Green | Agriculture | Food Security






Strengthening National Agricultural Rural System

he agricultural sector dominates the economies of the majority of the countries in the Near East and North Africa Region, and yet it remains a vulnerable sector. It is basic to food security, as it is the source of livelihood for the majority of the population, and provides income, foreign exchange earnings, savings, and gainful employment. Many factors have contributed to holding back agricultural development in the countries of the Region. Slow agricultural growth, with food production rising more slowly than population growth, is a root cause of the economic and food deficit problems. To meet their development objectives, the countries of the Region must increase their food supply and their exports; develop their human and institutional capacities, technology packages, delivery systems and physical infrastructure. The durable solution for improving agricultural performance in the countries of the Region lies largely in the transformation of its agriculture through effective National Agricultural Research Systems (NARS) capable of producing productivity enhancing technologies. Rational use of suitable technologies could increase labour and land output, reduce production costs and improve agricultural productivity. Besides technologies, proper transformation requires production and marketing policy reforms, institutional and infrastructure restructuring, adequate inputs, and sound crop and livestock management. The potential for increasing agricultural output in the countries of the Region is great. Crop and livestock yields under farmers’ conditions are markedly lower than results obtained from research trials. Agriculture is central to economic development, and agricultural research is needed to increase the productivity of the sector. The importance of agricultural research for sustainable agricultural development has been increasingly realized, together with the need for coherent policies to support and guide national agricultural research institutions (NARIs) as one element of NARS in the Region .Enhancing the research capacities of NARS requires combined, integrated and sustained interaction of all the elements involved in agricultural research planning, technology generation, adaptation and validation, transfer and utilization, including the active collaboration of policy-makers, educators, trainers, extension workers and the clients. Strong and effective NARs require sustained political will, support and commitment, linked with appropriate policies and research management, together with defined priorities, coherent objectives, qualified and motivated research scientists, trained technical support staff, adequate research facilities, sustained adequate funding, effective coordination and intensified on-farm involvement. Almost all NARs in the Region fail to satisfy these essential requirements. The consultation called for establishing and strengthening institutional and functional linkages and procedures for coordination, cooperation and collaboration between universities and NARIs, which would enable universities to become effective partners in agricultural research and thereby contributes to improved capacity of NARS. Recognizing the crucial significance of strong and effective NARS, the productive research potential in the universities and the profitability of the functional complementarity of universities and NARIs, the FAO Regional Office for the Near East Region and the FAO Research and Technology Division (AGR) initiated a project to foster the establishing and strengthening of collaborative research linkages between universities and NARIs. The immediate objective of the project was to make universities effective partners in research. The medium- and longerterm objectives were to improve capacity and productivity of NARS and adapt appropriate technology required for improved and sustainable agricultural growth. The basic hypothesis for the project was that, while universities have a high concentration of highly trained scientists, the resource has not been effectively harnessed for applied agricultural research. Linkages between universities and NARIs have been lacking or poorly functioning, and not sustainable. The sustainable agricultural growth needed for improved economies and food security requires a political will to develop appropriate strategic visions and policies, good planning and firm commitment to additional and sustained funding, physical resources, a conducive environment, and particular ¬strong, effective NARS. Improved capacity and productivity of NARS is vital for sustainable agricultural growth. The need is recognized, and it is accepted that agricultural research can be a very effective means to meet that need. Improved capacity and productivity of NARS can be attained in part by improved research collaboration between universities and NARIs, which will harness the resources of research scientists available in universities but currently under-utilized for research.

Ashima Colvin
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G. Nagaraja from UAS Bangalore 17 2 . N.content 14 20 Agri Solution 26 Perspective Agriculture Updates Agri Statistics 7 Press Release25 News 3 Agri-Times 12 Cover Story 9 Interview Dr.

He said the Centre has not written to state governments for creation of storage facilities through rural employment scheme MGNREGA. 2012.” There has been a sudden spurt in the prices of fertilisers. During 2011-12. Josua Daniel. they said.” he said. Besides.02 mn tonnes of wheat. most markets in Gujarat were closed for festivals. he said.015 hectares spread over the entire South India against 14.In Maharashtra. 3 . it would take seven years to start yielding. various incentives. while storage capacity available for central pool is 70.300 a candy and high micronaire at Rs 38. Cotton slides as mills reduce purchases Weak demand from mills dragged down cotton.” The prices are also changing very frequently resulting in a chaotic situation in the field.50 million tonnes as on August 1.43 million tonnes. while 5. specifically of de-controlled phosphatic and potassic fertilisers. at Rs 3.000 bales of 170 kg each arrived in Gujarat. which. The planted area in the State will probably slump by as much as 25 per cent from 3 million hectares in 2011-2012.820 in Rajasthan.300-38. The new V-797 was offered at Rs 30. including a guarantee of 10 years will be provided to the private entrepreneurs for their godowns hired by FCI/nodal agency.50 million tonnes.000 tonnes of dried beans by about 10 processing and manufacturing units.000-6. This is due to drop in prices this year.52 million tonnes and rice 28. although tight supplies are likely to support prices. senior official sources said.000 bales arrived in the rest of the country.300.000-38.920 a quintal in Punjab.50 million tonnes. such a situation hasn’t emerged at present and if somebody wants to shift that may be for some other reason.The crop in Gujarat.02 million tonnes of rice and wheat as on August 1 this year.” he said in the letter. The total production of cocoa in the country stood at around 50 per cent of the total requirement of over 30.700. two million tonnes of wheat was exported. said the Gujarat State Cooperative Cotton Federation.900 tonnes from 63. rice The government has a total stock of 76.” The farmers are facing difficulty in ascertaining the prices of fertilisers.About 2. Taking together FCI and state agencies.” Patnaik said in a letter to Union Chemicals and Fertilisers Minister M.865-3. the largest producer. The new A grade S-6 variety traded at Rs 38.436 tonnes from 56. bearish US Department of Agriculture data continued to weigh on the sentiment.Patnaik asked the government to take steps to maintain a constant price of fertilisers for at least a particular cropping season instead of leaving it completely to the mercy of the market forces. Agri-Times Some cocoa growers in Kerala have begun to cut down trees and switch over to other crops such as mangosteen and rambutan.500-31. Cocoa prices drop despite fall in production Govt has stock of 76. J-34 RG quoted at Rs 3. according to official sources. claimed is a lucrative crop with high returns.To increase the covered storage capacity. may plunge by as much as 30 per cent in the harvest starting October 1 from 12 million bales a year earlier. a cocoa grower of Konni. However.000-38. To overcome the storage problem. unscrupulous dealers are taking advantage of the situation and exploiting the farmers.K. the government had launched the Private Entrepreneur Guarantee (PEG) scheme in 2008.To encourage private sector in creating storage capacity under PEG scheme. According to market analysts. As a result. one of the main cocoa growing areas in Kerala have started cutting down the cocoa trees for replacing them with mangosteen. regardless of capacity being utilised.The total storage capacity available with the Food Corporation of India (owned and hired) as on July 31. Ginners were willing to sell at current prices. he said. But.515 hectares in 2010-11.700 a candy of 356 kg and B grade at Rs 38. Some of the growers in Pathanamthitta district. Food Minister K V Thomas said in reply to a question in Rajya Sabha.The balance requirement is met by imports for long. total output stood at 12. now the situation has changed and world market prices for dried beans are at par with the domestic prices now. he said.300-38. The fibre was down in North India on slow demand and weak futures.News Patnaik for ‘constant’ price of fertilizers Odisha Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik asked the central government to maintain a constant price of fertilizers to protect the farmers from exploitation. they said. 2012 was for 36.000 a candy.810-3830 in Haryana and at Rs 3. However.000-3.810-3. A grade low micronaire (29 mm) quoted at Rs 38. the capacity available is 70. Prices in the international markets were above the Indian prices last year due to demand-supply mismatch.Alagiri. The wheat stock was to the tune of 47. despite decline in output due to unfavourable weather conditions and black rot diseases.

prices Nabard launches Producers Organization Development Fund The Government today said drought-like situation in some parts of the country could affect agricultural production and may have its impact on prices of essential commodities.” Food Minister K V Thomas said in a written reply to the Rajya Sabha. Four states . K V Thomas said the Government.The 16. Watershed PMU. Noting that prices of certain essential items have risen in last three months.238 new units to be added to the existing 4. This decision was taken at the State Level Bankers’ Committee (SLBC) meeting held here on Friday. Rajasthan.000 people besides 12.Natarajan.News Drought-like condition could hit crop output. each with a population of more than 1. Assistant General Manager. Deputy General Manager. who reviewed the performance of the bankers at the SLBC meeting. monsoon rain has been 17 per cent lower between June 1 and August 5. edible oil and tomato have risen in the last three months.are facing drought-like situation. The National Bank for Agriculture and Rural Development (Nabard) has created an organisation development fund to comprehensively support producer organisations across the country. he said. The bankers shared the state government’s concern on low spread of banking activities and the need for financial inclusion of every family in a bid to step up developmental activities. Shankar Narayan further said that only value-added farming held the key to growth and farmers have to not only adopt latest technology but should have also access to all the resources and should collectively source inputs. All this requires are unity and mobilisation in the shape of producer organisations.As per the Indian Meteorological Department (IMD). 4 Agri-Times . 1. The participants were guided on the nuances of the formation of organisations and the essential elements that are needed to be taken care of.258 banking units in equal number of villages. however.882 brick-and-mortar branches and 2.866 new ATMs. for the purpose. Producers Organisation Development Fund. retail prices of some pulses. wheat and atta remained stable.” said deputy CM cum state’s finance minister Sushil Kumar Modi.145 ATMs of various banks include opening of 419 new brick-and-mortar branches of various banks. has taken steps to tackle food inflation in view of this situation in some parts of the country. Coffee growers in Dindigul and Drip Irrigation in Tirunelveli Cotton ginning in Ramanathapuram. sugar.”All the 1.600 people. the Bank organised recently a workshop on producer organisations for prospective channel partners in order to give them basic inputs on the emerging concept. The programme was attended mainly by NGOs who are implementing watershed projects in partnership with Nabard in southern districts of Tamil Nadu. 1. he added. Madurai. Information about the organisations has been extended to various entities such as Banana Ripening Chambers for the banana growers of Varadarajapuram. Tiruchi. Professional functioning will be a key factor when the organisations are assessed for support by Nabard.695 ultra-small branches (USBs) covering all the villages having a population of more than 5. Gujarat and Maharashtra . S. Bankers have agreed to do it. such as shortfall in domestic supplies relative to demand. while inaugurating the programme said that the concept will empower farmers and give them the crucial hold on pricing decisions. Nabard.258 villages would also be saturated with banking facility under business correspondent model (BCM) during the same period.Karnataka.695 USBs will be opened in the next three months. Nabard.“The prevailing drought conditions could affect the crop prospects and may have its impact on the prices of essential commodities. Banking operations in for big push in Bihar88) Bihar may soon shed the tag of being “one of the most under-banked states” in the country with the bankers operating in the state deciding to open 16. 12.According to R.238 new units to facilitate expansion of banking activities. own farm equipment and rent them to fellow farmers. Prices of rice. He said they should sell their produce collectively so that they commanded the best price.According to the data placed before Parliament. The fund will have flexible interest rates and give support for capacity building. Madurai. It has also set up a dedicated fund. Besides. Shankar Narayan.

97 crore) were active.News Barclays Bank draws blank in June credit card sales Barclays Bank’s credit cards. American Express (6. its share in total central government subsidies under non-planed expenditure increased from 23. said Umesh Singh field general manager ( Madhya Pradesh) of the bank. according to the RBI statistics on credit cards. says a study by the Indian Institute of Management. In case of wheat it has increased from Rs 1.98 lakh credit cards in use.The historically high current account deficit (CAD) is borne out of the adverse fiscal deficit-revenue combine. Ahmedabad (IIM-A). he said that decline in investments was a major area of concern.1% in wheat) was the main reason for the increase in economic cost of foodgrains. failed to do any business across India in June.21 lakh). transaction: Rs 1. an increase of over 25 times in 21 years.184 in 2011-12. a flexi-recurring deposit scheme. The economic cost of rice has increased from Rs 1.55 crore).According to the study.65 lakh cards.13 lakh cards.Other banks with less active credit cards were Tamil Nadu Mercantile Bank Ltd (5.The government often chooses the soft option to tax rather than control spending. depending upon the surplus funds available at the disposal of the depositor. the credit cards of Central Bank of India (59. Central India’s food subsidy grew by 300% Food subsidies have grown by more than 300 per cent in a period of six years between 2006-07 and 2011-12.009 cards. Sustainable gains on this front can only flow from expenditure compression. respectively.20 lakh cards. says RBI Governor A deficient monsoon and poor rains in parts of country could go to amplify inflation expectations in the country.7 per cent. HDFC Bank continued to be the top credit card provider with 57. transaction: Rs 7.162. followed by Bank of Maharashtra (27.58 crore). added he.”India has one of the largest food subsidy programmes in the world that has created a relatively effective social safety net but is also being increasingly criticized because of its large contribution to government budget deficits. Neither has the supply response been adequate.On the problems facing the macro-economy. transaction: Rs 696. has launched yet another innovative product ‘Cent SwaShakti RDSScheme’. Borrowings are used to meet current spending.624 cards) and Dhanlaxmi Bank Ltd (1.725. The scheme being most suited to each and every member in the household.Here is where quality of fiscal adjustment assumes importance. It will be calculated on daily basis and will be credited every half year in June/Dec.Among the nationalised banks.21 lakh) and SBI Cards (23. with transaction worth only Rs 2.14 crore. Senior citizens are entitled to an additional interest of 0. “The proportion of expenditure on food items has declined by about 10 per cent in the rural areas and by about 16 per cent in the urban areas between 1987-88 and 2009-10 but low income class of consumers spend about 65 per cent of their total expenditure on food items in rural areas and about 62 per cent in urban areas. unique feature of the scheme is that the monthly deposits can be varied.833 cards) whose businesses amounted to Rs 99.346) seemed least active. salaries and subsidy. According to the study. Poor monsoon could fuel inflation.823 crore in 2011-12. for instance. Minimum monthly core amount is Rs 100 and maximum is Rs 1.00. increase in procurement prices was the main contributor that increased economic cost of foodgrains. which is responsible for rising food subsidy. we welcome you to open not only your individual account but also that of all other family members. Causes and Policy Reform Options by IIM-A faculty member-Vijay Paul Sharma. The good thing related to the scheme was that one can deposit any amount in the multiples of Rs 100 and therewill be no TDS.3% increase). Subbarao. Minors 10 years and above singly or minors below 10 years jointly with guardian can avail of the scheme. Interest rate will be as per prevailing term deposit card rate.542 cards. “We cannot avoid spending in must items such as defence. followed by ICICI Bank (28. added Singh.50%.178 to Rs 1. according to a recent report of the Reserve Bank of India (RBI). We are getting very good response of the scheme.148 credit card users.3 per cent to 33. drew a blank in terms of both the number and the amount of transactions. The UK-headquartered Bank.” he added.000.391 per quintal in 200607 to Rs 2.85 crore) and Indian Overseas Bank (35. transaction: Rs 1. Among foreign banks.70 lakh and Rs 71 lakh. an increase of about 57 per cent. Barclaycard. transaction: Rs 3.” it says.This can raise inflation expectations as people generally tend to expect inflationary trends to feed into themselves. economic inefficiency and poor targeting. which had only 2. As a result.652 (40. Central Bank of India launches new deposit scheme The state-owned lender.” says the working paper Food Subsidy in India: Trends. Citibank (23. Agri-Times 5 . Bank of India. Increase in procurement price (74.850 crore in 1991-92 to about Rs 72. food subsidies increased from Rs 2. in a particular month.11 crore) and Standard Chartered Bank (12. according to Reserve Bank Governor D.2% in rice and 67. dated June 26.

Speaking on revenue generation. If BMC pledges to provide the best service. whose performance is very poor in the city. a local. But we do not trust the service of BMC. ex-sarpanch Piedade Fernandes suggested that a certain amount should be collected annually from all the boat owners who anchor their vessels by the banks of the river. Basic infrastructure would also come up at the village soon. It further said the infrastructure fund be set up jointly by the State and the federal Government. which is estimated to cost at 20 lakh. including 29 bridges worth around Rs 40 crore online. Their apprehension is justified as BMC has failed to provide basic amenities to people in many wards in the city. passed a resolution to annex 21 GPs along with two revenue villages to reach the one million-population mark. It added that the industry body was for “developing infrastructure in West Bengal for reducing the transaction costs of trade.Swaraj. the State needs to have a separate department. said that the 10 lakh could be used to beautify the memorial in a small way by replacing the wornout photos of martyrs and erecting lights around the site.”We do not oppose urbanization. Bhubaneswar North MLA Bhagirathi Badajena too has thrown his support behind the villagers. the first gram sabha of Agasaim village panchayat was held at St Lawrence church hall on Sunday. It has also offered to prepare a detailed policy framework for realizing the State’s growth potential. the sarpanch said that the panchayat received 10 lakh for the work.With regards to the beautification of the memorial of the seven martyrs. “Instead of leaving it done. Raghunathpur and Kalarahanga panchayat areas in Bhubaneswar North assembly constituency do not want the BMC to look after them. Nearly 40. It will fetch more central aid for different projects.” she said. Proposed Gram and Sansad Bhawan would function as a village secretariat to effect gram .” 6 Agri-Times . He suggested that instead of focusing on individual wards for developmental works. “I do not see anything wrong in the contention of villagers. he added.Mahto inaugurates develop. the native village of martyr Telanga Khadia. he said adding 600 women self groups (SHGs) would be constituted in this block.Under MVP. Deputy chief ministerSudesh Kumar Mahto launched a model village and Sanjivini projects of rural development department at Murgu village.” Badajena told. In a strategy paper for the State released. Assocham moots Rs 10k-cr infrastructure fund for West Bengal Assocham has suggested forming a Rs 10.000-crore infrastructure development fund for West Bengal. He also inaugurated 35 development schemes. It will not benefit us if the villages go under BMC jurisdiction. Speaking to the people. Mahto laid foundation of a ‘Gram Sansad Bhawan’ and ‘Gram Sanskritik Kendra’ to be constructed with the cost of Rs 43 lakh and Rs 22 lakh respectively. besides laying the foundation of a Dak Bungalow of the district council to be built at Sisai block headquarters on the occasion . The BMC. the deputy CM said the historic village of the martyr would be developed into a model village and its selection for the MVP is to pay tribute to the martyrs and freedom fighters.Villagers demand develop. Dadha. we will have to pay more taxes for different facilities. Assocham felt the State urgently required creating clusters for the manufacturing sector.The locals demanded that a concrete plan be chalked out by the panchayat for sustainable development of the village and a committee be formed in each ward with various representations. another villager. as they feel the civic body has failed to deliver civic amenities to its existing 60 wards. Tony Fernandes.000 people in 28 villages in Barimunda. we have decided to utilize the funds for a Ganesh immersion site at Malwara at a cost of 5 lakh and to spend another 4 lakh for the beautification of the chapel of Our Lady of Fatima at Mercurim. Kalyanpur.” Pereira said. Once included in BMC’s jurisdiction. the industry body said that to facilitate private investments and obtaining support from the Central Government for infrastructure development.He also launched the Sanjivini project with object of bringing women empowerment by linking womenfolk with livelihood projects and building their capacity . under Sisai block of the district.”Our villages are getting ample funds and people here enjoy very good facilities under various rural schemes. then it’s okay. in its recent council meeting. The Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporation’s decision to include 21 gram panchayats (GP) in its jurisdiction has not gone down well with people of five of those GPs. Gumla’s Sisai block is one among 17 blocks selected under it in the state. funds should be utilized at places which will benefit the general public.” said zila parishad member Basanti Patra.Bhubaneswar Municipal Corporament plan for Agasaim ment schemes tion draws boos from rural bodies Under the chairmanship of new sarpanch James Pereira.” said Subash Patra. “We have written to the housing and urban development department to scrap the proposal.

So far. From around Rs 3. apple costs between Rs 120 a kg (for Chinese) to Rs 180 (for US. Last week’s rain has also affected the crop to some extent. The crop has also been affected in Kashmir. though apple production in Himachal Pradesh has been affected by frost and hail storm. The main reason for apple to rise is deficient monsoon in the main growing States of Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir. Agri-Times 7 .800 at Kullu in Himachal Pradesh.000 during mid-July. Australian). production could be a little higher than last year in Himachal Pradesh that accounts for 30 per cent of the total production in the country. However. some 166 tonnes have arrived at Kullu APMC against 78 tonnes during the same period a year ago. In retail outlets in the South. According to reports.Agri StAtiSticS Deficient Monsoon Sweetens Apple further Apple is one of the agricultural produce that has gained sharply in the last few weeks. Apple prices are likely to rule firm this season and could gain further with a slew of festivals coming up. the fruit was quoted at Rs 4. The surprising aspect of the rise in price is that it has been gaining despite higher arrivals.

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Agri-Times 9 . hygiene control and the food safety policies are becoming more stringent which demands the food processing industries to cope up with the challenging environment. industries across the globe are investing enormously in India. EFRAC (Edward Food Research and Analysis Centre Limited) is moving ahead to provide a safer tomorrow.India’s latest state-of-the-art laboratory for food research and analysis.Cover Story With the advent of globalisation and rapid expansion in Food & agriculture sector. India thus requires ultra modern state of the art laboratories for the analysis of food samples. Thus. It had been equipped with all modern and hi tech instrumentation and well experienced manpower. With the implementation of FSSA. posing proportionate risk of food safety to the consumers the Government of India has framed more stringent norms which are covered under “ Food Safety & standards Act of India “ which had already come into force.

Hormones etc are used. competent manpower. Potable & Non.Potable Water. These harmful pesticides & chemicals in-turn enter the human body through the food chain posing a potential health risks to mankind. Cost effective Analytical & R&D services to Food & Allied sectors & will strive hard to support & materialize the governments Nobel vision of Food Safety. Dioxin Analysis. Govt & non.Cover Story EFRAC. The company has a vision in line with the Government of India’s initiative towards Food Safety. Pulses & Cereals. Food R&D. Oil etc.Govt organizations to facilitate the state of the art analytical & R&D capabilities to address the increasing Food Safety concerns arising with the advent of globalization and rapid expansion in Food & Agriculture sector. Food contamination monitoring is thus an essential component of assuring the safety of food supplies and managing health risks. set up with an investment of Rs. Mycotoxins Analysis. Fruit concentrates. Heavy Metal Analysis. Indian government has recently enforced much-awaited stringent Food Safety guidelines called “Food Safety Standards Act of India”. Microbiological Analysis. Antibiotic Analysis. essential accreditations and infrastructural exclusivity. Food majors. Laboratories facilities EFRAC is first of its kind Laboratory in Eastern India having the capability to do multi-parameter & multi-product testing in compliance with national & international standards. 10 Agri-Times . EFRAC. Antibiotics. Increasing population. With state-of-the art customized equipments. this unique facility offers services as varied as Pesticide Analysis. Egg & poultry products. Chemical Analysis. To meet this demand & raise productivity. high Precision. GMO testing. Adulteration & Quality of Food products. 35 Crores at Barasat. Beverages (Alcoholic &Non alcoholic). Spices & Condiments. have raised the demand for Agricultural produce & livestock. which then enters the food cycle through vegetables & Meat products. one of the largest & most sophisticated ultra modern Lab in Eastern India has opened its doors to all the consumers. will offer independent. Food safety is a major concern today and it’s the need of the hour to have facilities like EFRAC to fight against the monstrous food safety issues like Nutrition. Kolkata. Pesticides. Hygiene. Milk & milk products. Sugar & Confectionery. 2006 to ensure the availability of safe and wholesome food for human consumption. Banned chemicals. The facility will extend its services to sectors like Fruits & Vegetables. Meat & Marine Products. Training & Consultation under one roof.

It is an approved project by the Ministry of Food Processing Industries. is at par with laboratories of international standards. vegetables and milk products. Edward Food Research & Analysis Center is making inroads in the domain of research and development. A competent team of researchers is working towards development of methods. vegetables. flowers. Environmental impact assessment and bioremediation of stresse aquatic ecosystem Establish mutually beneficial collaborations with academic and biotech companies to increase EFRAC’s visibility. Photo degradation of some selected pesticides & herbicides. An array of food testing and Certification of products will be performed in this facility. Eastern India’s most sophisticated and ultramodern facility. Enhancing the shelf life of perishables fruits. Banking on intellectual capital and technological capability. Major Thrust areas are:- Agri-Times 11 . which can be applied for the betterment of society and environment.Cover Story EFRAC has independent laboratories for following services:Residue Analysis Food and Agro Products Analysis Microbiological Analysis Environmental Testing Water & waste water testing Metals & Minerals Analysis Plastic product testing Development and validation of novel analytical method for the analysis of organic pollutants in food water and environmental sample. product diversification and value addition for better profitability. Dissipation study of different pesticides in soil and water in laboratory conditions. under the 11th Five Year Plan Scheme for setting up / upgradation of Quality control / Food testing Laboratories. Evaluation of Food safety Development of new organic farming methods. Government of India. Research & Development EFRAC. Heavy metal contamination studies in fruits.

In order to maintain the importers confidence in quality of the product & to meet the stringent Food Safety standards of EU & other Gulf countries. with an investment of Rs.Facilities ty is a major concer Food safe g against the be helpful in fightin EFRAC will surely . hygiene & issues like nutrition strous food safety mon oducts. which will help in increasing the crop productivity by knowing in advance the required amount of minerals to be used in the field. Edward Food Research and Analysis Centre Limited (EFRAC). This project will benefit all stakeholders of Food processing & allied industries. preparation an ty is all about hand rne Food safe at prevent food bo od in many ways th storage of fo ed to avoid w steps to be follow ss. Harmful colors in cooking powder and spices. s Food Safety Clinic – d ling. This includes fe ly handled illne hazards. Food product Exporters.govt organizations. Academic & Research Institutions. syn thetic milk. Regulatory bodies and concerned govt & non. The laboratory is one of the best. are all ongoing problems faced by the co nsumers. Agricultural and allied food exports have grown 35% in 2010 -11 over previous fiscal year and is expected to grow by 41% by 2011-12.equipped testing laboratories in India. 12 Agri-Times . a long term sustainable plan is required which EFRAC can support through its technological advancement & skilled manpower. covers a land area of about 21000sq ft in which utmost care has been taken in each and every aspect. risk & safety assessments. EFRAC offer an extensive array of quality. Animal fat in ghee. processes and systems to applicable international standards with the sole objective to serve our customers with complete solution. n today .Cover Story Farmers in West Bengal can now take benefit from the EFRAC’s special package for Soil Bio-remediation & Soil Fertility testing. auditing and certification of products. Using our state-of-the-art-facilities and technologies. Arsenic. ality of the food pr adulteration and qu • • • • Food contamination is of grave concern to all the consum ers ever ywhere. commodity testing and inspections. 35 crore. Improper ially severe health potent to person as disease from person food can transmit can cause food m for bacteria that ell as growth mediu w like poisoning. lead in water. Mixing water in milk.

• To establish long-term bu siness relationship with customers through cost effective services. where everyone can come to learn more about the food safety. efficient and cost effective research and analytical services that will expedite reduced business risk to all the Food Processing Industries across the Country. As a solution to this problem. Mission of EFRAC • To devote our services to i mprove the quality and safety sta ndards of food in our country by connecting EFRAC’s expertise at all stages from far m to fork.Cover Story Vision of EFRAC• Continuously strive to ach ieve the heights of excellence in me eting customers’ expectations by focusing on quality services and customer confidenti ality. all over India. which has been scrutinized by the Ministry of Food processing Industries. • To ensure customer satisfa ction by deploying a comprehensive range of state. starting from eastern India. EFRAC is also setting up Food clinics initiating from West Bengal with a wide expansion of all over India. Efrac is also trying to ensure quality testing kits to be available at all upcoming food safety clinics through which the consumers can do the screening of few major contaminants at their home itself. Agri-Times 13 . • Establish the brand EFR AC as the leader of the analytical an d R&D services. we have at EFRAC have taken it upon ourselves to set up food clinics in districts and cities. food testing and research. offers independent. EFRAC. accurate and pr ecise test results of outstanding quality. • To emerge as one of the m ost renowed food safety solut ion provider on global platforms.of-theart analytical techniques in order to support stringent food safety stand ards. GOI.

an official spokesman said.03 % during 11th Five-Year Plan against national average of 6. A. Vishandass. During 2011-12.000-41. Growth rate in construction sector was 13. too.K. The Coconut Development Board has submitted a draft price policy for the 2013 season to CACP.98 % economic growth rate during 2011-12. State Agricultural Prices Board and farmers’ representatives. Moreover. soaring feed costs. Egg price rose by 5 paise to Rs 3. Adviser. an area with potential area in Tamil Nadu .20 % whereas the All India average was just 7. Jena and Anandi Subramanian. the commission will also hold discussions with coconut growers’ representatives at Pollachi. SLBC. With state achieving 11. crossing the Rs 3 mark for the third time in 2012. In order to formulate a price policy for copra in the 2012 -13 seasons. making feed an expensive commodity for poultry industry. Layer birds are ruling flat at Rs 45 as farmers stopped selling birds. Pointing out that the per capita income at current prices has also increased by 19. said an NECC spokesperson. Farmers are not ready to sell their chicken as they expect egg to climb further.48 %. He said the state achieved 9. State Government. has more than doubled this year to Rs 41.04 % agriculture growth rate during 11th Five-Year Plan against national level average of 2. the spokesman said state’s economic growth rate during the 11th Five-Year Plan from 2007-08 to 2011-12 was 10. son coming to an end and rains lashing parts of the country. The team will discuss with officials of the CDB. Egg prices have already been hiked in Delhi.agriCulture updateS now How’s on K Agriculture Agricultural prices panel to hold talks on copra pricing The Agricultural Prices Commission of India will be visiting the Coconut Development Board to convene discussions on formulating a price policy for copra for the 2013 season. CACP advises the Government on the price policy of major agricultural commodities with a view to evolving a balanced and integrated price structure in keeping with the overall needs of the economy and the interests of the producer and the consumer. since the egg rate has been increasing pushing up bird rates.699 in2011-12 as compared to previous fiscal. Karnataka directs Consumption to push up banks to restructure farm egg loans With the austere Shravan/Aadi seaState Level Bankers’ Committee 14 Agri-Times . Prices of soyameal. The National Egg Coordination Committee of Namakkal zone has decided to hike the floor price steadily.81 %/.67 %.48 %. Oil and oilmeal prices.98 % against the all-India average of 6. The broiler price has been hiked by Rs 7 a kg to Rs 58 owing to pick-up in demand.K. too. a key ingredient in poultry feed.500 a tonne from last year. are up 2 per cent at Rs 1. are way high. too. MP has become the only state in the country which finds it place in first four in all the components of GSDP in the 11th Five year plan. Barwala and Kolkata — major consuming markets in the North.09 a piece. Maize prices.500 a quintal.89 % to touch Rs 38. Madhya Pradesh clocks 18 % agriculture growth Madhya Pradesh stood first in the country by achieving about 18 percent agriculture growth rate during year 2011-12 and also stood at second position among states in Gross State Domestic Product (GSDP). CACP (Commission for Agricultural Costs and Prices) and members A. The Commission will be headed by Ashok Gulati. state’s economic growth rate stood at 11. Chairman. are prompting the industry to raise prices. egg prices are set for a spike on hopes of a rebound in consumption.

total foodgrains production is expected to be better than 2009.5 times more than last year and will touch 4.50 (161. Muralidharan. he said. In futures. To tide over the crisis. district co-operative banks to follow the guidelines issued by Reserve Bank of India (RBI) to take up relief measures in the affected districts. commercial and public sector banks. and four states — Karnataka. the country’s foodgrains output this year is likely to surpass that of the 2009 drought year. regional rural banks (RRBs) and cooperative banks have a total outstanding under agriculture (farm loans) of around Rs 54.14) a kg on the NMCE. he said on the sidelines of the event. according to traders. the State government has declared 142 taluks in 26 districts as drought-hit.94 (160. There may not be much impact on the production of rice — the key kharif crop. Last week. The grade finished steady at Rs 169 a kg at Kottayam and Kochi. the State government has sought Rs 11. The Board asked the State Government to impress upon on the Union Commerce Ministry to restrict or introduce a total ban on the import of palm oil through south Indian ports. Trade sources expect the guar acreage to be higher than last year’s 3 million hectares as farmers. Meanwhile. with the growing areas receiving good showers in recent weeks. agriCulture updateS date in Rajasthan is about 1. sowing has taken place only in 39. the Government said.44). coarse cereals and pulses) is likely to be higher than 2009 level because the number of drought-hit areas is less this time and the Centre is better prepared to tackle the drought situation.” said B. Last year (2011-12) also. 123 taluks were affected.52) and December to Rs 167. Sharad Pawar and Jairam Ramesh.(SLBC)-Karnataka has directed lead district mangers (LDMs) to hold special meetings immediately to draw up drought action plan. Tokyo rubber futures edged higher. Sheet rubber improved to Rs 170 (168) a kg. SLBC convenor.764 crore. an exporter in Sri Ganganagar.“Despite weak monsoon. The trend was partially mixed. visited the State recently to assess the drought situation.5 million hectares. Gujarat and Maharashtra — are facing drought-like situation.70 lakh hectares. told.” Minister of State for Agriculture and Parliamentary Affairs Harish Rawat said at the Golden Jubilee celebration of state-run National Seeds Corporation (NSC). wheat. Crops sown in about three lakh hectares have been lost due to deficit rains. The formal request was made by Chief Minister Jagadish Shettar when to two Union Ministers. Foodgrains output likely to be better than 2009 drought year Rebound in futures lifts spot rubber More area seen under guar this year as sowing picks up Planting of guar has picked up in the key State of Rajasthan. he said. adding that the contingency plans prepared for 320 districts are being implemented. Despite deficient monsoon rains.80 (163.480-crore relief from the Centre. November to Rs 166. Chairman and Managing Director of Vikas WSP Ltd.The total foodgrains output (rice. the September series flared up Rs 169.27 lakh hectares as against a target of 74. the situation is quite comfortable and we expect a good harvest. Rajasthan. lured by high returns. But gains were limited owing to weak oil prices. The shares of Vikas WSP were trading closer to the yearly-high level at around Rs 73.” Agarwal said. The CDB also urged the Union Government to provide incentives for the export of coconut oil. due to erratic rains.P.39). as reported by the Rubber Board. Agarwal. According to agriculture department statistics.” K. The pick-up in rain has reduced the country’s overall deficit to around 15 per cent. October to Rs 167.84 (161. as the better than expected US economic data boosted investor confidence. domestic rubber futures bounced back mainly on fresh buying and short covering at lower levels.15 on the BSE . Senior officials said that palm oil 15 . Due to below normal monsoon rains this year.“LDMs in the affected districts have been told to convene district-level coordination committee (DLCC) meeting to assess the ground situation before taking up relief works. are expected to plant more.D. SLBC has also issued directions to all banks including regional rural banks (RRBs). Monsoon rains have been 15 per cent deficient between June 1 and August 1. Planting is still going on and will continue at least till August 20. As per SLBC statistics.“The acreage till Agri-Times The market regained strength following the sharp recovery on the National Multi Commodity Exchange (NMCE).“Despite delayed monsoon. world’s top three rubber producers Thailand. Indonesia and Malaysia were expected to come up with measures to support farmers. According to reports. Coconut Board seeks ban on palm oil import The Coconut Development Board has sought a ban on palm oil import in view of the steep fall in coconut oil prices.

of Rs. The huge ethnic population of south Indian people in the West Asian countries is another advantage. all fishing boats from neighbouring states engaged in fishing in Kerala coast should pay Rs 15. a sum of around Rs. 4.Officials said acute shortage of labour and rise in wages in traditional coffee growing States such as Karnataka. whose construction at a cost Malayalee labourers in their boats. the export market is competitive for coconut oil. fishermen from the Western Coast of Kanyakumari district expressed concern over the new user fee proposed by the Kerala government for using their harbours. In Tamil Nadu. Since domestic as well as international prices are almost at a par with each other. the officials added. The amount would be utilised for providing subsidy to coffee growers to purchase machinery.According to a government order dated August 9.327 tonnes in the previous year. Sources in the fishing sector say that it’s the first time that any state has introduced such a user fee system for boats from other states. Coconut oil is used as edible oil in Kerala and neighbouring regions of Tamil Nadu.While small growers owning less than 25 acres of plantation are eligible to get 50 per cent subsidy (up to Rs. five lakh). However.93 crore had been set apart towards the purchase of equipment and recruitment of 83 medical and non-medical staff. Crores for mechanizing opera- tions in coffee plantations Kerala to charge fishing boats The Centre has approved an outlay of from other states.61 crore towards installation of new components in cobalt therapy equipment at cancer wards of government hospitals in Thanjavur. import of refined oil (RBD palmolein) during NovemberMay increased by 97 per cent and touched 10. Currently.84. 17 crore was nearing completion. Coimbatore and Tirunelveli. When contacted. 20 crore would be utilised each year in the Plan period between 2012 and 2017. 100 crore in the 12th Five Year Plan for implementing the scheme “Supfishermen upset In a move that may have far reaching consequences and even put dents in inter-state relations. During the same period. 2012.000 tonnes. issued by state fishing and ports department. Tamil Nadu Rs. Officials in the Coffee Board told The Hindu that the Centre would soon issue an order for implementing the scheme from the current year. 2 lakh) for purchase of machinery. 9. A sum of Rs. large farmers are eligible to obtain 25 subsidy (up to Rs. The CDB also urged the Chief Minister to put pressure on the Union Government to lift the quantity restriction on the export of coconut oil and to allow bulk packing in south Indian ports. Such a restricted quantity can only be exported in branded consumer packs up to 5 kg each. Beneficiaries of the Chief Minister’s Farmers’ Security Scheme will be covered under the Chief Minister’s Comprehensive Insurance Scheme. they are catered by coconut oil from Sri Lanka and the Philippines. 2. crude palm kernel oil import increased by 82 per cent. Chief Minister Jayalalithaa sanctioned about Rs. Nearly 97 per cent of coffee planters own less than 25 acres of estates in Karnataka.033 tonnes compared with 5.5 lakh). coconut oil export is limited to a maximum of 10. Munambam and Cochin fishing harbours. Self-help groups are eligible to get 50 per cent subsidy (up to Rs. According to statistics available with the CDB. Therefore. Kerala and Tamil Nadu is impeding expansion of area under coffee. Moreover. The Board has decided to push for more mechanisation of farm activities in plantations to address the problem of absence of skilled labour. and crude palm oil by 14 per cent.51. At the proposed super specialty branch for cancer at the Royapettah hospital here.000 as user fee to the state government every three months. 16 Agri-Times . Many Comprehensive cover for farmers insurance port for mechanisation of farm operations” in coffee estates. Most of the boats from the region use Kerala coast for fishing and a good number of boats use Kollam. a ban on the import of palm oil through the southern ports will lead to an increased demand for coconut oil. The branch would be housed in a Tamil Nadu based boats also employ building. A large chunk of fishing boats from the state also explores the coast of neighbouring and far away states in search of good catch. the Kerala government has decided to collect user fee from fishing boats from neighbouring states for fishing in waters close to its coast . the government order might also prompt other states to initiate such restrictions against boats from Kerala.agriC ultur e updat eS is the major competitor for coconut oil in the State. the fishermen association leaders said that they were not aware of this new rule but still felt that it will affect the fishing boats from Tamil Nadu as well as the mutual relationship between fishermen from the two states.

management field is very recent origin and gaining rapid popularity among students. G. value addition (at the processing) and value capture (at the retail) make up a continuous chain. Agricultural education has been slow to respond to the changing needs of food and other farm based requirements of changing demand patterns of consumpAgri-Times from the conventional system to the modern e – learning technologies. Agricultural education is considered as one of important priority sector in our country. The formal agricultural education started in India in late 60s when agricultural colleges and university were assigned to disseminate scientific knowledge and skills to the farming community and to use the skills for better output. The benefits of value impact each link of the full stake holder chain from farm to fork. Dr. What Improvement should be done for improving quality education in Agriculture and Agribusiness 17 . There is a greater need for integrated efforts to promote and facilitate agricultural education for sustainable development. Agribusiness education is intensely practical since it owes its origins to actual working business requirements and needs. tion. In this regard. India also has enormous potential as an exporter of agricultural commodities. it has become indispensable to attract & retain Agriculture as an option to achieve the next revolution and to give a sustainable environment for the future. N. Nagaraja from UAS Bangalore highlights the main feature of Agricultural Education. Value creation (at the farm). Agricultural education in India is in an era of transformation What are the Major challenges before Agricultural Education? India is an agrarian economy and agriculture is considered as the backbone of our economy.iNterview With the drastic modifications in choices opt for career by the youth of the country. What are the new initiatives and support provided for Agribusiness Education? In Agricultural education system. State Agricultural Universities (SAUs) can play an important role in this direction by providing research based projects with the help of the industry. Agribusiness education is driven by the needs to create more farm value. Innovative approaches should be adopted to strengthen agricultural research and education in India. Agribusiness education needs to be supported by way of creating separate colleges at different SAUs rather than the departments.

The managerial skills of meritorious agricultural graduates can be developed by SAUs. multi dimensional and potentially value remunerative. research and capacity building. 25 state agricultural universities (SAUs) and four National Institutes of Indian council agricultural research (ICAR) having the status of deemed to be university. thus make agriculture a more acceptable profession and resultantly turning agricultural education more attractive. banking sector. Introduction of a practical course providing exposure to the real business like experimental learning / hands on training which providing opportunity by placing students in agribusiness companies. New initiatives in agribusiness management to help knowledge edge generation as well as its application and agri entrepreneurship management will make it more value added education. agricultural financial institutions. The progressive growth of Indian economy is most likely to be controlled by the agribusiness iNterview sector. agricultural education 18 Agri-Times . including the involvement of agribusiness experts as trainers will contribute to a more professional way of education. agricultural production. agricultural marketing institutions and agricultural co-operative institutions. agro-processing and agricultural marketing and trade which add value to the farm produce. Management education surely helps in developing trained personnel to cater to the agriculture industry and by creating such dynamic workforce to become the leader in agricultural sector. Last few years have witnessed a radical shift in the nature of agribusiness and as a result the demand for competent and dynamic professentails has grown manifold. Interactive sessions to enhance communication and knowledge skills. Most of the students consider agriculture to be more traditional profession. negotiation skills. Careers are driven by future needs and the opportunities they create. Stagnation in agricultures productivity is required to be addressed through intensification of development activities devising suitable technologies helping to minimize input costs. and input industries. Major bottlenecks in choosing career in agribusiness sector that the students are not exposed to the opportunities in this sector. The students are at least exposed to real farm situations and the courage to face these. Agribusiness education is exhibits display of farm business skills that are diverse. increasing margins of profit. presentation competence etc. job opening in agro processing industries. central agricultural univer- What major Steps should be taken for attracting and retaining the quality students in agricultural education system sity. the parents of most of the students believe that their wards will work in the field if they opt for agriculture. All major agribusiness companies are strengthening their base in India by committing large investment. Any Suggestions to make agricultural education more professional with respect to other technical courses Participation of the private sector in the curriculum of agricultural education. This trend opened a new era of career opportunities for candidates with a management degree in agriculture. Lack of awareness regarding the growth prospect in agriculture and agri processing industry is a major deterrent among the students in making agri education as their career choice. so that they can prove as effective agribusiness education. feed and fiber including supply of inputs and services witnessed tremendous growth in recent times especially that of food retailing and microfinance sector. building leadership qualities. marketing and trade distribution of raw and processed food. At the same time. What are the major bottlenecks and prospects in India has a very string agricultural education choosing career in Agribusiness sector system consisting of one. Faculty as well as student exchange programmes including sandwich and dual degree programmes must be incorporated as essential component to broaden the base of this stream of education. processing. confidence building. Agribusiness can be considered as the science and practice of activities with backward and forward linkages related to production.The agribusiness sector encompasses many activities of agricultural sector under one umbrella like integration of agricultural inputs. should be incorporated in agribusiness studies to make it relevant to the needs by capable personnel. Moreover. What are the growth phenomenon of agribusiness management in India Agribusiness management programme is planned to develop management workforce to cater to the needs of the agricultural industry which serves as a good option for the students willing to perform in the corporate sector.

procurement officer. Agribusiness management as a career is promising as well as challenging. international trade.. disaster management. precision faring. Frontier specializations have to come in the course curriculum like climate change. hydroponics. Co-operation & Business Management University of Agricultural Sciences GKVK Campus. Bangalore How far is the growth in career opportunities in Agribusiness sector Agri-Times 19 . project management. G. supply planner. agribusiness officer. remote sensing. market intelligence. GIS. purchase officer. N. supply manager. fertigation. agricultural marketing researcher / specialist. agro processing manager. bio informatics etc are essential to give agricultural education. post harvest technology. business analyst. of Agricultural Marketing. commodity buyer. Nagaraja Professor & Head and Principal Coordinator . financial institutions public or private companies and policy makers for trained teaching staff to cater for academic sector and technically sound team to serve research area from career prospect in agribusiness vary from farming to commodity broker. protected cultivation. micro irrigation.MBA (Agribusiness Management) Dept. self motivation. management personnel to cater to co-operatives. Agribusiness management has wide scope in developing the trained manpower different areas of operation viz. organic farming. IPR. positive attitude and agripreneurship skills.has to be redefined so as to equip the graduates with confident technical expertise. supply chain manager and retail manager. a status on par with other professential disciplines. Dr. agro based processing industries. market led extension.

established in 2011.132 thousand tones (2008-09). formerly under the Kerala Agricultural University has been now affiliated to the full-fledged Fisheries University of the Country. Asia and Africa. the Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies (KUFOS) with its headquarters at Kochi. livestock and fishery production. Amongst various sectors the dairy. There is an increase in fish production of the country from 752 thousand tones (1950-51) to 7. Hence. Fish has been providing at least half of animal protein intake for 400 million poor in S. Tamilnadu Fisheries University (2011). At present. Indian agricultural education. Fish is the cheapest animal protein available in most of the developing countries and is considered as “Rich Food for Poor”.crop news agri SolutioN A Practical Solution Ahead There is hunger and under.nourishment even in countries where there is enough food to meet the needs of its population. New Delhi occupies a unique place in Fisheries Education as the only Deemed Fisheries University in the country. This is a key to a better life. Mumbai under the Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR). while on average it is around 13% in developed countries and it is about 30% in developing countries. Economic access to food happens only when households generate sufficient income to produce or purchase food.6 billion people globally. Fish provides over 20% of animal protein to 2. meat and fishery have helped to improve our national economy. out of which the College of Fisheries. wholesome and nutritious food and also employment generation in the 20 Agri-Times Fisheries Education & Fisheries Business Management : Introduction country. Nothing is more urgent in our villages today than to increase agricultural. Livestock and Fisheries production is a livelihood securing activity for more than 70% of the rural population and plays an important role in the Socio-economic structure of our country. Even though extension workers are engaged in different activities first priority must be given to producing more food. training and research system is globally recognized for its quality. Kochi. Bengaluru. food security is linked with poverty and it in turn with rural development. Besides the fisheries colleges. Professional education in fisheries in India started at the State Agri- cultural/veterinary Universities in 1969 with the establishment of first Fisheries College at Mangalore under the auspices of the University of Agricultural Sciences. there are about 19 Fisheries Colleges under 18 State Agricultural Universities in India. The Central Institute of Fisheries Education. number of institutions like . Fisheries sector has been playing an important role in providing healthy. Fish is the major source of animal protein in regions where animal protein in diets is below world average. The growth of Indian fisheries sector has been tremendous and showed about tenfold increase in production levels during this period.

Indian Council of Agricultural Research (ICAR) which is responsible for coordinating Agriculture and Allied sciences in the country. Agricultural Marketing. Waltair (Andhra Pradesh) and Barakatulla University (Madhya Pradesh) etc. National Institute of Post Harvest Tech. Madras (Tamil Nadu). Hissar n Dr. programmes (Ref: Handbook of Fisheries and Aquaculture published by ICAR. Fisheries education beyond knowledge and skills development in students to make them develop an understanding of : Agri-Times 21 . Kerala (Kerala). The national level fisheries research institutes include CIFA (Central Institute of Fresh Water Aquaculture. the agricultural universities have not been able to make any significant impact on rural development. Banking and Cooperation. the Karnataka Regional Engineering Indian Institute of Technology. New Delhi). Horticulture. D.K. Focus of Fisheries Education : Fisheries education provides opportunities to learn basic Fisheries skills and knowledge. Akola n Dr. Marathwada Krishi Vidyapeeth. offer fisheries related courses for Masters and Ph. Since agriculture is a vital sector in India. CMFRI (Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidhyapeeth. Rahuri. Hyderabad n Central Institute of Fisheries Education. Meerut (Uttar Pradesh). Parbhani. Cochin). Dapoli n Dr. Raipur Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya. Agricultural Engineering. Kolkata Some of the academic programmes available in India are : Agriculture. Burdwan (West Bengal). Ludhiana Rajasthan Agricultural University. Solan n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n n G. The Universities in India offer undergraduate and postgraduate courses in Agriculture and under an apex national body. (Central Institute of Brackish Water Aquaculture. Y. The major agriculture institutes include. B. Lucknow). West Bengal University of Animal and Fisheries Sciences. Food Science & Technology. n Acharya NG Ranga Agricultural University. the end of isolation of agriculture and agriculture universities is the need of the time to make it interactive with multi faculty universities. NIPHAT. Sinha (1999) the present structure. An excessive emphasis on variety in the early stages of ‘green revolution’ did help in improvement food grain production. Coimbatore Tamilnadu Fisheries University (2011). Mumbai n Ch. Charan Singh Haryana Agricultural. Fishery Science and Fisheries Engineering. Maharashtra Animal & Fishery Sciences University. Kochi. Dairy Technology. Nagpur Mahatma Phule Krishi Vidyapeeth. Forestry. occupation training and retraining. Home Science.S. Mumbai). and Training. Bikaner Tamil Nadu Agricultural University. Bhimtal). Delhi. NBFGR (National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources.University.S. Jabalpur Kerala Agricultural University.B. Chennai). Sericulture. but also became the cause of unsustainable agriculture in the absence of adequate science and knowledge base. Annamalai (Tamil Nadu). function and objective of agricultural universities are not in conformity with the concept of rural universities of the Radhakrishnan University Education Commission. Kharagpur & IIT Chennai. Kolkata (West Bengal). Trissur Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies (KUFOS). Bhubaneshwar). Sawant Konkan Krishi Vidhyapeeth. CIFNET (Central Institute of Fisheries nautical and Engineering Training. Faizabad Orissa University of Agriculture & Technology. There are around 40 universities level institutions and about 200 colleges offering various courses in Agriculture. Mumbai (Maharashtra). Viswa Bharati (West Bengal). and professional growth and development. Cochin) and DCFR (Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research. Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya. Pant University of Agriculture & Technology. According to S. CIFE (Central Institute of Fisheries Education. Consequently. Bhubaneshwar Punjab Agricultural University.agri SolutioN IIT. CIBA. Suratkal etc. and Universities such as Agra (Uttar Pradesh). Veterinary Science. Parmar University of Horticulture & Forestry. Narendra Dev University of Agriculture & Technology. Pant Nagar Indian Agricultural Research Institute. Cochin etc.

Fisher Farmers families processed the commodities they acquired from various reservoirs to make their own food and clothing.G and P. transport and marketing sector.G. food and rural business. food security in a better manner is nothing but ‘Fisheries business management’. quality and quantity wise excellence and generate the employment. This trend enabled other to build business that focused on meeting the need for inputs used in production such as fish seed. fisheries related machinery and equipment. Until recently. Carp with prawn culture. P. This programme places an emphasis on food systems. In earlier ages fisheries being a major venture it was easy to become a fish farmer. logistics. various fish products). Therefore. farm and the land but also the people and firms that provide the inputs (for example fish seed. knowledge management. process the output (for ex. Industry is concerned with the production of commodities and materials while commerce and trade are concerned with their distribution.e. this was a fairly accurate picture. Fish yield. Weed based fish culture..D programmes in fisheries economics and fisheries extension. system of input sector. it is directly related to industry. nation and world. business research. These items were used to feed and clothe the minor portion of the country’s population that lived near the various reservoirs. Current Status Scope of Fisheries Business Fisheries Business is a complex. The small amount of output not consumed on the fish farm was sold for cash. from production to consumption. fisheries accessories and credit etc). fencing and so on. have catalyzed metamorphic growth in food and agriculture sector. The present course is designed to facilitate the students to imbibe the knowledge about Fisheries Marketing Manage- 22 Agri-Times . through the application of scientific and business principles and problem solving strategies. The fisheries have evolved in to fisheries business and have become a vast and complex system that reaches for beyond the farm to include all those who are involved in bringing protein oriented food to consumers. Integrated fish farming with livestock. The fast changing global dynamics. Fisheries Business Management What is Fisheries Business? The word Fisheries indicates pond. supply chain. These developments are transforming the fisheries sector and in turn have created unprecedented demand for qualified fisheries business professionals to competently manage the operations and drive the growth. These fish farms involved into the industries those make up the “Fisheries inputs sector” and managing the business of fisheries to be more profitable. Raceway culture and cage culture etc. Fish processing. manufacture the food products (For ex. fertilizers for pond.agri SolutioN 1) The significance of fisheries in a global society. Responding to the market demand the subject fisheries extension resources management and statistics came into existence in both U. and transport and sale the fish products to consumers (For ex. The subject focuses on creating manpower with domain knowledge of fisheries science and concepts of business management to serve as professionals in fisheries. restaurants. Fisheries professionals has developed several Fish production rang under different culture systems i. fish business centers. A few fisheries products made their way into the export market and were sold to buyers in other countries. They consumed or used just about everything they produced. environmental issues and development of life skills. post WTO. There are new emerging areas in management like fish retailing. besides traditional areas of management like fisheries inputs and rural marketing. freshwater prawn culture. which has elevated the fisheries production. Preservation etc). Air breathing fish culture. Sewage-fed fish culture. and simple equipment. commerce and trade. Composite fish culture. Pen culture. production sector and processing manufacturing sector. supermarkets). rural malls. and 2) The interdependency and relationships between the fisheries industry and other significant business interwoven with the entire economic and social structure of the community. lake. Average fish farmer produced enough food to feed just the family people and the fish farmers basic requirements were minimal and most fish farmers were totally self-sufficient. Intensive pond culture. Most Fisheries colleges and Institutes are offering U. Fisheries business include not only pond.G and Ph. but productivity was low. This phenomenon is clearly evident in India. which is witnessing rapid developments in this growth sector with the liberalization of Government policies fostering of public private partnerships in different fisheries operations and the entry of large corporate both national and international in the value of chain. But today’s fisheries sector is radically different. river and traditional methods of nurturing the fish.G level. state. Fish farmers and farmers found it increasingly profitable to concentrate on production and began to purchase inputs they formerly made themselves. commodity trading. They produced and arranged most of the inputs they needed for production such as ponds.

Conduct of research on a subject of topical interest. Fisheries Resources Management. In general.agri SolutioN ment and Fisheries Business Management. entrepreneurs and cooperateives. Fishery and KVKs. fisheries and other development department with industry participation through adoption of public private partnership approach may bring desirable change in fisheries scenario. integrated fish farming.F.. The business and marketing management techniques necessary for graduates to operate and manages the various fish processing plants and aquaculture feed marketing. village ponds. ii. It has been felt to develop a programme for the fisheries sector with the involvement of animal husbandry and agricultural activities in an inte- Programmes for self help group 1. Teachers and research workers iv. grated approach to benefit the farm sector to achieve better production and productivity. The theoretical framework together with analytical techniques for decision making iv. Fish Processing and value addition HRD in Fish farming. Extension and Statistic. The public policy framework within which business operate ii. Fish Processing Technology and Microbiology. Programme for Landholders 1. Vet. 1) Self Help Group. Policy makers for government. The Fisheries Development Programme mainly intends to cater to the emerging needs in the fisheries-food sector. Besides this Open University like Indira Gandhi National Open University (IGNOU) is also offering small diploma course to foster the entrepreneurship and get the unemployed youth tempted towards the fisheries. linkage and microfinance 2) Entrepreneurship development among rural women and youth.. 3) Extension strategies to promote entrepreneurship among rural fish farmers 4) Marketing strategies for microenterprise development 5) Implementation through constituents colleges of Agri. This activity is suggested to be undertaken under three components to benefit the fishfarmers. agrarian. 3. 3. 2. financial and parastatal agencies. Management personnel for the fish-food firms. it should aim at producing following categories of trained manpower. Strategy for Fisheries Development and Promotion : To achieve appropriate growth there is need to have integration of agriculture/horticulture/ animal husbandry / fishery all together by utilizing resources judiciously and sustainably for the overall development of the sector. The B. Fish Farming. coastal aquaculture etc. 2. Fisheries Engineering. The above courses aims to provide students with an understanding of : i. Prawn farming (Fresh Water/ Brackish water) Brackish water fin fish culture and crab farming Ornamental Fish Farming and Marketing Development of value added fish products and marketing Fish Farm Mechanics Programme for Landless 1. The appropriate networking with the state agriculture universities.Fish seed. reservoir fisheries development. landless laborers and activity through self help groups. 2. various fisheries institutes. Fisheries business consultants and self-employed persons. i. value addition and marketing Agri-Times 23 .Sc programme is mainly designed for graduates coming out of the Fisheries College and Institute comprising of Fisheries Biology. prawn seed and fish culture in farm ponds. iii. Fisheries Hydrography. Fisheries Aquaculture.

OPAC. it is on the part of IT workers and Library and Information Experts to create more awareness about the eresources availability among the users. improvement of fisheries means the improvement of rural society. Ornamental Fish Farming and Marketing Development of value added fish products and marketing agri SolutioN farmers for imbibing the technical knowledge of fish farming. Internet. Writing research papers. 4. CD Rom Data base Service. so that the fish farmers/producers will fetch good market price. Promotional Aspect Fish Farmers rely on the input industries to provide the products and service they need to produce fisheries commodities. Nagpur 24 Agri-Times . can say fisheries in its broadest sense remains the most important sector of the society even though its contribution to economy might have declined. In present era of information explosion and competency in acquiring it. S. There is long way to go. should be available for sale. environment and quality of life. But it is very sure that there is tremendous scope for fisheries business development. fish food manufactures. Lecture notes. E-Book.A. research and extension activities of fisheries but also in fish marketing.A. to conclude with. The result is the fisheries food system. Telvekar P. preparation of teaching. Naik.3. Thesis / Project work. Burande College of Fishery Science. Joshi & M. Guiding researchers etc. ‘Farm Fresh’ Sale Counters : FFSC should be established at Taluka places where the farm produce comprising of fish and fish products etc.R. The various IT based services like Current Awareness Service. On-line Database Service.W. Training programmes can be easily designed for the rural Role of Information Technology in Fisheries Business The information has a commercial value. They also rely on commodity processors. Export Promotion Cell : To promote the fish farmers willing to export the farm produce fetching good prices in the global market need the guidance regarding the rules and regulation for fish farm produce export. The Computers and electronic resources play a central role not only in teaching. P. various search engines can help the fisheries professional to carry forward the work like research work. Fisheries remains and will remain the source of food supply in the world. and ultimately distributors and retailers to purchase their raw fisheries commodities and to process and deliver them to the consumer for final sale. E-Journal. Therefore. Consumer Goods Processing Units : Proper labeling and packaging for value added fish products. Nagpur Maharashtra Animal & Fishery Sciences University. subject in- formation.

• It also helps prevent dandruff and itching. Dr. SEA RBO Promotion Council. B. preparations made in rice bran oil are safe for human consumption.’ which increases HDL or good cholesterol in the body. the country’s health-conscious populace preferred olive and canola oil in their meals. rice bran oil has acquired the status of a functional food. rice bran oil does not exhibit mutagenic activity. Rice bran oil is the only oil which contains (natural vitamin E) with over 10. Executive Director. reduces coronary blockage and helps in balancing the nervous system. while it is accepted as the premium cooking oil in many countries. Thus. Until now. • The wonder oil also stimulates hormonal secretion and revitalizes health. Mumbai. Sharma. which reduces the incidence of stroke. an anti-oxidant which improves skin tone and delays wrinkle-formation. canola and several other edible oils used today. • The lipoic Acid in Rice Bran stabilizes blood sugar levels and reduces the damage in body caused by excess sugar.” Advantages of Wonder Oil. • It has Tocopherol (Vitamin E).” A positive state of health must be maintained otherwise illness results when smooth flow of energy is disrupted.” says Dr. Dr. Rice Bran Oil • Rice bran oil contains squalene.T. Food Science & Nutrition at Dr. this stands true today. but these are incidentally unsuitable for cooking. rice bran oil and supplements have witnessed tremendous demand owing to their highly beneficial properties for health and well-being. Mehta. mentioned that “Even after heating at temperatures up to 180 degrees C.D.’ In Europe.000 ppm (parts per million) of this precious nutrient. A. Agri-Times 25 . O. it is an economical choice among cooking oils. In USA. it is being sold as ‘World’s Healthiest Oil’.M.preSS releaSe RICE Bran Oil the ‘Wonder heath oil’ that lowers the risk of Cholesterol and Intestinal Cancer C . Its consumption is 15–20% less due to lower retention of oil in foods. Seminars and other activities of SEA created a lot of awareness among industry. The Solvent Extractors’ Association of India said “Since 1998 SEA. oryzanol and tocotrienols. Promoted as a ‘health food’ in global markets. In the bid to create awareness about the steps that one can take to lower the chances of Heart Attack and cancer. The knowledge of five pyramidal food groups and awareness about the micronutrients and nutraceutical is essential for every individual to maintain their optimal health. Japanese call it ‘Heart Oil’. • Consumption of a high daily dose of stabilized rice bran that rice bran could reduce the risk of intestinal cancer. Meena Mehta. making it a tangible boon for the health conscious. consumers and Government circles. Chairman. Mr. rice bran oil is superior to olive.N. Chairman. Nutritionally.’ while in the USA it is being sold as ‘World’s Healthiest Oil.Suitable for Indian Cooking an we set the tone for manifold health benefits. as a unique wonder oil‘RICE BRAN OIL’ with its anti-oxident properties helps in lowering Cholesterol and reducing the risk of intestinal cancer and osteoporosis as per the scientific studies conducted by National Institute of Nutrition Hyderabad. Rice Bran oil with its ideal SFA/ MUFA/ PUFA ratio and EFA ratios that most ideally match the prescribed levels suggested by WHO.V. while lowering LDL or bad cholesterol and triglycerides. Nanavati College of Home Science affiliated to S.” “Scientific studies conducted in leading universities of the United States have proved that rice bran oil has much better cholesterol-balancing properties than olive oil and canola oil due to the presence of unique nutaceuticals viz. University. Goenka. RBO Seminar informed that “Japanese call it ‘Heart Oil. In Europe it has acquired the status of ‘Functional Food’. It is also accepted as ’Premium Cooking Oil’ in Thailand and many advanced countries. researchers. an anti-oxidant present. she added. It not only has more micro-nutrients and anti-viral capabilities to ensure good health. The oil contains ‘oryzanol.R. but given its low absorption. jointly with TMOP and CSIR launched a campaign to encourage production and use of rice bran oil as a Healthy Cooking Medium. It also helps in diabetic complications. by changing a single cooking ingredient in our meals? Yes!. • It is also used to treat nerve imbalance and disorders of menopause India is increasingly becoming prey to an array of lifestyle diseases.P. B. Associate Professor. RICE Bran Oil known and accepted globally as the ‘World’s Healthiest heart Oil’ is all set to make its entry in every Indian household.

thus contributing to the financial backup of the family. silk worm rearing. yet the value of their effort is underestimated and taken for granted by both families and in academic studies. Like male entrepreneurs. fruit and vegetable preservation etc. mat and basket making. preparation of different sweet items. making indigenous food. women entrepreneurs have many functions. The Government of India has defined women entrepreneurs as “a woman who owns and controls an enterprise having a minimum financial interest of 51% of the capital and giving at least 51% of employment generated in the enterprise to women”.. running eateries / tea stalls. fishing. their contribution is considered more. and all indications are that it will continue unabated. yarn making. Women are the vital human resource in the society and their empowerment will accelerate the pace of economic development. vegetable and cloth selling. about 80 women entrepreneurs regularly conduct business activities in the market. pot making. embroi- dery work. One can also find many women engaged in construction work and as domestic helpers which is seen increasing in the state. right from sowing the paddy seeds. With the emergence and growth of their businesses. weaving is a very important activity and is a year round pursuit for almost all the younger women. Everywhere they have been making their presence felt.Problems and Awareness Levels of Rural Women Entrepreneurs of an All Women Market in Assam Introduction The contribution of women to national development is crucial. husking and winnowing etc. In Assam. they have contributed greatly to the global economy as well as to their surrounding communities. The present study was taken up in the all women daily market located at Suklai in the Baksa district of Assam. The dynamic growth and expansion of women-owned enterprises is one of the defining trends of the past decade. weeding. Women are also found to involve in a number of other occupations apart from agricultural work and weaving activities like. The number of women entrepreneurs is rising rapidly too. Marketing of paddy and its products is exclusively their responsibility. They explore the prospects of starting some new enterprise. During the last two decades. In recent years. Women have also contributed significantly to the running of family businesses mostly in the form of unpaid effort and skills. Even though women work together with their male partners in the agricultural activities. introduce new innovations besides the coordination administration and control of business and providing effective leadership in all aspects of the business. undertake risks. whether in the organized or unorganized sector. transplanting. Situated about 50 kms away from the state capital of Guwahati. handloom/handicrafts. Woven handicrafts and handloom items from this market are popular even outside the state. . women have shown an inclination toward taking self oriented jobs and professions with the support of their family and financial assistance from various sources. the Suklai market is supposed to be the biggest market in lower Assam dominated entirely by women traders and entrepreneurs. 26 Agri-Times perSpeCtive A very important role is being played by the women of Assam in the economy of the state. Mostly dominated by tribal women. Indian women have entered the field of entrepreneurship in increasing numbers. Most women business owners have come through obstacles and challenges in establishing and managing their businesses. Emancipation of women is an essential pre-requisite for economic development and social progress of the nation. The entire stalls are run and managed by women alone.

For the present study. 13. 15. 10. fruits.50 58.16 54. technology. seedlings and planting materials. 1. This was closely followed by complicated procedure of availing benefits from government schemes with 66.83 8.16 per cent respondents faced problems owing to difficulty in transportation of goods from Table 1: Problems faced in establishing and running enterprise Sl. Four respondents each from the six categories of selected enterprises were selected following the random numbers table after enlisting them. An equal proportion of 54. seedlings and planting materials.16 50. 14. agricultural implements etc.33 29.perSpeCtive Objectives of the study Keeping in view the prospects of women entrepreneurs and their problems. Thereby. As much as 62.g.33 54. 15 14 13 13 13 12 62.50 33. infrastructure and facilities. 18. vegetables and fruits.66 Rank I II Research Methodology The present study was confined to the study of women entrepreneurs who engage in petty trades and marketing of vegetables. The selected agro-enterprises consisted of fish. Problems Lack of Govt.33 X XI XII XIII XIV XV XVI XVII XVIII Findings & discussion Problems faced in establishing and running enterprise Table 1 depicts the frequency. 4. 16.00 III IV V VI VII VIII Lack of knowledge about legal 11 formalities (e. 8. lack of guidance and low incomes. perAgri-Times their residence to the market.66 41. the respondents were selected randomly. indigenously processed foods. 5.33 per cent of the women entrepreneurs perceived lack of capital in establishing and running their enterprise. An interview schedule was utilized for collection of data. indigenously processed foods. The Suklai market in the Baksa District of Assam was selected purposively for the present study as the entire market consisting of approximately 80 small and petty establishments were solely managed by women. a total of 24 respondents were selected for the study.83 66. handlooms and textiles.83 41. In order to fulfill the purpose of the study. 7.83 per cent respondents expressed lack of knowledge 27 . Half of the respondents (50%) perceived a feeling of discrimination due to illiteracy or lack of education. agricultural implement and inputs. 11.16 54. handlooms and textiles. 3. The findings highlight that the most pressing problem. 17. 12. support in terms of finance. as expressed by 70. support Complicated procedure of availing benefits from govt. the present study was undertaken with the following specific objectives : a) To study the problems faced by the women entrepreneurs in establishing and running their enterprises. About 58.16 20. only marketing of agro-based products or agricultural related enterprises were selected.50 per cent of the respondents were found to face problems relating to little or no help from local society/ NGOs. capacity building. 6.83 per cent of the respondents. b) To study the level of awareness of developmental programmes and policies among the women entrepreneurs. transportation. centage and ranks of problems perceived and expressed by the women entrepreneurs. was lack of govt.66 per cent respondents expressing the same. acquiring trade license) No assistance for re-establishing entrepreneurship Lack of time due to family burden Lack of timely information Exploitation from middlemen Lack of prior experience Unavailability of labour Unhealthy competition from male entrepreneurs Lack of knowledge about entrepreneurship / skills Lack of support from family 11 10 10 10 09 08 07 05 02 45. 9. 45. scheme No help from local society / NGOs Lack of capital Problems in transportation of goods Lack of guidance Low income Feeling of discrimination due to illiteracy or lack of education Frequency 17 16 Percentage 70.66 37. No. 2.66 41. fish.83 IX 45.

Rashtriya Krishi Vikash Yojana (RKVY). Respectively 29. IIE (Indian Institute of Entrepreneurship)’s Entrepreneurship Development Training Programme. 16.16 29.50 per cent of respondents expressed lacked of prior experience in the field of entrepreneurship as a problem. policies and initiatives is presented in Table 2. lack of timely information and exploitation from middlemen. 9. 0 0 0.50% were aware about entrepreneurship development programmes for women as 14.00 0. 0 0. Identical proportions of 41. well as Integrated Child Development Scheme (ICDS). None of the women were aware about Rashtriya Gramin Swarojgar Yojana (RGSY).83 per cent respondents were aware about 33% reservation for women.perSpeCtive about legal formalities (e. while 33.83 20. acquiring trade license) which is a hindrance in establishing and running the enterprise as well as no assistance for re-establishing entrepreneurship. 3. Table 2: Level of awareness of developmental programmes and policies among the women entrepreneurs Sl.g.00 IX 15.16 25. 18. Only a negligible percentage knew of SGSY.66% respondents were aware about TRYSEM while 12. The data reveals that maximum number of the respondents (70. radio and TV. Horticulture Mission for North Eastern and Himalayan States (HMNEH).16 and 25 per cent were found to be aware of preference to women in various govt. KVK (Krishi Vigyan Kendra) IAY (Indira Awas Yojana) TRYSEM (Training of Rural Youth for Self Employment) Entrepreneurship development programmes for women ICDS (Integrated Child Development Scheme) SGSY (Swarna Jayanti Gram Swarojgar Yojana) RGSY (Rashtriya Gramin Swarojgar Yojana) Horticulture Mission for North Eastern and Himalayan States (HMNEH) MOBC (Minority and Other Backward Classes)/ MSDP (Multi Sector Development Project) Rashtriya Krishi Vikash Yojana (RKVY) IIE (Indian Institute of Entrepreneurship)’s Entrepreneurship Development Training Programme BRGF (Backward Region Grant Fund) ATMA (Agricultural Technology Management Agency) Frequency 17 13 07 06 05 05 05 04 03 03 02 0 0 Percentage 70.00 IX IX 28 Agri-Times . A small percentage of 8. they got them through the means of various mass media such as newspaper.3 per cent reservation of scheme for women from govt.00 IX IX 17. 5. Minority and Other Backward Classes (MOBC) programmes.66 12. 4.00 Rank I II III IV V V V VI VII VII VIII IX IX Level of awareness of developmental programmes and policies Data relating to level of awareness of women entrepreneurs regarding development programmes. About 54.50 8.00 0.33 per cent expressed unavailability of labour as a problem.00 20. 11.83 per cent expressing lack of knowledge about entrepreneurship/ skills. schemes and reservation preference for SC/ST members. 7.50 12. No.66 per cent respondents and faced the problem of lack of time due to family burden.83%) were aware about SHGs. followed by 20. existence of KVKs and the Indira Awas Yojana scheme. 13. 10. 1.83 20. 12. About 16.83 54. Most of the women claimed that whatever little they were aware of.33 complained of lack of family support. 8.16 per cent of the respondents. Backward Region Grant Fund (BRGF) and Agricultural Technology Management Agency (ATMA).16 per cent respondents were found to be aware about NREGS as the scheme covers almost all the districts of Assam which involves constructing community assets.33 0. About 20. Particulars SHGs (Self Help Group) NREGS (National Rural Employment Guarantee Scheme) Preference to women for various scheme ST/SC reservation / preference 33. 6.00 0.83 16. 2. Unhealthy competition from male entrepreneurs was a problem for 29. About 37. 0 0 0.

Perhaps this is one crucial area where NGOs can come in to sensitize the women entrepreneurs and make this area an important dimension of their development agenda. Local NGOs should also come forward to help the women entrepreneurs. Financial institutions should extend soft loans for the promotion of women entrepreneurship. The findings on the level of awareness of developmental programmes and policies revealed that most of the respondents were aware only about SHGs and NREGS while the awareness about other programmes/policies leaves much to be desired. Organising periodic interfaces of women entrepreneurs with different development agencies would also go a long way in addressing this gap. simplifying official formalities especially in matters of extending loans etc. scheme. support. *** Jayant Kumar Sharma ********************************* Agri-Times 29 . complicated procedure of availing benefits from govt. Creation of adequate and appropriate marketing infrastructure and incentives. The government needs to devise programmes and facilities to reduce the identified problems of the women entrepreneurs and provide much needed support so that they can strongly contribute in a bigger way to the state’s economy.perSpeCtive Study implications In so far as problems faced by the respondents were concerned. no help from local societies/NGOs and lack of capital. can go a long way in helping the women entrepreneurs. the most important problems faced by the respondents in establishing and running their enterprise were lack of govt. especially in the matter of their capacity building through strategic training interventions..

30 Agri-Times .

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