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# Course Flow Diagram

## The arrows here show conceptual flow between ideas. Note the parallel structure between the pink blocks (C-T Freq. Analysis) and the blue blocks (D-T Freq. Analysis).

### Signals & Systems

Transfer Function

New System Model

### Ch. 3: CT Fourier Signal Models

Fourier Series

Periodic Signals

Fourier Transform (CTFT)

Non-Periodic Signals

### Ch. 5: CT Fourier System Models

Frequency Response

Based on Fourier Transform

New System Model

### Ch. 2 Convolution

C-T System Model

Convolution Integral

D-T System Model

Convolution Sum

### Ch. 5: DT Fourier System Models

Freq. Response for DT

New Signal
Models
Ch. 1 Intro
C-T Signal Model
Functions on Real Line

### Ch. 2 Diff Eqs

C-T System Model

Differential Equations

D-T Signal Model

Difference Equations

Zero-State Response
Zero-Input Response
Characteristic Eq.
System Properties
LTI
Causal
Etc

## New System Model

D-T Signal Model
Functions on Integers
New Signal
Model

### Ch. 7: Z Trans. Models for DT Signals & Systems

Transfer Function

## Model

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### Ch. 4: DT Fourier Signal Models

DTFT

(for “Hand” Analysis)

DFT & FFT

(for Computer Analysis)

Powerful
Analysis Tool
Based on DTFT
New System Model

Motor
Assume that the
sensor generates

# Motor and D-T System for Processing

## Motor

C-T Signal Representing
Angular Position

## Computer-Based D-T System

D-T Signal Representing
Angular Position

Computer
θ m [n]
Some
h 1 [n]
h 2 [n]
Tricks

# Simulate the Angular Position’s D-T Signal in Matlab

θ m [n]
Some
h 1 [n]
h 2 [n]
Tricks
Motor

## r m[n]

Note: Discontinuities

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# stD-T Convolution Approximates Computing a Derivative

### y=conv(x, h_1); % Matlab has a command for convolving two signals

Comes from Branch of Math
known as “Numerical Methods”
θ m [n]
r m [n]
Some
Motor
h 1 [n]
h 2 [n]
Tricks

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# D-T Tricks to Fix the Effects of the Discontinuities

θ m [n]
r m [n]
Some
Motor
h 1 [n]
h 2 [n]
Tricks
≈ Correct Values
For Rate

## Values from

Discontinuities
“Transient” values
“Ramp-Up values
due to convolution
due to convolution

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# D-T Convolution to Further Fix the Discontinuities

## Figure 3 from motor_speed.m

These indicate the
Etc.
sliding blocks

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θ m [n]
Some
h 1 [n]
h 2 [n]
Tricks
Motor

## r m[n]

Blue: N = 100
Red: N = 1000
Figure 4 from
motor_speed.m
for the size of the averaging block:

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# Exploring Impact of Abrupt Rate Change

θ m [n]
r m [n]
Some
h 1 [n]
h 2 [n]
Tricks
Rate Change

## Blue: N = 100 Red: N = 1000

Bigger N gives:
• More accurate measure…
• But… slower response to changes

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