻟﻘﺩ ﻨﺠﺤﺕ ﺍﺒﻨﺘﻲ‬:‫ﻫﻲ ﻗﺎﻟﺕ‬
succeeded."
She said, "Oh! What a nice dress. Thanks
5. ."‫ ﺃﺸﻜﹸﺭﻙ ﻴﺎ ﺃﺒﻰ‬.ٍ‫ ﻤﻥ ﻓﹸﺴﺘﺎﻥٍ ﺠﻤﻴل‬‫ "ﺃﻭﻩ! ﻴﺎ ﻟﹶﻪ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ‬
daddy."
6. "What a lovely girl!", he said. ."!‫ "ﻴﺎ ﻟﻬﺎ ﻤﻥ ﺒﻨﺕٍ ﺠﻤﻴﻠﺔ‬:‫ﻗﺎل‬
She said, "Oh! It's a snake. Don't get near it
7. ."‫ ﻴﺎ ﺃﻁﻔﺎل‬‫ ﻻ ﺘﻘﺘﺭﺒﻭﺍ ﻤِﻨﻪ‬.‫ﻪ ﺜﹸﻌﺒﺎﻥ‬ ‫ "ﺃﻭﻩ! ﺇﻨﹼ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ‬
children".
Khalil said, What a surprise! I have not seen
8. ."‫ ﻜﹸﻨﹼﺎ ﻓﻲ ﺒﺎﺭﻴﺱ‬‫ﻨﺫ ﺃﻥ‬‫ ﻤ‬‫ "ﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺎﺠﺄﺓ! ﻟﻡ ﺃﺭﻙ‬:‫ﻗﺎل ﺨﻠﻴل‬
you since we were in Paris ".
He said, "Oh! My son has returned to me
9. ."‫ﻌﺎﻓﻰ‬‫ﻠﻴﻤﺎﹰ ﻤ‬‫ ﺴ‬‫ "ﻭﺃﻓﺭﺤﺘﺎﻩ! ﻟﻘﺩ ﻋﺎﺩ ﺍﺒﻨﻲ ﺇﻟﻲ‬:‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل‬
safe and sound ".
10. He said," Alas! I shan't recover my money". ."‫ ﻨﻘﻭﺩﻱ‬‫ "ﻴﺎ ﻟﻸﺴﻑ! ﻟﻥ ﺃﺴﺘﺭﺩ‬:‫ﻫﻭ ﻗﺎل‬




 Do as you would be done.
 

85


Exercise No. 20 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

General Exercise on Direct and Indirect Speech


 

*) Change into Indirect Speech:- -:ٍ‫ﺒﺎﺸﺭ‬‫ﻭل ﺇﻟﻰ ﻜﻼﻡٍ ﻏﻴﺭ ﻤ‬‫ﺤ‬


She said to him, "I didn't find anything here.
Where did she hide the bag? Go and make ‫ﺄﺘﻬـﺎ ؟ ﺍﺫﻫـﺏ‬‫ ﺃﻴـﻥ ﺨﺒ‬.‫ﻨﺎ‬‫ ﺸﻲﺀٍ ﻫ‬‫ "ﻟﻡ ﺃﺠﺩ ﺃﻱ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻪ‬
1. her think we've found it. She will come and .‫ ﺘﺘﺄﻜﺩ‬‫ ﺴﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻭﺘﺤﺎﻭل ﺃﻥ‬.‫ﻭﺍﺠﻌﻠﻬﺎ ﺘﻌﺘﻘﺩ ﺃﻨﻨﺎ ﻗﺩ ﻭﺠﺩﻨﺎﻫﺎ‬
try to make sure. What a surprise! I've
!‫ﻟﻘﺩ ﻭﺠﺩﺘﻬﺎ! ﻴﺎ ﻟﻠﻤﻔﺎﺠﺄﺓ‬
found it!".
She said to me, "What a foolish deed you ‫! ﺍﺫﻫﺏ‬‫" ﻴﺎ ُﻟﻪ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻨﻴﻊٍ ﺃﺤﻤﻕ ﺫﻟﻙ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﻓﻌﻠﺘﻪ‬:‫ﻗﺎﻟﺕ ﻟﻲ‬
have done! Go by your own means to the ‫ ﺃﺨﺒﺭﻫﻡ ﺒﻜل ﺸـﻲ ٍﺀ ﻜﻤـﺎ‬.‫ﺔ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁﺔ‬‫ﺒﻭﺴﺎﺌﻠﻙ ﺍﻟﺨﺎﺼ‬
2. police. Tell them everything as it has
happened. Do not tell any lies. It is better to ‫ ﺍﻷﻓﻀل ﺃﻥ ﺘﺫﻫﺏ ﺃﻨﺕ ﺇﻟﻰ‬.‫ ﺃﻜﺎﺫﻴﺏ‬‫ ﻻ ﺘﻘﹸل ﻟﻬﻡ ﺃﻱ‬.‫ﺤﺩﺙ‬
go to the police than to be arrested". ."‫ ﻋﻠﻴﻙ‬‫ﻘﺒﺽ‬‫ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺭﻁﺔ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻥ ﻴ‬

Cut your coat according to your cloth.

 
 

86
‫‪‬‬

‫‪Adjectives ‬‬

‫‪  .1‬ﻫﻲ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﻋﺎﺩﺓﹰ ﺘﺼﻑ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﻀ‪‬ﻤﻴﺭ‪ ،‬ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‪ ‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﻜﺎﺌﻨﺎﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺸﻴﺌﺎﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻓﻜﺭﺍﹰ‪ ..... ،‬ﺍﻟﺦ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .2‬ﻗﺩ ﻴ‪‬ﻭﺼ‪‬ﻑ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩ ﺒﺄﻜﺜﺭِ ﻤﻥ ﺼﻔﺔ‪.‬‬
‫‪ .3‬ﻻ ﻴﺤﺩ‪‬ﺙ ﺃﻱ ﺘﻐﻴﻴﺭ ﻟﻠﺼ‪‬ﻔﺔ ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‪ ‬ﻜﺎﻥ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺼﻭﻑ ﻤﻔﺭﺩﺍﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺠﻤﻌﺎﹰ‪ ،‬ﻤ‪‬ـﺫﻜﺭﺍﹰ ﺃﻭ ﻤ‪‬ﺅﻨﺜـﺎﹰ )ﺃﻱ‪ ‬ﻫـﺫﺍ ﻴﻌﻨـﻲ ﺃﻥ‪ ‬ﺼـﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﻔـﺭﺩ‬
‫ﻫﻲ ﺃﻴﻀﺎﹰ ﺼﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﺠﻤﻊ )ﺃﻱ‪ :‬ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻔﺔ ﻻ ﺘﹸﺠﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻭﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻤ‪‬ﺫﹶﻜﹼﺭ ﻫﻲ ﺃﻴﻀﺎﹰ ﺼﻔﺔ ﻟﻠﻤﺅﻨﹼﺙ(‪.‬‬

‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ ‪Examples‬‬

‫‪1. He is clever.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻭ ﺫﻜﻲ‪.‬‬


‫‪2. She is clever.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﺫﻜﻴ‪‬ﺔٌ‪.‬‬
‫‪3. They are clever.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻡ ﺃﺫﻜﻴﺎﺀ‪.‬‬

‫‪ ‬‬ ‫‪ç‬‬


‫‪ .1‬ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻔﺔ ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﻗﺒل ﺍﻻﺴﻡ‪.‬‬

‫‪a clever boy‬‬ ‫‪ an old woman‬ﻭﻟﺩ‪ ‬ﺫﻜﻲ‪ / ‬ﻤﺎﻫﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺍﻤﺭﺃﺓﹲ ﻋﺠﻭﺯ‪‬‬


‫‪a red book‬‬ ‫‪ a new house‬ﻜﺘﺎﺏ‪ ‬ﺃﺤﻤﺭ‪.‬‬ ‫ﺒﻴﺕﹲ ﺠﺩﻴﺩ‪‬‬
‫‪-‬‬

‫‪ .2‬ﻴ‪‬ﻤﻜﻥ ﺃﻥ ﺘﺄﺘﻲ ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻔﺔ ﺒﻌﺩ ‪ ،Verb to Be‬ﻤﺜل‪-:‬‬

‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ ‪Examples‬‬

‫‪1. Fadi is polite.‬‬ ‫ﻓﺎﺩﻱ ﻤﺅﺩﺏ‪.‬‬


‫‪2. She is tall.‬‬ ‫ﻫﻲ ﻁـﻭﻴﻠﺔﹲ‪.‬‬
‫‪3. I am happy.‬‬ ‫ﺃﻨﺎ ﺴـﻌﻴﺩ‪.‬‬

‫| ‪   ‬‬
‫‪ .1‬ﻗﺩ ﺘﹸﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻔﺔ ﺒﺩﻻﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ‪ ،‬ﻭﻴﺴﺒﻘﻬﺎ ‪ the‬ﻭﻴ‪‬ﺤﺫﻑ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﻭﺘﹸﻌﺎﻤل ﻤﻌﺎﻤﻠﺔ ﺍﻻﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺠﻤﻊ‪ ،‬ﻤﺜل‪-:‬‬

‫‪poor‬‬ ‫ﻓـﻘﻴﺭ‬ ‫‪the poor‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﻔﹸـﻘﺭﺍﺀ‬


‫‪rich‬‬ ‫ﻏـﻨﻲ‬ ‫‪the rich‬‬ ‫ﺍﻷﻏـﻨﻴﺎﺀ‬
‫‪brave‬‬ ‫ﺸﹸﺠﺎﻉ‬ ‫‪the brave‬‬ ‫ﺍﻟﺸﱡـﺠﻌﺎﻥ‬

‫‪ .2‬ﺍﻟﺼ‪‬ﻔﺔ ﺘﹸﺠﻴﺏ ﻋﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﺌﻠﺔ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ‪-:‬‬

‫?… ‪What sort‬‬ ‫? …‪ Which‬ﻤﺎ ﻨﻭﻉ‪...‬؟‬ ‫ﺃﻱ‪ ...‬؟‬


‫?…‪How many‬‬ ‫?… ‪ How much‬ﻜﻡ ﻟﻠﻌﺩﺩ‪...‬؟‬ ‫ﻜﻡ ﻟﻠﻜﻤﻴﺔ‪ ...‬؟‬

‫‪87‬‬

Numerous people buy these micros because they are such reliable machines.
.‫ﻌﺘﻤﺩ ﻋﻠﻴﻬﺎ‬‫ﺭﺍﺕ ﻷﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﻤِﺜﺎل ﻟﻠﻤﺎﻜﻴﻨﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻴ‬‫ﻜﺒ‬‫ ﻋﺩﻴﺩﻭﻥ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﻴﺸﺘﺭﻱ ﺃُﻨﺎﺱ‬

  ×
.(How many...?) ‫ﺅﺍل‬‫( ﺘﹸﺠﻴﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴ‬numerous) ‫ﻔﺔ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺼ‬.1
.(Which…?) ‫ﺅﺍل‬‫( ﺘﹸﺠﻴﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴ‬these) ‫ﻔﺔ‬‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺼ‬.2
.(What sort…?) ‫ﺅﺍل‬‫( ﺘﹸﺠﻴﺏ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺍﻟﺴ‬reliable) ‫ﻔﺔ‬‫ ﻭﺍﻟﺼ‬.3

Comparison of adjectives


‫ ﻓﻌﻠﻴﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ‬،‫ﻔﺔ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺃﺭﺩﻨﺎ ﺃﻥ ﻨﹸﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻤﻥ ﺤﻴﺙ ﺘﻔﺎﻭﺕ ﺍﻷﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔِ ﺘﻭﻓﹼﺭ ﻫﺫﻩ ﺍﻟﺼ‬ 7
-:‫ﻔﺎﺕ ﺘﻨﻘﺴﻡ ﺇﻟﻰ ﺜﻼﺜﺔ ﺃﻨﻭﺍﻉ )ﺩﺭﺠﺎﺕ( ﻫﻲ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺼ‬‫ﻨﻌﻠﻡ ﺃﻥ‬

،‫ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺼِﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻭﺼﻭﻑ ﺩﻭﻥ ﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﻤـﻊ ﻏﻴـﺭﻩ‬(Positive Degree) .1


-:‫ﻤﺜل‬
1. He is a tall man. .ٌ‫لٌ ﻁﻭﻴل‬‫ﺇﻨﹼﻪ ﺭﺠ‬
2. She is an old woman. .‫ﺇﻨﹼﻬﺎ ﺍﻤﺭﺃﺓﹲ ﻋﺠﻭﺯ‬
3. I saw a tall tree near a big shop. .ٍ‫ ﻤﺤلٍ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬‫ﺭﺃﻴﺕﹸ ﺸﺠﺭﺓﹰ ﻋﺎﻟﻴﺔﹰ ﻗﹸﺭﺏ‬

‫ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺘﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨـﺔ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬(Comparative Degree) .2


.‫ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻘﻁ‬
‫ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﹸﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒـﻴﻥ‬ (Superlative Degree )  .3
.‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ‬

  7



 





   

‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ‬ ‫ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ‬

ٍ‫ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺃﻜﺜﺭِ ﻤـﻥ ﺼـﻭﺕِ ﺤـﺭﻑ‬‫ ﻭﻫﻲ ﺼﻔﺎﺕ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭِ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻘﻁﻊٍ ﻭﺍﺤﺩٍ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻔﻅ )ﺃﻱ‬ .1
-:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،(ٍ‫ﻤﺘﺤﺭﻙ‬
expensive ‫ ﻏﺎﻟﻲ‬dangerous ‫ ﺨﻁﻴﺭ‬wonderful ‫ﺭﺍﺌﻊ‬
beautiful ‫ ﺠﻤﻴﻠﺔ‬/‫ ﺠﻤﻴل‬important ‫ﻬِﻡ‬‫ ﻤ‬valuable ‫ ﺫﻭ ﻗﻴﻤﺔ‬/ ‫ ﺜﻤﻴﻥ‬/ ‫ﻡ‬‫ﻗﹶﻴ‬

88

،(‫ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﻭﺕِ ﺤﺭﻑٍ ﻤﺘﺤﺭﻙٍ ﻭﺍﺤﺩٍ ﻓﻘـﻁ‬‫ﻭﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻘﻁﻊٍ ﻭﺍﺤﺩٍ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﹼﻠﻔﻅ )ﺃﻱ‬ .2
-:‫ﻤﺜل‬

short ‫ﻗﺼﻴﺭ‬ fat ‫ﺴﻤﻴﻥ‬ cold ‫ﺒـﺎﺭﺩ‬


big ‫ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ‬/‫ﻀﺨﻡ‬ old ‫ﻥ‬‫ ﻜﺒﻴﺭ ﺍﻟﺴ‬/ ‫ﻗﺩﻴﻡ‬ tall ‫ﻁﻭﻴل‬
quick ‫ﺴﺭﻴﻊ‬ hot ‫ ﺴﺎﺨﻥ‬/ ‫ﺤـﺎﺭ‬ thin ‫ﻨـﺤﻴﻑ‬

    ç
.‫ ﺒﻌﺩﻫﺎ‬than ‫ﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﻭﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬‫ ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼ‬more ‫ﺃ( ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻘﻁ ﻨﻀﻊ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬

  more + + than


 

-:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ﻔﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼ‬‫ﻭﻨﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟﺠ‬ ü

1. Nadia is more beautiful than Samira. .‫ ﺠﻤﺎﻻﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺴﻤﻴﺭﺓ‬‫ﻨﺎﺩﻴﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬


2. The lion is more dangerous than the dog. .‫ ﺨﻁﺭﺍﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﺏ‬‫ﺍﻷﺴﺩ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬

.‫ﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻁﹼﻭﻴﻠﺔ‬‫ )ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ( ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼ‬the most ‫ ﺃﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺀ( ﻓﺈﻨﹼﻨﺎ ﻨﻀﻊ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬‫ﺏ( ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ )ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬

 the most + 


 

-:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ﻔﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻷﺴﻤﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻷﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻷُﺨﺭﻯ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼ‬‫ﻭﻨﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟﺠ‬ ü

1. Water is the most important thing in our life .‫ﺍﻟﻤﺎﺀ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﻲﺀ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﺃﻫﻤﻴﺔﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺤﻴﺎﺘﻨﺎ‬
2. Beesan is the most beautiful girl in the class. .‫ﺒﻴﺴﺎﻥ ﻫﻲ ﺃﺠﻤل ﺒﻨﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬

 

1. Arabic is more difficult than English. .‫ﺔ‬‫ﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺼﻌﻭﺒﺔﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻹﻨﺠﻠﻴﺯﻴ‬‫ﺍﻟﻠﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﻌﺭﺒﻴ‬
2. Ibrahim is wearing the most expensive jacket. .‫ﺇﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ ﻴﺭﺘﺩﻱ ﺍﻟﺠﺎﻜﻴﺕ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﻏﻼﺀ‬
3. Ahmed is more intelligent and more careful than Ibrahim. .‫ ﻭﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺤﺫﺭﺍﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺇﺒﺭﺍﻫﻴﻡ‬‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺫﻜﺎﺀ‬
4. The earth quake is more dangerous than the volcano. .‫ﺭﻜﺎﻥ‬‫ﺍﻟﺯﻟﺯﺍل ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﺨﻁﻭﺭﺓﹰ )ﺃﺨﻁﺭ( ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺒ‬

   ç
 

.‫ﻔﺔ‬‫ ﺒﻌﺩ ﺍﻟﺼ‬than ‫ ﺜﻡ ﻨﹸﻀﻴﻑ ﻜﻠﻤﺔ‬،‫ﻔﺔ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎﹰ‬‫( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼ‬er) ‫ﺃ( ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻘﻁ )ﺸﻴﺌﻴﻥ ﺃﻭ ﺍﺴﻤﻴﻥ ( ﻨﻀﻴﻑ‬

89


 er than
 er

-:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ﻔﺔ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻵﺨﺭ‬‫ﻤﻠﺔ ﺒﺎﻻﺴﻡ ﺍﻟﺫﻱ ﺘﺘﻭﻓﺭ ﻓﻴﻪ ﺍﻟﺼ‬‫ﻭﻨﺒﺩﺃ ﺍﻟﺠ‬ ü

1. Fadi is older than Ahmed. .‫ ﺴِﻨﹼﺎﹰ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺤﻤﺩ‬‫ﻓﺎﺩﻱ ﺃﻜﺒﺭ‬


2. Tagreed is taller than her brother. .‫ﺘﻐﺭﻴﺩ ﺃﻁﻭلُ ﻤﻥ ﺃﺨﺘﻬﺎ‬

.‫ﻔﺔ‬‫( ﺇﻟﻰ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼ‬est) ‫ﻔﺔ ﻭﻨﹸﻀﻴﻑ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﻁﻊ‬‫ ﺃﻤﺎﻡ ﺍﻟﺼ‬the ‫ ﺃﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺃﻭ ﺃﺴﻤﺎﺀ( ﻓﺈﻨﻨﺎ‬‫ﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ )ﺴﻭﺍﺀ‬‫ﺏ( ﻟﻠﻤ‬

the + est

1. Sameer is the tallest pupil in the class. .ِ‫ﺴﻤﻴﺭ ﺃﻁﻭلُ ﺘﻠﻤﻴﺫ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬
2. Huda is the cleverest girl in the class. .ِ‫ﻫﺩﻯ ﺃﺫﻜﻰ ﺒﻨﺕ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬



1. He is the tallest of them all. .‫ﻡ ﺠﻤﻴﻌﺎﹰ‬‫ﻫﻭ ﺍﻷﻁﻭل ﻤﻨﻬ‬


2. The lion is the strongest in the world. .‫ ﺍﻟﺤﻴﻭﺍﻥ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ ﻗﻭﺓﹰ )ﺍﻷﻗﻭﻯ( ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻌﺎﻟﻡ‬‫ﻴﻌﺘﺒﺭ ﺍﻷﺴﺩ‬
3. This book is the cheapest one. .‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﻜﺘﺎﺏ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻷﺭﺨﺹ‬

    |
(er) ‫ ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬:‫ﺘﺤﺭﻙٍ ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎﹰ )ﺃﻱ‬‫ ﺇﺫﺍ ﻜﺎﻥ ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻗﺎﹰ ﺒﺤﺭﻑٍ ﻤ‬،‫ﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﺭﺓ‬‫ﺎﻜﻥ ﺍﻷﺨﻴﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﻟﺼ‬‫ﻑ ﺍﻟﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺴ‬‫ﻀﻌ‬‫ﻗﺩ ﻴ‬ .1
-:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،(‫ﻔﺔ‬‫( ﻟﻠﺼ‬est) ‫ﺃﻭ‬

      


fat ‫ ﺴﻤﻴﻥ‬/ ‫ﺒﺩﻴﻥ‬ fatter than the fatter
big ‫ﻀﺨﻡ‬ bigger than the bigger
hot ‫ﺴﺎﺨﻥ‬ hotter than the hotter
thin ‫ ﻨﺤﻴﻑ‬/ ‫ﺭﻓﻴﻊ‬ thinner than the thinner

‫ ﺃﻱ‬،‫ﻘﺎﺭﻨـﺔ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﺍﺜﻨـﻴﻥ ﻓﻘـﻁ‬‫( ﻋﻨـﺩ ﺍﻟﻤ‬er) ‫( ﻓﻘﻁ ﺒﺩﻻﹰ ﻤﻥ‬r) ‫( ﻨﻀﻴﻑ ﻟﻬﺎ‬e) ‫ﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺒﺎﻟﺤﺭﻑ‬‫ﺍﻟﺼ‬ .2
‫ ﺃﻱ‬،‫ﻘﺎﺭﻨـﺔ ﺒـﻴﻥ ﺃﻜﺜـﺭ ﻤـﻥ ﺍﺜﻨـﻴﻥ‬‫( ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤ‬est) ‫( ﻓﻘﻁ ﺒﺩﻻﹰ ﻤﻥ‬st) ‫ ﻭﻨﻀﻴﻑ ﻟﻬﺎ‬،( + r + than)
-:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،(the + + st)

90

      
large (‫ﻜﺒﻴﺭ )ﻭﺍﺴﻊ‬ larger than the largest
nice ‫ﻟﻁﻴﻑ‬ nicer than the nicest
simple ‫ﺒﺴﻴﻁ‬ simpler than the simplest
fine ‫ﺠﻤﻴل‬ finer than the finest

(er) ‫( ﻋﻨﺩ ﺇﻀﺎﻓﺔ‬i) ‫ﻘﻠﺏ ﺇﻟﻰ‬‫( ﻴ‬y) ‫ ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟـ‬‫ ﻓﺈﻥ‬،‫( ﻤﺴﺒﻭﻗﺎﹰ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ ﺴﺎﻜﻥ‬y)‫ﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﺭﺓ ﺒﺤﺭﻑ‬‫ﺇﺫﺍ ﺍﻨﺘﻬﺕ ﺍﻟﺼ‬ .3
-:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ﻔﺔ‬‫( ﻓﻲ ﻨﻬﺎﻴﺔ ﺍﻟﺼ‬est) ‫ﺃﻭ‬

      


easy ‫ﺴﻬل‬ easier than the easiest
happy ‫ﺴﻌﻴﺩ‬ happier than the happiest
Funny ‫ﻀﺤِﻙ‬‫ﻤ‬ funnier than the funniest
heavy ‫ﺜـﻘﻴل‬ heavier than the heaviest
noisy ‫ﺯﻋِﺞ‬‫ﻤ‬ noisier than the noisiest
pretty ‫ﺠﻤﻴل‬ prettier than the prettiest

‫ﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ )ﻋﻨﺩ ﺍﻟﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺃﻭ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ( ﻋﻥ ﻜﹸـل ﺍﻟﻘﻭﺍﻋـﺩ‬‫ﻔﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺸﹼﺎﺫﺓ ﻓﻲ ﺩﺭﺠﺔ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ﻨﺎﻙ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺼ‬‫ﻫ‬ ç
-:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ﺎﹰ‬‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔِ ﺍﻟﺫِﻜﺭ ﺸﹸﺫﻭﺫﺍﹰ ﻜﺎﻤﻼﹰ ﺃﻭ ﺘﺎﻤ‬‫ﺍﻟﺴ‬

      


good ‫ ﺠﻴﺩ‬/ ‫ﺤﺴﻥ‬ better than the best
bad ‫ ﺴﻴﺊ‬/ ‫ﺭﺩﻱﺀ‬ worse than the worst
ill ‫ﻤﺭﻴﺽ‬ worse than the worst
far ‫ﺒﻌﻴﺩ‬ further than the furthest
little ‫ﻗﻠﻴل‬ less than the least
less ‫ﺃﻗل‬ lesser than the least
many ‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻟﻠﻌﺩﺩ‬ more than the most
much ‫ﻜﺜﻴﺭ ﻟﻠﻜﻤﻴﺔ‬ more than the most
old ‫ﻋﺠﻭﺯ‬ older than the eldest

Examples ‫ﺃﻤﺜـــﻠﺔ‬

1. Nabil is better than Usama. .‫ ﻤﻥ ﺃُﺴﺎﻤﺔ‬‫ﺒﻨﻴل ﺃﺤﺴﻥ‬


2. Ramzy is the best pupil in the class. .‫ﺭﻤﺯﻱ ﻫﻭ ﺍﻷﻓﻀل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬

91


 

     

more ++ than  the most +


  Huda is more beautiful than Nadia. Samira is the most beautiful in the class.
.‫ ﺠﻤﺎﻻﹰ ﻤﻥ ﻨﺎﺩﻴﺔ‬‫ﺩﻯ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ‬‫ﻫ‬ .ِ‫ ﺠﻤﺎﻻﹰ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬‫ﺴﻤﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻷﻜﺜﺭ‬

 er (r)than   the ++ est (st)


1) Ahmed is taller than Ali. 1) Ahmed is the tallest of them all.
  .‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺃﻁﻭل ﻤﻥ ﻋﻠﻲ‬ .‫ﻡ ﺠﻤﻴﻌﺎﹰ‬‫ﺃﺤﻤﺩ ﺍﻷﻁﻭل ﻤﻨﻬ‬
2) This question is simpler than that. 2) This question the simplest of them all.
.‫ﺅﺍل ﺃﺴﻬل ﻤﻥ ﺫﻟﻙ‬‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺴ‬ .‫ﺅﺍل ﺍﻷﺴﻬل ﻤﻨﻬﻡ ﺠﻤﻴﻌﺎﹰ‬‫ﻫﺫﺍ ﺍﻟﺴ‬

    |
-:‫ﻔﺔ‬‫ﻥ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼ‬‫ﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻵﺘﻴﺔ ﻭﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﹸﺒﻴ‬‫ﻔﺔ ﻨﺴﺘﺨﺩﻡ ﺍﻟﺼ‬‫ ﻋﻨﺩﻤﺎ ﻨﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺸﺨﺼﻴﻥ ﻤﺘﺴﺎﻭﻴﻴﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﺼ‬.1

  as ++ as

1. She is as tall as me. .‫ﻫﻲ ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ ﻤﺜﻠﻬﺎ ﻤﺜﻠﻲ‬


2. Mosab is as clever as Abed Allah. .‫ ﻤﺜل ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﷲ‬‫ﺼﻌﺏ ﺫﻜﻲ ﻤﺜﻠﻪ‬‫ﻤ‬

-:‫ﺎﺒﻘﺔ ﻜﺎﻵﺘﻲ‬‫ﻴﻐﺔ ﺍﻟﺴ‬‫ ﻴﻤﻜﻥ ﻨﻔﻲ ﺍﻟﺼ‬،‫ﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ‬‫ﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻭﺍﺤﺩﺓ ﻭﻻ ﻴﻭﺠﺩ ﻤ‬‫ ﻋﻨﺩ ﻋﺩﻡ ﺘﺴﺎﻭﻱ ﺍﻟﺼ‬.2

 not ( as / so) + + as

1. Mosab is not as clever as Abed Allah. .‫ﺼﻌﺏ ﻟﻴﺱ ﺫﻜﻴﺎﹰ ﻤﺜل ﻋﺒﺩ ﺍﷲ‬‫ﻤ‬
2. She is not so tall as me. .‫ﻫﻲ ﻟﻴﺴﺕ ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔﹰ ﻤِﺜﻠﻲ‬

‫ﻤﻜﻥ ﺍﻋﺘﺒﺎﺭﻫﺎ ﺼﻔﺔ ﻁﻭﻴﻠـﺔ ﺃﻭ ﺼـﻔﺔ‬‫ﻜﺔ( ﻴ‬‫ﺘﺤﺭ‬‫ﻔﺎﺕ ﺫﺍﺕ ﻤﻘﻁﻌﻴﻥ ﻟﻔﻅﻴﻴﻥ )ﺃﻱ ﺘﺤﺘﻭﻱ ﻋﻠﻰ ﺼﻭﺘﻴﻥ ﻟﻠﺤﺭﻭﻑ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ ﺒﻌﺽ ﺍﻟﺼ‬.3
:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ﻗﺼﻴﺭﺓ‬

        


‫ﺼﻔﺔ ﻗﺼﻴﺭﺓ‬ polite ‫ﻤﺅﺩﺏ‬ politer than the politest
‫ﺼﻔﺔ ﻁﻭﻴﻠﺔ‬ polite ‫ﻤﺅﺩﺏ‬ more politer the most politer

،‫ ﻟﻸﻤﺎﻜﻥ‬in ‫ﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ( ﻏﺎﻟﺒﺎﹰً ﻤﺎ ﻨﺴﺘﻌﻤل ﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﺭ‬‫ ﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻷﺤﺴﻥ )ﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﺘﹼﻔﻀﻴل ﺍﻟﻘﹸﺼﻭﻯ( )ﺼﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻤ‬‫ ﺒﻌﺩ‬.4
:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ ﻟﻸﺸﺨﺎﺹ ﺃﻭ ﻟﻸﺸﻴﺎﺀ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﻨﻘﺎﺭﻥ ﺒﻴﻨﻬﺎ‬of ‫ﻭﺤﺭﻑ ﺍﻟﺠﺭ‬

92

1. Samia is the most beautiful girl in the class. .ِ‫ﺴﺎﻤﻴﺔ ﻫﻲ ﺍﻟﺒِﻨﹾﺕﹸ ﺍﻷﺠﻤل ﻓﻲ ﺍﻟﻔﺼل‬
2. Khalil is the cleverest of them all. .‫ﺨﻠﻴل ﻫﻭ ﺍﻷﺫﻜﻰ ﻤﻨﻬﻡ ﺠﻤﻴﻌﺎﹰ‬
3. He is the tallest man in our house. .‫ل ﺍﻷﻁﻭل ﻓﻲ ﺒﻴﺘﻨﺎ‬‫ﺠ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺭ‬‫ﺇﻨﹼﻪ‬

‫( ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨـﺔ‬est) ‫( ﻟﻠﻤﻘﺎﺭﻨﺔ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ ﻓﻘﻁ ﺃﻭ‬er) ‫ﻀﺎﻑ ﻟﻬﺎ‬‫( ﻴ‬ow) ‫ﻔﺔ ﺍﻟﻘﺼﻴﺭﺓ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺘﺘﻜﻭﻥ ﻤﻥ ﻤﻘﻁﻌﻴﻥ ﻭ ﺘﻨﺘﻬﻲ ﺒـ‬‫ ﺍﻟﺼ‬.5
:‫ ﻤﺜل‬،‫ﺒﻴﻥ ﺃﻜﺜﺭ ﻤﻥ ﺍﺜﻨﻴﻥ‬

      


narrow ‫ﻕ‬‫ﻀﻴ‬ narrower than the narrowest

If an experiment works, something has gone wrong.

 . 

93


Exercise No. 21 ‫ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

I) Correct the words between brackets: :‫ﺢ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺎﺕ ﺍﻟﺘﻲ ﺒﻴﻥ ﺍﻷﻗﻭﺍﺱ‬‫ﺼﺤ‬

1. Hany is the (old) student in our classroom.


2. A train is (fast) than a car.
3. Huda is the (thin) girl in the class.
4. Football is the (popular) game in Gaza.
5. Ali is the (good) football player in our school.
6. Old men need (little) sleep than children.
7. This is the (difficult) lesson in the book.
8. Magda is the (clever) girl in the class.
9. My table is (high) than yours.
10. August is the (hot) month in the year.

II) Choose the right word:- :‫ﺤﻴﺤﺔ‬‫ﺃﺨﺘﺭ ﺍﻟﻜﻠﻤﺔ ﺍﻟﺼ‬

1. Ali is as (old – older – oldest) as his friend.


2. This is the (easy – easier – easiest) exercise.
3. Oxygen is the (useful – more useful – most useful) gas.
4. I have bought the (good – better – best) television.
5. This is the (interesting – more interesting – most interesting) book I have read.

 Conciliation is the matter of the law.

  

94


Answers

Exercise No. 1 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

1. It 5. We 9. my 13. ourselves 17. Those


2. He 6. You 10. it 14. myself 18. These
3. They / It 7. Your 11. them 15. themselves 19. This
4. I 8. mine 12. yourself 16. themselves

Exercise No. 2 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

I 1. is 2. am 3. are 4. is 5. are
II 1. was 2. were 3. were 4. were 5. was

Exercise No. 3 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

1. Did 2. does 3. do 4. do 5. Does

Exercise No. 4 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

1. have 2. have 3. has 4. have 5. hhas 6. has

Exercise No. 5 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

1. help 2. get 3. write 4. buy 5. study 6. help

Exercise No. 6 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

I 1. takes 2. speak 3. watches 4. meet 5. gives 6. drives

1. drinks 2. reaches 3. visits 4. answers 5. goes / catches


II
6. enjoys 7. studies 8. gets 9. shines 10. visits

95


Exercise No. 7 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

1. bought 2. made 3. had 4. climbed 5. finished

Exercise No. 8 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

1. are shouting 6. are standing


Are you listening /
2. 7. is building
I am saying
3. is typing 8. am answering
4. is making 9. is doing / does
5. are welcoming 10. am not wearing

II 1. is waiting 2. is having 3. driving 4. is raining 5. hear 6. think / know

Exercise No. 9 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

1. met 6. was Samy telling


2. were playing / wrote 7. was shouting / was studying
I 3. found / was digging 8. was living / began
4. arrived / was still sleeping 9. was getting
5. was sitting / saw 10. was talking / began

1. rang / was leaving 6. was sleeping / came


2. had (was having) / was having 7. were you doing
II 3. was cooking 8. were coming / stopped
4. were working / knocked 9. jumped / was moving
5. were playing / rained 10. was watching / came

Exercise No. 10 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

1. have not seen 2. has already eaten 3. has never been 4. have not finished
5. has not met

Exercise No. 11 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

1. had drunk / finished 4. went / had taken


2. had cooked / came 5. thanked / had saved
3. had left / reached 6. arrested / had stolen

96


Exercise No. 12 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

I 1. are going 2. will study 3. shall start 4. shall swim 5. will build

1. will clean 6. will arrive


2. shall see 7. will study
II 3. will visit 8. shall meet
4. will be 9. will you meet / shall meet
5. shall take (am going to take) 10. will leave (is going to leave)

Exercise No. 13 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

1. visits 14. had left / reached


2. make / makes 15. haven't seen
3. has lived 16. saw / sat
4. shall finish 17. are learning
5. move 18. visited
6. will travel 19. was learning / had
I
7. will see 20. came / had eaten
8. examined / gave 21. are buying
9. had worked / heard 22. directs
10. shall wait 23. will fall
11. waited 24. was travelling / met
12. will come
25. had seen / went
13. became

1. borrowed 14. will visit


2. has lived 15. ever
3. is watching 16. never
4. had had 17. goes
5. was making / opened 18. was walking / saw
6. since 19. is jumping
II 7. see 20. rang / had finished
8. done 21. had finished / rang
9. hasn't finished 22. writes
10. think 23. were they doing
11. went / had left 24. have lived / was
12. slept / received
25. felt / had eaten
13. shall move

97


Exercise No. 14 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

1. has 1. had won / bought


2. would / had 2. obeyed / would not stop
I 3. comes / shall II 3. eat
4. Were / would 4. told
5. had stayed 5. would win

Exercise No. 15 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

1. Many letters were written by Kamel.


2. The meeting may have to be canceled by them.
3. Two big bags were being carried by him.
4. He will be helped by me.
5. An apple was eaten by her.
6. It has been crushed by passing cars.
7. A heavy box is being carried by the man.
He was taught French and was given a dictionary.
8.
Or: French was taught to him and a dictionary was given to him.
9. Clothes were being washed by her.
10. These papers can be kept by you.
11. The door couldn't be opened by them.
12. Twenty letters have been written to her.
13. His bag is being looked for by him.
a) They were given many useful lessons by him
14.
b) Many useful lessons were given to them by him.
a) He was shown my new book by me.
15.
b) My new book was shown to him by me.
a)We were offered a big house in Gaza by him.
16.
b) A big house in Gaza was offered to us by him.
17. It is said that there is no water on the moon.
A car is being possessed by me.
18. Or: A car is being owned by me.
Or: A car is being belonged to me.
19. Don't let the door be opened.
20. Let this book be given to Emad.
21. Any building are not wanted here.
22. Everything must be left as it is by me.
23. The room has not been cleaned by them.
24. This word has been looked up by me.
25. It is said that she is innocent.
26. It was said that she is innocent.
27. Let all necessary things be brought.
28. Where has my car been left?

98

29. Is English spoken all over the world?
Shall we be allowed five minutes break?
30.
Or: Will five minutes break be allowed to us by them?
31. Were any spare parts bought by you?
32. By whom were both boys asked to leave?
By whom was he shown the way?
33.
Or: By whom was the way shown to him?
34. By whom has the food been cooked?
35. By whom was this story told?
36. When was the ring found?
37. Is the letter being written by Ali now?
38. Has your question been answered?
39. Is much money gained by them?
Why was not I told the truth by them?
40.
Or: Why was not the truth told to me by them?

Exercise No. 16 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

1. He told them that he would bring them some tea when they had finished.
2. I her that I had something to show her.
3. She told him that she had lost her keys the day before (the previous day).
4. He says that Adel has written him a long letter.
5. She said that it had not been foggy that day as it had been the day before.
6. Hassan says that when he gets up, he finds a cup of milk beside his bed.
7. She told him that she had stayed with her brother in their house that morning.
8. He told us that the sun shines every morning.
9. He said (that) he would have to go again next week.
10. He hoped to go there.
11. He says that he is busy today and that he has bought a new book.
12. She said that iron is heavier than gold.
He greeted them that morning and told them that he had brought all papers and that he hoped
13.
to reach an agreement.
14. She told him that she wanted to go with him to see by herself.
15. The man said that Spring is the best season of the year.
She did not agree telling him that she couldn’t sign that contract unless he paid 300,000
16.
dollars for her at once.
17. She told him that her bag had been full of money.
She told me that she would help me, that she could lend me some books and that she had
18.
many useful books on that subject.
19. He told me that he had phoned me twice.
He says that they are living in a house near to his school, that he needs not to take the bus
20.
and that he can reach his school in 5 minutes.

99


Exercise No. 17 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

1. Soha asked Nadia what she wanted to do on Friday.


2. Mona asked Samia how she was going to travel to France.
3. I asked my friend when he had arrived.
4. Mr. Hesham asked where the voice had been coming from.
5. I asked whether I had made anything wrong.
6. He asked me to wait. Or: He asked me if I would mind waiting.
7. He asked her how she had gone there and inquired (‫ )ﺍﺴﺘﻔﺴﺭ‬if she gone there on foot.
8. She asked why I blamed her.
9. Mohammed asked if the flat was cheap.
10. He asked me to wait a moment.
11. Tariq offered me a lift and I asked which way he was going.
12. She asked me if I could do it before the next day.
13. Her husband asked what a suitable dress is.
14. I asked him why he was looking through the keyhole.
15. He asked Mr. Hazem where he had been the previous night.
She asked whether they needed to go to the shops in order to see suitable dresses and
16.
unsuitable prices.
17. Hassan asked Khalil how long he was staying in Gaza.
18. He asks if the weather is good today.
19. He asked if the weather was good that day.
He asked me if I had answered that exercise.
20.
I replied that I had answered it. Or: I replied that I had not answered it.

Exercise No. 18 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

1. He asked his friend to lend him his camera.


2. The officer ordered the soldier to bring him the bag of the maps.
3. Heba asked Latefa to give her her English book.
4. The father advised his son not to go alone.
5. She asked for forgiveness. (‫ﻤﺎﺡ‬‫)ﺍﻟﻌﻔﻭ ﺃﻭ ﺍﻟﺴ‬
6. She urged (‫ )ﺤﺜﹼﺕ‬Nagi to hit the other boy.
7. The lady asked the man sitting beside her not to smoke.
8. My friend asked me to wait for him at the bridge and asked if I could bring that bag with me.
9. Nader told me to go and tell his father that he could not go home that night.
10. He advised her not to waste their money in that foolish way.

100


Exercise No. 19 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

1. He said with anger that he was a fool and that he had spoilt everything.
2. He wished me a happy Christmas.
3. The poor cried with sorrow that he had lost his only child.
4. She cried with joy that her daughter had succeeded.
5. She said with joy that it is a nice dress and thanked her daddy.
6. He said with admiration that she is a lovely girl.
7. She exclaimed with disgust (‫ )ﺍﺸﻤﺌﺯﺍﺯ‬that it was a snake and told the children not to get near it.
8. Khalil said with joy that he hadn’t seen me sine we had been in Paris.
9. He said with pleasure that his son had returned to him safe and sound.
10. He said with sorrow that he wouldn’t recover (‫ ) ﻴﺴﺘﺭﺩ‬his money.

Exercise No. 20 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

General Exercise on Direct and In direct Speech

She told him that she hadn’t found anything there. She asked where she had hidden the bag.
1. She ordered him to go and make her think they had found it. She told him that she would
come and try to make sure. Then she cried with joy that she had found it.
She said with anger that I had done a foolish deed. She ordered me to go by my own means
2. to the police. She asked me to tell them everything as it had happened. She advised me not
to tell any lies. She told me that it was better to go to the police than to be arrested.

Exercise No. 21 ‫ﺇﺠﺎﺒﺔ ﺘﻤﺭﻴـﻥ‬

1. oldest or eldest 6. less


2. faster 7. most difficult
I 3. thinner 8. cleverest
4. most popular 9. higher
5. best 10. hottest

II 1. old 2. easiest 3. most useful 4. best 5. most interesting

After black clouds* clear weather.

  

101