Jose Hernandez and sovereignty over Malvinas On April 2, 1982, Argentina took possession of the Falkland Islands, a territory

usurped by the British in 1833. The occupation-a slap at straws of military dictatorship began a war that would cost the country the lives of more than 650 people. Below we reproduce an article written by José Hernández in 1869, 36 years after the usurpation of land, originally published in the newspaper El Rio de la Plata. The author of Martín Fierro draws attention both to the national authorities of the time, led by President Bartolomé Mitre, Argentina and the press about the importance of "ensuring the territorial integrity and Argentine interests" and argues that "these rights not ever prescribed. " Author: Newspaper article by Jose Hernandez, of the Falkland Islands, published in The Rio de la Plata in November 1869, quoted in HERNANDEZ, JOSE, Falkland Islands. Buenos Aires, Joaquin Gil - Editor, 1952. Interesting letter. - Relation of a voyage to the Falkland Islands 1 We started today on the first page (of the River Plate) to publish an interesting letter descriptive of a trip to the Falklands, which is addressed to us by our friend and distinguished Chief of the Navy, Commander D. Augusto Lasserre2. Contains ignored by the general curiosity of our readers, and makes us know in a simple, interesting and clear, people, customs, industry, commerce and on the islands, whose geographical location gives them a great importance. (...) Falkland Islands. Serious questions: 3 In the interesting account of the journey to the Falkland Islands from our distinguished friend, Mr. Lasserre we published a few days in El Rio de la Plata, has rightly drawn attention of the illustrated press, and has been read with deep and general interest throughout the population. The Argentines, especially, could not forget that this is a very important part of national territory, usurped at the mercy of unfavorable circumstances, at a time undecided, where the nationality was struggling with the obstacles opposed to its final organization. Conceived and is easily explained that deep feeling and jealous of the people for the integrity of its territory and that the usurpation of an inch of land worry its future existence, as if we snatch a piece of flesh. Counterfeiting is not only a breach of civil and political right, it is also the violation of natural law. People need the territory with which they were born into political life, as air is necessary for free expansion of our lungs. Suck a piece of its territory, is take away a right, and that injustice involves a double attack, because not only is the theft of property, but is also the threat of a new encroachment. The precedent of injustice is always the fear of injustice, as if conformity or indifference of the people injured consolidated the conquest of power, who will defend tomorrow against a new attempt to plunder, or theft?

The people understand or feel these truths, and their anxiety is the uneasiness of all peoples history points as equal victims of attacks. Where there has been a lack of territorial integrity, we have always witnessed the efforts of injured people to get to the reconquest of territory usurped. Mr. Lasserre has well said, inspired by a noble sentiment, to take their interesting story: "The following lines may provide some interest for the double reason for them (the islands) owned by the Argentines, and remain, however, little or nothing known to most of their rightful owners. I do not intend, nor do I fit this case, to enter into political considerations on the non-return of that immense territory which we have given the English a bit against our will, but do not want to miss this opportunity to deplore the neglect of our governments, which have been passing the time without thinking of such a claim pending. Presumably, the illustration of the current National Government understands the importance of that return, that he is in the duty to demand the SMB, because these islands, by its geographical position are the key to the Pacific and are undoubtedly called a great future with the likely increase in population in our extremely fertile territory. " The importance of the Falkland Islands is unquestionable. Its proximity to the south coast of our country, its excellent ports for trade and navigation of these coasts, the valuable branch of fishing, raising cattle and sheep, for which lend themselves wonderfully its extremely fertile fields, rich washes permanent, all these are advantages recognized by those who have visited those islands. Referring Standard 4 to the relationship of Mr. Lasserre, and appreciating it in terms of honor, announced that it will translate to offer to their readers. For this reason, says English colleague, "who have made large purchases of sheep to the Falkland Islands, which have been contracted to 30 pesos, currency, chosen and placed on board." But essentially we have not proposed to give an idea of the economic advantages offered by the possession of those islands. If we had to do without these details, it is because they can stimulate the zeal of our government and to influence its provisions in relation to the claim must establish diplomatic from and to the British government. This question has linked another no less serious for being single and coming home to explain historically the domain of usurpation of the Falkland Islands. The Republic of Argentina over the islands always maintained its undisputed right of sovereignty. Penetrated our first governments of the need to prove possession of that right by the industrial exploitation of these islands, to that end made some worthy efforts.

In 1828, the government gave in to Mr. D. Luis Vernet called Soledad Island, provided it be a colony at his expense. This was done with the best success after overcoming all the difficulties inherent in an undertaking of this magnitude. The colony prospered few years ago and saw the Argentine government with singular satisfaction that the great future that predicted infant colony for navigation and commerce of our extensive coastline to Cape Horn. In 1831 the islands were seized in three Americans who had relapsed vessels fishing for amphibians against the strict regulations that would enforce the authority of that jurisdiction. Dr. Areco, the thesis presented in 1866 for the degree of Doctor of Law, enshrines some hints of this historical episode that should have deplorable consequences. It reads: "The Governor of the Malvinas [Mr. Vernet], bound to enforce regulations relating to fishing, or rather slaughter of wolves within their jurisdiction, rules as old as this, and interested in enjoying only a of the concessions he had made the government of Buenos Aires, stopped a few American ships, which according to the confession of his own captains, took care of this illegal trade. The competent court declared them good prey and legitimized the conduct of Mr. Vernet ". 5 As a result of that arrest the commander of a U.S. warship destroyed the flourishing colony of East Falkland, and that fact was unjustifiable precisely what led England to seize the Falkland Islands, consummating the attack against the territorial integrity of the Nación Argentina, whose sovereignty over those islands had always been respected. A distinguished Argentine diplomat, Dr. D. Manuel Moreno, accredited by the British government as Minister Plenipotentiary of the Republic in 1834, was expressed in these terms in note to that government "can not be argued against the United Provinces [of the Rio de la Plata] to try to revive an issue that was traded after more than half a century ago. By contrast, the invasion of the Corvette Clio January 5, 1833 is what has changed and reversed the state of affairs that had left the convention of January 22, 1771. " 6 Meanwhile, the Argentine government has paid all debts incurred losses from foreign nationals, which has to date been close and cordial relations with all European and American governments except that of Paraguay, has not obtained redress for the serious damage caused to a citizen of Argentina for the destruction of the colony Soledad, no less by the usurpation of the Falkland Islands, seized by the British in a time when governments were reckless display of the material advantages of the strength, at a given moment. We believe that this is due to the indifference of our governments, or the weak

efforts that have been presented to foreign cabinets. Absorbed by the transitory interests of domestic politics, our governments have not thought about looking after the high interest of Argentina beyond the narrow circle in which they were agitated sterile traditional circles. We are happily in a new situation and special. The last thirty years have made the series of great moral and material progress. It is no longer boast of strength, which supports management in the diplomatic world either. Governments have already realized that no other legitimate and respectable force than the force of law and justice, that the abuse never legitimized, and prints always odious stamp on the forehead of those who consume it. The moral history and have taught them that sooner or later atones the attack on behalf of the force, because the prevalence today of inferiority relative find another power stronger tomorrow, which will use to their advantage the lesson arises from a criminal act and depression. In modern times we have clear examples of this truth. Austria returns the Veneto to Italy, after having experienced the needle-gun; France shedding of Mexico to the attitude of the United States, Spain abandoned the islands of Peru, before the explosion of American sentiment, are facts which confirm the healthy revolution of ideas of morality and justice, which operates in the world. No government in recent times have led later that respect for the universal opinion, that the governments of the United States and England, and are the strongest governments in the world. The time spent far from illusory gains and the Americans and British are now the first to condemn the attacks that were consummated once the shadow of their flags. How can we not expect then that the United States and England rush to testify to his respect for the rights of Argentina, repairing the damage inflicted by returning to its rightful sovereign territory usurped? We understand that the administration of General Mitre was concerned with this issue and sent instructions to the Argentine minister in Washington, who was Mr. Sarmiento, just to start a claim for the destruction of the colony and neglect that this caused. It seems that Mr. Sarmiento reputed not quite explicit instructions, but strongly supported the right to bring that claim. Meanwhile, is very sacred duty of Argentina, ensuring the honor of his name, for the integrity of its territory and interests of the Argentines. These rights are not prescribed and ever. And as the occasion presents itself, just the public concerned with the timely publication of the interesting letter from Mr. Lasserre, fill the duty to initiate the serious issues that arise from the facts stated. We call the attention of all the press in Argentina on matters of such high political and economic importance of

which we will return promptly. Description of a trip to the Falklands 7 My dear Hernandez: Delivering on the promise you I demanded in July last to make the connection from my trip to the Falkland Islands, I send the following lines, which may offer you some interest, for the double reason for them [the islands] property of Argentines and to remain, however, little or nothing known to most of their rightful owners. I do not intend, nor do I fit this case, to enter into political considerations on the non-return of that immense territory which we have given the English a bit against our will, but do not want to miss this opportunity to deplore the neglect of our governments, which have been passing the time without thinking of such a claim pending with unpardonable indifference and making every day more impossible the integrity of the Republic of Argentina. Presumably, the illustration of the present Government Nacional8 understand the importance of that return, that he is in the duty to demand the SMB, because these islands, by its geographical position are the key to the Pacific, and are undoubtedly called a great future, with the likely increase in population of our extremely fertile territories. To you of the press, who are competent, if necessary, address this issue. (...) Very few Argentines have remained in the Falklands after the British occupation unfair. Those that still exist there are no more than twenty, all of them employed as laborers or foremen in the rooms, to whose work stand out from many of the foreigners. References: A title that topped the news in No. 86 of the Rio de la Plata, published in the editorial section for the day November 19, 1869. On day 20, to leave clarified some errors that had crept into the text of the above news, it published again in the same section of the newspaper in which appeared the day before and the transcribed text. Jose Hernandez was the owner, founder and editor of The River Plate with printing and writing in Victoria Street 202, Buenos Aires. From its first edition, which came into being on August 6, 1869, until the last appeared on November 22, 1870, Hernandez nurtured with his pen, the 207 columns of the daily numbers over five hundred editorials and articles. All about politics, current affairs and bibliographic. Only in exceptional cases appeared signed. 2 Augusto Lasserre was born in Buenos Aires in 1826. He was promoted to captain in the Navy June 11, 1852, in which capacity he served in the Argentina squad for the Confederacy. (...) On September 30, 1886, was promoted to Commodore Lasserre. He died in Buenos Aires on September 20, 1906. 3 Such are the titles heading the article here reprinted from the Rio de la Plata, published in No. 92 for the day November 26, 1869. It occupied two columns of

the newspaper's editorial section ... This article, like all of the editorial section of the newspaper, even though not signed, the pen belongs to Hernandez. 4 On November 20, in number 2324, The Standard published in Section Editor's Table, among other news, the next .... 5 This text is read on page 76 of the thesis submitted for the degree of Doctor of Law by Isaac P. Areco. Buenos Aires, 241 Printing, May, Moreno Street 243, 1866. The thesis of Mr. Areco bears the main clause, the following sentences: "The Falkland Islands belong exclusively to Argentina in the meantime do not give up their sovereignty rights to them." The text is the thesis, one hundred and two full pages total of one hundred sixty of which consists the volume. The rest is aimed at "supporting documents the process", says the author, including documents to be published in London, 1841, by D. Manuel Moreno, and actual orders taken from the pamphlet of Dr. Velez Sarsfield entitled Discussion of the securities of the Government of Chile to the lands of the Strait of Magellan. Buenos Aires, Argentina Press, 1853. 6 Fragment of the note, Manuel Moreno of the Duke of Wellington, dated December 29, 1834, see page 65 of the pamphlet, printed in London by Arthur Charles Luthman, in 1841, entitled: Complaint by the Government of the Provinces United's Rio de la Plata against His Britannic Majesty's sovereignty over and ownership of the Falkland Islands (Malvinas). Official discussion. This booklet of 69 pages in Castilian, English and French, is a work of Dr. Moreno that "lives up to Argentina, says Dr. Isaac P. Areco, whose rights are defended with all the elevation of a man of science and the integrity of an austere conscience. "The pamphlet in question, contains a map of the Falklands and a number of documents in the various sections into which it is divided These are: a) Protest, Ministry Plenipotentiary of the United Provinces of Río de la Plata, Manuel Moreno, dated June 17, 1833, the text and appendices A, B and C, are in Castilian and English. B) The same text and appendices of the aforementioned protest, but in French. C) Response of Lord Palmerston, in Castilian and English, dated January 8, 1834. d) Note of Mr. Moreno, the Duke of Wellington, referring to the response of Viscount Palmerston. Is dated December 29, 1834, its text is in Castilian and English. E) Note of Mr. Moreno to the Earl of Aberdeen, from December 18, 1841. It reads in Castilian and English. F) The response of the Earl of Aberdeen to Mr. Moreno, Castilian and English, is dated December 29, 1841. This paper closes the pamphlet whose title and divisions just quoted. 7 This title is head of the transcript of the letter from Mr. Augusto Lasserre in El Rio de la Plata. Began publication on 19, continued on 20 and ended on November 21, 1869. 8 The Government had in November 1869, was composed as follows: President,

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"London known since 1910 that has no right over the Falklands" On April 2, 1982, Argentina took possession of the Falkland Islands, territory usurped by the British in 1833. The occupation began a war that would end two months later, on June 14, 1982 - over 650 dead on the Argentine side and more than 250 dead, of the British armed forces. The war was the muffled slap of dying dictatorship tried to take in order to remain in power. Below we reproduce two offices of Rodolfo Terragno, who was in London to break out the conflict and the conflict became a correspondent for the Diario de Caracas. In the first study, "The 'humiliation' join Thatcher in a crisis," dated April 2, Terragno details how the occupation of the Malvinas lived in Britain and has the general characteristics of the Falkland Islands. In the second, "London known since 1910 that has no right over the Malvinas," notes that since 1910 various British Foreign Office officials questioned the right of the United Kingdom over the archipelago. Source: Offices of Rudolph Terragno to Caracas Journal, April 1982 to June 1983, Terragno, Rodolfo, Falklands, Ediciones de la Flor, Buenos Aires, 2002. Rodolfo Terragno office from London to Caracas Journal - April 2, 1982 Renounce the Chancellor and the defense minister The "humiliation" join Thatcher in a crisis "We have many new friends," cryptically reported a resident of Port Stanley. That was the first confirmation of Argentina source not arriving in London: the Falkland Islands (Malvinas, for the British) had been occupied militarily by Argentina. Today, the British Cabinet met three times, and tomorrow the Parliament will hold its first meeting Saturday since the Suez Crisis in 1957. The

opposition argues that Britain has been humiliated. The Secretary of Defense announced it is preparing a "substantial naval force" would try to recover the islands, but there are logistical problems. Reagan could not convince Galtieri in about an hour of phone conversation. Britain is in the minority in the UN. The British Parliament held its first meeting Saturday morning in 25 years. The prime minister Margaret Thatcher, who has made national defense a leitmotif of his government will face an angry opposition, according to which Britain has been "humiliated" by what John Silkin, Labour's spokesman on defense- called "a fascist junta shoddy." As of 18.15 today, the British government refused to accept that Argentina occupied the Falkland Islands. The Cabinet met three times a day, and Parliament, which traditionally close to the 15 deliberations on Friday, remained in a state of continuous session. The first confirmation of the Argentine landing at Port Stanley was a telex operator, who managed to reach the islands. The written dialogue was as follows: 'Hello, what are all those rumors we have heard here in London? -We have many new friends. -About those friends is what we want to know something. Have you landed? -Affirmative. - Can you communicate? 'We have no orders yet. We have to obey orders. - Orders from whom? -From the new government. - Argentino? -Yes. - Are the Argentines in control? -Yes. You can not argue with thousands of soldiers who have enormous naval support, especially when you have more than 1,800 men. Just a moment please. At this point the line went dead, but minutes later the London radio air threw the confirmation of the news that in Buenos Aires, was celebrated early on. Early in the afternoon, the London Evening Standard The disaster claimed in letters type: "ARGENTINA INVADES". The people received the news stunned the Argentine unexpected challenge. El Diario de Caracas street tried a quick survey and found a summary of the general sentiment of the words of an employee who, at the Charing Cross railway station, said: "Not worth fighting over these islands. They are far and not

worth much. The problem is that this affects the image of Britain. " A BBC commentator ventured that "a naval battle is inevitable." Defence Secretary John Nott, simply announce that Britain has "the Royal Navy on alert and is preparing a substantial force operations." Nott said that this force will be "big enough and powerful enough to deal with any problems you encounter in the South Atlantic," but expressed confidence in the "diplomatic solutions". Indeed, the diplomatic battle is lost for Britain. Today, the British delegate failed in his attempt to make the Security Council United Nations condemned what he called "Argentina invasion" of the islands. In the Foreign Office privately acknowledged that England is in a minority within the UN, as the third world countries are not willing to defend the claim that Britain still has overseas. On Thursday night, from Washington, U.S. President Ronald Reagan phoned his colleague Leopoldo Fortunato Galtieri, Argentina, urging him to stop any attempt to occupy the islands. By then, Britain had already suspected that the operation was underway Argentine e-powerless to prevent the landing in possession 500 kilometers in Argentina and 13,000 in Britain itself-had called desperately for the meeting of Security Council UN. The telephone management of Reagan, who had been requested by Thatcher, failed completely, even though the president to president conversation lasted nearly an hour. However, the British foreign secretary, Lord Carrington, said tonight that Britain would not be considered out through diplomatic channels. His predecessor, David Owen, said that there are no other avenues open: Owen said that once captured the islands by the Argentine, is "extremely difficult" for Britain to recover them. In any case, the British navy would take two weeks to reach the archipelago in the southern Western Hemisphere. The Thatcher government broke diplomatic relations today with that of Argentina. Questions and answers Where are the Falklands? In the South Atlantic. The cross latitude 52 and longitude 58 and 60. How far are the Argentine mainland? About 500 kilometers. They are, in turn, 350 miles from the Staten Island (Argentina).

And the UK? A 13,000 km. How many are they? If we consider only those who are over 20 square kilometers, 20. There are also hundreds of islets and rocks. What is the total area of the archipelago? 15,800 km ². What are the largest islands? East or Soledad, which is 6,350 km ², and Western or West Falkland, which despite its name is not the largest, has 4,500 km ²). Where is the capital? In the eastern island or Soledad. Was always in the same place? Not until 1845 was further north, in Port Louis (or Puerto Soledad), but in the same island. What is your name? Port Stanley, even in Argentina mapping. However, some Argentine media tell you, since 1966, Puerto Rivero. That year, gunmen hijacked a plane, forcing it to land in the Falklands. They hoisted the flag of Argentina, which was flown for 36 hours in the capital, Rivero renamed in memory of a gaucho who, in 1833, was arrested by the British and taken to London. How is the weather? Wind blowing and rain falling most of the year. The average temperature is 5 º, 18 º maximum and minimum -4 °. How many inhabitants are there? 1813, according to the 1980 census, more than 1000 live in Port Stanley. How do they live? They raise sheep (there are 600,000 head; 330 per capita), fish or gather seaweed on the coasts. In English, seaweed kelp is said, and who picks up calls Kelper algae. Sometimes, in Britain, is named to the Falklands. Typically Falkland islanders call. Are all self-employed? No. Most of the population depends on Folkland Islands Company, established in 1846.

Who discovered the islands? Is much discussed. Some say it was Vespucci. Others, Magellan. The English say that John Davis discovered in 1592. It is accepted that the Dutchman Sebald de Weert sighted them in 1600, but it was the first to do so. The Englishman John Cook arrived in 1683. Why call them the British Falklands? The call "the Falklands" (with "s") or "Falkland Islands" (no "s") in honor of Viscount Falkland, who was treasurer of the Admiralty in 1690, when another Englishman, John Strong-discovered channel San Carlos, which separates the two largest islands. Strong named Falkland to the channel, but then it was spread throughout the archipelago. Why Argentines call the Malvinas? A late 17th century, sailors from Saint-Malo (France) sailed the South Atlantic, landed on East Falkland and baptized with the name set Malouines: in French, "belonging or relating to Saint-Malo." The Spanish would transform the name, but Maluinas and then in the Falklands. Do the French islands were once? Yes, in 1764 the expedition of Louis-Antoine de Bougainville rose in the East Falkland strong and a small town named Port Louis. They were there three years. When did the British? In 1765 Commodore John Byron landed on West Falkland, hoisted the flag of St. George and left. He knew he had no French in the East Falkland and they were unaware of the arrival of the English to the archipelago. Was there an English settlement in the West Island? Yes, Port Egmont, founded by John McBride in 1766. Is Spain not claim rights to the islands? Yes, because the thought of its overseas colonies. ¿Depended on Buenos Aires? To 1776 depend directly of the King. That year, the creation of the Viceroyalty of the Rio de la Plata, would depend on the Viceroy, based in Buenos Aires. Why were the French? Because Spain were paid to leave the islands. The delivery was made on 1 April 1767. Who was the first Spanish governor?

Captain Felipe Ruiz Puente. Do the British accepted it? No, and refused to leave Port Egmont. In 1770, Spain drove them away by force. Can not they claim that the expulsion was an act against right? In 1790, the United Kingdom and Spain concluded the Treaty of Nootka Sound, whose Article 9 stated, "regarding the eastern and western coasts of South America and adjacent islands" and the "adjacent islands", that British subjects could land "for purposes related to their fisheries and erect shelters and other temporary structures," but could not "be in the future any establishment." When Argentina's independence from Spain? In fact, in 1810, formally in 1816. Did you file, at the time, was considered heir to the Falklands? It was implicit. In addition, in 1820 took effective control by appointing Governor. When the United Kingdom recognized Argentina's independence? In 1825. Upon recognizing the independence of Argentina, is not made the UK reserves its rights? No. Neither did the "Treaty of Friendship, Commerce and Navigation" that both nations signed the same year. The first claim English is 1829. When passed the islands, in fact, to be English? On January 2, 1833. Troops commanded by John James Onslow, who arrived on the frigate Clio, ousted Gov. Jose Maria Pinedo and took possession of the islands. How many Argentine governors came before 1833? Six. The first three, with the title of Military Commander. From the fourth, with the title of Political and Military Commander. What is the current status? To date, were "dependencies" in Britain. Colonies were declared in 1841. Do-born women had British citizenship? No. Does Argentina never ceased his claim? Never.

Was taken their case to the UN? When the UN was established, Argentina reserved its rights on the islands. In 1964, a subcommittee was formed that included the islands decolonization "Falkland (Malvinas)" between the territories to be decolonized. In 1965, resolution 2065 (XX) of the UN General Assembly urged Britain and Argentina to seek "a peaceful solution," taking into account "the interests" of the islanders, not your wishes, since it is of a closed population. Argentines are not admitted as residents. You never was no progress? Yes, but not in the negotiation of the fund. The Argentina built a track provisional landing and received Falklands continental schools and hospitals. There was also exchange of tourists. In 1980, Britain announced its intention to reinstate the islands to Argentina, but subjected to the wishes of the islanders, who disagreed.

Rodolfo Terragno office from London to Caracas Journal - June 1983 Tested by the Foreign Office documents London known since 1910 that has no right over the Falklands In 1910 and in 1936, officials and the Foreign Office lawyers gave opinions that questioned British titles to retain the Falklands. "It's not easy to explain our position without being as international bandits," said a memorandum of 1936. Britain never accepted arbitration because his position had "certain weaknesses", and the islands should be preserved "for strategic reasons." A little raised the Falklands crisis, the British government removed all documents on the Falklands who were in the Public Record Office: an archive of official papers made public. The Sunday Times revealed on June 20, 1982, among the documents transferred to the Foreign Office, which contained several officials of the British Foreign Ministry questioned the right of the United Kingdom over the archipelago. This is a list of papers that prove the "secret questions" of British diplomacy on the rights invoked by the government of Margaret Thatcher to wage war in the South Atlantic: Memorandum of Bernhardt (1910). At the request of the head of the U.S. Department of the Foreign Office, Sydney Spicer, Gaston De Bernhardt researcher prepared a memorandum that condenses the history of the islands and the legal arguments of Great Britain and Argentina. The memo served as internal guidance of the Foreign Office until 1938. Bernhardt made it clear that:

"The issue of sovereignty was specifically excluded from the agreement concluded with Spain in 1771." This agreement contained a secret clause by which Britain was forced to abandon the islands, which he did in 1774. "For 55 years, until 1829 (ie until 13 years after the proclamation of independence of Argentina), Britain was not interested in the islands." "Britain began to claim the eastern island only in 1829" (never had claimed during the Spanish rule, which is the island where Puerto Argentino). Letter from Spicer (1910). In a letter to himself from Bernhardt, Spicer admitted: "It is difficult to avoid the conclusion that the Argentine government's attitude is not entirely unjustified, and that our action has been somewhat overbearing." Memorandum Fitzmaurice (1936). In February 1936, George Fitzmaurice legal counsel advised against Britain to submit the question of the Malvinas to international arbitration: "Our position has certain weaknesses. But we have occupied the islands for over a century (albeit illegally, as the Argentina) and for strategic reasons we can not give them up. So it is best to take a hard line. " Memorandum Troutbeck (1936). That same year, the American department head of the Foreign Office, John Troutbeck, let sit a written opinion: "The difficulty [to support] our position is that the capture of the Falkland Islands in 1833 was an arbitrary procedure, if it judged by the criteria of today. It is, therefore, easier to explain our position without being as international outlaws. " Proposal to return the islands to Argentina (1940). This document contains the index of the Public Record Office but will remain secret until 2015. The title, however, is quite explicit: "Offer made by the government of His Majesty to reunify the Falkland Islands with Argentina and accept them for sale." Memorandum from the Department of Research (1946). This document describes the British occupation of the islands in 1833, as "an act of wanton aggression." Apart from these records are public events, revealing that Britain had abandoned any claim to sovereignty over the Falklands. Formed the United Nations Organization, reported the archipelago as "selfgoverning territory under British administration" means an elliptical way of referring to a colony. The Special Committee on Decolonization (UN) declared that the Falklands were subject to the decolonization process, urged in 1960 by the General Assembly of the United Nations. In 1965, Britain and Argentina began to negotiate the future of the islands in the

framework of the UN: London recognized, in fact the colonial status of the Falklands, the only argument for delaying the reintegration of the islands to Argentina was the will of the islanders. The Crown no longer invoked titles over the islands. The right to self-raised by Great Britain in favor of the islanders, only arises in the case of a population that demands independence, something they never did or could make the 1800 inhabitants of the British colony. That was the last argument of the British government, which since 1910 came back in their positions, opened in 1833 by Lord Palmerston with a firm defense of the right of sovereignty of the Crown-to the point where the conflict was when, on 2 April, Argentina occupied the islands. That was when Margaret Thatcher revived the idea that "the Falklands are British": something that, as revealed in internal documents, was never believed nor the Foreign Office.

HISTORY IN A PICTURE: IN 1831, AN AMERICAN AGGRESSION OPENED THE DOOR FOR TWO YEARS AFTER THE BRITISH invasion Long Malvinas theft ________________________________________ Felipe Pigna. Historian

Unlikely in these times of "preventive wars", few remember that the two powers were protagonists of the current global folly which 175 years ago agreed to the usurpation of our Malvinas Islands. Spain had been occupying the archipelago discontinuously since it was discovered and named San Antonio Islands people of Magellan's expedition in 1520. In early 1811, the Viceroy Elio, who disobeyed the revolutionary junta in Buenos Aires, Montevideo ordered from the abandonment of Puerto Soledad in the islands that had already been baptized Malouines by French sailors from St. Malo in 1708. On October 27, 1820, under orders of Minister of War and Navy, Matías Irigoyen, arrived in Puerto Soledad in command of the frigate "Heroin" former U.S. Army Colonel David Jewett, who since 1815 was in the service of the United Provinces .

The sailor proud the government wrote: "I have the honor to inform you of my arrival in this port, commissioned by the superior government of the United Provinces of South America, to take possession of these islands on behalf of the country that owned by natural law. " Since then established a small colony Argentina dedicated to fishing and sheep farming. On June 10, 1829, the deputy governor Martín Rodríguez created the political and military Command Soledad and designated the front of the German merchant nationalized Argentine Luis Vernet. The decree established the historical and legal continuity of sovereign rights. Vernet conducted an active command: built houses, raised a topographical, mounted a salting fish and meat and a tannery and built the schooner Eagle. Predation in the area worried the government of Buenos Aires in October 1829, banned fishing and whaling in 1831 Rosas until replaced by a ban imposed on fishing vessels. But the whalers went long and Puerto Soledad preying evading tax and comfortable. Sick of this situation, Vernet decided to act and arrested the American whalers and Higher Harriet without permission were carrying sealskins, while a third developed the same activities could take flight. Vernet personally led the Harriet to Buenos Aires, with its captain, Gilbert Davison, who was arrested on board. The Americans were not going to be quiet and December 28, 1831, Captain Silas Duncan, commanding the U.S. frigate Lexington, landed at Puerto Soledad, attacked its facilities, artillery destroyed, burned gunpowder, took six prisoners Argentine officers, lowered the blue and white flag and declared the islands' free of any government. " The government of Buenos Aires reacted strongly and Roses asked the Minister Manuel Maza to submit a formal protest with Washington. The Consul Slacum and business manager Bayles were declared persona non grata and expelled. But before leaving, officials "warned" the British Minister, John Woodbine Parish, the United States sought only fishing permits and that the islands were undefended and easy to take, inviting the subjects of His Gracious Majesty to invade the islands. The head of the British naval station in South America, based in Rio de Janeiro, Sir Thomas Baker, gave the order and the January 2, 1833 was presented in the English corvette Malvinas Clio under Captain John James Onslow. The temporary governor refused to Pinedo lower the Argentine flag, but the strength was stronger and had to surrender and return to his people in Buenos Aires. On 15 January Minister of Foreign Affairs of Buenos Aires, Maza, claimed for the

outrage to the British minister, Philip Gore, but no part of London even a phlegmatic response. When the Scot Matthew Brisbane, a former employee of Vernet, reached Falkland on March 3, decided to serve the English. He earned the trust of the invaders and remained collaborators John Simon, a Frenchman who worked as a foreman from the time of Vernet, and the steward of the islands, the Irishman William Dickson. Both the French and Irish exploited and mistreated the laborers: they were forbidden to fish won and tried to pay with their meager wages vouchers were not accepted Dickson's pantry, the only one of the islands. The situation was becoming desperate for laborers, who did not remain with folded arms. On August 26, 1833 the rebellion broke out. In front was the gaucho entrerriano Antonio Rivero. Within hours, ended the lives of all foreigners and again hoisted the flag of Argentina. Remained so for five months, while waiting for Buenos Aires sent an expedition to help, which never came. Those who did come were the English. It was January 7, 1834. On board the frigate Challenger Lieutenant Henry Smith arrived to take over as British governor on the islands. Rivero and his men endured two months, until they were captured on March 18 and sent to London for trial. Finally, the court of His Majesty instructed the Admiralty to return them to Nairobi, arriving in mid-1835. According to José María Rosa, Antonio Rivero died heroically on November 20, 1845 facing the Anglo-French fleet in the Battle of Vuelta de Obligado, which will go down in history as a day of national sovereignty. Rose tried to redeem the islands for the cancellation of the loan contracted by Rivadavia with Barings in 1824, our first foreign debt. The mission was entrusted to the Argentine ambassador in London, Manuel Moreno, Mariano's brother. The idea was impractical because even if England would sit to negotiate, was recognizing Argentina's sovereignty over the archipelago, which was not and is willing to accept. On July 25, 1848 was debated in the British Parliament the budget of the Empire and William Molesworth said in his speech: "They occur here miserable Falkland Islands, where there is no wheat, where no trees grow. I am of the opinion that this useless possession be returned to Buenos Aires, just the claim that "(1). The confession part had no impact on the British government was very clear the strategic importance of the archipelago located opposite the existing interoceanic passage then only in America, the Strait of Magellan. What followed was the absolute intransigence of the United Kingdom to even consider the issue of sovereignty and a war decided by the most unjust and inept

commanders in living memory and fought by heroic fighters to which Argentina is good to remember. (1) Morning Chronicle, London, July 27, 1848.

Falklands, 25 years of conflict Author: Editorial Felipe Pigna, Faces and Masks magazine, April 2007. The 25th anniversary of the beginning of the end of military dictatorship. A decadent and murderer government launched its latest venture with the apparent permission of his bosses in the North. Galtieri had received resounding praise of fellow Reagan and his Secretary of State, Mr. Haig, was so ambiguous with respect to the position they would take the United States against attack Argentine Malvinas, as it will be years later, the ambassador of the father the current Bush in Baghdad, April Glaspie, when told hitherto ally, oil partner and darling of Washington Saddam Hussein: "We have no opinion on intra-Arab disputes, as the dispute with Kuwait." The dictatorship in Argentina, as pro-US, as subservient to the financial apparatus of Washington's military regime, which had borrowed far as the IMF, Kissinger, Rockefeller and advised they needed, who had trained in torture and disappearance counterrevolutionary troops throughout Central America exporting its embarrassing but effective "know how" could not even imagine what the historical logic stated: that the United States in the choice between historical ally in the wars and the Cold War still in force, Great Britain Mrs. Thatcher's conservative and a "dictatorship friend" as defined Mrs. Kirkpatrick, there was no doubt possible. Some recalled then the famous phrase of John Foster Dulles, Secretary of State under President Eisenhower: "The United States has no friends have interests." The Anglo-Yankee was also particularly in the Falklands, notorious history between us. In mid-1829 the government soon reached Lavalle create the political and military command of Soledad and designated the front of the Franco-German businessman Luis Vernet. What's Near whaling ships were constantly passing that raged with valuable specimens of cetaceans. In October 1829 the government banned fishing and Viamonte whaling without any positive results because Vernet had no ships or elements to enforce the regulations. In 1831, Rosas ban rescinded and replaced by a tax on fishing vessels. But the captains of the whalers, old salts, spent long

and Puerto Soledad and not pay a penny. Given this situation was worsening and to the increased fishing and hunting, Vernet decided grab three whalers American flag without permission were carrying sealskins. The Yankees were not going to be quiet and December 28, April fools day of 1831, Captain Silas Duncan of the U.S. frigate Lexington, landed at Puerto Soledad, attacked its facilities, artillery destroyed, burned gunpowder and took six prisoners Argentine officers. The government of Buenos Aires reacted strongly and Roses Maza asked the minister to submit a formal protest with Washington. The Yankee Consul, Slacum and business manager Bayles were declared persona non grata and expelled. But before leaving, officials "warned" the British minister that the United States sought only fishing permits and that the islands were undefended and easy to take, inviting the children of His Gracious Majesty to invade the islands. Faced with such a pleasant treat, the British were given the task of usurping the islands. On January 2, 1833 was presented in the English corvette Clio Malvinas whose commander, Captain John James Onslow, reported in perfect English style provisional governor, Pinedo, who had orders to hoist the flag of His Gracious Majesty King William IV and expel Argentine troops. Pinedo, seeing that he could do nothing, he returned to his people in Buenos Aires. On 15 January Minister of Foreign Affairs of Buenos Aires, Maza, claimed for the outrage to the British minister, Philip Gore. No part of London even a phlegmatic response. Ignoring history, sweeping diplomatic progress, achieved mainly during the government of Arturo Illia, the megalomania of the soldiers and civilians militarily occupied since 1976 led Argentina in April 1982, rushed to the explosion of social protest , to implement total improvisation with the attack on Malvinas. The following story is known and painful. One year ago we were a team of Faces and Masks in the islands and then publish a special issue. We insist, we return to the Falklands, because it hurts us, because there is no doubt the legitimate rights that assist us, as there is no doubt that we have learned that no decision of a murderous dictatorship and anti could be favorable to the nation and the people, because their condition is anti-national and anti-people. Go for our tribute to all those who lost their lives in the Falklands for a cause clearly fair, commanded, from the comfortable and heated offices in Buenos Aires, for the most inept and unjust empire servers now proudly wears southernmost base financial-military alliance more powerful than remember the story that does not hesitate to launch "preventive wars" against unsuspecting people.

The usurpation of the Falklands and Argentina's complaints, according to Paul Groussac On April 2, 1982, Argentina took possession of the Falkland Islands, territory usurped by the British in 1833. The occupation began a war that would end a little over two months later on June 14, 1982 - with the defeat of the Argentine Army, more than 650 dead on the Argentine side and more than 250 dead, of the British armed forces. We reproduce below excerpts from a book by Paul Groussac, originally published in Volume VI of the Proceedings of the National Library in Buenos Aires, appeared in March 1910, where the French-born historian sets out the various claims of the various Argentine governments throughout the nineteenth century before the English usurpation. 1 Source: Groussac, Paul, The Falkland Islands. Buenos Aires, City of Buenos Aires, Ministry of Culture, 1982 Location of the islands The Falklands or Malvinas, England appropriated by violence on January 2, 1833, expelling the Argentine authorities, occupy, east of the Patagonian coast, this remarkable parallel over Puerto Gallegos (51 º 33 ' ), capital of the province of Santa Cruz, and the meridian of Buenos Aires (58 ° 21 'Gr) is cut off, more or less in the center of the main island. In other words, the entire group, composed as it is known, of two large islands surrounded by a hundred islets, could enroll in a trapezoid whose two bases correspond to the parallel and Coig Cala Cape of the Virgins, and the sides converging , the meridians of drippings and Dolores, in the province of Buenos Aires. Here, indeed, data not take us out of our land, and seem to confirm the geology and botany, which make the Falklands a natural dependency of Patagonia. English explanations to the usurpation In January 1834, almost on the anniversary of the attack, Lord Palmerston, Secretary of Foreign Affairs in the Cabinet of Lord Grey, after seven months left unanswered the protest of the Argentine Minister Manuel Moreno, deigned to give an explanation cold (alleged result of negotiation documents of the former Spanish) that ended by expressing the wish that the government of the United Provinces would be satisfied and stop discussing the sovereign rights of SM over the Falkland Islands. This first explanation continues to be the last. The protest in 1888 by the illegal occupation of the Falkland Islands ... The official protest against the violence of 1833 and the illegitimate occupation of the Falklands, has been heard and has not changed. One of the most recent dating from 1888 and is summarized in this final and categorical statement of Mr. Quirno Costa, addressed to the British charge d'affaires, "serve one convey to Secretary of Foreign Affairs that the government's refusal of SMB to discuss their alleged rights to the sovereignty of these islands, or refer the dispute to arbitration, not absolutely committed government securities of the

Republic, which holds and will always maintain their rights to sovereignty over the Malvinas, of which was dispossessed by violence and in time of peace "(citing Report of Foreign Affairs submitted in 1888, p. 160). Official documents ... set the uninterrupted presence of the Spanish authorities in Patagonia and their dependencies, to the last hour of the Viceroyalty. Needless to say, it was thought little about the Falkland Islands during the wars of South American independence. However, it was not over when the government of Buenos Aires recovered Puerto Soledad sending there the frigate Heroine, whose commander, David Jewitt, should also take over the archipelago. The new take-over was carried out with the normal form and detail, significant, as reflected by Vernet 2 - in the presence of the famous English navigator James Weddell, who had landed in the Falklands during his first Antarctic voyage. Jewitt found the places infested with English and American whalers, destroying not only the amphibians of these places but also wild animals inside. He tried to remedy this, and a circular of November 9, 1820, announced the new order of things foreign governments 3. Pablo Commander Areguaty happened in 1823, this year, the government of General Jorge Rodriguez gave Pacheco, "as a reward for their services," thirty leagues of land on East Falkland, with exclusive right to fish. A first attempt at colonization failed. Some years later, by decree of January 8, 1828, the entire island and all the Soledad Statenland except, in addition to the above grant, ten square miles assigned to the Treasury, were allocated freely by the government (the validity of the act is debatable ) by D. Hamburg merchant Luis Vernet, always with exclusive right to fish for twenty years, on condition of founding a colony in a span of three years. There is no doubt that the dealer Vernet was bravely to work and exhausted their resources there. Expeditions were organized, dozens of settlers, some with their families, came directly from Europe or were engaged in Montevideo, provided with livestock and farming tools and fishing. The pampas of Buenos Aires provided for cattle and gauchos to indigenous Patagonians. After less than two years. The colony had a hundred people, more or less stable, including the whalers and sealers for all sources of European employees and some slaves Vernet. The early years were particularly difficult, it was very productive fishing because of competition from foreign fishermen, more experienced or better equipped. The settlers demanded a warship and a military position to enforce the regulations. The shadow government, a month or a week, which happened in Buenos Aires, had very different concerns! Finally, Vernet quickly grabbed the flight of this interim General Rodriguez who has been seen interest in the colony, for a reorganization of territory 4, which was named in the day, political and military commander with full powers over extent of their dependency and some

weapons to pass, if necessary, from theory to practice. Vernet then decided to settle in Port Louis with his young wife, born in Buenos Aires, and a German family who accompanied him. A British naval officer, has left an outline of the distant home nice and deep, that in no way resembles the nest of pirates imagined by Yankee marauders undoubtedly their own ways of being 5. Britain to protest the proclamation of the right Argentina over the Falkland Islands Just know the decree 6, Mr. Woodbine Parish, SMB Business Manager, was quick to inform his government, who ordered an administrative claim against attacking "the sovereign rights hitherto exercised by the Crown of Great Britain ". The formal protest dates from November 19, 1829. In its notice of receipt, General Guido, Minister of Foreign Affairs in the administration ephemeral Viamonte, showed the provisional government to consider very busy "with particular attention" the note of Mr. Parish, making him a glimpse of a resolution could not take. For those who know this time of turmoil and calamity, in which the country seemed left to governors under attack of vertigo, the wonder is not that the answer is waiting, but on the day that the minister has had time to announce it. The protest fell on deaf ears, after eight days and no one remembered, and the situation could have unexpectedly last forever if it had not occurred a "third thief" that caused two years later, an unexpected solution. Vernet captures three American vessels that illegally hunted in the region, but there comes a strange agreement The inauguration of Vernet commander had not had the virtue of cutting to the chase the marauding sea and land. Neither orders nor threats prevented in any way to the fishing boats, flocking to the coasts of the Falkland small or large. Vernet was decided to proceed with rigor. With a few days apart (August 1831) captured the three American vessels, Breakwater, Harriet and Superior, which made loading in Port Area, northeast of Soledad, the fleet, on the other hand, since long frequented these places, and recidivism was widely established. Having reached the schooner Breakwater escape and gain their port of departure (Stonington, Conn.) 7, Vernet had to rule on the fate of the other two and, suddenly, came the disadvantage of double office. Under the officer woke the merchant; Vernet hung up his uniform and entered into arrangements with the captains of the ships captured. According to one contract included in the process, including Davison and Congar captains on one side and Don Luis Vernet, director of the colony Soledad another, would have agreed that only Harriet, munida of the roles of the Superior, go to Buenos Aires to appear there before the prize court, while the higher, led by Congar, go fishing seals south, half to the said Vernet ... This agreement between the policeman and the poacher, under the seal of the oath and the retraction stipulated in the distance seems a little strange. (...)

The schooner Harriet Soledad left for Buenos Aires in November 1831, carrying Don Luis Vernet and his family. Davison commanded it ... Just arrived in Buenos Aires (November 19), the boat was made available to the Captain of the Port for the prosecution, while Davison complained, stating the facts in his way, before the American consul George W . Slacum 8, who could not be said, without slander, which lacked training and integrity. He adjusted the business promptly, on 21, forcing the government, in principle, to state whether the dam remain, then the affirmative answer Anchorena minister, delivered the day after the judgment, consular, which denied the Argentine government any authority over Falkland Islands, Tierra del Fuego and its dependencies, and therefore any authority to restrict or even at all the fishing rights and others, of the free citizens of the United States (!) 9. The excellent Slacum could come to his taste: he knew that the sloop of war Lexington, leading the American fleet at anchor in Brazil, was anchored in Montevideo, not waiting more than a call to intervene. It arrived, in fact, on 30 November and, after regulatory Greetings, Commander Silas Duncan made his pass on the government in order to go to the Falklands, "to protect citizens and commerce of the United States to stand trial ... ". This was a simple provocation, so despicable in the background as rude in form, the hero had to be content with cheap shipping, instead of Vernet, the pattern Davison, who stole the judges of Buenos Aires to use him as a spy Puerto Soledad. The destruction of the colony of Puerto Soledad for the American fleet On December 28, 1831, the Lexington arrived in Puerto Soledad. All witnesses testify that he had raised, to better carry out their deeds, the French flag, which would be close, much more than acts of Vernet, in some cases pirate 10. Before disembarking, Major Duncan brought on board under any pretext, two key employees of Vernet, held him prisoner to the director of fisheries, Matthew Brisbane, released the commercial agent, Henry Metcalf. This done, Major Duncan and proceeded down armed primarily with a method to disable the guns, to fire the powder magazine, destroying the weapons, then, without malice, had fun, almost laughable, in plundering some houses ( theft is not), then in hunting wild animals. About two years later, Fitzroy, whose testimony is suspect, yet again found evident traces of pillage. Moreover, it was transported aboard the schooner Dash, who was there, the cargo of furs kidnapped and Davison, present, said to belong. As American whalers gathered again, signs were posted announcing the final ruin of the colony. All settlers who could not flee to the interior, were disturbed, those who resisted, crushed to death. Some witnesses have reported more serious excesses, but do not appear tested. One can imagine the panic. Several settlers, discouraged, embarked without thinking about a possible return. Finally, after having arrested almost all the inhabitants, the heroic Duncan prisoners held more than six Argentines and English merchant

Brisbane, which, according engrilló unanimous statements, and thus carried to Montevideo 11. Here, in what terms, brief but expressive, the commander of a corvette was heading the government of a free, highly confessing his attack and imposing the conditions for leniency: "A. S.E. the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Buenos Aires: Anchored in Montevideo, February 21, 1832 Lord: I must tell you that I will deliver or release the prisoners on board the existing Lexington, giving the government of Buenos Aires an assurance that they have acted under its authority. I have the honor, etc.. Silas Duncan. " Francis Baylies, a new American charge, arrived in Buenos Aires This was not done. After Duncan, who was at home to allay his great anger, and Slacum, whom the minister had to withdraw the exequatur Garcia (14 February, 1832), comes into the picture business manager Francis Baylies to get employment there vacant bully 12. It must be recognized that this was not the case languish. At the June 8 in the sloop of war Peacock, 9 landed with his family, presented his credentials on 15 and 20 opened fire. Their official mission was limited, as very confession of his government, the opening of an inquiry into the incident of the Falklands and the consideration of the rights claimed by the government of Buenos Aires 13. It will suffice to quote the opening sentence of his first note, to show how to understand this mission and in what spirit would comply. "Buenos Aires, June 20, 1832 "The undersigned, charge d'affaires of the United States of America to the Government of Buenos Aires, has the honor to inform SE Minister of Grace and Justice, temporarily in charge of the department of Foreign Affairs, who has orders to call the attention of this government on certain procedures of Don Luis Vernet, who claims, under a decree of the government, dated June 10 1829, be "civil and military governor of the Falkland Islands, and so on." 14 "Not content to deprive (a seal fishermen) and treat them as slaves, Vernet has filled up the measure of humiliation, reducing these American citizens to a degree of moral degradation as low as his own, and so on." 15. Having allowed the minister Maza, in its notice of receipt, expressing some surprise at these diplomatic ways, the Massachusetts man charged again the next day and put the minister on the rush to declare at the earliest opportunity, if the government Buenos Aires still persisted in attributing rights over the

Malvinas, after the U.S. had denied. However, given the silence of his interlocutor, he resigned himself to imitate Baylies for two weeks, but this was to develop a long memorial históricojurídico ... in which the lawyer informal obligingly transcribed after the protest of Mr. Woodbine Parish, inferred the best right of Great Britain. Minister Maza raises protest to Washington and protest to Francis Baylies Minister Maza ... well resolved this time to take things to extremes, began on August 8 by ruling out the middleman and bring the matter to the Minister of State of Washington, in a full and firm the rights and wrongs Argentines. This done, after a few days off, he turned to who, for two months, did not recoil before any false statement to support his bad cause ... Refusing to accept this intruder into an argument over ownership of the Falklands, which was about above it and in which the United States itself could not be part, the Argentine minister shut the opponent in the incident of illegal fishing, with consequences that were the double intervention of Vernet and Duncan. In a very concise argument, showed that the origin of the first was as legal as the second arbitrary, and this, whatever the title of Buenos Aires on the Falklands. Turning then to the appreciation of the acts of both sides, established without difficulty, even in the case itself that all irregularities in the conduct of Vernet were true, were but transient and had their correction in inventories raised and the impending doom of the prize court, while the excesses committed by Commander Duncan, meant, for having acted according to instructions from above, an affront to national sovereignty, whether committed in time of peace and unworthy of a people civilized and in the act without orders, a crime punishable by court-martial. The minister rejected, then the alleged charges that, in order to mislead public opinion, is trying to reverse the roles: he was the accuser, and the other accused. The government of Buenos Aires denounced the complicity of a warship of the United States in the illegal acts of its citizens and demanded reparation for the outrage inflicted on the flag of Argentina, as well as compensation for acts of piracy had ruined the nascent colony. He ended the show with no formal assurance that would take into account the notes passed by the charge d'affaires of the United States while the previous questions were not regulated ... Baylies and Slacum leave Buenos Aires Eviction was a fit, and it was to Mr. Baylies received. Demanded his passports and waiting, tried to dispel even the Parthian shot, which was to leave the management of the old American legation consul Slacum, the minister replied, returning the ball, that could not be said Slacum for more government that a criminal refuge in a legation. Baylies realized at last that after being hateful about to become ridiculous. He embarked on 21 September in the sloop Warren, with the inseparable Slacum and Returned home to finish there in the dark 16. Some days before his departure, he could read the decree of September 10,

naming the largest Mestivier for interim command of the Falkland Islands (until the owner could resume his duties); 17 was added 50 men with their families , and the brig of war was to be there Sarandí anchor. (...) Carlos Maria de Alvear, Minister Plenipotentiary in the United States [Carlos Maria de] Alvear was appointed [Minister Plenipotentiary in the United States], on June 28, 1837, and ... took over his post, without haste, as he embarked in the middle of next year. Also, for what he did then you can judge what could have been done before. In all verbal or written representations, the U.S. government responded evasively, when he was not deaf ear. In Washington as in London, the envoys were upset ... and annoying, with this eternal claim to office. The response of the Secretary of State Daniel Webster The most significant response to General Alvear received and had to settle, was that of Daniel Webster, then Secretary of State who, in his note of December 4, 1841, developed this strange thesis that the appreciation of the acts committed by Captain Duncan, was linked to the controversial question of sovereignty over the Malvinas Islands, gave rise to suspend any consideration of Argentina's claim to the outcome of those proceedings, the traditional policy of the United States forbade any action that would involve early an attitude for or against a party ... We know that this thesis is pure sophistry ... Exactly the case, not to crush theoretical arguments, often made of a convicted felon, of depredations on property at issue, with violence against the current occupant, and purporting to escape the accusation brought against him, while the judgment on the secular process of possession was not pronounced (!) Captain Duncan and his men were guilty of acts of violence or piracy, and their superiors, responsible for the excesses and damages committed, even if in the titles of Argentina to the occupation of the Falklands were later recognized as null and void. It was enough that the occupation had been long in public and in good faith. The Federal Court of Massachusetts on the incident This case the captain ... Duncan has provided an example of Wharton Digest, and feel jurisprudence. Davison (the old pattern of Harriet, left Buenos Aires) 18 introduced a process that is vented to the Federal Court of Massachusetts about his adventurous journey to the Falklands, the incident of the Lexington and the Court held as follows "On the case of a naval officer of the United States, without instructions from his government had taken in the Falkland Islands of certain goods (property) claimed by citizens of the United States, they had been taken improperly ( piratically) by a person who wanted Governor of the Islands, the Court determines that the officer said he had no right, without express commission of his government, to enter the territory of a country at peace with the United States and to seize goods who were there and were claimed by

citizens of the United States. The demand for justice and reparation, should have been brought before domestic courts. " 19 Behold a true legal doctrine, professed and established by the same courts of the United States ... Claims to the United States under President Julio Argentino Roca Faced with this attitude of the fittest, this non possumus obstinate (indeed, it was just a thinly disguised nolumus with what is essential for diplomatic courtesy) 20, the Argentine envoy had no more to lean, and his government, to wait . He waited twenty, forty, and more. (...) [In] January 1884 under the chairmanship of General Roca, when Dr. F. J. Ortiz, Foreign Minister, instructed the Argentine envoy in U.S. cabinet refresh the memory of Washington. Don Luis L. Dominguez renewed the declaration on excellent terms, brief and precise, stating in conclusion that in the state of affairs (the British occupation), its government was limited to asking the U.S. disapproval of the attack and reasonable compensation for the depredations committed in Puerto Soledad, with compensation to the heirs of Vernet. The message of President Cleveland No answer was given to this, but in December 1885, ie about two years later, President Cleveland wanted, in his first annual message, to devote to claim this dismissive and inattentive paragraph. "The Argentine government has raised the issue of long-dormant Falklnad islands, claiming compensation for their loss (!), Which gives the action of the commander of the corvette Lexington, who destroyed a piratical colony established there in 1831, and his subsequent occupation by Great Britain. Given the ample justification that have earned the actions of the Lexington and the state of abandonment of the islands, before and after the occupation by settlers pretextada Argentines, this government (the U.S.) considered the claim as totally devoid of foundation ". 21 Dr. Quesada protest the terms used by U.S. President Neither the president nor his minister Bayard Cleveland ... suspected tissue absurd claims ... (...) It did not take much to excite the patriotic inflaming Dominguez's successor in Washington. Without dwelling on the special character of presidential document, which subtracted the entire diplomatic observation 22, Dr. Quesada Secretary Bayard protested against the terms used in the message, then, once introduced into the square, took advantage of this to develop in eight or ten pages nourished, the full story of the incident and of the claim. Unexpected result: a response from the Minister Bayard arrived three months later, almost as abundant as the request, in that response, considering the discussion ended, the American Foreign Ministry deigned to examine the matter thoroughly and pleitar. The response of the U.S. Foreign Minister Bayard, finally did more than take up the argument and the arguments

of Webster Baylies, supplementing his way. After repeating that the United States government could not discuss the acts of Captain Duncan without express their opinion on the merits of the complaint Anglo-Argentine, which was to be avoided at full strength, the eminent logician added, convinced that although " the rights of Argentina to sovereignty over the Falkland Islands were established, no lack good reasons for the conduct of Captain widely Duncan. What are these reasons? This is what will result from a short exposure incident "23. As for the "good reasons" the Minister of State (...) Here they are, as listed, with the short answer would be ... Mr. Bayard argues the ancient custom of fishing for seals and whales in the Falklands and infers a right acquired by American fishermen, regardless of the holder of the islands. - We say, "The exclusive right of each nation to fish in waters adjacent to their coasts" 24 is an undisputed international axiom which can not be repealed except by express agreement. The tolerance of the State keeper, whatever the cause or duration, does not invalidate their right and does not create nor for third parties. The State is exercised holder until such time as he pleases, unless advance notice a reasonable time. "The measures taken by Vernet, and notably the seizure of the Harriet and other American schooners, taking over the charge to have a taste of some of the crew to keep her service, constitute acts of piracy." - We answer: The seizure was legal and should be maintained until the final opinion of the Prize Court of Buenos Aires, to which the schooners were returned (the Harriet with the representation of Superior). Stakeholders made and signed inventory of the cargo, with specification of food and other items that Vernet, by necessity more, he had served. The other facts developed were denied by Vernet or interpreted in a very different before the judge, and evidence. The conflicting testimony was made impossible by the flight pattern of Davison, who had stolen the trial and embarked on board the Lexington for advice or orders of the commander Duncan. "The U.S. government's opinion, that the seizures made are acts of piracy, meet even more amply justified by the fact that if the decree of administrative reorganization of the Falklands was published, the appointment of Vernet as governor, in contrast, no was notified to foreign governments. " - We answer: It's a humorous statement that does not feel the minister of a great country, to hold that the appointment of a commander or a prefect should have been notified overseas. No one else was in a position to know that such appointments are never reported. The unique event presenting international interest and should be reported, had been by way of the press and was the subject of the decree of June 10, which should reproduce the essential items: "Art 1 ° The Falkland Islands and adjacent to Cape Horn in the Atlantic Ocean, will be governed by a political and military commander, appointed immediately by the government of the Republic. Article 2 The residence of the political and military commander, will be the East Falkland, where he established a battery under the flag of the Republic. Article 3

The political and military commander will observe, by the people of the islands, the laws of the Republic and monitor, on the coasts, the compliance of regulations pertaining to fishing for amphibians. 4 º This decree will be published, and so on. "The claim of Mr. Woodbine Parish sufficient proof that the decree was published, on the other hand, Mr. Bayard was not going to deny it. But he maintained, with the envoy Baylies, the lack of notification of the name of Vernet foreign governments, states "broadly" the piratical nature of the allegations! This is fun. "The commander Vernet, so severe for American fishing vessels, left the English vessels to fish freely."

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