(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 10, No.

9, September 2012

Cloned Agent based data computed in Homogeneous sensor networks
S.Karthikeyan S.Jayashri

Research scholar, Sathyabama university Chennai-600119, Tamil Nadu. India.
Abstract- The innovation in the world of Wireless communication led to progressive use of tiny and multifunctional sensor nodes. These nodes, being small in size can sense the environment, compute data and communicate to a large range. The energy constraint is one of the major limitations in sensor nodes, hence given major focus. The usage of manifold mobile agents proposed by mobile agent based framework, offers flexible and robust data collection within WSNs. This also provides diverse solutions to energy constraint problems in WSN. This paper proposes multiagent system based data gathering from the WSN. The mobile agent created in the sink is cloned n-1 times, where n is the number of clusters. The cloned mobile agents travel to their corresponding cluster in a parallel fashion and compute the data for which the event occurs. Finally the computed results are transferred to the sink which sends an alert for the occurred event to the mobile device. The mobile agent computes and transfers only the result minimizing energy consumption. The approach of transferring only the event occurred data also conserves node energy. This paper proposes that the sink monitors any application and when an event is sensed, it is notified to the user via message and call. Keywords: Mobile agent, Wireless sensor networks, energy consumption, lifetime. I

Adhiparasakthi engineering college Melmaruvathur – 603319, Kanchipuram District, Tamil Nadu,India.
adaptability of the network. The sensor nodes have a finite sensing and communication range. It can combine the information from multiple sources. Network nodes are equipped with wireless transmitters and receivers using antennas that may be omni directional (isotropic radiation), highly directional (point-to-point), possibly steerable, or some combination [3]. Limited and un rechargeable battery and limited network communication bandwidth are the most challenging issues in sensor networks. Energy consumed in sensor networks is mainly for the purpose of data transmission, signal processing, and hardware operation [2]. The different states of the node like transmission, reception, listening and sleeping itself drain battery power. The reception and transmission encompasses all the processing activities of the network [3]. Many research efforts aim at improving the energy efficiency from different aspects by pioneering energy-efficient processing techniques that reduces power consumption of all the operations of the sensor networks. Cross-layer optimization is widely considered as an efficient technique to ameliorate this concern. The 3 system knobs that can be used for cross-layer approach are voltage scaling, rate adoption and tunable compression [4]. Applications of sensor networks are wide ranging and can vary significantly in application requirements, modes of deployment (e.g., ad hoc versus instrumented environment), sensing modality, or means of power supply (e.g., battery versus wall-socket) [1]. It is mainly used in applications whose intention is to collect process and transport large volumes of complex information from the environment. Duty-cycling is a technique used to reduce energy consumption and extend network lifetime. Nodes may enter a sleep state when their presence is not necessary to maintain the functionality of the system, e.g., when no event occurs in the sensor’s vicinity or when no message is routed through the sensor [5]. Efficient energy consumption is the critical design challenge that can be addressed to some extent during hardware design. For instance, protecting data contents could be tuned to special needs of sensor networks: relatively weak mechanisms could be implemented directly in hardware so that data are encoded and decoded fast and almost no communication overhead rises [6]. Energy scavenging capability, cost and size are three important metrics that indicate the measure of a node’s “obtrusiveness” [7].


The WSNs are intended to detect events, receive data from the environment and compute the received data and finally transmit the sensed information to interested users. The information sensed and transmitted by the nodes describes the condition of its surroundings in which the network is deployed. The information may include the temperature, pressure, humidity, heat, light, electricity etc of the environment. The WSN also routes sensor data, at times aggregated and summarized, to users who have requested it or are expected to utilize the information [1]. The users interact with the sink node, which gathers and holds the result. Thus information processing and routing are two fundamental operations in sensor networks. The sensor network possesses many challenging features. They are composed of self-organized nodes with controlling capabilities, cooperating and interacting intelligently with other nodes in the network. There are limitations in energy consumption for transmission, computation and reception of data. The multi-hop routing increases energy efficiency. Dense deployment of the nodes helps in improving signal-to-noise ratio, frequently changing topologies which get better


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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 10, No. 9, September 2012



A novel architecture is introduced using mobile agents to meet the new challenges of the current Distributed sensor Networks (DSN's), such as large data volume, low communication bandwidth, and unreliable environment [8]. In traditional network based on client server architecture, all the data collected by leaf nodes are transmitted to the processing element. But in MA based distributed sensor network, the computation is distributed into the participating leaf nodes. Thus, this approach reduces the consumption of power used for communication and usage of bandwidth significantly. In Mobile Agent based Distributed sensor Networks (MADSN), the network is divided into many subtasks. For each subtask, its mobile agent carries the execution code for computing the data. The mobile agent finds the optimal path for the agents routing which influences the overall performance of MADSN implementation because communication cost and detection accuracy depend on the order and the number of nodes to be visited [9]. In a MADSN, mobile agents migrate among sensor nodes to collect data and execute an overlap function of partial integration, whose results are accumulated into a final version upon the arrival of all mobile agents. MAs act in the interest of an entity, migrating between different network locations, executing tasks locally and continuing their execution at the point where they stopped before migrating [10]. MAs have the ability and intelligence to cooperate and communicate. The advantages of MA fall into three different categories [11], among others: • Bandwidth and delay savings because computation is moved to the data. • Flexibility because agents do not require the availability of specific code. • Suitability for mobile computing because agents do not require continuous network connections. The MA offers many benefits to the application where it is equipped. It reduces traffic and latency of the sensor network, reacts immediately to the changes in the executing environment or application. Also executes the tasks independently in a distributed and asynchronous manner [12]. The mobile agents offer resource efficiency in wireless sensor networks. The critical problem in WSNs is power consumption of data transmission collected through the sensor nodes. The multi agent system is composed of multiple agents interacting and communicating intelligently. Intelligence may include some methodic, functional, procedural or algorithmic search, find and processing approach [13]. Multi agent system provides computational capabilities across a network of interconnected agents. III. TASK OF MOBILE AGENTS IN A NETWORK A mobile agent consists of the program code and the program execution state (the current values of variables, next instruction to be executed, etc.) [14]. The home machine is the computer where the mobile agent actually resides. The mobile

agent host otherwise called a mobile agent platform or server is a remote computer where the agent is dispatched to execute. The mobile agent transfers from home computer to ‘n’ number of hosts in the network and executes on several machines. When a mobile agent is dispatched, the entire code of the mobile agent and the execution state of the mobile agent is transferred to the host [15]. The host provides the appropriate execution environment for the mobile agent to execute on it, also permitting the use of its resources (CPU, memory etc.). On completing its task on a particular host the mobile agent drifts to another computer. Instead of restating its execution in the migrated node, the mobile agents are capable of resuming their execution from where they left off in the previous host with the aid of the state information which is also transferred as the agents migrate. This continues until the mobile agent returns to its home machine after completing execution on the last machine in its itinerary [16, 17].

Figure 1. Life cycle of cloned mobile Agent

The steps for working of a mobile agent: 1. The mobile agent is created in a computer called Home Machine. 2. The mobile agent is then dispatched to the Host Machine A for execution. 3. The agent performs its task on Host Machine A. 4. After completing its task, the agent is replicated into two copies. One copy is dispatched to Host Machine B and the other is dispatched to Host Machine C. 5. The cloned copies perform their task on their respective hosts shown in Figure 1. 6. After execution, Host Machine B and C send the mobile agent back to the Home Machine. 7. The Home Machine extracts the data brought by the agents. 8. The agents are then disposed [18]. IV. PROPOSED WORK

Energy conservation is considered to be significant while designing the Wireless Sensor Network. The sensor nodes are deployed in an area where they are uniformly distributed. These nodes are divided into 3 clusters with each cluster enclosing more than 70 nodes. Since there are more nodes in a cluster, there will be more data sensed by these nodes, which needs to be transmitted to the cluster head. Usage of single cluster head will not be sufficient to collect the sensed information from all these nodes.


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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 10, No. 9, September 2012

Hence in this proposed work cluster (as portrayed in figure 2) consists of two cluster heads as Sub cluster heads (SCH0 and SCH1).

Figure 2. cluster with Master Section Head

The sub cluster head is elected based on the residual energy of sensor nodes. Based on the signal strength, the nodes in the cluster will identify their Sub cluster head to broadcast their information. The transmitted information is gathered in both the sub cluster heads. The sub cluster heads transmit the data to the Master Section Head, which is managed by an event driven mechanism. In this mechanism, the data is transferred from sub cluster head when an event occurs. The event arises when the sensed data is higher than the set value of that parameter, which is the predefined value based on the application. The mobile agents collect the data from a master section head instead of collecting it from two sub cluster heads. The energy consumption of the network is high in order to transmit data from cluster head to the sink through multi hop or single hop routing. To reduce this energy consumption of the network, mobile agent based architecture is opted. The mobile agent is created in the sink and then cloned into multiple agents, there by forming a multi-agent system. The MA is cloned n-1 times, where n is the number of clusters. In this paper n represents 3 clusters.

The sink dispatches all the 3 mobile agents to their corresponding cluster in a parallel manner. Each agent computes the data collected from its Master section head and saves the process output. Then the MA transmits the saved data to the sink. The saved data contains the table of nodes and its clusters. The result gives list of the nodes whose parameter value is higher than the set value and its corresponding clusters. Finally all the MAs are disposed in the sink. Based on this output, the sink gives an alert to a mobile device. As represented in figure 3 the Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) modem is used as an interface to the sink for the transmission of both SMS and call to the mobile device which alerts the mobile device user. GSM modem acts as a communication path device. GSM Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) card is inserted into the GSM modem and the modem is connected to the computer that acts as sink via a serial port. From the receiver point the mobile device itself acts as a GSM modem. SMS itself will be sufficient for alerting the user on an event. But still a call is provided to intimate the user that there is SMS received for that mobile device. This extra check is present to ensure that the user gets intimation on the fault immediately so that the user can respond without delay. This proposed work is suitable for any homogeneous network application. V. SIMULATION RESULTS

In this simulation, there are three clusters as shown in figure 4. Each cluster is partitioned into 2 sub groups named as slave nodes group. These Sub groups are headed by Master Node which is the sub cluster head.

Figure 3. GSM modem Transmission

Figure 4. Cluster partition


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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 10, No. 9, September 2012

The sub cluster head transmits the data for which the event has occurred to the master section head shown as Main Head data storage node.

Figure 8. Agent Platform Figure 5. Event occurred in First Master section head.

The created and the cloned mobile agents are transmitted from the main container to the respective clusters. The containers holding each mobile agent is shown in figure 8. The mobile agents compute the event occurred data from the main section head. The main container is in the sink where the computed data is stored.

Figure 6. Event occurred in third Master section head.

The program is executed for all the clusters and the results showing the event occurred nodes has been displayed in the above tables. The event occurred data is stored in the master section head. Figures5 and Figures6 show the node id and its corresponding cluster id. The results are stored in Oracle database.
Figure 9. Mobile Agent is moved to Container-1.

Figure 7. Mobile Agent creations and cloning

The mobile agent is created in the main container and it is cloned twice. The Main container contains the actual created Mobile Agent and the cloned mobile agents represented as mobileagent_1 and mobileagent_2 as shown in the figure 7. The Agent name, parameters and clone information are provided during agent creation.

Figure 10. Mobile Agent return back to Main-Container after completion of computation in Container-1.


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(IJCSIS) International Journal of Computer Science and Information Security, Vol. 10, No. 9, September 2012

A GUI (Graphical User Interface) is created to display the information of the containers like name, protocol and address. The Agent computes the data of the Master section head within the cointainer. It displays the available and visited locations. The agents travel in parallel fashion to container 1, 2 and 3 and compute the data and store the result in main container is shown in figure 9 and figure10. In this case of parallel computation of the cluster by mobile agent, the processing is faster when compared to the serial computation.

[1]. Feng Zhao, Leonidas J. Guibas, Wireless Sensor Networks: An Information Processing Approach, Palo Alto, California January 2004. [2]. A.J. Goldsmith and S.B. Wicker, Design challenges for energyconstrained ad-hoc wireless networks, IEEE Wireless Communication., 9, 8– 27, Aug. 2002. [3]. Mohammad Ilyas and Imad Mahgoub, Handbook of sensor nodes: Compact wireless and wired sensing system, © 2005 by CRC Press LLC. [3].YangYu,Viktor K Prasanna, Bhaskar KrishnamachariInformation processing and routing in wireless sensor networks, University of Southern California, USA © 2006 by World Scientific Publishing Co. Pvt. Ltd. [4]. Ananthram Swami, Qing Zhao, Yao-win Hong, Lang Tong, Wireless Sensor networks signal processing and communication perspectives, University of California at Davis, USA, Cornell University, USA @2007 John Wiley & sons. [5]. Ananthram Swami,Qing Zhao,Yao-Win Hong,Lang Tong, “Wireless sensor networks signal processing and communication perspectives”, @2007 by John Wiley &Sons. [6]. Mirosław Kutyłowski, Jacek Cicho´n Przemysław Kubiak, Algorithmic Aspects of Wireless Sensor Networks Third International Workshop, 007Wrocław, Poland, July 14, 2007 ALGOSENSORS 2 [7]. Brian Otis and Jan Rabaey, Ultra-low power wireless technologies for sensor networks, University of California, Berkeley, Springer 2007. [8]. H. Qi, S.S.Iyengar, K. Chakrabarty, Multiresolution data integration using mobile agents in distributed sensor networks, IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybernetics Part C: Application. Rev., 31(3), 383–391, August, 2001. [9]. Q. Wu, S.S. Iyengar, N.S.V. Rao, J. Barhen, V.K. Vaishnavi, H. Qi, and K. Chakrabarty, On computing the route of a mobile agent for data fusion in a distributed sensor network, submitted to IEEE Trans. Knowledge Data Eng., 16(6), June 2004. [10].G.Sundari, P.E. Sankarnarayanan, “Multi Agent systems Using JADE in Industrial Application,” International Journal of Computer Information systems,Vol.2,No.4,2011,pp:21-24. [11].Cabri G., Leonardi L., and Zamponelli F., MARS: a programmable coordination architecture for Mobile agents, IEEE Internet Computing , 4(4), 26–35, Jul.–Aug. 2000. [12].Aiello,F., Carbone, A., Fortino, G. and Galzarano, S., “java-based Mobile Agent Platforms for wireless sensor networks,” Proc. Of the International Multi conference on computer science and Information Technology, Wisla,Poland,2010. [13].Chen, B., Cheng, H.H. and Palen, J., “Integrating mobile agent technology with multi-agent system for distributed traffic detection and management system,” transportation research partc: Emerging Technologies 17(1), 1-10, 2009. [14] Francesco Aiello et al., “A Java-Based Agent Platform for Programming Wireless Sensor Networks”, The Computer Journal (2010) Doi: 10.1093. [15] Abdelkader Outtagarts, “Mobile Agent based Applications -A Survey”, International Journal of Computer Science and Network Security, Vol 9, No.11, November 2009. [16] Sajid Hussain et al., “Agent-based system architecture for wireless sensor networks”, 20th International conference on Advanced Information Networking and Applications, April18-20, 2006. [17] Osborne and K. Shah, “Performance Analysis of Mobile Agents in Wireless Internet Applications using simulation”, A Scientific and Technical Publishing company, OACTA press. [18]. Parineeth M Reddy, “Mobile Agents Intelligent Assistants on the

Figure 11 Final results in the Main container

The list of nodes and their respective cluster for which the event has occurred is shown in figure 11. The computed results from container 1,2 and 3 are fetched in a parallel manner by the corresponding mobile Agents and carried to the Main container. This result is stored in the sink in the table format as shown. A GSM modem is used to convey an alert for the occurred event to a mobile device. VI. CONCLUSION

The cloned mobile agents travel to their corresponding clusters and compute the data for which the event occurred. The computed data is then transferred to the sink by the mobile agents. This data is shown in the simulation results. The sink sends an alert in the form of both a message and a call to the destination mobile device through a GSM modem. It is not possible to recharge or replace the limited battery power of the sensor nodes. Therefore this entails that the nodes should resort to minimal power consumption in order to increase the overall lifetime of the network. In WSN, the data transmission from the entire cluster to the sink consumes more energy. The usage of multiple mobile agents consumes less energy by computing the data in all the clusters in a parallel manner and transmitting only the results to the sink. The mobile agents transmit the data of only the event occurred node which again minimizes the energy consumption.

Internet”, RESONANCE , July 2002,pp.35-43.


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