The atmosphere plays a vital role in the way in which radio waves travel around the earth. Without its action it would not be possible for signals to travel around the globe on the short wave bands, or travel greater than only the line of sight distance at higher frequencies. In fact the way in which the atmosphere affects radio is of tremendous importance for anyone with an interest in the topic. In view of the importance of the atmosphere an overview of its make-up is given here.

Layers of the Atmosphere
The atmosphere can be split up into a variety of different layers according to their properties. As different aspects of science look at different properties there is no single nomenclature for the layers. The system that is most widely used is that associated with. Lowest is the troposphere that extends to a height of 10 km. Above this at altitudes between 10 and 50 km is found the stratosphere. This contains the ozone layer at a height of around 20 km. Above the stratosphere, there is the mesosphere extending from an altitude of 50 km to 80 km, and above this is the thermosphere where There are two main layers that are of interest from a radio viewpoint. The first is the troposphere that tends to affect frequencies above 30 MHz. The second is the ionosphere. This a region which crosses over the boundaries of the meteorological layers and extends from around 60 km up to 700 km. Here the air becomes ionised, producing ions and free electrons. The free electrons affect radio waves at certain frequencies, often bending them back to earth so that they can be heard over vast distances around the world.


The lowest of the layers of the atmosphere is the troposphere. This extends from ground level to an altitude of 10 km. It is within this region that the effects that govern our weather occur. To give an idea of the altitudes involved it is found that low clouds occur at altitudes of up to 2 km whereas medium level clouds extend to about 4 km. The highest clouds are found at altitudes up to 10 km whereas modern jet airliners fly above this at altitudes of up to 15 km. Within the troposphere there is generally a steady fall in temperature with height and this has a distinct bearing on some propagation modes which occur in this region. The fall in temperature continues in the troposphere until the tropopause is reached. This is the area where the temperature gradient levels out and then the temperature starts to rise. At this point the temperature is around -50 ºC. The refractive index of the air in the troposphere plays a dominant role in radio signal propagation. This depends on the temperature, pressure and humidity. When radio signals are affected this often occurs at altitudes up to 2 km.

The ionosphere
The ionosphere is an area where there is a very high level of free electrons and ions. It is found that the free electrons affect radio waves. Although there are low levels of ions and electrons at all altitudes, the number starts to rise noticeably at an altitude of around 30 km. However it is not until an altitude of approximately 60 km is reached that the it rises to a sufficient degree to have a major effect on radio signals. The overall way in which the ionosphere is very complicated. It involves radiation from the sun striking the molecules in the upper atmosphere. This radiation is sufficiently intense that when it strikes the gas molecules some electrons are given sufficient energy to leave the molecular structure. This leaves a molecule with a deficit of one electron that is called an ion, and a free electron. As might be expected the most common molecules to be ionised are nitrogen and oxygen. Most of the ionisation is caused by radiation in the form of ultraviolet light. At very high altitudes the gases are very thin and only low levels of ionisation are created. As the radiation penetrates further into the atmosphere the density of the gases increases and accordingly the numbers of molecules being ionised increase. However when molecules are ionised the energy in the radiation is reduced, and even though the gas density is higher at lower altitudes the degree of ionisation becomes less because of the reduction of the level of ultraviolet light. At the lower levels of the ionosphere where the intensity of the ultraviolet light has been reduced most of the ionisation is caused by x-rays and cosmic rays which are able to penetrate further into the atmosphere. In this way an area of maximum radiation exists with the level of ionisation falling below and above it.


Often the ionosphere is thought of as a number of distinct layers. Whilst it is very convenient to think of the layers as separate, in reality this is not quite true. Each layer overlaps the others with the whole of the ionosphere having some level of ionisation. The layers are best thought of as peaks in the level of ionisation. These layers are given designations D, E, and F1 and F2.

Description of the layers in the ionosphere
D layer: The D layer is the lowest of the layers of the ionosphere. It exists at altitudes around 60 to 90 km. It is present during the day when radiation is received from the sun. However the density of the air at this altitude means that ions and electrons recombine relatively quickly. This means that after sunset, electron levels fall and the layer effectively disappears. This layer is typically produced as the result of X-ray and cosmic ray ionisation. It is found that this layer tends to attenuate signals that pass through it. E layer: The next layer beyond the D layer is called the E layer. This exists at an altitude of between 100 and 125 km. Instead of acting chiefly as an attenuator, this layer reflects radio signals although they still undergo some attenuation. In view of its altitude and the density of the air, electrons and positive ions recombine relatively quickly. This occurs at a rate of about four times that of the F layers that are higher up where the air is less dense. This means that after nightfall the layer virtually disappears although there is still some residual ionisation, especially in the years around the sunspot maximum that will be discussed later. There are a number of methods by which the ionisation in this layer is generated. It depends on factors including the altitude within the layer, the state of the sun, and the latitude. However X-rays and ultraviolet produce a large amount of the ionisation light, especially that with very short wavelengths. F layer: The F layer is the most important region for long distance HF communications. During the day it splits into two separate layers as can be seen from Fig. 3.4. These are called the F1 and F2 layers, the F1 layer being the lower of the two. At night these two layers merge to give one layer called the F layer. The altitudes of the layers vary considerably with the time of day, season and the state of the sun. Typically in summer the F 1 layer may be around 300 km with the F2 layer at about 400 km or even higher. In winter these figures may be reduced to about 300 km and 200 km. Then at night the F layer is generally around 250 to 300 km. Like the D and E layers, the level of ionisation falls at night, but in view of the much lower air density, the ions and electrons combine much more slowly and the F layer decays much less. Accordingly it is able to support communications, although changes are experienced because of the lessening of the ionisation levels. The figures for the altitude of the F layers are far more variable than those for the lower layers. They change greatly with the time of day, the season and the state of the sun. As a result the figures which are given must only be taken as an approximate guide.


Most of the ionisation in this region of the ionosphere is caused by ultraviolet light, both in the middle of the UV spectrum and those portions with very short wavelengths.

On the short wave or HF section of the spectrum signals can travel over vast distances around the globe. Even on the medium wave or MF portion of the spectrum, signals can be heard over great distances, especially at night. This occurs because the signals are affected by the earth itself and also by the ionised layers in the ionosphere. Rather than just travelling in straight lines, the signals are enabled to travel around the globe. Signals in the medium and short wave bands travel by two basic means. The first is known as a ground wave, and the second a sky wave.

Ground Wave
Ground wave propagation is used mainly on the medium wave band. It might be expected that the signal would travel out in a straight line. However it is affected by the proximity of the earth it is found that the signal tends to follow the earth's curvature. This occurs because currents are induced in the surface of the earth and this slows down the wave front close to the ground. This results in the wave front tilting downward, enabling it to follow the curvature of the earth and travel beyond the horizon.

Fig. 1 Ground wave propagation

Ground wave propagation becomes less effective as the frequency rises. The distances over which signals can be heard steadily reduce as the frequency rises, to the extent that even high power short wave stations may only be heard over a few kilometres via this mode of propagation. Accordingly it is only used for signals below about 2 or 3 MHz. In comparison medium wave stations are audible over much greater distances - typically the 4

coverage area for a high power broadcast station may extend out a hundred kilometres or more. The actual coverage is affected by a variety of factors including the transmitter power, the type of antenna, and the terrain over which the signal is travelling. Signals also leave the earth's surface and travel towards the ionosphere, some of these are returned to earth. These signals are termed sky waves for obvious reason.

D layer
When a sky wave leaves the earth's surface and travels upwards, the first layer of interest that it reaches in the ionosphere is called the D layer. This layer attenuates the signals as they pass through. The level of attenuation depends on the frequency. Low frequencies are attenuated more than higher ones. In fact it is found that the attenuation varies as the inverse square of the frequency, i.e. doubling the frequency reduces the level of attenuation by a factor of four. This means that low frequency signals are often prevented from reaching the higher layers, except at night when the layer disappears. The D layer attenuates signals because the radio signals cause the free electrons in the layer to vibrate. As they vibrate the electrons collide with molecules, and at each collision there is a small loss of energy. With countless millions of electrons vibrating, the amount of energy loss becomes noticeable and manifests itself as a reduction in the overall signal level. The amount of signal loss is dependent upon a number of factors: One is the number of gas molecules that are present. The greater the number of gas molecules, the higher the number of collisions and hence the higher the attenuation. The level of ionisation is also very important. The higher the level of ionisation, the greater the number of electrons that vibrate and collide with molecules. The third main factor is the frequency of the signal. As the frequency increases, the wavelength of the vibration shortens, and the number of collisions between the free electrons and gas molecules decreases. As a result signals lower in the frequency spectrum are attenuated far more than those which are higher in frequency. Even so high frequency signals still suffer some reduction in signal strength.

E and F Layers
Once a signal passes through the D layer, it travels on and reaches first the E, and next the F layers. At the altitude where these layers are found the air density is very much less, and this means that when the free electrons are excited by radio signals and vibrate, far fewer collisions occur. As a result the way in which these layers act is somewhat different. The electrons are again set in motion by the radio signal, but they tend to re-radiate it. As the signal is travelling in an area where the density of electrons is increasing, the further it progresses into the layer, the signal is refracted away from the area of higher electron density. In the case of HF signals, this refraction is often sufficient to bend them back to earth. In effect it appears that the layer has "reflected" the signal.


The tendency for this reflection is dependent upon the frequency and the angle of incidence. As the frequency increases, it is found that the amount of refraction decreases until a frequency is reached where the signals pass through the layer and on to the next. Eventually a point is reached where the signal passes through all the layers and on into outer space.

Fig. 2 Refraction of a signal as it enters an ionised layer

Different frequencies
To gain a better idea of how the ionosphere acts on radio signals it is worth viewing what happens to a signal if the frequency is increased across the frequency spectrum. First it starts with a signal in the medium wave broadcast band. During the day signals on these frequencies only propagate using the ground wave. Any signals that reach the D layer are absorbed. However at night as the D layer disappears signals reach the other layers and may be heard over much greater distances. If the frequency of the signal is increased, a point is reached where the signal starts to penetrate the D layer and signals reach the E layer. Here it is reflected and will pass back through the D layer and return to earth a considerable distance away from the transmitter. As the frequency is increased further the signal is refracted less and less by the E layer and eventually it passes right through. It then reaches the F 1 layer and here it may be reflected passing back through the D and E layers to reach the earth again. As the F1 layer is higher than the E layer the distance reached will be greater than that for an E layer reflection. Finally as the frequency rises still further the signal will eventually pass through the F1 layer and onto the F2 layer. This is the highest of the layers reflecting layers in the ionosphere and the distances reached using this are the greatest. As a rough guide the maximum skip distance for the E layer is around 2500 km and 5000 km for the F2 layer.


Fig. 3 Signals reflected by the E and F layers

Multiple hops
Whilst it is possible to reach considerable distances using the F layer as already described, on its own this does not explain the fact that signals are regularly heard from opposite sides of the globe. This occurs because the signals are able to undergo several reflections. Once the signals are returned to earth from the ionosphere, they are reflected back upwards by the earth's surface, and again they are able to undergo another reflection by the ionosphere. Naturally the signal is reduced in strength at each reflection, and it is also found that different areas of the earth reflect radio signals differently. As might be anticipated the surface of the sea is a very good reflector, whereas desert areas are very poor. This means that signals that are reflected back to the ionosphere by the Pacific or Atlantic oceans will be stronger than those that use the Sahara desert or the red centre of Australia.

Fig. 4 Multiple reflections


It is not just the earth's surface that introduces losses into the signal path. In fact the major cause of loss is the D layer, even for frequencies high up into the HF portion of the spectrum. One of the reasons for this is that the signal has to pass through the D layer twice for every reflection by the ionosphere. This means that to get the best signal strengths it is necessary signal paths enable the minimum number of hops to be used. This is generally achieved using frequencies close to the maximum frequencies that can support ionospheric communications, and thereby using the highest layers in the ionosphere. In addition to this the level of attenuation introduced by the D layer is also reduced. This means that a signal on 20 MHz for example will be stronger than one on 10 MHz if propagation can be supported at both frequencies.

When looking at ionospheric propagation, there are several frequencies that are important, and are often mentioned. These include the Critical Frequency, the Lowest Useable Frequency (LUF), and the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF). Their definitions are at the centre of determining which frequencies will provide the optimum performance.

Critical Frequency
This is an important figure that gives an indication of the state of the ionosphere. It is obtained by sending a signal pulse directly upwards. This is reflected back and can be received by a receiver on the same site as the transmitter. The pulse may be reflected back to earth, and the time measured to give an indication of the height of the layer. As the frequency is increased a point is reached where the signal will pass right through the layer, and on to the next one, or into outer space. The frequency at which this occurs is called the critical frequency. The equipment used to measure the critical frequency is called an ionosonde. In many respects it resembles a small radar set, but for the HF bands. Using these sets a plot of the reflections against frequency can be generated. This will give an indication of the state of the ionosphere for that area of the world

As the frequency of a transmission is reduced further reflections from the ionosphere may be needed, and the losses from the D layer increase. These two effects mean that there is a frequency below which communication between two stations will be lost. In fact the Lowest Usable Frequency (LUF) is defined as the frequency at below which the signal falls below the minimum strength required for satisfactory reception. From this it can be seen that the LUF is dependent upon the stations at either end of the path. Their antennas, receivers, transmitter powers, the level of noise in the vicinity, and so 8

forth all affect the LUF. The type of modulation used also has an affect, because some types of modulation can be copied at lower strengths than others. In other words the LUF is the practical limit below which communication cannot be maintained between two particular stations. If it is necessary to use a frequency below the LUF then as a rough guide a gain of 10dB must be made to decrease the LUF by 2 MHz. This can be achieved by methods including increasing the transmitter powers, improving the antennas, etc..

When a signal is transmitted over a given path there is a maximum frequency that can be used. This results from the fact that as the signal frequency increases it will pass through more layers and eventually travelling into outer space. As it passes through one layer it may be that communication is lost because the signal then propagates over a greater distance than is required. Also when the signal passes through all the layers communication will be lost. The frequency at which communication just starts to fail is known as the Maximum Usable Frequency (MUF). It is generally three to five times the critical frequency, dependent upon the layer being used and the angle of incidence.

Optimum frequencies
To be able to send signals to a given location there are likely to be several different paths that can be used. Sometimes it may be possible to use the either the E or the F layers, and sometimes a signal may be reflected first off one and then the other. In fact the picture is rarely as well defined as it may appear from the textbooks. However it is still possible to choose a frequency from a variety of options to help making contact with a given area. In general the higher the frequency, the better. This is because the attenuation caused by the D layer is less. Although signals may be able to travel through the D layer they may still suffer significant levels of attenuation. As the attenuation reduces by a facto of four for doubling the frequency in use this shows how significant this can be. Also by increasing the frequency it is likely that a higher layer in the ionosphere will be used. This may result in fewer reflections being required. As losses are incurred at each reflection and each time the signal passes through the D layer, using a higher frequency obviously helps. When using the higher frequencies it is necessary to ensure that communications are still reliable. In view of the ever-changing state of the ionosphere a general rule of thumb is to use a frequency that is about 20% below the MUF. This should ensure that the signal remains below the MUF despite the short-term changes. However it should be remembered that the MUF will change significantly according to the time of day, and there fore it will be necessary alter the frequency periodically to take account of this.


The sun has an enormous impact on our everyday lives. Being the chief source of energy it has an enormous influence on our environment. Not only does it affect aspects like the weather we experience, but the sun also has an enormous effect on radio propagation, especially on the HF bands. To look at the way this occurs it is necessary to take a quick look at the various areas in the atmosphere to see which areas influence radio propagation and how the sun affects them.

The ionosphere
For many years it has been known that there are ionised layers in the upper reaches of the atmosphere. The idea that this might be true was first proposed just after the turn of the century, separately by two scientists, namely Kennelly in the USA and Heaviside in the UK. Since then far more has been learned about these layers, especially since the first rockets managed to pass through these layers and were able to collect data. In most regions of the atmosphere it is found that the gases are in a stable molecular form. However in certain areas of the atmosphere some of them start to become ionised, splitting into free electrons and positive ions. Of these it is the free electrons that affect the radio signals, although the layer where these ions and electrons are found is still called the ionosphere. This generally starts to happen at an altitude of around 30 km, although at this height the levels of ionisation are very small and they do not have an effect on radio signals. However as the altitude increases the number of ions rises. The ionosphere is traditionally thought of as having a number of distinct layers. Whilst it is often convenient to think of the ionosphere in this way, it is not strictly true. The whole of the ionosphere contains ions and free electrons, although there are a number of peaks, and which may be considered as the different layers. These layers are given the designations D, E, and F. A diagram of the approximate levels of ionisation is shown in Fig. 1. This can only be very approximate because the levels of ionisation vary as a result of a number of factors.


Fig. 1 The approximate levels of ionisation in the ionosphere

The lowest of the layers is the D layer. This is found at altitudes between 60 and 90 km. It only exists during the daytime when it is in view of the sun. Above this is the E layer at around 110 km. This exists during the day, and then at night when it is not in sunlight it becomes very much weaker. Finally there is the F layer. This varies considerably, normally existing as two layers during the day. These are designated the F1 and F2 layers. They are found at altitudes of around 300 and 400 km in summer, and then during the winter they may fall to around 200 and 300 km. At night the two layers generally combine to form a single layer and this is generally around an altitude of 250 to 300 km. It should be remembered that these figures are only a rough guide because they change quite considerably according to the time of year and the state of the sun.

Fig. 2 Variations of the ionosphere over the day

Formation of ions
The ionisation in the ionosphere is generated when radiation from the sun strikes the gas molecules in the upper atmosphere. The radiation is of sufficient intensity that it gives the electron in some molecules sufficient energy to leave the molecular structure. This leaves a free electron and the gas molecule, having one electron too few becomes a positive ion. At very high altitudes the atmosphere is very thin, and as a result the levels of ionisation are very low. As the atmosphere become denser, so the level of ionisation starts to rise. However the ionisation process uses up the energy of the radiation, and after a certain distance the energy of the radiation is such that it does not ionise as many gas molecules as before and the level of ionisation begins to fall.


It is also found that for the higher layers including the F and E layers most of the ionisation results from ultra violet light. The D layer being at a lower altitude results mainly from Xrays that are able to penetrate further into the atmosphere. It is also found that the free electrons and positive ions slowly recombine. In other words the radiation is causing them to ionise, and then they slowly recombine afterwards. In chemistry this state of affairs is called a dynamic equilibrium. It means that if the source of radiation is removed, then the levels of ionisation will fall. As a result the D layer disappears after nightfall, and the E layer is greatly reduced in intensity. In view of the high levels of ionisation in the F layers and the fact that the air density is so much less, it takes longer for the recombination process to take place and consequently it remains over night, although its level is reduced.

Effect of the ionosphere
The different layers of the ionosphere affect radio ways in slightly different ways. When a signal enters the D layer it sets the free electrons vibrating. As they vibrate they collide with nearby molecules, and after each collision some energy is lost. As a result signals entering the D layer are attenuated. It is found that the level of attenuation is inversely proportional to the square of the frequency. In other words doubling the frequency reduces the attenuation by a factor of four. It is found that low frequency signals are completely absorbed by it. This can be shown by the fact that stations on the medium wave broadcast band can only be heard over short distances during the day, and then at night when the D layer disappears they can be heard over much greater distances. The effect is slightly different for the higher layers. Being higher in altitude the gas density is much less. As a result a different effect predominates. Again the electrons are set in motion, but as fewer collisions take place they act on the signal to bend it away from the area of highest ionisation. In other words the signal is refracted back towards the earth. It is also found that the effect decreases with frequency and as a result the signal will eventually pass through one layer and on to the next.

Variations in the ionosphere
The effect of the ionosphere is greatly linked to the amount of radiation it receives. This varies over the period of a day. At night when the ionosphere receives no radiation from the sun, the level of ionisation falls and communication may not be possible over some paths or different frequencies may have to be used. Other changes also affect the ionosphere. In just the same way that winters are colder because that part of the earth receives less warm from the sun, so the ionosphere receives less radiation, and the levels of ionisation in the ionosphere fall.


Changes on the sun itself also affect the ionosphere. One of the major changes occurs as the result of the sunspots that appear on the surface of the sun. If the sun is viewed by projecting its image onto a screen, then a number of dark areas may be seen from time to time. These spots may last from anywhere between a few hours to days or even weeks. The spots are areas where the surface of the sun is cooler than the surrounding areas. The temperature of the spots is only about 3000 C. This is quite cool when compared to the temperature of the rest of the surface that is around 6000 C! However it is very much hotter under the surface where temperatures reach in excess of a million degrees. The sunspots are areas of intense magnetic activity. The magnetic fields in these areas are enormous and as a result the surface of the sun is disrupted. This causes the surface temperature to fall in these areas causing a darker area to be perceived. Around the sunspot itself there is an area that is known as a plage. This is slightly brighter than the surrounding area and is a large radiator of ultra-violet radiation and X-rays. The amount of radiation emanating from the plage means that there is an overall increase in the level of radiation from the sun. In fact it is noticed that the level of radiation from the sun can be estimated from a knowledge of the number of sunspots that appear on the surface As sunspots often appear in groups, a method of trying to estimate their effect has been devised. A figure known as the sunspot number is used. This number does not represent the number of spots themselves, but the level of activity on the sun and the sunspot number is very closely related to the amount of radiation received from the sun. The daily readings of the sunspot numbers fluctuate considerably. To overcome this, the readings are smoothed mathematically to take out the erratic nature of the readings and so that the underlying trend can be seen. This number, called the Smoothed Sunspot Number (SSN) is often quoted in association with propagation reports.

The sunspot cycle
The number of sunspots on the sun's surface varies. On some days very few, or even none may be seen, whereas at other times there are very many. The daily number varies considerably over a short period of time as the sun rotates, but if the smoothed sunspot number is used it can be seen that there is a much longer-term trend. This trend shows that the number of sunspots rises and falls over a period of approximately eleven years. This number is only an approximate guide because there is a considerable amount of variation on this. Records of the sunspot numbers have been kept since the mid-eighteenth century, and by referring to these records it has been possible to track the cycles since then. Cycle 22 started in September 1986 with a number of 12. It rose rapidly over the next 33 months to


reach a peak of 158. From then it fell slightly and rose again to give a second smaller peak before ending in 1996. Now cycle 23 has started and the numbers are rising.

The effect of the sunspot cycle
Most short wave listeners and DX'ers look upon rising sunspot numbers with anticipation. The increased numbers of sunspots mean increased levels of radiation. In turn this means that there are greater levels of ionisation in the ionosphere. Accordingly this affects propagation on the HF bands. It is found that the maximum frequencies that can be reflected are increased. At the sunspot minimum frequencies of around 15 to 20 MHz are normally supported during the day. However at the maximum, frequencies in excess of 60MHz may be affected. This means that popular ham bands like 24 and 28 MHz may not support communications via normal ionosphere modes in the sunspot minima. Often 28 MHz appears dead with no stations audible. However during periods of around the maximum it is an excellent band. Low power stations or those with poorer antennas find it particularly good. As the D layer attenuation is much less, even low power stations can make excellent contacts. The sunspot number can be used to give a very rough guide to what conditions may be like. The figure tends to vary from about 65 at the minimum of the cycle to over 300 at the maximum. For good conditions on the higher frequency bands it is found that a figure of in excess of about 100 is required. Up to date figures can be accessed from a variety of web sites including

Final Note
Warning - under no circumstances should the sun be viewed directly, even through dark glasses. People have damaged their sight by doing this.

Ionospheric conditions are very dependent upon the state of the Sun. When conditions on the Sun are disturbed then this can have a major effect upon the ionosphere, and upon radio propagation conditions. One of the chief causes of disturbances is the solar flares that occur from time to time.


A view of a Solar Flare Courtesy (NASA/JPL/Caltech)

Solar flares are tremendous explosions on the surface of the Sun. They occur near sunspots, and usually along the dividing line between areas of opposite fields. Flares release many forms of energy. Electromagnetic waves, particularly in the form of Xrays, and gamma rays as well as very high energy particles (mainly protons and electrons) and a great increase in the amount of particles released in the form of the solar wind. The flares are characterised in terms of the level of X-rays produced. The largest are X class flares, followed by M class which are a tenth the size of the X class flares. The smallest are categorised as C class and these are a tenth the size of the M class ones. Although there is a very wide range in the size of the flares, they are all enormous by any standards, and they emit colossal amounts of energy.

It is widely known in there is a close link between the number of sunspots on the sun and the propagation conditions experienced on the short wave bands. In periods when the number of sunspots is high, radio conditions, especially on the bands at the top of the short wave spectrum are very good. At other times few signals may be heard at the top of the short wave spectrum and lower frequencies must be used instead.

A view of the sun with several Sunspots (Courtesy NASA/JPL/Caltech)


What are sunspots?
If the sun is viewed by projecting its image onto a screen, dark areas can be seen from time to time. These can last anything from a few hours right up to several weeks. These spots are cool areas (relatively speaking) on the surface of the sun. The temperature is around only 3000°C against a sizzling 6000°C for the rest of the surface. It is much hotter under the surface reaching temperatures in excess of a million degrees Celsius. Note: Under no circumstances should the sun be viewed directly, even though dark glasses. In the
past many people have had their sight damaged by doing this.

These sunspots are areas where there is intense magnetic activity. The fields in these areas are enormous and as a result the surface of the sun is disrupted. In these areas the surface cools dramatically causing a darker region to be perceived. Around the sunspot there is an area called a plage. This is slightly brighter than the surrounding area and it is a large radiator of cosmic rays, ultra-violet light and x-rays. In fact it results in the overall level of radiation coming from the sun to increase. In turn this increased radiation level from around the sunspots causes the ionosphere to become ionised to a greater extent. This means that higher frequencies can be reflected from the ionosphere. As sunspots appear in groups, especially the larger ones a sunspot number was devised. This is not the number of sunspots that are observed but a number indicating the level of sunspot activity. The number is very closely related to the actual amount radiation received from the sun. In this way it is a good measure of solar activity. The daily readings are smoothed mathematically to take out the erratic variations to give the Smoothed Sunspot Number. Sometimes the abbreviation SSN is seen, and it is this smoothed sunspot number that it refers to.

Eleven year cycle
The number of sunspots on the surface of the sun varies with time. At times very few or even none may be visible, whereas at other times the number is very much greater. Although the number varies greatly over short periods of time as the sun rotates, careful analysis using the SSN reveals a longer term trend. It is found that over a period of approximately eleven years over which the sunspots vary. At the peak of this cycle conditions on the bands at the top of the short wave spectrum are very good. Low power stations can be heard over remarkably long distances. At the bottom of the cycle bands around 30 MHz will not usually support normal propagation via the ionosphere. Sunspots have been observed by the Chinese since before the birth of Christ. However it was not until the mid-eighteenth century that astronomers started to keep records of sunspot numbers. By looking at these over the years it is possible to see the trend since then, and the cycles which have occurred since then. Cycle number 22 officially started in September 1986. It started with a sunspot number of 12 and rose rapidly over the following


33 months to reach a peak of 158. From its peak the sunspot number fell slightly and rose again to give a second, smaller peak before falling to bring the cycle to an end in 1996

Sporadic E is a form of propagation that can arise with little warning, and enable frequencies of 100 MHz and more to travel over distances of a thousand kilometres and more. Many people experienced it in the days of the old VHF television transmissions. When sporadic E propagation arose, it would result in severe interference to the signals. Even now VHF FM broadcasts in the 88 - 108 MHz band can be affected. In many instances the arrival of sporadic E can cause unwanted interference as signals that are normally too distant to be heard appear. However for radio amateurs it offers the chance to make contacts over much greater distances than are normally possible.

What is sporadic E?
Sporadic E arises when clouds of intense ionisation form in the region of the E layer. These clouds can have very high levels of ionisation, allowing frequencies up to about 150 MHz to be reflected on some occasions. The clouds are usually comparatively small, measuring only about 50 to 150 kilometres in diameter. Their shape is irregular. Sometimes they may be almost circular, whereas others may be long and thin. They are also surprisingly thin, often only measuring a few hundred metres in depth. The clouds appear almost at random, although there are times when they are more likely to occur. They form in the day, and dissipate within a few hours. They are also far more common in summer, peaking approximately in mid summer. As they form the level of ionisation gradually builds up, affecting first the lower frequencies, and later higher frequencies as the level of ionisation increases. Propagation via sporadic E occurs in the same way as normal ionospheric propagation. Signals from the transmitter leave the earth as a sky-wave, travelling towards the ionosphere. Here they are reflected (or more correctly refracted) back to earth where they are heard at a considerable distance from the transmitter. Like normal ionospheric propagation it is the free electrons that affect the signals, causing them to bend back towards the earth. In view of the fact that the sporadic E clouds occur at around the same height as the E layer, similar distances are achieved. Typically the maximum distances are about 2000 km. It is found that the sporadic E ionisation clouds move. Being in the upper atmosphere they are blown by the winds in these areas and can drift at speeds of up to 300 kilometres per hour. This means that when sporadic E is being experienced, the area from which stations are heard will change over the life of the cloud.


There are many theories about sporadic E and how it occurs. Some believe that it may be related to thunderstorms, others think it results from the winds in the upper atmosphere. None of these theories have been established, leaving the reasons behind sporadic E a mystery, and predictions of when it will occur have to be left to statistics. However even though the mechanism behind the formation of sporadic E is not fully known it is still possible for radio amateurs to utilise them to enable them to make contacts over long distances.

Transequatorial propagation (TEP) is an unusual mode of radio propagation that was first noticed and studied by radio amateurs. Since then it has much more has been learned about it. This mode of propagation is supported by the F2 layer, and enables frequencies of 100 MHz and more to be reflected in a north south direction when the normal maximum useable frequency is considerably below this frequency. It is found that the maximum useable frequency for TEP is normally about one a half times the normal MUF for F2 layer propagation although greater enhancements in frequency have been observed. Openings via TEP are most noticeable at VHF when no long distance propagation may be expected. It can be experienced on the 144 MHz amateur band and has even been noticed at 432 MHz. The HF bands are also affected, and it is found that there can be significant north south activity when normal activity is fading or a path no longer exists. Path lengths vary, but are generally between about 2500 and 5000 km, and both stations should be approximately equidistant from the equator. Also the path must cross the equator in a north south (or south north direction). Occasionally angles up to 20 degrees from the north south direction have been known but the closer to the north south direction the better. It is found that TEP is generally a night-time mode, with openings generally occurring in the late evening between about 8 and 11 p.m. It is thought that TEP arises when there is an increased level of ionisation in equatorial regions. This enables signals that enter the ionosphere at the correct angle to be propagated across the equator. In view of the way in which the signals are propagated they must enter the ionosphere virtually in a north south direction, otherwise propagation does not occur. It is also found that signals undergo two reflections by the ionosphere before they are returned to earth.


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