Crisostomo vs. Garcia, G.R. No. 164787 Facts: In his Complaint, respondent alleged that on 24 September 1986, Victoria Garcia Vda.

de Crisostomo, mother of petitioner Jose G. Crisostomo, sold to him, by way of a Deed of Absolute Sale, a parcel of land, including the improvements and rights thereon. In the Deed of Sale, petitioner Jose Crisostomo and his sister Cristina Crisostomo signed as witnesses in the execution of the instrument. Since they were distant relatives, respondent allowed Victoria and her children, petitioner Jose and Cristina, to stay in the subject property as lessees under a Contract of Lease. By virtue of the said deed of sale, respondent effected the transfer of the tax declaration covering the property, under his name from the City Assessor’s Office of Caloocan City. However, before the transfer of title to respondent could be completed, petitioners-spouses Jose and Marlene Crisostomo were able to secure a loan from the National Home Mortgage Finance Corporation using the subject property as security through bad faith and machinations. Worse, petitioners were able to transfer the subject property under their names without the knowledge and consent of the respondent. Petitioners filed an “Urgent Motion to Dismiss Action,” alleging that since respondent’s cause of action is based on an alleged deed of sale executed on 24 September 1986, the cause of action of the respondent to enforce and to implement the instrument arose on 24 September 1986 and pursuant to Article 1144 of the Civil Code, the action must be brought within 10 years from the time the right of action accrues. Thus, from 24 September 1986, respondent had only up to 24 September 1996 within which to file the action. Since the complaint was filed only on 20 June 2002, or after the lapse of more than 16 years, the cause of action is clearly barred by prescription. Respondent countered that Article 1144 of the Civil Code does not apply to the case because the complaint is for cancellation of title registered in the names of the petitioners and for reconveyance. Respondent further points out that he did not file an action for specific performance based on the deed of sale. The complaint, he said, is for reconveyance based on an implied or constructive trust which expires in 10 years counted from the date the adverse title to the property is asserted by the possessor. Issue: Has the cause of action for the respondent prescribed? Ruling: Petitioners’ allegation that an action for the reconveyance of real property on the ground of fraud must be filed within four years from the discovery of the fraud is without basis. The four-year prescriptive period relied upon by the petitioners apply only if the complaint seeks to annul a voidable contract under Article 1390 of the Civil Code. In the case at bar, respondent’s action which is for Reconveyance and Cancellation of Title is based on an implied trust under Art. 1456 of the Civil Code since he averred in his complaint that through fraud petitioners were able to obtain a Certificate of Title

When a party uses fraud or concealment to obtain a certificate of title of property. . They arise contrary to intention against one who. by fraud. Constructive trusts are “created by the construction of equity in order to satisfy the demands of justice and prevent unjust enrichment. an implied or constructive trust is created by law in favor of the true owner. The action for reconveyance of the title to the rightful owner prescribes in 10 years from the issuance of the title. He does not seek the annulment of a voidable contract whereby Articles 1390 and 1391 of the Civil Code would find application such that the cause of action would prescribe in four years.” When property is registered in another’s name. a constructive trust is created in favor of the defrauded party.over the property. duress or abuse of confidence. An action for reconveyance based on implied or constructive trust prescribes in ten years from the alleged fraudulent registration or date of issuance of the certificate of title over the property. in equity and good conscience. obtains or holds the legal right to property which he ought not. to hold.

She then filed a case of perjury and falsification of documents against respondent. Here. ." not a trust in favor of the parent. but the vendees whose names appeared on the Deeds were his daughters. naming his children as owners – raise the presumption that a gift was effected in their favor.R. Pursuant to their agreement. After the transfer had been effected. respondent’s alleged acts – paying the price of the subject properties and. her uncle who was the father of Jennifer and Sarah Jane. Sabas Limbaring subdivided his Lot into two. left Puerto Princesa City and went to Ozamis City. Absent any clear proof that a trust was created. who was to pay respondent all the expenses that had been and would be incurred to transfer the titles to her name.Oco vs. in the titles. the daughter of Sabas Limbaring. who was not a party to the contracts being sued upon. TCTs were issued in favor of Sarah and Jennifer. Sensing some irregularities in the transaction. No. Respondent failed to rebut this presumption. the parties agreed that the two parcels of land should be reconveyed to Percita. Issue: Was there a trust relationship was created when respondent purchased the lots in favor of his daughters? Ruling: Respondent has presented only bare assertions that a trust was created. Limbaring. G. Accordingly. For his failure to do so. another Deed for the second lot. Basic in procedural law is the rule that every action must be prosecuted or defended in the name of the real party in interest. he cannot be deemed a real party in interest. was not able to prove material interest in the litigation. but she refused to pay. Under the last sentence of Article 1448. the prima facie presumption is "that there is a gift in favor of the child. In the present case. Percita left for Puerta Princesa. in favor of Sarah Jane Limbaring. with recovery of possession and ownership of the two parcels of land claiming that he was the actual buyer of the lots. as he had failed to rebut the legal presumption: that there is absence of a trust when the purchase price in a deed of sale is paid by a parent in favor of a child. He then executed in favor of Jennifer Limbaring a Deed of Sale for the first lot. respondent facilitated the transfer of the titles to her from the names of his daughters. effectively cancelling the OCT in the process. That he should be deemed a trustor on the basis merely of having paid the purchase price is plainly contradicted by the presumption based on Article 1448 of the Civil Code "that there is a gift in favor of the child. Respondent filed against Spouses Anthony and Percita Oco a Complaint for the rescission of the sales contracts." Any allegation to the contrary must be proven by clear and satisfactory evidence. Several demands were made. His status as trustor remained a bare allegation. without paying the agreed upon amount. During the prelitigation conference called by City Prosecutor Luzminda Uy on July 1. 161298 Facts: Sometime in 1996. the trial court cannot be faulted for dismissing the action to rescind the contracts. Percita Oco. 1996. and. a burden that was not discharged by the plaintiff. the respondent.