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# Pre-Calculus Lesson 10 Objectives

1. Finding roots through factoring 2. Finding roots with polynomial division 1. Remainder and factor theorems Materials and Handouts Homework

1.

Pg 123 #3, 7, 9, 12, Read pg 115 and try to figure out synthetic division on your own. Keep in mind this only works if you divide by something of the form , 14, 16, 19, 25, 26, 37, 40, 43, 48, 49, 85

Activity Go over Homework 1. Have them do exercise 1 while I grade homework 2. Discuss the homework when we’re both done, 3. Then discuss the exercise. Instruction (1) Have them do the following warm up: a. If we know that 2 is a factor 1034, how do you find the other factors? b. Keeping this in mind, if we know x-2 is a factor of we find the other factors? Find the factors if you can. (2) Do the two divisions side by sidea. Make sure to write out in words how to perform each of the steps. b. Make sure to keep factoring until we have all the factors (3) Do a few more examples a. NOTE: At the bottom, have them make a note about inserting “place holding” zero terms (4)

Time 5-10 minutes

, how do

**NOTE: At the bottom, tell them to always rearrange the polynomial so that it’s powers descend.
**

(5) Sometimes, I won’t always think to divide by the right number. Maybe I want to see if 1034 is divisible by 12. a. When I do my division, what will tell me if it isn’t divisible by 12? A: I’ll have a remainder. b. Remainders give me important information- they tell me that 12 is not a factor. c. Show them how to “reconstruct” 1034 with the division problem we just did by showing that (6) Go over the Division Algorithm: If a. b. is divided by we write our answers like so:

(7) What is the relationship between the remainder and the original function? Let’s take an

example: divide by (x-2). a. We would get with a remainder of -18. Notice how the quotient is of degree 1 less than our original function, and that the remainder is a constant number. b. Let’s do something just for fun. What happens when I plug in x=2 into f(x). A: f(2)=-18. c. Show them that, using the division algorithm f(k)=(k-k) x q(x) + r(x).--> f(k)=0+r(x) f(k)=r. d. Explain that this is called the remainder theorem. It’s a short cut for figuring out what our remainder is: If a polynomial is divided by , the remainder is

(8) Why is the remainder theorem useful? Well, because it allows us to tell without actually doing the division whether or not something is a factor. a. If is a factor of the function , what should the value of be by the remainder theorem? A: f(k)=0 because there will be no remainder b. This is known as the Factor Theorem: A polynomial has a factor if and only if c. Try it out: What is the remainder if the function were to be divided by ? (9) You may be asking yourself what the point of all this is. Do you remember in the last lesson where we were trying to graph a function by hand, but we needed the calculator to approximate zeros? Well NO MORE. We should be able to find zeros by hand if we’re trying to graph by hand. We use division to find factors of functions, then we use the zero product law to find zeros from factors. a. Find all the factors of i. First we should determine likely factors ii. Then we should use the remainder theorem to determine which factors will work iii. Finally we should divide by those factors to break the polynomial into all of its factors iv. In the end we find the roots by using the zero product law. b. Find all the factors of Make sure to follow the steps above. (x-1) and (x-3) work. (x-1/2) should work too. (10)If they’re having trouble figuring out what likely factors are, take them through the following. a. Let’s say I’m trying to factor 6x2-7x-20. I know that the factors look like this: (_x )(_x ). b. The numbers in front of the xs must multiply to be 6 right? And the second numbers in each parentheses has to multiply to be -20, right? So I go ahead and factor this guy and I get: (3x+4)(2x-5). c. Now I wanted to find the roots of this thing so I set it equal to zero: (3x+4)(2x-5)=0. Now, with the zero product principle I know that either 3x+4=0 or 2x-5=0. If I solve the first equation I get x=-4/3. If I solve the second I get x=5/2 as the zeros of my polynomial. d. Notice how the numerator in both fractions is a factor of -20 and the denominators are both factors of 6? This is because when I factor a polynomial, I have to find numerical factors of the first coefficient and numerical factors of the last number. So I know that any zero of a polynomial must have a numerator that’s a factor of the last number, and a denominator that’s a factor of the leading coefficient.

(11)Ex: Factor f(x)= 10x3-15x2-16x+12. Show them how to find the possible factors: Factors of 12/factors of 10. Try a few and show them that only x=2 works. Once we find one factor, we can find the other roots using the quadratic formula.

Pre-calculus Lesson 10

Name:__________________ Date:_________

**Roots of Polynomials Algebraically Class Work
**

Exercise 1: Finding more factors from a given factor a. If we know that 2 is a factor 1034, how do you find the other factors?

b. Keeping this in mind, if we know we find the other factors?

is a factor of

, how do

Exercise 2: There is a form of division for polynomials that follows almost the same procedure as long division for regular numbers. Let’s do the regular division problem side by side with the polynomial division problem, writing out each step. ̅̅̅̅̅̅̅ a.

a.

̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅̅

**Exercise 3: Let’s practice a few more polynomial long divisions.
**

a. b.

Exercise 4: Sometimes, when we divide, things don’t work out perfectly and we have a remainder a. Divide 1034 by 12. c. How can we “reconstruct” 1034 out of 12, our quotient and the remainder?

b. What tells you that 12 is not a factor of 1034?

d. The Division Algorithm: _______________ OR, dividing both sides by ________________

Exercise 5: Express your answers from Exercise 3 part “b” using the division algorithm.

Exercise 6: There’s an interesting relationship between a function, its divisor and the remainder as long as the divisor is of the form a. Divide by .

b. What happens when I plug in

into

c. Proof about why this works d. Remainder Theorem

Exercise 7: Why is the remainder theorem useful? Well, because it allows us to tell without actually doing the division whether or not something is a factor. a. If is a factor of the function , what should the value of be by the remainder theorem?

b. This is known as the Factor Theorem:

c. Try it out: What is the remainder if the function divided by ?

were to be

Exercise 8: You may be asking yourself what the point of all this is. Do you remember in the last lesson where we were trying to graph a function by hand, but we needed the calculator to approximate zeros? Well NO MORE. We should be able to find zeros by hand if we’re trying to graph by hand. We use division to find factors of functions, then we use the zero product law to find zeros from factors. a. Find all the factors of

v. vi. vii. viii.

First we should:___________________________________________________ Then we should:___________________________________________________ Finally we should:__________________________________________________ In the end we find the roots by:________________________________________

b. Find all the factors of

Exercise 9: The Rational Zero Test- Take notes on what we discuss below.

Roots of Polynomials Algebraically Homework

Pg 123 #3, 7, 9, 12, Read pg 115 and try to figure out synthetic division on your own. Keep in mind this only works if you divide by something of the form 48, 49, 85 , 14, 16, 19, 25, 26, 37, 40, 43,