Condensate Manual

Experience In Motion

GESTRA Condensate Manual
Preface The publication of the eleventh revised edition of the Condensate Manual underlines the continuing importance of the subject matter. The contents have been brought up to date and adapted to reflect our current product range, and new developments are also presented. This handbook draws on many years of practical experience in the field of steam and condensate systems. The main subjects are therefore the choice of steam trap best suited for a particular application and solutions to the condensate drainage problems encountered with commonly used steam equipment. We have added installation examples, tables and charts for pipeline and trap sizing, and give hints on the best layout and operation of steam/condensate systems. The handbook cannot answer every question, however; should you come across such a problem, please do not hesitate to contact GESTRA in Bremen directly.

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Edition 1980 Revised Edition Revised Edition Revised Edition Revised Edition Revised Edition Revised Edition Revised Edition Revised Edition Revised Edition Revised Edition

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GESTRA Condensate Manual
Table of Contents Abbreviations 1. Steam Traps 2. Basic Principles of Steam Trapping 3. Selection of Steam Traps 4. The Most Common Steam Trap Applications Selecting the Most Suitable Steam Trap 5. Monitoring of Steam Traps 6. Using the Sensible Heat of the Condensate 7. Air-Venting of Heat Exchangers 8. Condensate Return Systems 9. Drainage of Compressed Air Lines 10. Sizing of Condensate Return Lines 11. Sizing of Steam Lines 12. Calculation of Condensate Flowrates 13. Pressure and Temperature Control 14. The Use of GESTRA DISCO Non-Return Valves 15. Check Valves 16. Capacity Charts for GESTRA Steam Traps 17. Valves for Special Purposes Symbols according to DIN 2481 International Symbols and Abbreviations Material Designations Index

4 9 27 40 41 81 89 94 95 99 105 115 118 123 133 137 139 153 165 169 170 172

Thermostatic trap with membrane regulator Thermodynamic steam trap MK DK UNA Duplex GESTRA float trap UNA with thermostatic bellows or capsule for automatic air-venting UNA Simplex GESTRA float trap UNA without thermostatic element GK GESTRA Super steam trap GK. Thermostatic steam trap with thermostatic pilot control by membrane regulators GESTRA mechanical drier for steam GESTRA mechanical drier and purifier for compressed air and gases GESTRA steam trap UBK. Thermostatic trap for condensate discharge without flashing GESTRA float trap UNA 23/25/26/27 RK TK TD TP UBK UNA 2 4 .Abbreviations The following abbreviations are used in this booklet for the corresponding GESTRA equipment: AK BK GESTRA automatic drain valve for start-up drainage GESTRA Duo steam trap BK Thermostatic/thermodynamic steam trap with regulator of DUO stainless steel GESTRA steam trap Flexotherm MK. Thermodynamic steam trap with stage nozzle GESTRA DISCO non-return valve in wafer design GESTRA Duo Super steam trap TK.

nominal. The nominal pressure rating (maximum cold-water working pressure) in bar U capsule DN PN 5 .UNA 1 VK VKP GESTRA float trap UNA 14/16 GESTRA Vaposcope. Sightglass GESTRA VAPOPHONE: Ultrasonic detector for monitoring steam traps for loss of live steam GESTRA VAPOPHONE: Ultrasonic detector for monitoring steam traps for loss of live steam (Ex protected) GESTRA test set VKE for monitoring steam traps GESTRA drain and control valve with radial-stage nozzle GESTRA thermostatic capsule for opening temperatures ration temperature 5 K below satu- VKP-Ex VKE ZK H capsule N capsule GESTRA thermostatic capsule for opening temperatures 10 K below saturation temperature GESTRA thermostatic capsule for opening temperatures 30 K below saturation temperature Dimension. The nominal size of a pipe or fitting in mm Pressure. nominal.

(04 21) 35 03 . design.546 Tel.311 E-Mail: ihoeft@flowserve. interested specialists and personnel responsible for commissioning. A company’s wealth of technical knowledge and the know-how of its personnel in particular constitute nowadays the most important non-material asset of an enterprise. foremen. . GESTRA training seminars are geared to the needs of technical staff working for engineering companies. exchanging experience and active presence of the participants » Various installation examples based on actual projects will illustrate problems and their respective solutions » Evaluation of energy-saving measures The seminars are rounded off with some practical demonstrations given at our in-house testing facilities: » » » » Open steam system Closed steam system Transparent testing and demonstration facility Steam boiler demonstration facility Certificate GESTRA Diploma Hotline Fax (04 21) 35 03 . project-.Technical Advice and Training Seminars The GESTRA Academy offers training programs and project management assistance for technical staff to help implement future-oriented and complex projects in all fields of steam.GESTRA Akademie . Objective: » Optimization of steam and condensate systems for cost-efficient and trouble-free operation » Solving practical Experience In Motion . Our hands-on seminars place great emphasis on the exchange of experience and the active presence and collaboration of the participants. servicing and maintenance. To assist with this objective. condensate and process fluid control. In many seminars held over the last few years our customers have often expressed a keen interest in authoritative theoretical and practical support. The focus of the training seminars is on the following subjects » Fundamental principles of steam and condensate systems » Sizing and design of pipework » Efficient utilization of energy in steam systems » Boiler automation and operation (without constant supervision for 72 hrs) » Sizing of control valves and other related topics and practical examples. seminars and personalized consulting and training programs. The tremendously fast progress of technology combined with the recent economic developments are placing ever greater demands on the training and qualification of employees and managers alike.and plant engineers.279. the GESTRA Academy was set up in order to provide comprehensive technical literature and conduct workshops. Various practical examples of projects already implemented in different industries will be considered in order to outline the problems involved and their solutions.

2.1 1.2.2. TK range Thermostatic steam traps for condensate discharge without flash steam.1 1.4 1. ZK range New drainage systems for use in power stations 9 12 12 14 15 17 17 18 19 20 21 . BK range Thermostatic steam traps with membrane regulator. GK range.2.2.6 1. UBK range Ball float traps. UNA range Thermodynamic steam traps.5 1.2 1. and with radial stage nozzle.2 1.2.7 1. 1.9 Steam Traps Evaluation Criteria The Various Steam-Trap Systems of GESTRA Combined thermostatic/thermodynamic steam traps with bimetallic Duo stainless steel regulator. MK range Rhombusline is more than just a new family of GESTRA steam traps Thermostatic pilot-operated steam traps for very high flowrates.2.3 1. DK range Thermodynamic steam traps with stage nozzle.Page 1.

We are willingly prepared to assist you in selecting the most economic solution for your particular application. Advantage: particularly robust. UNA The UNA is a float trap. Experience In Motion . The three different steam trap types BK The BK is a thermostatic steam trap with Duo stainless (bimetallic) regulator. The choice of the steam trap typedepends. Steam must be trapped within heating equipment until it has sur rendered all heat energy. Advantage: condensate discharge at extreme and sudden condensate flowrate and pressure fluctuations.What are Steam Traps? To be able to operate a plant over a long period with an optimum efficiency the choice of the correct valves is of vital importance. Advantage: very sensitive response characteristic. One type of steam trap cannot be equally well suited for the various applications and requirements. on the plant condition. of course. therefore GESTRA offers a comprehensive steam trap range developed andrefined on practical applications over the years. The optimum efficiency of a steamheated plant is dependent upon the performance of steam traps. MK The MK is a thermostatic steam trap with membrane regulator. at which point the condensate thereby formed must be immediately discharged. Amongst these valves are steam traps which have an important role to play.

Properties of the Steam Trap Basic requirements Discharging the required quantity of condensate without loss of live steam Automatic air-venting Additional requirements No impairment of the heating process.its ability to vent itself and the plant. 1 9 .Corrosion-resistant . should be considered when selecting a steam trap: . and .Wide range of flowrates . no banking-up Utilization of the sensible heat of the condensate by holding it back Universal application . The most important technical criteria for evaluation. .For controlled installations Low effort . for large fluctuations in flowrate and pressure). .its service life.Easy installation .Unaffected by dirt . 2.g.1.1 Evaluation Criteria There is no such thing as a universal steam trap.Can withstand freezing . for large pressure fluctuations. It is therefore important to study the requirements of a particular application to choose the trap which will give the best results.Works with high or low back-pressures . its suitability for back pressure etc. amongst others.g. are summarized in Fig.As few variants as possible Fig.the possibilities provided for installation and maintenance.Large pressure range . together with the corresponding assessment of the steam trap types manufactured by GESTRA. for large flowrates. (see Fig.Minimum maintenance .Resistant to waterhammer . use for large pressure ranges. for large flowrate fluctuations) or jointly (e. depending on the application either as a single unit (e.Long service life . The following points.its control characteristics and flowrate capacity. 1).Accommodates large fluctuations in flowrate and pressure . Steam Traps 1.

2 10 Steam trap selection table .Fig.

11 .2 A poorly vented and incompletely drained heat exchanger takes a long time to warm up – this can lead to higher manufacturing costs (owing to prolongation of the required heating times) or can even damage the product due to uneven temperatures in the heat exchanger (see Fig. which can also lose a considerable amount of heat by radiation. All steam traps operating according to the thermodynamic principle (e.1 Easy installation can significantly reduce costs.1. A lightweight trap which can be installed in any position might save its manufacturing cost compared to making pipework alterations or constructing support brackets for a large and heavy steam trap. 3).1. even when new. 1. the thermodynamic disc-type traps and inverted-bucket traps) suffer from this problem and will always waste a certain amount of steam. It is possible for the cost of the energy loss to exceed the purchase price of the trap within only a few months of operation.g.3 Certain types of steam traps inherently blow off some steam.Important Criteria for the Evaluation 1.1. Fig. 1. 3 Partial pressure of the steam and the corresponding saturated temperature as a function of the pressure for various percentages of air in steam.

1.4 Sometimes it is desirable to hold back the condensate in a heater to utilize the sensible heat. 1.1 Combined thermostatic/thermodynamic steam traps with bimetallic Duo stainless steel regulator.1. 1. Both technical requirements and economical considerations are always kept in mind. 4). Use of an appropriate steam trap can yield considerable savings of energy (undercooling). thanks to simplified stock-keeping as well as quick repair and maintenance by staff who are familiar with the traps.1.6 In the long run. 1. BK range (Fig.2. 4 GESTRA Duo steam trap BK Condensate discharge is controlled by the regulating element of the trap as a function of pressure and temperature. Fig.7 The use of only a few trap types with wide applications throughout the plant will reduce costs. 12 .5 Freezing of the traps and the condensate piping in outside installations can cause serious production problems. 1. 1.1.1. using a cheap. non-repairable steam trap will require more effort in terms of time and money than a more expensive trap that can be removed and repaired.2 The Various Steam-Trap Systems of GESTRA have been developed to meet the special needs and expectations of the plant operators. The trap opens at a slight undercooling and closes immediately before saturation temperature is reached.

The discharge temperature of the condensate can be varied by using a regulator adjusted for undercooling. whereas a reduced undercooling may lead to faster and more even heating.Available for all pressures and temperatures.Robust regulator unaffected by waterhammer. millions of installed units are giving excellent performance .Stage nozzle with non-return valve action . 5). Fig. 5 Opening curves of various steam traps Curve 1 – UNA Curve 3 – BK 45 Duo stainless steel Curve 2 – MK Curve 4 – standard bimetallic Features of the BK range: . An increase in the condensate undercooling. provided the heating process permits. 13 . aggressive condensate and freezing. will lead to heat savings. Trap with long service life A point to consider: The condensate undercooling required for opening increases with rising back-pressure.The high-lift effect (a thermodynamic process) produces the instantaneous opening of the trap and a consequently high hot-water capacity (see Fig.Automatic air-venting .

5). 10 K below saturation temperature. 6) Fig.2 Thermostatic steam traps with membrane regulator.2. a vapourexpansion thermostat. Discharge temperature approx. . the MK traps are particularly suited for heat exchangers where even the slightest banking-up of condensate would impair the heating process. such as vulcanizing presses. as a function of temperature. 30 K below saturation temperature. Discharge temperature approx. MK range (Fig. and gives more accurate control than any other thermostatic trap (see Fig. Owing to the sensitive response and the instant reaction to changes in temperature.“N” (normal) capsule for condensate discharge practically without any banking-up. reduction of the amount of flash steam). The control characteristic of the trap practically follows the saturated steam curve.1. Two different capsules are available for the membrane regulator: . 6 GESTRA steam trap MK 45-1 Condensate discharge is controlled by the membrane regulator. ironing presses and laboratory equipment. 6a Function of the membrane regulator with flat seat 14 .“U” (undercooling) capsule for additional savings in energy (utilization of the sensible heat through banking-up in the heating surface. Fig.

Just before the condensate has reached its saturation temperature.For small condensate flowrates.Automatic air-venting.2 1 1 2 During plant operation Seat 1 closes (regulator is pushed to the closed position) Fig. . 2. the liquid filling is completely condensed. During shut-down or start-up of the plant. . . the trap is closed completely. 6b Trap closed Both seats are tightly shut off Function of the membrane regulator with tandem shut-off The self-centering valve cone ensures steamtight closure. . the pressure drop over two stages reduces wear and enhances the life of the trap. the membrane with the valve disc is moved in the closing direction. Features: . which prevents steam losses as a result of tampering. if cold condensate is present. With rising temperatures. even in the presence of dirt particles.For larger condensate flowrates.Readjustment of the regulator is not possible (it is also unnecessary). The pressure in the capsule is lower than the surrounding pressure (service pressure). The capsule is corrosionresistant and practically impervious to waterhammer. the capsule with tandem shut-off (dual seat) is recommended. Moreover. 4 or 9 flat-seat membranes. . 15 . The pressure in the capsule rises. the additional flat seat closes too and provides a further guarantee of tightness. 3.Operation is unaffected by back pressure. Closing: With rising condensate temperature. the membrane with the valve disc is pushed in the opening direction. use the “H” capsule for condensate discharge practically without any banking-up (discharge temperature 5 K below saturation temperature). i.Thermostatic steam trap with perfect control. with 1. Operation of the membrane regulator Opening: The capsule of the membrane regulator is filled with a liquid having an evaporation temperature which is just a few degrees below the saturation temperature of water. Various regulators with flat seat are available for this purpose: Depending on the condensate flowrate.e. the liquid filling starts to evaporate.

9. The sealing of the regulator (base bushing pressed into the casing) prevents internal leaks. A patented Duo stainless steel plate arrangement in the regulator of the BK 45. The overall length complies with the applicable codes. MK 45 AK 45 BK 45 Fig.3 RHOMBUSline is more than just a new family of GESTRA steam traps The wide-ranging experience gained with the proven BK 15 steam traps resulted in an optimization of the traps for the new RHOMBUSline. The Y-shaped strainer (with large filtering area for separating out impurities) simplifies the strainer cleaning process.2. The shape of the RHOMBUSline casing permits the use of standard flange connecting bolts. The new regulator reacts more quickly to changes in the influencing factor steam/condensate (BK 45). both from the trap casing and from the counter-flanges. Benefits of the RHOMBUSline traps: 1.1. 3. 6. Maintenance of the traps is simplified. 7. consisting of a plate stack. reacts much faster than the previous version to parameter changes in the steam and in condensate lines. 4. Retightening of the bolts after the initial commissioning is no longer required. 5. It is no longer necessary to exchange the gasket between cover and casing every time the cover is removed from the trap. 2. 7a 16 RHOMBUSline steam traps . The trap cover is mounted with only two bolts instead of four. 8.

This steam trap is a special version of the BK range with bimetallic Duo stainless steel regulator (see Fig. 5). . A typical case is steam tracing with condensate discharge to atmosphere. TK range (Fig. the condensate discharge temperature is < 100°C for pressures up to 19 barg (275 psig) and < 116°C for pressures up to 32 barg (465 psig).Easy to install in spite of large flowrate.2. The regulating characteristic of the TK traps is similar to that of the MK traps.1. UBK range.e. Overall length corresponding to DIN standards for valves. With the factory setting. The UBK traps are suitable for all applications where banking-up of condensate does not impair the heating process.2. Features: .5 Thermostatic steam traps for condensate discharge without flash steam. 1. i. 7b) Fig. 7b GESTRA Duo Super steam trap TK 23/24 DN 50 The control element consists of a thermostatic pilot control with membrane regulators and a main valve. installation in any position.Automatic air-venting. low weight. where the valve is directly operated by the membrane regulator.4 Thermostatic pilot-operated steam traps for very high flowrates. unaffected by dirt and aggressive condensate. With no additional effort. 17 . the UBK traps ensure noticeable steam savings besides reducing environmental pollution by preventing flash-steam clouds and utilizing the sensible heat of the condensate. all heating processes where a reduction of the heating capacity (by banking-up) is of advantage. and another example is steam trapping of instrument heating.

The condensate is discharged immediately as it is formed. They can also be used with flash vessels or discharge controls for maintaining a certain condensate level (Simplex design). Automatic air-venting of the plant is ensured by the UNA 2 float traps with “Duplex” control (thermostatic bellows). The operation of the trap is unaffected by the condensate temperature.6 Ball float traps. distillates and other chemical products having a saturation curve differing from that of water.2. It is ideal in plants controlled on the steam side: for heating processes with extreme pressure and flowrate fluctuations and very low pressures down to vacuum. Features: . .No banking-up of condensate . Thanks to its functional principle.1.Automatic air-venting with thermostatic bellows (Duplex design) opening the main valve . by back pressure or by any pressure fluctuations (see Fig. 5).g. Float traps are the only traps that can be used for removing air and also for draining condensate (e.Versions for horizontal and vertical installation . and for trapping steam driers and flash vessels whilst maintaining the level at the required height.UNA 2 v traps with Duplex control for vertical installation can withstand freezing 18 . If the steam is relatively wet. this trap range is suitable for all process applications. trapping of steam mains with float traps might be advantageous.Operation unaffected by back pressure . from compressed air installations). UNA range (Fig. 8a) Fig.Relatively small-sized for a float trap. 8a GESTRA float trap UNA 23/25/26 Condensate discharge is controlled directly by the float-operated valve as a function of the amount of condensate formed.

additionally equipped with a strainer DK 47 H . During operation. DK range (Fig. 8b) Thermodynamic traps have a simple design and small size.for large condensate flowrates DK 47 L .as above. 8b Thermodynamic steam trap DK 47 19 . these traps require a small amount of steam for control purposes. The thermodynamic steam traps are made of stainless steel in the following variants: DK 57 L . In above.for small condensate flowrates DK 57 H . they are resistant to waterhammer and freezing. 1" BSP or NPT Fig.7 Thermodynamic steam traps.2. additionally equipped with a strainer Further data: PN 63. DN 10/15/20/25 mm Screwed sockets 3/8".1. 1/2". 3/4".

1. Because of their excellent regulating characteristic and high wear resistance. The stage-nozzle traps with handwheel operation are used for the discharge of high flowrates with a relatively constant amount of condensate forming. and with radial stage nozzle.g. 9) Fig.High wear resistance . hot – condensate + flash steam. reduced dimensions . The traps can therefore be used without any mechanical readjustment being necessary. it suffices to adjust them once to suit the operational situation.2. leak-off control and level control. rotating drying cylinders etc. e. even if the operating conditions vary to a certain extent. injection cooling. ZK range (Fig.Unaffected by dirt 20 . the ZK valves are ideally suited as proven low-noise control valves in control systems with a high pressure drop. boiling hot – minimum condensate + maximum flash steam) controls the condensate flowrate without any modification of the cross-sectional area.High flowrates. Features: . GK range.No moving parts. little weight. simple and reliable .8 Thermodynamic steam traps with stage nozzle. 9 GESTRA drain and control valve with radial stage nozzle ZK 29 The state of the condensate prevailing in the nozzle system (cold – condensate only. tank heating. such as evaporators.

controlled drainage using level probes is also possible.2. new capacitance probes are able to detect condensate of low conductivity independently of the pressure and temperature. The ZK drain valve is used for the condensate discharge during start-up and for any further warming-up which may be needed. 21 . It opens at the earliest when the power station block is shut down. before the steam turbine of a power station can be started. In presence of superheated steam. the valves are closed. This valve is closed after a preset time has elapsed or when a certain temperature has been reached in the relevant part of the plant. Owing to heat losses in the drain line. making a significant contribution to economical operation of the power station. These valves are characterized by high resistance to wear. 10b). The controlled drainage equipment is only opened when condensate is actually present. Fig. tight sealing and low maintenance costs. 10a shows an example of the drainage for the turbine plant of a conventional power station. the demands on drain valves of the type ZK are increasing together with the efficiency. This continuous drainage is necessary to prevent the condensate from rising in the drain lines.1. In addition. thereby preventing steam losses and achieving a high degree of operating safety. In parallel to this procedure. This now enables level-dependent (controlled) drainage at positions where the temperatures had previously ruled out their use. Plant components can be protected from damage caused by undetected quantities of condensate. For instance. The drainage points marked with the steam trap symbol consist of two independent traps.9 Drainage systems for use in power stations In modern power stations. small quantities of condensate are produced and these are discharged by a thermostatic steam trap. The live steam line is additionally heated by a separate warm-up valve. which sometimes extend over long distances (Fig. the steam lines must be freed of condensate and warmed to their specified start-up temperature.

10a Drainage scheme for a turbine plant 22 .Fig.

10b Drainage scheme for a high-pressure superheated steam line 23 .Fig.

(972 psig) 588 °C Experience In Motion .Control Valve ZK 29 with Radial Stage Nozzle H. preheater in a nuclear power plant equipped with a condensate drain control valve type ZK 29 KVS 130 m3/h.4903 67 bar. P. 1.

see Section 12.6 2.7 2.8 2.Page 2.1 – 2.10 3.9 2. Basic Principles of Steam Trapping with Examples General Separate Trapping Banking-Up of Condensate (Pro and Contra) Measures for Preventing Waterhammer Air-Venting 27 29 31 32 38 2. (For the dimensioning of steam traps.2) Selection of Steam Traps 40 .

water and electricity. All we need from you is steam.Our Mobile Testing Station The mobile testing station will come directly to your plant accompanied by qualified and experienced engineers from GESTRA who will give practical demonstrations of steam and condensate applications. For more information please contact ++49 421 35 03 311 E-Mail: Experience In Motion .

13 27 .2 A certain differential pressure (pressure drop) is required by the steam trap (Fig. 11) Fig. the differential pressure is reduced by approximately 1 bar for 7 m of lift.3 If the condensate downstream of the trap is lifted.2. 13) Fig. 12 2. or 2 psi for 3 feet of lift (Fig. 11 2. 12) Fig.1 The condensate should be freely discharged downwards from the heat exchanger (Fig. Basic Principles of Steam Trapping with Examples 2.

should be collected and reused (Fig.6 The condensate and. 15 2.5 Use of a condensate dampening pot. 15) Fig. so that high back-pressures do not build up (Fig. 16 28 . type ED Condensate pipework should be adequately sized to handle flash steam. 14) Fig. if possible the flash steam.4 If the condensate upstream of the trap has to be lifted. 16) Fig. a water seal or lift fitting is required (Fig. 14 2.2.

1 Separate trapping of each individual heat exchanger (individual drainage) (Fig. Pressure drops through each control valve and heat exchanger will inevitably be different. Additionally installed DISCO nonreturn valves RK stop condensate returning to the heat exchanger when. Banking-up is detected reliably. 18) Fig. Vaposcopes downstream of the heating surfaces permit visual monitoring. the steam pressure in the heat exchanger drops owing to the control valve throttling or closing. 17 Separate drainage ensures condensate discharge without banking-up.7.2 Drainage of several heat exchangers connected in parallel with a single trap (group trapping = one large condensate tank instead of many small ones) (Fig. 29 .7 Each heat exchanger should be trapped separately 2.7. Condensate will bank up and waterhammer will occur. Banking-up and waterhammer in the heating spaces is prevented. 2. 17) Fig.2. This leads to one or more heat exchangers being short-circuited on the condensate side. for example. Individual steam-side control is then possible. 18 Group trapping should be avoided.

19) Fig. To obtain perfectly equal surface temperatures in the heating spaces. 19 Series connection of heat exchangers Small identical heat exchangers (such as the steam plates of multi-platen presses) can successfully be connected in series.7. even for very small heat exchangers.2. separate trapping may be the more economical solution. provided that there is a continuous fall from the steam inlet to the trap. there must be no banking-up of condensate in the steam space at all. multi-platen presses) (Fig. In many cases.g. 30 .3 Drainage of several heat exchangers connected in series (e. Because steam losses then occur. this can only be prevented by means of a certain steam leakage through the trap (BK regulated correspondingly).

however. 20) Fig. the medium to be heated is water. be considered that this may cause waterhammer. saturated steam and condensate in turn.8 Banking-Up of Condensate (Pros and Cons) 2.8. It must.2 Banking-up of condensate in the heat exchanger will improve fuel economy by saving steam.1 Banking-up of condensate in the heating exchanger reduces the rate of heat transfer (Fig. 2. This results in the following heat transition coefficients: For superheated steam k ~ 92 W/m2K (335 kJ/m2hK) For saturated steam k ~ 1160 W/m2K (4187 kJ/m2hK) For condensate k ~ 400 W/m2K (1465 kJ/m2hK) The rate of heat transfer for saturated steam is about 12 times greater than for superheated steam and about 4 times greater than for condensate.8.2. Example: The heating surface is heated up with superheated steam. 20 Heating with superheated steam and banking-up of condensate The above drawing shows the heat exchange and temperature gradient in a steam-heated water heater (counterflow heat exchanger). 31 .

The condensate may then be sucked back into the heating space or not completely discharged. When the plant is restarted. the steam flows across the water surface.9 Measures for Preventing Waterhammer 2. b) Installation of a GESTRA DISCO non-return valve as a vacuum breaker prevents the formation of vacuum. the installation of a DISCO non-return valve downstream of the steam trap is recommended. 21 Waterhammer in heat exchangers 32 . condenses suddenly and causes waterhammer. If the condensate line is under pressure.9. The condensate cannot be sucked back. Fig. and the remaining condensate will flow off. Waterhammer is therefore avoided. 21.2.1 Condensate-free heating surfaces through proper installation (Figs. 22 and 23) a) If the steam supply is cut off. vacuum is formed in the steam space as the remaining steam condenses.

Measures for preventing waterhammer. pressure in heat exchanger at low load < 1 bar absolute). and that an additional pressure head is provided by installing the trap at a lower point.g. If it is possible that a vacuum may form in the heat exchanger. since at low load conditions the pressure upstream of the trap might be extremely low (even vacuum). Waterhammer can occur if part of the heating surface is flooded. Differential pressure for steam trap too low. Use only float traps of the type UNA Duplex. or opens with too high undercooling). Inadequate steam trap (e. 22 Waterhammer in horizontal heat exchangers controlled on the steam side. Waterhammer is avoided if the condensate is completely discharged from the heating surface at all load conditions (no banking-up).g.Fig. causing waterhammer. 33 . condensate discharge not instantaneous. Ensure that the trap is large enough. Possible causes for banking-up.g. The condensate cools down. back pressure in condensate line downstream of trap > 1 bar absolute. insufficient trap size). Trap operation imperfect (e. trap does not open. wrong working principle. This leads to steam bubbles in the condensate which condense abruptly. and so the steam flows across the cold water surface. The latter requires that there is no building-up of back pressure and no lifting of condensate downstream of the trap. the installation of a vacuum breaker (non-return valve RK) on the steam main downstream of the controller is recommended. to ensure instantaneous condensate discharge without banking-up. because of too high a pressure drop across the heat exchanger at low load conditions (e.

no formation of water pockets) Fig. 23. Fit a drainage pocket at least every 100 m along the steam main.9. 23b. 23 Undesired formation of water pockets 2.3 Dry steam piping and steam manifolds (steam consumption from manifolds or piping always from the top.2 “Dry” condensate lines (sufficient fall. and also wherever the main rises. Fig. 23a. with installation of a steam drier if necessary) (see Figs. proper drainage.9.2. 23a Drainage and steam consumption from steam header 34 . 24 and 30).

Fig. 23b Steam-line drainage D1 mm D2 mm 50 50 65 80 100 65 80 80 125 150 80 100 200 150 250 300 150 200 350 200 400 200 450 250 500 250 600 250 35 .

When the valve is reopened. the line should be drained. by means of float traps type UNA! 2. 36 .9. the steam remaining in the line condenses.9. and here in particular hot-water heat exchangers controlled on the steam side. 25) Fig. even if it is relatively short. b) If the run of the pipe cannot be changed.5 Buffer vessels and water seals if condensate is lifted (Fig. b) The remedy is to install a condensate dampening pot. The result is waterhammer. which by its cushioning effect neutralizes the waterhammer.Fig. 24 Waterhammer in steam lines a) Whenever the stop valve is closed.4 Steam traps in continuous operation Thermostatic steam traps often discharge the condensate intermittently and are therefore only to be recommended for low condensate flowrates. The condensate collects in the lower part of the line and cools down. It is advisable to drain heat exchangers. the inflowing steam meets the condensate. 2. 25 Waterhammer if condensate is lifted a) Waterhammer often occurs if condensate if lifted.

2. b) Waterhammer will be avoided if the condensate is sent to the condensate tank via separate headers.6 Proper planning and arrangement of the various condensate branches and the header (Figs. 26 and 27) a) The condensate from the heat exchanger on the far end cools down strongly on its way to the condensate tank. The condensate with the flash steam from the heat exchangers that are closer to the condensate tank mixes with this cold condensate.9. 26 Waterhammer in condensate lines Fig. The flash steam condenses abruptly and waterhammer will result. Condensate from heat exchangers using different steam pressures should also be fed to the condensate tank by separate headers. Fig. 27 The condensate from the various steam traps should be fed into the header in the direction of flow 37 .

35 2.10.27 2.41 3.20 2.94 17.53 3.52 5.21 1.12 5. 50 % (disadvantageous for e.25 5.48 20.82 11. rotating drying cylinders) (Figs.04 5.65 1. ts Saturated steam temperature [°C] 120. presses.10 Air or other non-condensable gases in the steam reduce the temperature and heating capacity of heat exchangers.62 158.23 133.82 23.54 143. 3 and 28).87 1. 29. 29a) Fig. the heating capacity drops by approx. 38 . For an air percentage of 10 %.50 17.06 10.40 5.32 3.02 2.09 3.16 20. 29 Venting of evaporators heated with flash steam Small and medium-sized heat exchangers are adequately vented through steam traps with additional automatic air-venting.02 21.34 1.38 10.71 6.06 2. 28 P Gauge pressure with pure steam [barg] 1 2 3 5 10 15 20 1% Percentage of air in steam by volume 3% 6% 9% 12 % 15 % Necessary gauge pressure for air-contaminated steam [barg] 1.1 Large steam spaces may require separate air vents (Fig.06 11. and may lead to uneven temperatures.2.84 Fig.11 15.18 10.84 184.03 3.60 11.70 16.g.19 3.36 214.34 15.09 16.58 22.07 1.20 22.05 201.13 2.70 2.

29a For larger vessels 2 or more vents necessary.a) Heat exchangers with tube bundles b) Jacketed heat exchangers c) Autoclaves Fig. 39 .

Selection of Steam Traps (For the sizing of steam traps.3.3 3. and appropriate layout of heat exchanger and pipelines to avoid waterhammer).2 3. even higher. 28). the steam trap should drain the condensate promptly so that it cannot waterlog the heating surface.4 3. Normally. controlled plants). so that part of the sensible heat of the condensate can be utilized. 3. The design of the steam traps should allow condensate discharge with a certain amount of undercooling.5 40 . the capacity characteristics of heat exchanger and steam trap should be compared. see Section 12. If the plant is operated with varying pressure (e. This point has to be considered particularly with thermodynamic disc-type traps and inverted-bucket traps.g. The traps should not be oversized either.g. the inevitable consequences being waterhammer and a reduction in the heating capacity. 3. provided the system permits (heating surface large enough. The steam trap should provide automatic air-venting during operation.1 The trap should be sized so that even the peak condensate flow is discharged properly. The degree of undercooling allowable depends on the desired temperature of the product to be heated. An insufficiently sized trap leads to banking-up of condensate. which may lead to waterhammer. controlled plants) or.2) Great care should be taken in choosing the steam trap best suited for a particular application. MK with “U” capsule and UBK). The capacity characteristic of the steam trap must be at least equal to that of the heat exchanger at the possible service pressures (e. They would then have a tendency towards overcontrolling and intermittent operation. Suitable traps from the GESTRA range are: BK with large undercooling adjustment. Air in the steam space will prolong the heating-up period and reduce the heating capacity during normal operation (see Fig. if possible.

5 4.2 4. Horizontal Heaters Air Conditioning Plants Air heaters controlled on the steam side Air humidifiers Storage Calorifiers. Convectors for Space Heating Unit Air Heaters Air heaters.9 4.8.4 4.10.2 Steam Headers – see Section 4.1 4.4 4.10 4.8 4. Radiant Panels.6 4.5 4.10.11 . The Most Common Steam Trap Applications Selecting the Most Suitable Steam Trap Steam Piping Steam driers (steam separators) Saturated steam mains (without steam separator) Superheated steam mains Pressure regulators – see Section 4.6.3 4.1 Heating Coils. Controlled Horizontal counterflow heat exchangers Vertical counterflow heat exchangers Vertical counterflow heat exchangers with use of the sensible heat Process Heat Exchangers Digesters Process digesters and pans (sugar factories.1 Steam Radiators.1 4.1 4.4 4.1. chemical industry.3 4.1.2 4.6.Page 4. controlled – see Section 4.1 4.4.2 4.3 46 47 47 49 48 49 49 50 50 51 51 52 52 53 55 55 56 57 58 59 4.1 4.1 Temperature controllers – see Section 13. Mash Tubs) 43 43 44 45 125 128 43 4. controlled on the air side Air heaters.2 4. cellulose production) Boiling pans with heating coils Jacketed boiling pans Tilting pans Brewing Pans (Coppers.2 4.2 4. Finned-Tube Heaters.7 4.8. Controlled Counterflow Heat Exchangers.1.

2 4.21 4.22 4.17 4.18.18 4.2 4.13 4.26 4.14 4.18.24 4.Page 4.15 4.15. for Cleaning and Pickling) Heating coils with uniform fall and condensate discharge at base Acid baths Band Driers Hot Tables.27 4.20 4.12 4.1 4.19 4. Drying Platens Multi-Platen Presses Multi-platen presses connected in parallel Multi-platen presses connected in series Tyre Presses (Vulcanizing Presses) Vulcanizers Autoclaves Ironing Presses.29 High-Capacity Evaporators Stills Rotating Drying Cylinders Baths and Tanks (e.23 4.g.16 4.25 4.1 4.22 Ironers and Calenders (Hot Mangles) Dry-Cleaning Machines Tracer Lines Jacketed Tracing Lines Instrument Tracing Tank Heating 60 61 62 63 63 64 65 66 67 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 . Garment Presses Steaming Mannequins – see Section 4.28 4.15.

30) Fig.1. If the percentage of water is too high. The Most Common Steam Trap Applications – Selecting the Most Suitable Steam Trap 4. in air-conditioning plants etc. Special requirements of the trap: The condensate. waterhammer may be caused in the steam main. 43 . 30 GESTRA steam separator drained by a UNA 2 steam trap Steam that is not superheated (i. wet steam and contains a certain quantity of water droplets in suspension which reduce its heating capacity. in fact.1 Steam Piping 4. which is very close to saturation temperature. Too high a moisture content may also be undesirable for ironing presses. It is necessary to use float traps. should be discharged instantly.e. saturated steam) is always.4. Furthermore. the steam trap should air-vent the steam line automatically.1 Steam driers (steam separators) (Fig.

alternatively for small condensate flowrates during continuous operation.1). Drain points should be provided. at the steam distribution manifold and. the MK with U capsule or the BK with undercooling adjustment (∆t max. on the other hand.In continuous operation. or if the steam is to be injected into the product). the installation of a free-drainage valve (manually or automatically operated) of the type AK 45 is recommended to discharge the large start-up load and to blow the dirt directly to drain. depending on the pipeline insulation.UNA Duplex for vertical installation. During plant operation. For large mains and long lines. Quite often. . BK and MK with N capsule.During start-up.g. if the steam is generated in a coiltype boiler. but a few metres away. the trap – in outdoor plants at least – should drain the pipeline and itself to avoid freezing. which will remove the water droplets and lead them to the trap. the usual drainage of the steam main by means of a steam trap is not sufficient.2 Saturated steam mains (without steam separator) The steam trap by itself can only remove the condensate formed in the steam line. large amounts of condensate are formed. If the trap is not installed close to the drainage point of the steam main. The latter requires a steam separator (see Section 4. the trap should air-vent the plant and simultaneously discharge the relatively large condensate load at rather low differential pressures without too much delay. small amounts of condensate are continuously being formed. Recommended traps: . in the case of horizontal lines.g. the use of a steam separator operating on the centrifugal principle is recommended. If the traps discharge into the open by way of exception. . In these cases (e.1. During warming-up of the pipeline (start-up). the flash steam formed may be a nuisance. 4. 44 . a water pocket (e. at the end of the line. in front of risers. at regular distances of not more than 100 m (300 ft) (see Figs. 23 and 24). a T-piece) should be provided (see Fig.Recommended equipment: UNA Duplex ball float trap and GESTRA steam separator type TD.1. 23). small amounts of condensate are continuously being formed at almost saturation temperature. 30 – 40 K) may be used. the low pressures then prevailing in the line further impede the process. Special requirements of the trap: .During periods of shut-down. but not the water droplets in suspension in the steam. for instance at low points. For effective steam-line drainage.

e. . when the steam flowrate along the main is very small. 45 . steam-tight closure and. if only for short periods: UNA or BK with factory setting. From this moment.If. the "normal" steam trap will ensure condensate discharge and air-venting. Condensate is formed only during start-up of the plant and whenever there is no or very little steam consumption. are the lower the shorter the condensate line is upstream of the trap. only start-up drainage is needed in frost-proof areas. and consequently also the amount of flash steam formed. The trap should therefore be installed as close as possible to the steam main.1. reduce only the superheat temperature. with the condensate line and steam trap sufficiently insulated. This is of particular importance for open-air discharge. If the steam main operates at its design flowrate and no condensate is expected to be formed. For relatively large condensate flowrates at very low pressures during start-up. as a rule. i. even during continuous operation.Large flowrate during start-up (high cold-water capacity) at relatively low pressures and a good air-venting capability. During start-up. the GESTRA valve type AK is of particular advantage. The amount of condensate. Fig. the condensate formed in the pipe leading to the trap may be discharged at a temperature which just prevents freezing. 31 Special requirements of the trap: . Heat losses through the pipeline. In outdoor plants which may freeze. condensate may form in the superheated steam line.If condensate is only formed during start-up: BK with undercooling adjustment.4.3 Superheated steam mains Normally no condensate is formed during continuous operation. the AK is completely open and does not close unless the preset differential pressures reached. as the low discharge temperature reduces the unwanted flashing to a minimum (Fig. 31). Recommended traps: . The amount of condensate reaching the trap during continuous operation depends solely on the heat losses of the line leading to the trap. if required. condensate discharge with more undercooling but ensuring large cold-water capacity.

in addition.1. sufficient flowrate even at an extremely low pressure head . For higher pressures: MK 35/32 with U capsule . which will lead to steam savings.g. flash steam reduced from a higher pressure range) are advantageous from a hygienic and physiological viewpoint.If a condensate discharge temperature as low as 85 °C is acceptable (sufficiently large heating surface and no danger of waterhammer): UBK 46 . at least for higher pressures.At higher pressures.BK with large undercooling adjustment . they can be partly flooded with condensate. Finned-Tube Heaters. Radiant Panels.2 4.1 “Steam Piping” Steam Radiators. Special requirements of the trap: . 4.4 Pressure regulators – see Section 13.2 4.For low-pressure plants: MK 20.g.Corrosion-resistant internals Recommended traps: .. The reduction in the heating temperature is not normally important. If the heating services are adequately sized (overdimensioned).1. 32 Low heating temperatures with the correspondingly low vapour pressures (e. 32) Fig.In outdoor plants which may freeze. condensate discharge with a certain amount of undercooling .5 Temperature controllers – see Section 13.3 Steam Headers – see Section 4.Unaffected by dirt (e.In low-pressure plants. Convectors for Space Heating (Fig . the AK and the condensate line should be insulated.1 4. the condensate line immediately upstream of the AK should be drained and. particles of rust forming during intermittent operation and long periods of shutdown of the heating installation during the summer) .

even at a low pressure head .In plants with medium heating-steam pressures. UNA Duplex .In low-pressure plants. In this case. the steam trap must be able to discharge the condensate with undercooling. in general. 33) Fig. the pressure in the steam space may vary considerably (the pressure drops with increasing condensate load). In air heaters heated with low-pressure steam. either very high or very low condensate loads are to be expected. Recommended traps: . the trap should air-vent the plant automatically.4. A prerequisite here. is that the heating capacity of the air heater is still adequate and that the heating plates are arranged to prevent waterhammer (vertically). for instance by switching the fan on and off.4 Unit Air Heaters 4.4. In both cases.MK 45-2. Special requirements of the trap: . in which it is possible to use the sensible heat of the condensate through banking-up. however.1 Air heaters.MK with U capsule 47 . controlled on the air side (Fig. 33 Separate space heaters or unit heaters (not including those in air conditioning plants or for air preheating in manufacturing and drying plants) are. a relatively large flowrate. At higher steam pressures. controlled on the air side only. an additional utilization of the sensible heat of the condensate in the air heater through banking-up is advantageous if it is not used otherwise in operation.

Groups of heaters should be connected in parallel and drained separately (see Section 2.Automatic air-venting Recommended traps: . 34) Fig. even for high ambient temperatures (e. Special requirements of the trap: . Horizontal Heaters (Fig.Discharge of the condensate without banking-up. controlled.5 Heating Coils.2 Air heaters.4.MK with N capsule (MK with H capsules for large flowrates). installation close to the heater) .4.7).6 “Air Conditioning Plants”. 34 To avoid waterhammer. the pipe run between the steam inlet and steam trap must be arranged to fall in the direction of flow. See Section 4. 4.g. UNA Duplex 48 .

8. flowrate) to avoid the accumulation of condensate.6 Air Conditioning Plants (Fig. Controlled”): The pressure in the steam space and the condensate load may vary considerably.The steam trap should air-vent the plant automatically.4. the steam trap must immediately respond to varying operating conditions (pressure. both at start-up and in continuous operation. This requires a sufficient pressure head (no back pressure). To avoid thermal stratification in the heated air and also to prevent waterhammer.1 Air heaters controlled on the steam side For air heaters controlled on the steam side.As with all controlled systems. . the condensate should drain by gravity. Air will then enter the steam space and will have to be discharged rapidly when the heating capacity has to be increased again. bankingup of condensate must be avoided even at low load. and at low-load conditions even a vacuum may form at times. 35 4.UNA Duplex. 35) Fig. Recommended traps: . “Counterflow Heat Exchangers.6. Special requirements of the trap: . the condensate that is formed must be discharged.Even at a very low pressure head. the following applies with regard to condensate discharge (see also Section 4. . MK with N capsule (MK with H capsules for large flowrates) 49 .

because air may enter the calorifier during periods of low load.7 Storage Calorifiers. which is practically at saturation temperature. Recommended traps: . the heating process is also intermittent. for heating water (Fig. Consequently. Special requirements of the trap: The condensate. also MK with N capsule 4. MK with N capsule (MK with H capsules for large flowrates) 50 . Therefore.Immediate response to large fluctuations in pressure and flowrate .If there is a cooling leg. To avoid waterhammer during low-load operation – where even a vacuum may form – the condensate should be allowed to drain by gravity (no back pressure).Good air-venting capacity. should be discharged without any delay (no banking-up).UNA Duplex. the steam should be dry. but more or less intermittently.Relatively large flowrate at a very low pressure head Recommended traps: .4.UNA Duplex .2 Air humidifiers To obtain a uniform air humidity without droplets of water. Controlled E. this air will have to be discharged when the load is increased again.1. . it should be dried mechanically before being fed to the steam pipe (jet tube) (see Section 4.g.1 “Steam driers”). 36) Fig. Periods with a very light condensate load (to make up the heat losses) at a very low pressure head alternate with periods of very heavy load at the maximum pressure head. 36 Warm water is not withdrawn continually.6. Special requirements of the trap: .

The condensate flowrate varies accordingly. 37 These heat exchangers operate over the whole pressure range. The extremely low operating pressures that are possible make drainage of the condensate by gravity desirable. the capacity of the heat exchanger in the low-load range has to be compared with the capacity of the trap at the reduced operating pressure. Assumed condensate flowrate for trap sizing = max.8. Banking-up of condensate can also be caused if the steam trap is too small. Controlled 4.4. For sizing the trap. If this rule is not followed. if only for short moments and up to the maximum admissible pressures. If the data for low load cannot be obtained. 21 and 22). not only upstream but also downstream of the trap. the following rule of thumb can be applied: Effective differential pressure (working pressure) is approximately 50 % of the service pressure. Special requirements of the trap: No noticeable banking-up of condensate at all operating conditions.1 Horizontal counterflow heat exchangers (Fig. perfect operation even in the vacuum range. Back pressure on the trap or lifting of the condensate is not recommended. waterlogging of the heating surface during periods of low load may cause waterhammer (see also Figs. 37) Fig. besides considering the maximum flowrate at the maximum admissible pressure.8 Counterflow Heat Exchangers. The trap has to be suitable for the worst possible conditions.UNA Duplex 51 . Recommended traps: . automatic air-venting at start-up and during continuous operation. flowrate to be expected at full load of heat exchanger. relatively large flowrate at low pressures. from very low pressures (light load) down to vacuum.

In vertical heat exchangers. Quite often the heat output of the heat exchanger is controlled through a change in the size of the heating surface (more or less banking-up) by means of a temperature control valve fitted in the condensate outlet (see Fig. free passage as far as possible (little flow resistance). a constant level can be maintained by a float trap functioning as the level controller (see Fig. Special requirements of the trap: Control on the steam side: . waterhammer will not normally occur. depending on load.4.3 Vertical counterflow heat exchangers with use of the sensible heat In horizontal heat exchangers. 38). closed at saturation temperature. waterlogging of the heating surface tends to produce waterhammer. during start-up. 4.At low condensate temperatures. If the heat exchanger is controlled on the steam side. live steam can be prevented from passing (e. Fig. The sensible heat of the condensate may be used directly by flooding part of the heating surface. at full load or on failure of the regulator). by fitting a steam trap upstream of the temperature controller. If the heat exchanger is controlled on the condensate side.8. even if the heating surface is flooded.g.Maintenance of a given constant condensate level Control on the condensate side: . at the latest 52 . at least in cases where the steam is flowing through the tubes.2 Vertical counterflow heat exchangers No special measures need be taken.8. 38 Constant pressure in the heating space Varying amounts of condensate accumulation. 16).

the recommendations given for controlled counterflow units apply as appropriate (see Section 4.Control on the steam side: UNA Duplex . see Fig.For air-venting: MK or. It is therefore only possible to give a few basic hints. BK 4.Control on the condensate side: MK with N capsule or BK . Banking-up of condensate reduces the heating capacity. Recommended traps: . U-tube Fig. 38). The steam space has to be provided with a separate air vent. Vertical heat exchangers with the heating steam flowing through the tube bundle operate without waterhammer. 53 .9 Process Heat Exchangers Heat exchangers (preheaters) are used for heating the most varied products continuously flowing through them. 37 and 39).Additional requirement: As the condensate level has to be constantly maintained. The steam supply pressures vary. As far as controlled heat exchangers are concerned. The rated capacity of a heat exchanger is generally based on calculations assuming that the heating surface is completely filled with steam. for superheated steam. The heat exchangers may be controlled as a function of the product outlet temperature or sometimes operated without any control. 39 bundles have less tendency to waterhammer (see Figs. the air in the steam space can no longer escape by the condensate line. even if condensate is banked up (for an example. Therefore steam traps should be used which discharge the condensate without any banking-up. depending on the product temperature required. Horizontal heat exchangers with the heating steam flowing through the tubes tend to produce waterhammer if condensate is banked up. This point has to be considered when choosing and sizing the traps for all types of heaters.8). Heat exchangers with the product to be heated flowing through the tube bundle and the steam circulating around the individual tubes also normally have no tendency to waterhammer.

if banking-up is undesirable: . banking-up of condensate allowable or even desirable. controlled or uncontrolled).UNA Duplex.In any case. if banking-up is desirable: . MK with N capsule (MK with H capsules for large flowrates) For uncontrolled preheaters. Recommended traps: For controlled preheaters: .MK with N capsule.These depend on the individual operating conditions (pressure.Special requirements of the trap: . UNA Duplex For uncontrolled preheaters. .MK with U capsule. BK with large undercooling adjustment 54 . flowrate. the steam trap should air-vent the preheaters automatically.

10. If the boiling process is not also an evaporation process (e. in general. cellulose digesters). the standard staged nozzle trap GK will do the job. air-venting through the steam trap alone may not be sufficient.Perfect discharge of very high condensate flowrates. MK with N capsule 55 .g.A separate air vent should be fitted to the steam space. the steam consumption and consequently the amount of condensate formed are. .As air vent. . otherwise TK. sugar boiling pans). only the heat lost by radiation has to be replaced. The steam space has to be air-vented separately by thermostatic traps.For sugar pans and similar heat exchangers with very little pressure head and no excessive differences in flowrate between the heating-up and boiling processes. This is of the utmost importance if the heating steam contains a large percentage of incondensable gases (for instance. Recommended equipment: . the flowrate during the heating-up process (possibly even at lower pressures) being a multiple of that formed during the boiling process Additional requirement: . sugar boiling pans heated with beet-juice vapour containing a considerable percentage of ammonia).g.10 Digesters 4.g.For higher pressures. UNA Duplex. chemical industry. if the product is boiled and evaporated in one process (e. sugar factories. the steam consumption and condensate flowrate remain quite high. Special requirements of the trap: .1 Process digesters and pans (e. several times those during the boiling process. However. 40) Fig.4. cellulose production) (Fig. Compared to the starting condensate load – quite often even larger because of the low initial temperature of the product – the amount of condensate formed when boiling is extremely small. 40 During heating-up of a process batch. Considering the size of the heating surface.

This point should be considered when choosing and sizing the trap. The steam trap should also air-vent the boiling pan automatically.At low pressures and up to medium flowrates: MK 20. otherwise MK with N capsule 56 . otherwise the time required for heating-up will be longer.10.Large start-up load . 41 The same considerations apply to all boiling processes: The amount of condensate formed during heating-up is a multiple of that formed during the boiling process. Special requirements of the trap: .Good air-venting capacity Recommended traps: .2 Boiling pans with heating coils (Fig.4. 41) Fig. particularly as banking-up of condensate caused by an insufficient flowrate might lead to waterhammer.

Special requirements of the trap: . a considerable amount of air has to be discharged during start-up.MK with H capsule or N capsule 57 .RK as vacuum breaker Venting: . 42) Fig.At extremely low steam pressures (< 0.10.1). Recommended traps. a steam trap with automatic air-venting capacity is sufficient.MK with N capsule .Large start-up and air-venting capacity Additional requirement: .10. a separate air vent should be fitted to the steam space. a thermostatic trap should be fitted as a separate air vent. To prevent the jacket collapsing if a vacuum is formed. For small boiling pans. a GESTRA DISCO non-return valve RK should be used as vacuum breaker.In the case of large boiling pans. also as air vents: . provide a vacuum breaker if it is possible that a vacuum may form.4. 42 The condensate load is highest during heating-up and lowest during the boiling process (see also Section 4. For large boiling pans.3 Jacketed boiling pans (Fig. Because of the large steam space.5 barg ): UNA Duplex .

This process requires a trap with a constant and sufficiently large pressure head which if necessary must be produced artificially (e. Recommended traps: .10. 43 The condensate is drained via a siphon which starts at the bottom of the steam jacket.UNA 14/16 Simplex R with venting pipe .RK as vacuum breaker Venting: .g.4. . The condensate must be lifted to the rotating joint of the pan and hence flow towards the trap.4 Tilting pans (Fig.Arrange air venting opposite to steam inlet. Special requirements of the trap: .For large boiling pans at least.MK with H capsule or N capsule 58 . using a bypass for a float trap). .Generation of a sufficient pressure head (the trap should not shut off tight) and good air-venting capacity Additional requirement: .10.Provide a vacuum breaker for the reasons mentioned in Section 4. 43) Fig.3. a thermostatic trap should be fitted as air vent.

4.High steam consumption during heating-up. Special requirements of the trap: . 44 These are mainly large jacketed heating pans. whereby the pressure may drop considerably as a result of overloading of the steam system This is followed by a uniform steam consumption at constant pressure during the entire evaporation phase.Particularly good air-venting capacity Additional requirements: .Prevent the formation of vacuum Recommended traps: . .MK with H capsule 59 .Large steam consumption during heating-up. .For large pans: UNA 2 Duplex. large-capacity trap with thermostatic pilot control TK . Characteristics of the brewing process: .Separate air-venting of the heating surface with thermostatic traps (type MK) .alternating with relatively low consumption during cooking. frequently with various heating zones and different steam pressures. Characteristics of the mashing process: .For small and medium pans: UNA 14/16 Duplex. In both cases.RK as vacuum breaker Venting: . a large amount of air has to be discharged at start-up.11 Brewing Pans (Coppers. Mash Tubs) (Fig.Discharge of very large condensate flowrates without any banking-up. 44) Fig. to avoid waterhammer and to obtain the full heating capacity at each stage of the evaporation process .

multiple-effect evaporation plant (e. 45 Besides distilling (see Section 4. This can be effected in a continuous.Discharge of large flowrates. so that air-venting – even with batch evaporation – by the steam traps without causing steam losses is very difficult. there are many industries where evaporation processes are necessary to boil down (i. 45) Fig. from an evaporator stage operating at higher pressure – can be reused as heating steam having a correspondingly high percentage of gas. It is therefore recommended that thermostatic traps be fitted as additional air vents. proper air-venting of the steam space is of the utmost importance.g. and then remains relatively constant. Batch evaporation is different: the condensate load during heating-up is considerably larger (depending on the initial temperature of the product to be heated) than during the evaporation phase.12 High-Capacity Evaporators (Fig. sugar factory) or in batches.e.4. often at a very low pressure head .13) and brewing (see Section 4. To obtain maximum evaporation capacity.Good air-venting capacity Additional requirement: . the vapours of the product to be evaporated – e. During continuous evaporation. b) The steam space is relatively large.Separate air-venting of the steam space 60 . the following has to be considered: a) In the case of the continuous process. In this connection.g. concentrate) the product by evaporating part of its liquid content. apart from the start-up phase.11). the condensate load remains stable at a relatively constant pressure head. Special requirements of the trap: .

UNA Duplex.RK as vacuum breaker Venting: . 4.13 Stills (Fig. robust and simple design).A frequent change of the batches requires perfect start-up venting of the still. UNA 2 Duplex .As air vent. fit a separate air vent and vacuum breaker.The trap should drain the condensate as it forms.If required. . UNA 14/16.For the continuous evaporation process. 46) Fig.MK with H capsule or N capsule 61 . . the type GK can be used (manual stage nozzle. Even the slightest banking-up of condensate may considerably affect the capacity of small stills. MK with N capsule. .For high pressures.MK with N capsule. 46 To obtain maximum evaporation capacity. which is of particular importance for small stills and is complicated by the fact that the condensate is relatively hot (very little undercooling). Special requirements of the trap: .Recommended traps: . the TK is better suited (thermostatic pilot control permits automatic adaptation to varying operating conditions).For the batch evaporation process. . the heating surface should always be kept free of condensate. Recommended traps: . such as those used in the pharmaceutical industry for the production of essences and in laboratories. Additional requirement: .

an adequate pressure drop towards the trap must be provided to ensure that the condensate is lifted out of the cylinder. This can only be obtained by trouble-free condensate drainage from the cylinder. 62 . Air concentrations in the cylinder must be avoided. This can be done with the BK through adjustment for a certain steam leakage and with the UNA through internal or external bypass. 47) Fig. is important. The condensate is lifted from the cylinder by a bucket or a siphon pipe.g. for paper machines.4. a standard thermostatic trap (MK) is normally adequate. the trap must ensure a constant pressure drop (i. 47 For drying and glazing processes. For low-speed machines in laundries etc. the steam trap and the pipeline leading to the trap must be able to take up the whole bucket contents. Special requirements of the trap: . corrugated-cardboard machines) (Fig. particularly during start-up.e. exact and uniform maintenance of the required cylinder surface temperature is of prime importance. must not close during operation) and must permit a slight leakage of live steam. particularly at higher cylinder speeds. calenders.For cylinders with siphon drainage. it is necessary to ensure a certain leakage of steam in relation to the rotational speed. If the cylinder is provided with a siphon. as they would lead to a local reduction in heating temperature and consequently lower surface temperatures. If a bucket is used for condensate handling. For high-speed machines.Automatic air-venting at start-up and during continuous operation . in order to prevent formation of a condensate film. Efficient air-venting of the cylinder.14 Rotating Drying Cylinders (e.

see GESTRA Vaposcope). To prevent banking-up of condensate. 48) With this arrangement. For temperature-controlled baths. it is required that the traps do not close when faulty. Recommended traps: . with lifting lever and sightglass cover. waterhammer does not normally occur.The steam trap should be monitored for banking-up of condensate through a sightglass (to be installed upstream of the trap.These depend on the operation of the heat exchanger (controlled or uncontrolled). this is the only recommended arrangement of the heating coils. Recommended traps: . . if necessary with internal or external bypass. In some cases.For simple. the pressure in the heating coil may drop to vacuum.g.15.Additional requirements: . when the control valve is throttled strongly. for cleaning and pickling) Fig.1 Heating coils with uniform fall and condensate discharge at base (Fig. the following applies to controlled plants: At low heating capacities.For controlled heating processes: UNA Duplex. manually controlled heating processes: BK. In general. 48 4.UNA Duplex. 4. MK with N capsul. Special requirements of the trap: . MK with N capsule 63 .15 Baths and Tanks (e. the condensate should drain by gravity (no back pressure).

49b). which might cause waterhammer by an abrupt stop or start of the flow Recommended traps: .MK with N capsule 64 .4.BK (if the plant layout is unfavourable. it suffices to provide a loop seal (see Fig. To prevent waterhammer.No intermittent operation. 49 b) For safety reasons. For small-sized pipes.15.2 Acid baths a) Fig. the heating coil must not be led through the wall of the vat. Special requirements of the trap: . the tendency to waterhammer may be eliminated by special adjustment of the trap) . the condensate should fall towards a compensator (see Fig. The condensate must be lifted (immersion heater principle). 49a).

which is frequently requested. UNA Duplex 65 .Condensate discharge without any banking-up at relatively high ambient temperatures . it may be useful to heat an additional heating unit (e. Special requirements of the trap: . When choosing the steam trap. the small space available for installation should be considered as well as the fact that the fitting of the steam traps inside the machine casing.Small dimensions Recommended traps: .4. results in relatively high ambient temperatures.g. 50) Fig.16 Band Driers (Fig. inlet section) with the flash steam or even with all the condensate formed in the other heaters. 50 To obtain the rated drying capacity (guaranteed performance). This implies that the heating surfaces are completely filled with steam and there is no banking-up of condensate and no air in the steam spaces (efficient air-venting).If there is sufficient space available. The heating units require individual drainage by means of an appropriate trap.Automatic air-venting .MK with N capsule . If the flash steam cannot be utilized anywhere else in the plant. it is essential that the individual heating units can produce the maximum heat.

g. This prevents the various sections interfering with each other (e. 51) Fig. To attain a heating performance which is equivalent to that of a parallel arrangement. the single steam trap cannot air-vent the sections efficiently. Furthermore.17 Hot Tables. Drying Platens (Fig. condensate accumulates in heating platen at the end of the system.MK with N capsule .Condensate discharge without banking-up at relatively high temperatures . which may cause a reduction in the surface temperature. at least “blow-through” steam traps are needed. as a result of the different pressure drops). If they are connected in series. 51 These are used in many different process plants for drying and heating.4.UNA Duplex 66 . which is often the case. The best method of achieving this is to connect the different sections in parallel and to provide a separate steam supply and steam trap for each section. The maintenance of uniform surface temperatures which may have to be varied is of fundamental importance. Special requirements of the trap: .Efficient air-venting Recommended traps: .

52) 4. lower heating temperature than steam). the steam pressure in all platens must be equal (no air inclusions reducing the partial steam pressure) and the steam space must be free of condensate (poor heat transmission.18.MK with N capsule . 52 These presses require uniform and equal temperatures over the complete surfaces of individual platens. Recommended traps: . The faster this is done at start-up. The letter requires a free flow of the condensate towards the trap. To avoid banking-up of condensate. Special requirements of the trap: . the steam trap must drain the condensate practically at saturation temperature.1 Multi-platen presses connected in parallel Fig. which means that the individual heating surfaces must be fed with steam of the same heating capacity.4.UNA Duplex 67 . There is no guarantee that the pressure drop across the various platens is the same.18 Multi-Platen Presses (Fig. it must air-vent the plant properly. The steam should therefore be dry (drainage of steam main).As the condensate is to be discharged without any banking-up. the shorter the heating-up period. each parallel heating surface should be drained by its own trap. At the same time.

4.18.2 Multi-platen presses connected in series (Fig. 53)

Fig. 53 As already explained in Section 4.18.1, the drainage of heating platens connected in parallel by a single trap is problematic, as this may lead to banking-up of condensate in the individual platens and consequently to a reduction in the surface temperatures. Small heating platens may be connected in series, provided the condensate is free to flow towards the trap. Special requirements of the trap: - The trap must discharge the condensate as it forms, so that banking-up of condensate in heating space is reliably avoided. Recommended traps: - MK with N capsule - UNA 14/16 Duplex


4.19 Tyre Presses (Vulcanizing Presses) (Fig. 54)

Fig. 54 For vulcanizing, uniform surface temperatures are absolutely vital. This necessitates feeding of the heating surface with pure steam only (no condensate in the steam space), equal steam pressures in the individual sections (same temperature drop) and no air inclusions in the steam (impairing the heat transfer). The layout of the press, the steam line and the condensate line should guarantee a free flow of the condensate. Good steam distribution giving equal steam pressures in the individual sections is not possible unless the sections are connected in parallel. To avoid banking-up of condensate, each section should be drained by its own trap. Special requirements of the trap: - Condensate discharge without banking-up, but also without loss of live steam - Good air-venting capacity (for short heating-up periods) Recommended traps: - MK with N capsule


4.20 Vulcanizers (Fig. 55)

Fig. 55 The jacket and the steam-injected vulcanizing chamber require separate drainage. Draining the jacket is no particular problem. In general, any steam trap with good air-venting capacity will do the job satisfactorily. The vulcanizing chamber must be drained (see Section 4.21 “Autoclaves”) without any condensate remaining. In addition, when selecting the steam trap, it should be noted that the condensate may be acidic. Separate air-venting of the large chamber by means of a thermostatic trap is recommended, even if the air is initially vented through a manually operated valve. Special requirements of the trap: - Drainage of the chamber without any banking-up of condensate - Resistant to acid condensate Additional requirement: - Efficient air-venting of the steam spaces, whereby the vulcanizing chamber should be vented separately Recommended traps: - For the jacket: MK, BK - For the vulcanizing chamber: MK with N capsule, BK, UNA Duplex For contaminated condensate, UNA Duplex is the better choice. For acid condensate, the particularly robust BK and UNA Duplex completely of austenitic materials (18 % chromium steel) should be used. - As air vent, MK with N capsule or H capsule.


There should not be any condensate in the autoclaves.4.g.Automatic thermostatic air-vent . see Fig.MK with N capsule Fig. Special requirements of the trap: . 56b) Recommended traps: . 56) Fig. the condensate is more or less heavily contaminated.For heavily contaminated condensate. as splashes from the boiling condensate might damage the product and condensate collecting in the bottom of the autoclave may cause high thermal stresses.UNA Duplex . with the low pressures and large amounts of condensate formed.21 Autoclaves (Fig.Condensate discharge without any banking-up. 56a The steam is fed directly into the chamber containing the product. provide a vessel for trapping the dirt particles upstream of the trap (e. 56b 71 . high start-up air-venting capacity Additional requirement: . even at start-up. Frequently. As a rule. settling tank with GESTRA blowdown valve. air accumulations in the relatively large steam space (which may lead to layers of varying temperature) cannot be discharged by the steam trap alone and air vents are also required. unaffected by dirt.

4.22 Ironing Presses, Garment Presses (Fig. 57)

Fig. 57 Here we have to differentiate between presses used only for ironing and those used for ironing and/or steaming. In the first case, only the heating surfaces have to be drained, which presents no real problems. Most important is that the condensate is free to flow towards the trap. Fundamental rule: Each ironing unit is drained by its own trap. Under unfavourable conditions, it may happen that the upper and lower part of a press are not properly drained by a single trap unless the trap is adjusted to pass a slight amount of live steam. As this causes live-steam wastage, it is more economic in the long run to drain each part individually by its own trap. Dry steam is required for the steaming process; if necessary, a steam drier should be mounted upstream of the press. Sudden opening of the steaming valve must not cause carry-over of condensate particles, as this would spoil the garment. If difficulties occur due to a poor plant layout, these may perhaps be compensated by a trap adjusted to pass live steam, which of course leads to steam losses. The replacement of a trap operating entirely without live-steam loss (e.g. in the case of wet ironing presses) by a trap passing live steam in order to change a “wet” press into a “dry” press is therefore not recommended.


Special requirements of the trap: - Operation without steam loss, and as far as possible without banking-up of condensate - Good air-venting capacity, which reduces the heating-up period when starting the unit Additional requirement: - Provide steam driers to obtain dry steam Recommended traps: - MK with N capsule 4.23 Steaming Mannequins (See Section 4.22, steaming process) (Fig. 58)

Fig. 58


4.24 Ironers and Calenders (Hot mangles) (Fig. 59)

Fig. 59 High and uniform temperatures over the whole heating surface are very important. A large drying capacity is also expected (for a high ironing speed). This requires steam traps discharging the condensate as it forms and efficient air-venting of the bed. For multi-bed machines, each bed should be drained separately by its own trap. As the bed is rather wide, even a trap with a good air-venting capacity may not be able to properly air-vent the bed without causing live-steam loss. If air is included in the steam, the temperature drops in some places, mostly at the ends of the bed. Therefore the bed should be air-vented separately at either end by a thermostatic trap. Special requirements of the trap: - Condensate discharge without any banking-up, even at high ambient temperatures, as the steam traps are usually installed within the enclosed machine - Good air-venting capacity, both at start-up and during continuous operation Additional requirement: - Air-venting the beds is of particular importance. Frequently, surface temperatures that are too low can be caused by insufficient air-venting. A good solution is to fit MK traps as thermostatic air vents at both ends of the bed. Recommended traps: - UNA Duplex - MK with N capsule, MK with H capsules for large flowrates (if required for the first bed)


since there may well be dirt (such as welding beads. The batch operation requires rapid discharge of the air entering the machine when it is shut down (reduction of the heating-up times). Particularly in the still. Special requirements of the trap: .25 Dry-Cleaning Machines Condensate distillation Condensate drying Fig.Condensate discharge without banking-up (important for the still). Steam traps ensuring automatic air-venting should therefore be preferred.) still left inside the machine. banking-up of condensate may be undesirable.Unaffected by dirt or protected against dirt particles . automatic air-venting .Unaffected by waterhammer. New machines can also present a problem. as the steam is frequently admitted by solenoid valves Recommended traps: . the steam supply line at its lowest point have to be drained. 59a The air heater. as the distilling time will be extended. the still and.Small dimensions. if possible. scale etc.4.MK with N capsule 75 . installation in any position to be able to fit the traps inside the machine without any difficulty .

76 . The maximum allowable degree of undercooling depends on the minimum product temperature to be maintained. for example. banking-up in the condensate line (reduction of the length of pipe filled with steam) can further limit heat losses. Noticeable heat savings can be obtained by reducing the heat losses of the condensate lines. Fig. because of the many risers and changes in direction. The sum of all rising lines should then not exceed 4 m. the heating steam does not transmit any heat to the product during normal operation. 60 Maximum length of tracer lines The maximum length of the tracer lines depends on the number of risers and water pockets as well as on the number of pipe bends. One point. A tracer line with a relatively straight run might have a length of 80 m (260 ft). the tracer lines must be considerably shorter. 60) In many cases. The condensate flowrate during normal operation is therefore mainly determined by the heat losses (through radiation and convection) of the condensate line between tracer and steam trap. Apart from the obvious methods of good insulation and the shortest possible distance between the product line and steam trap.4.26 Tracer Lines (Fig. including the supply line from the steam header and the length to the condensate header. producing a larger accumulation of condensate with a corresponding undercooling. the product temperature does not fall below the minimum temperature allowable. Steam tracing only ensures that in the case of pump failure. must be considered: in the case of a failure (such as a product pump stopping). however. the condensate flowrate can increase considerably. In process plants.

possibly with large undercooling adjustment . Special requirements of the trap: .UBK for low discharge temperatures > 80 °C. In the case of a high heat load. Each tracer line should not exceed a length of 30 m (100 ft).g.For products with pour points < 0 °C.BK . The amount of steam required for winterizing can be considerably reduced if heating of the product is restricted to periods with actual frost or the risk of frost.27 Jacketed Tracing Lines (Fig. e. Special requirements of the trap: . 61 Jacketed tracing lines are normally used for heating heavy products. a certain amount of banking-up in the condensate line upstream of the trap is advantageous (heat savings) Recommended traps: . the tracer line should be provided with an additional steam trap. The entire heating surface should be fed only with dry steam. 61) Fig.MK with U capsule (t 30 K below saturation temperature) .No banking-up of condensate in the heating surface Recommended traps: . with open condensate discharge 4.MK with N capsule 77 . heating is only required if there is frost.Thermostatic traps only.If the heating process permits. such as BK. such as sulphur and bitumen.

In this case.Discharge of very low flowrates with a high undercooling Recommended traps: . 62 Instrument tracing in refineries and petrochemical plants is characterized by very small condensate flowrates.MK with U capsule (t 30 K below saturation temperature) .28 Instrument Tracing (Fig.UBK with a discharge temperature > 80 °C 78 .4. while often the individual instruments must be heated only to low temperatures. 62) Fig. the effective heating surface should be heated with condensate only. Special requirements of the trap: .

63) Fig.4. 79 . in the form of heating coils or finned-tube heaters with little fall towards the trap. 63 Condensate discharge from heated tanks Tank heating may vary considerably. or vertical as immersion heating elements). Heating may be temperature-controlled or uncontrolled. depending on the size and the purpose of the tank.29 Tank Heating (Fig. Condensate discharge is further influenced by the layout of the heating sections (horizontal. which affects the condensate discharge.

MK with N capsule .TK for large flowrates . Because of the reduced steam flow (perhaps because of a manual control valve heavily throttled). for instance).Ability to withstand frost Recommended traps: .If necessary and required. but on the other hand may cause waterhammer.Discharge of relatively large condensate flowrates. in principle the same applies as for storage calorifiers (see Section 4.For controlled plants: UNA Duplex.For uncontrolled plants: BK. Special requirements of the trap: . which may be desirable for reasons of heat savings (use of the sensible heat of the condensate). vertical heating sections are ideal (no danger of waterhammer). The consequence is banking-up of condensate. discharge of the condensate with undercooling . no back pressure downstream of the trap. the following applies: It is essential that the heating elements and condensate lines to the trap be arranged to maintain a constant fall in the direction of flow. MK with U capsule .7). As regards controlled tank heating (with immersion heat exchangers.Uncontrolled heating is frequently applied if little heat is required to maintain the product storage temperature.Automatic air-venting . a rapid response to fluctuations in pressure and flowrate . It is possible that the small pressure head available may no longer be sufficient to completely discharge the condensate. The condensate line leading to the trap should be arranged to provide a constant fall. also at a low pressure head . The steam trap should be sized to ensure a sufficient flowrate.For controlled tanks. i.e. For the use of the sensible heat of the condensate by banking-up upstream of the trap.MK with H capsules for large flowrates 80 . As a basic rule for uncontrolled heating systems. the pressure in the heating section is decreased considerably.

1. 5.3 5.2 5.1.3 5.4 5.1.1 5.4 Monitoring of Steam Traps Visual Monitoring of the Discharge Checking traps with open discharge by the size of the “steam cloud” Checking with a sightglass downstream of the trap Checking with a sightglass upstream of the trap or with a test set Checking the operation of float traps Checking by Temperature Measurement Checking by Sound Continuous Monitoring of Steam Traps 83 83 84 84 84 86 86 88 .Page 5.1.1 5.2 5.

selection of the valves is a decisive step in successfully implementing the envisaged process. whereas in another the maximum performance of a heat exchanger can only be achieved with the right steam trap. Of making the choice more complex. you can now use our web-based steam trap selection program at www.CAESar selecting & sizing software for Steam Traps In every steam and condensate system. your personal contacts are still available – as always – to give you competent advice and support. t How os N ct the id ele Wal steam tr E e ap Experience In Motion .gestra. An important goal nowadays is also to make the installation “future-proof” by using energy-efficient valves. In one case a steam trap may be needed to drain a steam line. When making these fundamental decisions.

55 m3. since it is not possible to distinguish between flash steam and live steam. Monitoring of Steam Traps Effective checking that steam traps are operating correctly without banking-up or loss of live steam is a subject often discussed. that of saturated steam increases from V1 = 1 m3 to V2 = 9. The many checking methods that are used in practice range from useful to practically useless.1 This involves checking traps with open discharge by the size of the “steam cloud”. Fig.5. they determine the amount of flash steam (see Fig. 83 . This is the most uncertain method. 64 Example For an expansion from p1 = 10 bar to p2 = 0 bar. 5. The size of the steam cloud depends mainly on the service pressure and the amount of condensate formed. that of boiling hot water increases from V1 = 1 m3 to V2 = 245 m (due to the formation of flash steam). 64). the volume of cold water remains practically the same. and that of hot water 20 °C below saturation temperature increases from V1 = 1 m3 to V2 = 189 m3.1 Visual Monitoring of the Discharge 5.1.

so that it is possible to see whether the trap is waterlogged or whether live steam can escape via its orifice. In comparison to sightglasses mounted downstream of the trap.1. the ones mounted upstream must be capable of higher pressures and temperatures. Only with steam traps operating intermittently (e. it is impossible to determine whether live steam is escaping with the condensate or not.2 Checking with a sightglass downstream of the trap. The UNA 23 is available with a sightglass cover. The Vaposcopes available from the GESTRA product range are perfectly suited for visual monitoring of steam traps (see Fig. the installation of a second Vaposcope immediately downstream of the heat exchanger is recommended for the more critical heating processes (see Fig.1. but also the smallest amount of banking-up of condensate.g. there is even less evidence of trap operation. To monitor the heating surface for banking-up. 5. Vaposcopes installed immediately upstream of the trap ensure ideal monitoring of the trap. but not whether live steam is escaping. A properly designed sightglass installed upstream of the trap enables the steam trap to be checked exactly.4 Checking the operation of float traps. This requires high-pressure bodies and glasses of high quality.3 Checking with a sightglass upstream of the trap or with a test set. because in the small sightglass space a small amount of flash steam produces a relatively high flow velocity with the corresponding turbulence. it is only possible to determine whether the trap is open or closing. the same applies as mentioned in Section 5.1. which is an explanation of their higher price. disc-type traps) may it be possible to detect increasing wear over a period resulting in a higher lift frequency of the valve disk. Checking is not masked by flash steam. thermodynamic.1. They then not only reveal the slightest live steam loss. 84 . Banking-up in the condensate line only is of no importance for the heating process. 66). 65). In principle.Particularly at high service pressures. However. 5.1. 5. In the case of steam traps operating intermittently.

65 Functional principle of the GESTRA Vaposcope 85 . it is to be expected that this too will be at least partially filled with water. steam and air are directed through the water seal by the deflector. If the Vaposcope is installed immediately downstream of the heat exchanger. the steam passes over the condensate and depresses the condensate level. fills the space between deflector and water level. The deflector is immersed in the water. Banking-up of condensate The water level is being considerably depressed by passing live steam.Condensate. As the specific gravity of steam is lower than that of condensate. which is invisible. Normal service condition Complete flooding of the Vaposcope indicates banking-up of condensate. The steam. Loss of live steam Fig.

however. The mechanical ultrasonic vibrations generated at the seat or orifice of a steam trap are picked up by the probe of the VKP and converted into electrical signals. 66 The measurement of the temperature in the pipeline upstream of the steam trap is another problematic method frequently applied to heat exchangers where bankingup of condensate is undesirable. Measuring the temperature downstream of the trap can only serve as an indication of the pressure in the condensate line.3 Checking by Sound The method of checking trap operation by means of a stethoscope. whether live steam is escaping or not. the operation of a trap may be judged by measuring the surface temperature at different points of the pipeline. not be forgotten that the temperature depends on the service pressure at the measurement point. Ultrasonic measurements of the structure-borne noise produced by the trap are of far greater importance. This method is based on the fact that steam flowing through a throttling element produces higher ultrasonic vibrations than flowing water (condensate) does. With these traps. is only of some practical use in the case of traps with intermittent operation. the opening and closing process can be clearly differentiated. It must. the percentage of incondensable gases in the heating steam (with the consequent reduction in the partial steam pressure and hence the temperature) and the condition of the pipeline surface. or at the steam inlet. immediately downstream of the heat exchanger.2 Checking by Temperature Measurement Fig. The GESTRA Vapophone ultrasonic detector VKP has given proof of its excellent performance. e. however. The lift frequency of the valve disc permits conclusions to be drawn as to the mode of operation of the trap. Checking the steam by this method is not possible. which are then amplified and indicated on a meter. 86 . 5. which is quite often encountered. immediately upstream of the trap.5. cannot be determined. it must also be considered that even without banking-up the condensate temperature may be below the saturated steam temperature.g. Under certain circumstances. When selecting the measurement point.

2 . 87 . i. Trap-specific software settings are taken into account during the measurement! After the data have been transferred and stored in a PC. the trap type. The display is evaluated manually by the operator. the checking of steam traps has been automated. Fig. the VKP 10 detects the structure-borne sound of flowing steam. and the source of sound. The system can be used individually for all types and makes of steam traps. Thanks to the GESTRA steam trap testing and diagnostic system VKP 40. With some experience on the part of the tester. A preprogrammed data collector is used in the system to record the measurement values. however. Comparison with the historic data within the software package forms the basis of a steam trap management system. the pressure head. 66b Ultrasonic system for monitoring trap operation – TRAPtest VKP 40 At the casing surface of a steam trap.e. it must be taken into account that the noise intensity depends only partly on the amount of flowing steam.When evaluating the measurement results. 66a Ultrasonic detector for checking trap operation – Vapophone VKP 10 Fig. whereby steam losses as low as approx. their evaluation can commence. good results are obtained when checking traps with condensate flowrates up to about 30 kg/h and pressures up to 20 bar (290 psi).4 kg/h can be detected. It is also influenced by the condensate amount.

MK 45-1 or BK 45 Alarm Electrode NRG 16-28 Remote monitoring with Universal Test Chamber* Screened cable max. The condition is indicated accordingly. The maintenance interval is signalled on the front panel of the test unit. Through various modes and inclusion of the plant temperature. If the steam trap operates correctly. The electrode is then linked to the remote test unit.5. and a potential-free relay contact is used for signalling an alarm condition. The test unit is supplied in a case for wall mounting or a case for panel mounting. e. The VKE test system with test chamber can be used for steam traps of all types and makes. 16 steam traps type Rhombusline. Operation The electrode signals the states “condensate” or “steam” to the test unit NRA 1-3 (automatic remote monitoring). The test unit NRA 1-3 has channels for up to 16 steam traps. The VKE 26 test chamber is used for reliable monitoring of the installation for banking-up of condensate. A separate test chamber fitted with measuring electrode is installed directly upstream of the steam trap to be monitored. the limit values are adapted automatically and faults are detected instantaneously.4. Each of the connected steam traps can be monitored for live steam losses and banking-up of condensate. 67 88 System VKE Electrode NRG 16-19 or NRG 16-27 Alarm * Combination possible . 100 m long max. Plant temperature (optional) Test station NRA 1-3 Screened cable max. condensate flows around the electrode. 16 test chamber VKE 16-1/16A Test station NRA 1-3 Fig. 100 m long Remote monitoring Rhombusline* max.g. Continuous steam trap monitoring Test set VKE The test set VKE is used for monitoring steam traps to detect the leakage of live steam and the banking-up of condensate. In the case of steam losses across the trap. the condensate is displaced until the electrode is surrounded by steam.

1 6. 6.2 Using the Sensible Heat of the Condensate Basic Considerations Examples for the Use of the Sensible Heat of Condensate Banking-up in the heat exchanger Flash-steam recovery (closed condensate system) 91 91 91 93 94 95 7.2.Page 6.2.2 6. Air-Venting of Heat Exchangers Condensate Return Systems .1 6. 8.

Experience In Motion . Strainer omitted. » Integrated temperature monitoring (PT 100 element with connector for monitoring steam traps for bankingup of condensate). Strainer remains fitted. MK 45 and UBK 46 are available on request. BK 46.Fitted for the Future The following optional items for Rhombusline steam traps BK 45. » Integrated level probe for detecting steam loss (in combination with hand-held test unit NRA 1-2 or remote test unit NRA 1-1).Rhombusline .

UBK).1.1 Banking-up in the heat exchanger Through banking-up. besides being a nuisance to the environment. The use of the flash steam formed as a result of the pressure drop of the condensate – from the service pressure in the heat exchanger to the pressure in the condensate line – poses greater problems. whilst at a pressure of 10 barg it is 28 % and at a pressure of 18 barg 32 % (see steam tables in Fig. Using the Sensible Heat of the Condensate 6. for example. If the condensate is discharged into the open and not re-used. At a service pressure of 1 bar. an extra-large heat exchanger so that the necessary heating capacity and temperature are reached. further costs are incurred because the feedwater has to be completely made up. In controlled heat exchangers. a large part of the heat energy required for steam generation is lost. 13 % at 10 bar. however. The heat contained in the condensate (the sensible heat) is discharged with the condensate. 68. In addition. part of the heat contained in the condensate is used directly for the heating process. 91 . This requires. 38). the amount of heat withdrawn from the condensate can be so high that flashing no longer occurs when the condensate is discharged. the heat exchanger must be designed to avoid waterhammer (e. To achieve the maximum rate of heat transfer. which increases with the pressure.2 Examples for the Use of the Sensible Heat of Condensate 6. The amount of flash steam formed at various pressures and back pressures is shown in Fig. It is therefore general practice to collect the condensate as far as possible and to re-use it for steam generation or at least as service water for the plant.6. as shown in Fig. Basic Considerations In a steam-heated heat exchanger. the proportion of sensible heat is 19 % of the total heat content of the steam. vertical counterflow heat exchanger or preheater.2 % at a service pressure of 1 barg.g. In heat exchangers without temperature control. may lead to considerable heat losses even if the condensate is re-used. banking-up can easily be effected with thermostatic traps discharging the condensate with a given undercooling (BK with undercooling adjustment. 6. It forms a considerable percentage of the total heat content. the control valve must be fitted on the condensate side and not on the steam side. Thus the heat losses referred to the total heat energy produced are 3. and 17 % at 18 bar.2. In addition. the condensate has to be discharged immediately it is formed. If the condensate is discharged to atmosphere (open condensate system) then flashing. MK with U capsule. In extreme cases. normally only the heat of vaporization (latent heat) is transmitted to the product being heated. 83).

92 .Fig. 68 Amount of flash steam Amount of flash steam formed when boiling condensate is reduced in pressure.

The flash steam is used for heating secondary heat exchangers and the condensate is returned to the boiler house. 70). 69 If the steam supply from the flash vessel is not sufficient. live steam is added via the pressure-reducing valve. This method cannot be applied unless at least two different steam pressures are required in a plant (Fig. 69). such as a calorifier. the flash steam formed may be completely used in a single heat exchanger. 70 Simple flash steam recovery with thermosiphon circulation.6. 93 . In smaller plants. heat exchanger for the production of warm water etc.2 Flash-steam recovery (closed condensate system). Use of flash steam Fig. The amount of flash steam depends on the condensate flowrate and cannot be adapted to varying demand. (see Fig.2. Fig.

The use of vapours from evaporation processes as heating steam is yet another cause in some industries. 29. The heat transfer rate drops in accordance with the reduced temperature difference between steam and product (see Fig. In these cases. For small and medium heat exchangers. An effective arrangement of air vents on a large heat exchanger is shown in Fig. such as boiling pans. This fact has to be considered when fitting the air vents. If a mixture of steam and air exists. however. To speed up the air discharge from the steam space. with the MK type especially suited for saturated steam systems. evaporators and autoclaves. in addition. so that the trap opens more quickly and wider. for example. Air-Venting of Heat Exchangers Air and other incondensable gases enter a steam plant particularly during periods of shut-down. reduce the partial pressure of the steam and consequently the steam temperature. We can conclude from this example that the air concentration is highest where the heating surface is coldest. 94 . Insufficient deaeration of the feedwater is another way gases can get into the plant. 28). The temperature drops to 180 °C with a proportion of air present of 10 % and to 170 °C with an air proportion of 35 %. the steam space has to be deaerated separately at one or several points. Air and the other gases impair the heat transfer and. it is recommended that an uninsulated pipe having a length of at least 1 m is fitted upstream of the air vent. the temperature is 183 °C with no air present. corresponds only to the partial steam pressure and is lower than the saturation temperature relative to the total pressure. In large heat exchangers. sufficient air-venting is generally provided by steam traps with automatic air-venting capacity (all GESTRA steam traps ensure automatic deaeration).7. the temperature measured here. GESTRA thermostatic traps of the BK and MK range are perfect as air vents. the pressure gauge will indicate the total pressure in the steam space. At a total pressure of 11 bara. owing to the design of the steam space and the resulting flow conditions. gases tend to concentrate at certain points. The condensation of the steam in this pipe causes a local concentration of air with a corresponding temperature reduction.

8. the back pressure might rise to an unacceptable level (e. by using the steam pressure or by a combination of both. Condensate Return Systems To convey the condensate back to the steam generating plant.5 Drain valve 2. The condensate from the condensate tank is conveyed to the feedwater tank by levelcontrolled pumps (see Fig.1 GESTRA condensate tank 1. be it purely by gravity.4 Slide valve GESTRA switch cabinet Pump unit Condensate pump GESTRA DISCO non-return valve GESTRA stop valve GESTRA stop valve with throttling cone 3. for example. Level control equipment 2. a sufficient pressure head is required.1 GESTRA level-control electrode 2. In large plants (with large condensate flowrates) or if the condensate has to be lifted.1).4 Pressure relief valve 1. Equipment 1. it is best to collect the condensate from the various sections of the plant separately. 3.3 2.2 GESTRA measuring pot Fig. Condensate recovery system consisting of 1. In this case.8.5 Pressure gauge assembly for pressure line GESTRA condensate collecting and return systems 95 .2 3. see inter alia Section 4.4 3.g. 71).2 Pressure gauge assembly 1.3 3. in control plants.1 3.3 Water-level indicator 1. 71 2.

To convey small to medium flowrates from distant parts of the plant. which is at atmospheric pressure. a second electrode transmits a closing pulse to the steam valve and an opening pulse to the vent valve (see Fig. a level-control electrode transmits a closing pulse to the solenoid valve in the vent line and simultaneously an opening pulse to the solenoid valve in the booster steam line. steam is used to drive the condensate. The condensate flows into the condensate tank. the use of a GESTRA condensate return system operating with a pump is a very economical solution. Fig. 72 GESTRA condensate-return system operating without a pump type KH GESTRA steam-powered condensate-return units type FPS are available with float control requiring no auxiliary electrical energy. As soon as the minimum condensate level required in the tank is reached. As soon as the condensate reaches the other level. 72). 96 . In this arrangement.

Drainage of Compressed Air Lines 99 .Page 9.

the user is given the first pump trap to combine the standard overall length for condensate traps according to ISO 6554 and EN 558 with a high throughput capacity for hot condensate. the trapping performance of 2.000 kg/h is as impressive as the pumping throughput of 500 kg/h. Its straight-through body is designed for rapid installation in horizontal lines and allows easy inclusion in steam and condensate systems. the SG iron material (GGG 40. thanks to the standard length.Pump trap UNA 25-PK in standard length With the UNA 25 PK. Whether flange or threaded connection.3) and the attractive price make the new UNA 25 PK the first choice if you need a reliable solution for systems with changing pressure conditions. These figures. it is advisable to replace conventional float traps with pump traps – now this is quickly done. Experience In Motion . In plants with operational parameters that fluctuate strongly.

g. If this air is compressed from 1 bara to 5 bara and the air temperature is kept constant at 23 °C by cooling. The values indicated in this table each have to be multiplied with the actual amount of air in m3. Drainage of Compressed Air Lines Atmospheric air always contains a small amount of water vapour. The entire air system should be drained. for 1000 m3/h = 8. but only 1/5 of it. is the relative humidity (100 % relative humidity = saturation quantity = absolute humidity).5 g of vapour (absolute humidity).5 . This air volume can no longer hold the 20. together with the air receivers. are given in Fig. water absorbers. the maximum amount of condensate is 8 g/m3. amongst other things. 99 . 100 % saturation may be expressed as the maximum weight of water vapour in grams contained in 1 cubic metre of air and depends solely on the air temperature (Fig. expressed as a percentage of the maximum amount of water vapour. The absolute humidity increases with rising temperatures and decreases with falling temperatures. 74. for more critical applications. According to the table. but not higher. oil absorbers or oil separators should be used. The rest of 20. compressor-air temperature 20 °C.5 g of vapour contained in the original 1 m3 of air.9. Example: (Fig.1 g. m3/h or litres/min. 74) Every hour.e. e. 1000 m3 of air are compressed to 12 barg. 73). The actual weight of water vapour contained in 1 m3 of air.4 g condenses in the form of water.1 = 16. This amount can be equal to 100 % saturation. but with different intake temperatures and a compressed-air temperature of 20 °C. Example: (Fig.4.000 g/h = 8 kg/h. as it would lead to erosion and corrosion.e. 4. For automatic drainage. i. It is recommended that the coolers of the compressors are drained. In all cases where dry air is required. If oil-free air is required in addition. special design combinations of GESTRA float traps are available. Intake temperature 10 °C. 75). The amount of water vapour in the air – also called the absolute atmospheric humidity – is identical to the specific gravity of the saturated vapour at this temperature. The amount of vapour exceeding the saturation limit will condense. 73) 1 m3 of saturated air at 23 °C contains 20. which may have to be derived from the flowrate. The water separated from the compressed air has to be removed from the plant. the air lines at regular intervals. as water is continually being separated from the air until the air has cooled down to ambient temperature. and at least at the lowest points and upstream of risers if the line changes its direction (see Fig. the air volume will drop to 1/5 m3. water separators operating on the centrifugal principle should be used (GESTRA drier and purifier TP) or. The maximum amounts of condensate that are possible at an intake pressure of 0 barg. i.

Fig. 73 Moisture content of air 100 .

9 47. 101 . moisture content of air on intake = 100 %.9 50.4 17.1 49. 74 Moisture content at 100 %/ saturation (see Fig.8 29.8 16.2 8.0 16.1 12 bar 0.5 29.3 30. p = 0 barg.7 7.3 15.8 13.6 3.7 Maximum amount of condensate in g per m3 of intake air at gauge pressure 8 bar 0 2. temperature of compressed air 20 °C.3 16.3 4 8.2 29.5 4.Intake temperature -10 °C 0 °C +10 °C +20 °C +30 °C +40 °C Fig.3 28.5 Maximum amount of condensate formed in 1 m3/h of intake air.84 19.7 26.14 14.7 16 bar 1 3.6 53 32 bar 1.7 8.0 29. 74) 12.4 50 22 bar 1.6 16.4 8.5 49.4 51 g/m3 g/m3 g/m3 g/m3 g/m3 g/m3 4 bar 0 1 5. intake temperature see table above.

The air can then escape and the condensate is discharged without any delay (Fig. With a very small amount of condensate and with a relatively large pipeline (with regard to the flowrate) provided with a sufficient and constant fall (vertical if possible). In this case. a water pocket may even form in a stop valve. If the amount of condensate formed is rather large. 102 . As upstream and downstream of the water pocket there is the same pressure. if the condensate line is completely filled on start-up of the plant or by a surge of water. This cannot form unless the air pocket has escaped from the body. 76). The condensate level required to open the trap is formed rather slowly. the following points have to be considered when laying the pipework and installing the steam traps: a) The condensate should drain by gravity with a constant slope from the drain point to the trap. and condensate discharge is insufficient.g. e. In horizontal lines. it is recommended that a connection be provided between trap and air-line by a “balance pipe”. air can flow back up the line in the opposite direction to the condensate. As condensate enters the trap. and it becomes a water seal. c) Float traps require a certain condensate level in the trap body to open. the air is confined within the trap body. if at all. b) The pipeline should be laid to provide a sufficient fall. 75 For the correct drainage of compressed-air lines. As a result. the condensate can no longer flow towards the trap. GESTRA float traps ensure that the air can escape. the water cannot be pushed out.Fig.

77).g. 103 . This valve is opened for a few seconds at predetermined intervals. Note: Air losses! e) Outdoor plants: Provide heating for pipeline and traps. Hence the oil foam may be discharged from time to time. 77 Instead of the trap. 76 d) Small oil quantities. as are normally contained in the air of oil-lubricated compressors. The outflowing air will at the same time clean the valve seat.Fig. it is also possible to use a solenoid valve operated by a timing delay. fill the float trap with water. do not impair the operation of the GESTRA traps. Before commissioning a new plant for the first time. by a handoperated valve (Fig. otherwise there is the danger of freezing. If the condensate is heavily oil-contaminated. the installation of a settling tank upstream of the trap is recommended. Fig. e.

but traps that are plugged or stuck closed can also be costly. can strongly reduce the failure rate to 5 %. And waterhammer caused by condensate banking-up leads to considerable physical damage in steam and condensate systems. A trap that is blowing live steam is the worst offender. Steam traps which are obstructed or stuck closed do not cause loss of energy and/or water but reduce – to a greater or lesser extent – the efficiency of heat-transfer equipment and steam users.Testing Steam Traps Like any other industrial valve steam traps are subject to wear and their correct functioning can be impaired by precipitated solids and dirt deposits. The decreased plant efficiency due to loss of energy and additional make-up water results in lost production. does the faulty trap cause loss of steam (leakage) or banking-up of condensate (obstructed discharge passage)? Faulty steam traps are a major source of waste in a steam distribution system. Regular maintenance and trap testing. Furthermore. To assess the performance of a steam trap the following questions haveto be answered: » Does the steam trap work properly? » If not. Experience shows that installations where no regular trap testing and servicing takes place have a failure rate of defective steam traps in the order of 15 – 25 %. Experience In Motion . which should be carried out at least once a year. an increase of pressure is liable to arise in condensate systems which will lead to difficulties at all locations where condensate is discharged.

2 Sizing of Condensate Return Lines Basic Considerations Examples 107 113 .1 10.Page 10. 10.

Experience In Motion .What are the advantages of GESTRA steam traps? » Easy maintenance – our traps can be checked. On request test certificates to EN 10204. pressure and temperature ratings. » Tight shutoff. cleaned and repaired without being removed from the pipework. » Complies with recognized standards – our traps meet the relevant DIN standards and regulations and are in accordance with the AD bulletins (AD – Arbeitsgemeinschaft Druckbehälter = German pressure vessel regulations authority) with regard to choice of material.g. » Unaffected by dirt. hydraulic test) our trap regulators are tested under operating conditions (steam. » Interchangeable – our various trap types have standardized facetoface dimensions. without loss of live steam. » Automatic airventing. condensate). » Production tested – besides the legally required tests (e. sizes and end connections and are therefore interchangeable without any modification to the pipe layout.

flashing has to be considered. For long pipelines(> 100 m) and large condensate flowrates. be rated at ≤ 0.1. g. high degree of undercooling. it is sufficient to dimension the condensate line solely in accordance with the amount of flash steam formed. 79 and 80). the pressure drop should be calculated to prevent the back pressure becoming too high.2 When choosing the diameter of the condensate line downstream of the trap. A flow velocity of 15 m/s at the end of the pipeline before the inlet into the collecting tank or pressure-relief unit is a useful empirical value. In these cases. if possible. extremely low pressure). otherwise waterhammer (e.5 m/s.1. the mean velocity can be rated at 1. through the formation of waves). The required inside diameter of the pipeline can be taken from Fig. The pipeline diameter as a function of the selected flow velocity can be chosen from the chart in Fig. The flow velocity of the flash steam should not be too high. 78. the volume increases approximately 17 times). the chart in Fig. the flow velocity of the condensate should. the volume of flash steam is many times that of the liquid if the condensate is at saturation temperature upstream of the trap (e.2 bara to 1. flow noises and erosion may occur.5 m/s when determining the pipeline diameter. the condensate in the pump discharge line can only be in the liquid phase. Sizing of Condensate Return Lines 10. 10.g. 81 may be used to obtain the pipe diameter.g.10. 107 . Even at very low pressure differentials. during flashing from 1.3 When the condensate is mainly in the liquid state (e. For choosing the pipeline diameter.0 bara.1 The diameter of the pipeline between the heat exchanger and the steam trap is normally chosen to fit the nominal size of the trap. here the velocity of the flash steam may be used as a basis for the calculations (Figs. If the condensate is pumped. 81.1. Again. 10.1 Basic Considerations 10.

4 3.8 4.8 4. Only the flash steam amount is considered.2 5.9 5.4 11.4 35.7 1.9 1.7 21.1 8.0 19.0 9.0 8.5 9.0 7.6 14.1 14.0 12.7 17.5 17.4 12.7 14.0 18.0 206 69.0 20.8 17.4 5.0 120 44.3 4.5 25.6 6.0 223 72.0 12.8 15.7 7.0 30.9 9.0 42.9 8.0 8.500 3.9 4.5 6.1 11.5 5.4 300 1.4 14.6 19.2 6.0 6.1 7.7 16.8 11.1 28.3 33.4 29.0 4.2 14.7 27.2 25.9 18.6 23.0 2.9 44.7 10.7 7.0 14.2 20.0 20.7 1.5 3.000 5.0 50.0 26.2 13.0 263 81.0 158 56.8 40.000 10.1 26.9 15. The flow velocity of the flash steam is assumed to be 15 m/s.1 18.5 45.5 32.5 5.7 19.000 4.2 10.5 11.8 8.6 6.9 10.9 12.3 22.1 8.0 5.3 8.0 11.2 13.0 4.7 18.2 600 2.0 197 66.000 3.0 179 62.0 249 78.0 6.9 13.5 42.0 7.3 13.0 155 55.5 147 53.5 16.4 4.5 5.1 20.0 12.5 24.5 15.9 24.7 22.0 12.3 23.4 21.9 10.9 21.0 151 54.8 10.2 8.7 32.3 10.8 3.9 2.2 16.7 36.5 3.0 34.4 15.9 21.0 4.9 16.9 15.8 5.3 47.5 36.2 38.0 99 35.2 4.3 6.5 16.0 38.8 11.4 8.3 23.7 3.9 24.1 22.5 1.2 104 37.5 8.0 4.8 6.4 700 2.4 12.9 23.8 5.1 Fig.3 12.1 3.7 18.3 8.0 13.7 33.8 9.108 State of the condensate before flashing Pressure Related boiling bara temperature absolute °C 0.5 18.4 18.5 20.3 6.3 15.7 400 2.0 211 70.9 9.8 19.1 2.4 15.0 17.1 9.4 12.3 7.2 7.5 4.7 50.0 4.7 49.8 46.6 9.5 28.0 143 52.4 8.1 4.0 8.2 10.3 9.9 11.4 4.2 15.7 2.5 4.3 10.1 29.0 31.3 18.8 5.7 10.9 16.5 21.5 138 50.1 14.3 7.2 15.1 8.7 6.5 28.6 15.8 2.0 12.4 10.1 3.6 28.5 6.8 5.2 1.7 19.6 15.2 7.7 12.5 4.2 14.000 8.5 7.1 7.9 9.9 9.2 25.6 6.7 5.6 30.5 11.9 9.2 2.1 15.3 26.8 3.0 175 61.1 4.0 1.9 8.4 10.4 14.0 241 76.4 12.2 2.6 800 2.1 2.8 32.8 39.6 14.2 19.000 7.9 17.1 35.6 4.2 3.0 35.8 26.4 37.2 14.4 6.9 20.5 3.1 23.1 9.2 1.5 127 46.6 1.5 16.6 31.5 3.1 10.8 8.2 16.0 6 7 8 9 10 12 15 18 20 7.0 233 75.1 7. 78 Sizing of condensate lines (calculation examples on page 107 and following) Basic assumptions for determining the inside pipe diameter: 1.9 15.2 29.1 12.0 4.7 40.5 2.6 34.0 256 80.2 10.5 22.9 13.2 8.1 5.000 15.2 28.8 900 3.9 12. 2.2 5.8 7.0 37.4 21.7 27.3 33.4 9.4 7.0 11.9 10.0 7.3 12.3 14.4 Pressure at the end of the condensate line [bar absolute] 0.0 16.6 10.0 170 59.0 18.7 7.7 3.5 27.4 29.2 9.8 10.8 20.2 2.1 4.7 13.3 5.0 10.1 18.9 12.5 10.6 2. .3 6.9 19.0 133 48.1 23.2 10.000 20.5 5.9 27.5 17.6 6.7 17.4 14.5 111 40.5 7.5 6.9 8.5 31.0 8.6 18.1 31.7 8.1 5.2 12.2 1.6 25.0 3.1 6.3 13.8 17.3 6.4 11.0 38.5 7.5 24.4 22.9 5.5 26.2 5.9 11.6 9.7 14.7 11.0 200 1.4 5.9 2.7 0.6 7.0 32.5 3.2 30.5 31.5 7.2 20.9 18.2 13.0 500 2.6 9.2 11.5 48.1 4.1 23.0 187 64.9 3.5 22.8 4. the above values must be multiplied with the following factors: kg/h Factor 100 1.6 13.9 30.0 4.7 7.2 7.9 24.6 9.5 12.5 2.5 5.0 2.0 17.2 To determine the actual diameter (mm).

81. see Fig. 80.Fig. 79 Pressure drop in steam lines The coefficients of resistance C for all pipeline components of the same size are read from Fig. 109 . The total pressure drop ∆p in bar can be determined from the sum of all individual components ΣC and the operating data.

Pipeline components DN 50: Pipeline length 20 m C = 8.1 bar Fig. abs.00 Operating data: Temperature t = 300 °C Steam pressure.Example.60 1 tee-piece C = 3.10 Result ∆p = 1. 80 110 . p = 16 bar Velocity w = 40 m/s ∑C = 21.10 2 elbows 90° C = 1.32 2 special valves C = 5.11 1 angle valve C = 3.

81 Flowrates in pipelines 111 .Fig.

steam flowrate 30 t/h. 112 . steam pressure 16 bara. Result: Flow velocity = 43 m/s.Fig. 82 Flow velocity in steam lines Example: Steam temperature 300 °C. nominal size (DN) 200.

2 m3/h. 113 .20 = 131 °C.4 mm Choose DN 50 mm.5 bar back pressure = 10.1 Pressure before flashing (service pressure) 5 bara.4. Table 1. Choose DN 40 mm.2 (by interpolation of diameter coefficients at 127 °C and 1. upstream pressure 5 bara. the boiling temperature at 1.2 Examples 10.5 bar back pressure = 9.1. Table 1.2. 10.40 = 111 °C. Determination of the diameter of condensate line from Fig.2 and at 133 °C at 1. but condensate with 20 K undercooling (20 K below ts). multiplied by the factor 3. and the diameter coefficient at 131 °C 10.1. condensate flowrate 1200 kg/h 1200 l/h 1.10. Table 2.2. and so the actual condensate temperature is 151 .2 Same operating data as for 10.5 = 35. the boiling temperature at 5 bar is 151°C.2.5 bara.5 . the diameter factor for 1200 kg = 3.4 x 3. 81.2. 78.e. According to Fig. pressure at end of condensate line 1. 151 °C Condensate flowrate 1200 kg/h From Fig.2.0.1. based on a flow velocity of 0. i. but condensate with 40 K undercooling (40 K below ts).2 x 3.5 = 50.6 m/s: Choose DN 25 mm.5 bar = 111 °C.1 Choosing the pipe size from the amount of flash steam 10.1 above.7 mm.1.7).2. condensate temperature approximately at boiling temperature. Same operating data as for 10.1. back pressure 1.2 Choosing the pipe size from the water flowrate.5 bara. 78. Therefore diameter = 14.5 (from Table 2 for 1200 kg/h) this yields a diameter of 10. the diameter coefficient = 14. and hence no flash steam is formed. if there is no or hardly any flash steam being formed. the boiling temperature at 5 bar is 151 °C. 78. From Fig.e. According to Table 1. 10. therefore the actual condensate temperature 151 . i.5.

42 175.81 908.54000 11.40 1087.12900 1.0059 0.4 2706.8 2796.15 14.8 1380.1407 0.00 220.0075 0.78 212.40000 133.00 19.00 11.16200 4.23 127.00 5.6938 1.9 2085.80 1571.59 919.00 60.0 2064.9 2675.99 289.13 798.90800 2.5 2772.63700 6.10 2107.6 2727.5 2013.58 896.7 1571.80 0.7 1945.7 2107.0093 0.00 40.00 25.0 2163. kJ/kg .66700 4.1 2776.00 140.40000 170.0799 0.00 100.3 779.64 762.00 60.96 365.3 2336.67 623.30000 315.70 830.7315 2.80 1826.34 561.6 1998.50 4.30 207.00 20.13020 0.4 2693.3155 0.55500 10.62 147.35 85.00 1.00 2.91 275.51000 48.83000 36.0.20 45.84 54.1632 0.0274 0.96 930.0666 0.50 1734.50 5.5 1910.65500 5.97 93.9 184.50 6.86280 1.2 2305. bara Enthalpy of water h'.00 50.66900 2.1 2319.56 359.4 2584.2 2358.0180 0.00 221.5 2759.4 2346.00 200.33 263.7 2755.7 1197.30860 0.00 17.1943 0.84 155.1 591.2404 2.2 1933.06 720.3 2794.84 217. °C 2392.2 2779.14700 5.08500 8.50 2.2 2798.0037 0.90 1.50 0.70 1408.00 1491.92000 3.9 2418.7 934.83 225.08 64.40 0.1237 0.7 2785.59040 0.9936 3.13 504.16300 2.9 2226.7184 0.47920 0.3 2274.36 204.52 96.45 271.2301 3.3646 2.59600 8.36610 0.4 2787.01000 86.25 0.4 2293.32 310.0115 0.95 961.1 1839.51 467.2 2609.36000 30.7 1957.40 2584.56 871.1774 0.6 2257.9 2513.46 158.2727 0.39200 1.37 214. 114 Heat of evaporation r.99000 107.97 251.43 133.30 0.20000 268.53000 42.3747 0. 83 Steam table (The detailed steam tables are commercially available.9 2802.17000 3.70 535.88 81.60 0.0231 7.9 1319.3 1506.0995 0.8 2599.40 1317.50 1213.00 22.65100 1.99 69.96 1008.00 7.24 223.3 1970.53500 0.00 16.5 0 Fig.7 2793.12700 6.6 2742.3 2716.9 2791.0394 0.4 2794.40 1154.10 209.00 8.5 2751.19120 0.12 75.0 2119.3 2800.1103 0.3 1899.4623 0.7 2782.9 2046.4 2133.64 111.70 0.38 120.00 70.00 80.43000 70.4 2636.1 2800.2 2147.6 1878.6057 0.0 2773.94 742.0 2767.51000 15.3 1888.70 1267.88 184.0498 0. m3/kg Temperature ts.80 294.95 89.5241 0.00 180.0 1442.01000 20.28 201.16120 0.00 120.0032 0.21 417.4 Enthalpy of steam h".9 1712.06500 9.10 0.72 405.65 340.4 1070.2 1868.2403 0.30 317.05000 10.9 2373.8 2789. kJ/kg Absolute pressure ρ.2 2642.9 2618.5 2762.6 2737.7 2689.50 2011.2 2201.61700 7.4137 0.57500 9.96 170.00 18.96 324.1511 0.00 3.42290 0.60 1650.77 391.41700 2.6 2107.78 670.08 844.2 2785.5 2029.2035 5.0907 0.6511 6.06814 0.8692 1.).93 233.84 884.5 1984.1316 0.0143 0.67 858.72 99.16 640.1 2797.00 30.00 13.00 9.9 2744.4 2195.05 187.10000 25.0 1793.25040 0.00 12.7 2731.36 347.61 781.1 2665.6 2660.35 179.10600 7.0235 0.00 14.32 356.92 151.0948 0.1047 0.42 697.9 1639.9 2747.93 376.10 1363.4 2724.4 2095.12 655.70 373.6 2181.2148 0.8 2670.54 138.69 374.43 814.00 4.00 15.00 90.27 604.60 195.56 285.50 3.20 0.00 10.6757 10.6 2283.2 1921.43 584.15 0.0868 1.84 164.09977 0.0324 0.00 160.0 2653.2 2799.9 2646.95 191.0 2265. kg/m3 191.50000 Steam density ρ".83 250. kJ/kg Specific steam volume v".98 303.3367 0.00 21.1590 0.0205 0.79000 55.87 143.8857 0.04 198.63 336.3 2625.1166 0.03000 12.

2 Sizing of Steam Lines Calculation of Condensate Flowrates Basic Formulae (Sl Units) Sizing of Steam Traps 117 118 121 . 12.1 12. 12.Page 11.

Here it does not matter whether a thermally critical application must be safeguarded. or whether a non-return valve must be designed for operation in oxygen. in a special material to answer specific needs. these valves offer clear advantages over conventional types: » compact design » Low weight » Mounting in any position » Low installation costs » Wide choice of materials » space-saving stockkeeping » safe operation of industrial plants » Low pressure drop Experience In Motion . which has proven its worth a million times over.GESTRA DISCO® Non-Return Valves All valves are made of diverse materials to meet particular demands. the best valve can be delivered for almost every application. All GEsTRA non-return valves are of the wafertype and have extremely short overall lengths. for example. Through this ideal mixture of different components in the range of standard valves. Thanks to their excellent design and hydrodynamic features. It is even possible to manufacture the DIsco® valve. and the individual valve components are optimally coordinated with each other.

The pressure drop depends mainly on the flow velocity of the steam. 79 and 80.65 m/s The lower values should be used for smaller flowrates. For a given flow velocity. 117 .11. The following empirical values for the flow velocity have proven to be satisfactory: Saturated steam lines 20 .40 m/s Superheated steam lines 35 . 82. care must be taken that the pressure drop between the boiler and steam users is not too high. the required pipe diameter can be chosen from the chart in Fig. The pressure drop can be calculated from the charts in Figs. Sizing of Steam Lines When sizing steam lines.

specified on the name plate · of the heat exchanger).12.1 Basic Formulae on the Basis of SI Units [J.1 If the amount of heat required is known (e.1.2 is added to compensate for heat losses.1. The amount of heat required is The amount of condensate is then 118 .2 If the amount of heat Q required per hour is not known. Calculation of Condensate Flowrates 12. the factor 1. · 12. W] 12. the ted from the weight M specific heat and the difference between the initial temperature t1 and the final temperature t2 (∆t = t2 – t1) as follows: Example: 50 kg of water are to be heated from 20 °C to 100 °C in one hour.g. then the condensate flowrate M can be calculated from and hence Here kW is the amount of heat required in kJ/s (kilo-Joule per second) and the quotient 2100 is the latent heat of steam kJ/kg for medium pressures. it can be calcula· of the product to be heated up in one hour.

005 1. The total amount of heat required. the latent heat of approx. 2100 kJ/kg has to be added.Now if the 50 kg of hot water are to be vapourized in one hour.502 0.656 + 29.093 Further properties of substances can be found in the applicable specialist literature.256 2.936 3.266 0.428 1.190 3. 119 .0 kg/h It must be noted that each product has its own specific heat. saturated Sulphur Alcohol Air Machine oil Benzine 4. and consequently the total amount of condensate formed.675 2.894 1.1 (4.424 3.167) 71.931 0.670 1. can be calculated as follows: · M 2. Specific heat c Water Milk Mash Jam Wax Iron Fats Rubber Saline solution.754 2.

g. 2100 can be assumed) A few empirical values for the coefficient of overall heat transfer k are given below.1. e. the conden· sate flowrate M can be calculated with sufficient accuracy as follows: Where M = amount of condensate in kg/h F = heating surface in m2 k = coefficient of overall heat transfer in tD = temperature of steam t1 = initial temperature of product t2 = final temperature of product (quite often.6 8 5 12 460 700 700 1200 300 580 900 – – – – – – – – – – – 2. highly fluid product. with forced circulation 0. · Insulated steam line Non-insulated steam line Heating unit with natural circulation Heating unit with forced circulation Jacketed boiling pan with agitator As above. The lower values apply to unfavourable operating conditions (such as low flow velocity.g. it is sufficient if the average temperature is known. high flow velocity. with boiling liquid Boiling pan with agitator and heating coil As above. whereas the higher values apply to very favourable conditions (e. viscous product. and clean heating surfaces). room temperature) r = latent heat in kJ/kg (as an approximation for medium pressures.3 If the size of the heating surface and the temperature rise (difference between initial and final temperature) of the product are known.4 12 12 46 1500 1750 2450 3500 1200 1750 3000 120 . contaminated and oxidized heating surfaces).12. with boiling liquid Tubular heat exchanger Evaporator As above.

a safety factor has to be added for float traps. Very high flow and pressure fluctuations also occur in controlled plants and in many boiling processes. other conditions being equal.1 and 3. If saturated steam is used. there is practically no condensate formed during continuous operation. encountered in the case of steam line drainage. The maximum capacity of thermostatic traps (cold-water capacity) on the other hand is several times their hot-water capacity. A further point is the fact that the pressure drop in the steam line and the heating surface is highest when the steam consumption is largest. these formulae show clearly that. for example. at start-up.1 above make it possible to calculate the average amount of condensate formed during entire heating process. which determines the capacity of the trap. If superheated steam is used. 121 . However.4 times that of the hot-water capacity indicated in the capacity chart.2) The formulae given in the Section 12. the quantity of condensate formed at startup may be twenty times that formed in continuous operation. are lowest at start-up. and is given in the capacity charts. If only the mean steam consumption (condensate flowrate) is known. Extreme conditions are. i. e.12.2 Sizing of Steam Traps (See also Sections 3. This means that the condensate flowrate is largest when the product is at its lowest temperature. Their maximum capacity at medium pressures (at a condensate temperature of ≤ 100 °C) can be assumed to be 1. This means that the service pressure and consequently the differential pressure (difference between inlet and outlet pressure). the amount of condensate increases with the difference between the steam temperature and the temperature of the product.

at low temperatures or for applications with drinking water. In the case of corrosive vapours and gases. valve ranges are available in the materials brass. Special features: » Springs for low opening pressures » Springs for reduced closing times » Springs for applications at high temperatures » Soft seats » Antistatic connection » Pickled. e. a valve is then selected from the most suitable material. Depending on the medium flowing through the piping of your installation. valve ranges of cast bronze. For special requirements. For neutral liquids or gases.g. acids and alkalis. the versions of austenitic steel and Hastelloy are used.GESTRA DISCO® Non-Return Valves RK For industrial plants. free of oil and grease » Special connections Experience In Motion . austenitic steel and Hastelloy C are available. bronze. steel and chromium steel. in the foodstuff industry. GESTRA offers a broad spectrum of non-return valves which are designed for diverse pressure ratings and media.

2 13.1 13.Page 13. Pressure and Temperature Control Pressure-Reducing Valves Temperature Control at the Heat Exchangers Control on the steam side Control on the condensate side 125 128 128 129 .1 13.

leading to waterhammer and possibly disastrous consequences for the plant. Our engineers will be happy to assist you with the correct design of the dual-plate check valves for your installation. Experience In Motion .GESTRA DISCOCHECK® Dual-Plate Check Valves BB Valves with adjustable dampers from DN 200 (8“) – 500 (20“) In complex pipeline systems. major flow decelerations may be caused when pumps are switched off or as a result of failures.

Pressure and Temperature Control 13. Fig. The reduced pressure acts via the water-seal pot and the pilot line onto the lower side of the diaphragm. It is adjusted with the handwheel and determines the reduced pressure. and the amount of flash steam is lower.13. It is a balanced single-seat valve operating without auxiliary energy.1 Pressure-Reducing Valves The boiler pressure is often higher than the pressure required for the heating process. the control accuracy of a proportional controller.1. 84 GESTRA pressure-reducing valve 125 . In such cases. The force of the spring acts in the opposite direction. as shown below. is sufficient. it is generally more economical to reduce the steam pressure in a pressure-reducing valve. The purchase price for low-pressure heat exchangers is lower. 13.1 In most cases. the amount of latent heat that can be utilized is higher.

2 Correct installation is important to obtain good control of the reduced pressure (Fig. through cavitation and erosion. Drainage immediately upstream of the valve can be omitted if it is installed in a vertical line with upward flow. Even small dirt particles may therefore lead to trouble. the steam flows across the cold condensate. 126 . 85. and the resulting shock may lead to premature failure of the regulating membranes and the pressure-balance bellows. 3. Also. a second drain point should be provided downstream. 85). 8. whereby for the valve according to Fig. 85 Examples for installation of steam pressure-reducing valves Examples for the correct installation of pressure-reducing valves are given in Fig. Every pressurereducing valve should therefore be protected by a strainer. cause wear and eventual destruction of the valve and seat. Pressure-reducing valves operate for most of time in the throttled position. 84 it is recommended that the sensing point is approximately 1 m downstream of the valve to allow the flow to stabilize. 6. For these reasons. 7. Condensate collecting point Steam trap Stop valve Strainer 5. The condensate collects at the lowest point upstream of the pressure-reducing valve. 1.13. 4. the remaining steam condenses in the pipeline. the steam line upstream of each pressure-reducing valve should be drained. Water particles entrained in the steam passing through the strongly throttled valve at high velocity will. Waterhammer may result. Pressure-reducing valve Water-seal pot Sensing line Sensing point Fig. If the line downstream of the reducing valve rises.1. At start-up. 2. when the plant is shut down.

1. 1. 86). Sensing line Fig. If this is not possible. It is then necessary to install two pressure-reducing valves in series (see Fig. 3. Sensing line Fig. two valves of differing size must be connected in parallel (Fig. Pressure-reducing valve 6. 86 Series-connected pressure regulator for the stepped reduction of high steam pressures The most favourable reduction relationship is obtained for the two valves when the second is dimensioned to be two nominal sizes larger. Water-seal pot 7. 86). 3. Condensate collecting point Steam trap Stop valve Strainer 5. Condensate collecting point Steam trap Stop valve Strainer 5. Water-seal pot 7. it is recommended that a valve with a perforated plug be used. it is possible that the reducing capability of one valve is no longer sufficient. 87) 1. two pressure-reducing valves can be connected in series (see Fig. 13.13. 2. If the pressure drop is relatively high (P2 < P1/2). 2.3 If a relatively high pressure must be reduced to a very low pressure. 4. 87 Parallel-connected pressure regulators for strongly fluctuating steam consumption 127 . The steadying zone upstream of the first pressurereducing valve should be designed with a length of 8 x DN. The damping line should have a length of 5 m. 4. Pressure-reducing valve 6. operated by an electrical or pneumatic actuator.1.4 If the steam pressure fluctuates greatly between the minimum and maximum values and if the pressure is to be regulated precisely even for minimum demand. The same applies for the downstream pipeline.

The larger valve must be adjusted so that it closes at a slightly higher reduced-pressure than the smaller one. This ensures that both pressure regulators are open at full load. At low load, the reduced pressure increases a little, so that the larger valve closes and the smaller one alone performs the task of pressure regulation. 13.2 Temperature Control at the Heat Exchangers 13.2.1 Temperature control is mainly applied to the steam side. A common temperature controller from the GESTRA product range that functions without auxiliary power is shown in Fig. 88. Here a thermostat measuring the temperature of the product transfers its pulses to a positioning cylinder that controls the throttling valve, which is closed when the desired temperature is attained. For the steam trapping, it must be considered that, due to the opening and throttling of the controller, the steam pressure in the heat exchanger fluctuates constantly within a wide range (see also Section 4.7).

Fig. 88

Self-acting temperature controller. Thermostat with rod feeler and two-way closing valve (single-seated valve, closes with increasing temperature).


13.2.2 Control on the condensate side (see Section 4.8.3 and Fig. 38) offers the advantage that a constant pressure is maintained in the heat exchanger. At the same time, it is possible to utilize the sensible heat of the condensate. However, in comparison to control on the steam side, a noticeably more sluggish operation (overshooting) must be taken into account. Furthermore, heating surfaces that are unaffected by waterhammer (e.g. vertical preheaters) must be provided. For control on the condensate side, the valve shown in Fig. 88 can also be used, with the valve arranged on the condensate side. A steam trap must be fitted between the heat exchanger and the valve. This is required to prevent the loss of live steam when the valve is fully open (e.g. on startup of the plant). Control on the steam side Control on the condensate side

Depending on the load, the pressure in the heating space will vary. No banking-up of condensate. Fig. 89 Control of heat exchangers

Constant pressure in the heating space. Varying amounts of condensate accumulation, depending on load.


GESTRA DISCO® Non-Return Valves RK 86 and 86 A
Our experience gives you the quality, our visions give you the innovative energy. On this foundation, GESTRA has developed a non-return valve for industrial applications that combines many requirements in a single valve – and therefore not only fulfils but also far surpasses your wishes and expectations. Patented centering The patented centering mechanism of the RK 86/86A (patents pending) functions directly through the body itself. It has four integrated guide ribs arranged so that, independently of the flange standard, the valve disc of the RK 86/86A always lies against two of the guide ribs. The non-return valves of other manufacturers are fitted with only three guide ribs at best, which means that the valve disc, depending on installation, usually only has contact with one of them. All international standards Whether for DIN/EN, ASME or BS flange, this new DISCO® non-return valve is prepared for all international standards. Low wear Since the new RK 86/86A lies on not just one but two guide ribs, the rate of wear is halved - making for long service life. What is more, jamming and canting of the valve disc is then hardly possible. The risk of failure in your plant is thus reduced to a minimum.

Experience In Motion

15. The Use of GESTRA DISCO Non-Return Valves GESTRA DISCOCHECK Dual-Plate Check Valves 133 137 .Page 14.

thereby eliminating wear of the seating surfaces (soft or metal-to-metal seat) and extending the service life of the dual-plate check valves BB. Seat not subject to wear or damage During the opening process the hinge side of the plates opens first.The Power of Quality GESTRA‘s extensive customer adaptation and uncompromising quality standards guarantee outstanding product reliability coupled with economic efficiency and increased plant safety No early wear on hinge pins or springs Dual-plate check valves BB feature two hinge pins and four closing springs for lower opening pressures. hence no need for unnecessary plate replacements due to a leaky valve body. Leakproof body The body of the dual-plate check valve has no external through-hole. A positive safeguard against waterhammer Dual-plate check valves BB are available with patented adjustable dampers to protect the installation against damage caused by waterhammer. Suitable for use in aggressive fluids The dual-plate check valves BB are available with Levasint® or hardrubber lining for application in seawater and corrosive fluids. Experience In Motion .

With their extremely short face-to-face dimensions. The valve spring can also prevent gravity circulation. DN 15 – 100 with spiral centering ring or body centering cams for sandwiching between pipe flanges to DIN. Figs.14. Open Closed Fig. The space-saving GESTRA DISCO design simplifies the installation of the non-return valves. They contribute to the automation of the process. valves of the type RK are simply sandwiched between two flanges. BS or ASME 150/300 RF. 90a The valves are opened by the pressure of the fluid and closed by the integral spring as soon as the flow stops – before any back flow occurs. 133 . if required. 90b DISCO-RK. increase safety and may even replace an expensive valve. Fig. 90a and 90b below illustrate their operation and installation. PN 6 – 40. The Use of GESTRA DISCO Non-Return Valves Non-return valves are important in steam and condensate systems.

2 Preventing the formation of vacuum in the steam space: a) By fitting an RK in parallel with the steam trap. 92 134 . Fig. Fig.1 If heat exchangers are installed in parallel.14. 91). 91 14. non-return valves prevent the return of condensate when the heat exchanger is shut down (prevention of waterhammer at the next start-up) (Fig. The RK will open as soon as the pressure in the heat exchanger drops below that in the condensate line (see Fig. Note: Only meaningful for vertical heat exchangers. 92).

94 RKI: Vacuum breaker RK II: Pump foot valve 135 .b) By fitting an RK in parallel with a thermostatic air vent or by itself. 93 c) By fitting an RK at a flash vessel (see Fig. 93. The RK will open as soon as the pressure in the heat exchanger drops below atmospheric pressure. Fig. as shown in Fig. Fig. 94).

95 136 . Here steam cannot enter the cooling water line nor cooling water the steam line. the installation of RKs protects the plant against damage caused by operating errors (see Fig.3 If one coil is used for both heating and cooling.14. Fig. 95).

e. ISO and EN up to “extremely short versions”.15. in the range of larger sizes. Closing position Starting to open The opening process begins with the hinge sides of the plates first lifting off the centre pin. Their special advantages include extremely low flow resistances. GESTRA DISCOCHECK® Dual-Plate Check Valves BB These GESTRA valves are a logical extension of the GESTRA DISCO non-return valves. Starting to open Valve fully open The rotary movement of the plates is limited by stop lugs to 80°. and a wide range of materials for practically all media. Closing position The valve plates – with metal-to-metal or O-ring sealing – make even contact with the seat. short overall lengths. thereby reducing wear of the seating surfaces by the kinematic effect.g. Valve fully open Fig. to DIN API. e. 96 Functional principle of the GESTRA DISCOCHECK dual-plate check valves BB 137 . Additional hinge stop lugs ensure a stable position of the plates when fully open.g. The GESTRA DISCOCHECK dual-plate check valves of the type BB are designed for an especially long service life and extremely low pressure drops.

All three basic types BB. a long and maintenance-free product lifetime is achieved. Stop lugs at the plate halves. The reduced weight offers significant advantages for transport.GESTRA DISCOCHECK® Dual-Plate Check Valves BB These GESTRA check valves are of the wafer type with short overall lengths. low-wear operation with a long service life. Experience In Motion . Stress and wear are reduced because the plate halves lift off from the centre pin before the main opening action. stockkeeping and installation. The low zeta value means that the required pump output is reduced. As a result. so that you save energy and can use a pump with lower power consumption. and two springs are provided per plate half. with additional lugs on the body. the plates are separately suspended (two pivots). CB and WB are characterized by excellent hydrodynamic properties. These high-quality dual-plate check valves keep your running costs very low – by cutting the costs for pumping power and maintenance. limit the opening angle to 80° and ensure a stable open position. and providing safe.

PN 25 and PN 40 Float Traps.9 16.7 16. Type UBK 46 Float Traps. up to PN 40.5 145 146 147 148 149 150 152 152 16. up to PN 25. MK Range Thermostatic Traps with Pilot Control by Membrane Regulators.2 142 16. PN 63 Float Traps. PN 63-630.6 16.3 143 16. PN 100 Float Traps. PN 16/25 Thermodynamic Traps with Stage Nozzle.1 16. up to PN 40. Capacity Charts for GESTRA Steam Traps Thermostatic/Thermodynamic Steam Traps. PN 160 Float Traps. BK Range Thermostatic/Thermodynamic Steam Traps.8 16.Page 16. BK Range Thermostatic Traps with Pilot Control by Membrane Regulators.10 16. PN 16 141 16.11 16.12 .4 144 16. up to PN 16 Float Traps. up to PN 40. TK Range Thermostatic Traps for Constant Discharge Temperatures.

time to start welding. At last. off to the workshop – and be quick about it. because of the rush. So. The benefits for you are clear: » Space-saving arrangement of the valves » Components always mounted correctly » Reduced installation effort » No welding work » No painting needed » Simple ordering procedure GESTRA test station NRA 1-3 QuickEM Control with steam trap UNA 1 Experience In Motion . because it is ready for action: mounted and interconnected with all the valves. And.Modern plant construction made easy – with the GESTRA drainage station QuickEM A familiar situation: the various suppliers have delivered the valves and accessories to the construction site. Time is tight. 20 and 25. All you have to do is decide beforehand on the steam trap BK. Now install everything and check the function. we are happy to help you. as with all GESTRA products. Are all the parts there? Does everything fit together properly? Right. Oh no. But stop: here we have an Ex zone. So we have to remove it and correct the mistake. Electronic 24h monitoring is also possible. MK or UNA. we’re done! All this is much easier with the GESTRA drainage module QuickEM. a trap was installed wrongly. with or without bypass and available in the nominal sizes 15.

BK45 PN 40 DN 15. BK Range The capacities given in the chart are those obtained with approximately 10 K undercooling below saturation temperature. 50 up to 22 bar of differential pressure BK46 PN 40 DN 15. See the individual data sheets. Traps with larger capacities have more undercooling. 25 up to 32 bar of differential pressure 141 . The capacities of cold condensate (during start-up of the plant) are several times the capacities indicated in the chart.16.1 Thermostatic/Thermodynamic Steam Traps. up to PN 40. 25 up to 22 bar of differential pressure BK15 PN 40 DN 40. Capacity Charts for GESTRA Steam Traps 16. 20. 20.

85 bar BK29 PN160 DN 15. 45 bar BK28 PN100 DN 15. 25. The capacities of cold condensate (during start-up of the plant) are several times the capacities indicated in the chart. 250 bar 142 . 20. ∆PMX. 20. 25. 110 bar BK212 PN630 DN 15. PN 63-630. 45 bar BK37 PN63 DN 15. ∆PMX. See the individual data sheets. ∆PMX.16. 25. 20. BK Range The capacities given in the chart are those obtained with approximately 10 K undercooling below saturation temperature. 20.2 Thermostatic/Thermodynamic Steam Traps. 50. Traps with larger capacities have more undercooling. BK27N PN63 DN 40. 25. ∆PMX. ∆PMX.

MK 25/2. MK 45-1. PN 40 DN 40. up to PN 40. 50 MK 25/2S. MK Range The capacities given in the chart are those obtained with approximately 10 K undercooling below saturation temperature. especially for application of the U capsule (“undercooling” capsule).3 Thermostatic Traps with Pilot Control by Membrane Regulators. The capacities of cold condensate (during start-up) are several times the capacities indicated in the chart. 1/2". 50 143 . See the individual data sheets. 25 MK 35/31. MK 35/2S. PN 40 DN 15. PN 40 DN 1/4". 3/4". 1/2". PN 40 DN 40. MK 36/51. MK 45-2. 20.16. MK35/32 PN 25 DN 3/8". MK 35/2S3. 3/8".

up to PN 25. 65. 80. TK 23 PN16 DN 50. The capacities of cold condensate (during start-up of the plant) are several times the capacities indicated in the chart (see the corresponding data sheet). 65. 100 144 . 100 TK 24 PN25 DN 50.16. TK Range The capacities given in the chart are those obtained with approximately 5 K undercooling below saturation temperature. 80.4 Thermostatic Traps with Pilot Control by Membrane Regulators.

116 °C at 32 barg).16. this trap opens at condensate temperatures <100 °C for pressures up to 19 barg (e. 20.g.5 Thermostatic Traps for Constant Discharge Temperatures. 80 °C at 4 barg. The capacity given in the chart is obtained at a condensate temperature that is slightly below the corresponding opening temperature. 25 145 . The capacities of cold condensate (during start-up of the plant) are several times the capacities indicated in the chart (see individual data sheets). UBK 46 PN 40 DN 15.g. up to PN 40. 85 °C at 8 barg). Type UBK 46 With the factory setting. and at condensate temperatures ≥ 100 °C for pressures > 20 barg (e.

16. The maximum allowable differential pressure (working pressure) depends on the cross-sectional areas of the orifice. 146 . UNA 23 DN 15–50.6 Float Traps up to PN 16. UNA Special Type 62 DN 65–100 Maximum capacity of boiling hot condensate for the different sizes and orifices that are available.

147 . UNA 25/26 DN 15–50.7 Float Traps. UNA Special DN 65–100 Maximum capacity of boiling hot condensate for the different sizes and orifices that are available. The maximum allowable differential pressure (working pressure) depends on the cross-sectional areas of the orifice.16. PN 25 and PN 40.

16. 100 148 . 50 UNA Special DN 65. The maximum allowable differential pressure (working pressure) depends on the cross-sectional areas of the orifice.8 Float Traps. 80. UNA 27 DN 25. PN 63 Maximum capacity of boiling hot condensate for the different sizes and orifices that are available. 40.

50 149 . The maximum allowable differential pressure (working pressure) depends on the cross-sectional areas of the orifice. 25. 40. UNA 38 PN100 DN 15.16. 20. PN 100 Maximum capacity of boiling hot condensate.10 Float Traps.

UNA 39 Maximum capacity of boiling hot condensate.16. The maximum allowable differential pressure (working pressure) depends on the cross-sectional areas of the orifice. UNA 39 PN 160 DN 15.10 Float Traps. 50 150 . PN 160. 25.

16. The maximum allowable differential pressure (working pressure) depends on the cross-sectional areas of the orifice. PN 25/40 DN 15. 151 . 20. 25 UNA 14/16 Maximum capacity of boiling hot condensate.11 Float Traps.

80.12 Thermodynamic Traps with Stage Nozzle. GK 21 DN 50 GK 11 DN 65.16. the cold water capacity is approximately 70 % higher. PN 16. 100. 150 152 . DN 50–150 Maximum capacity of hot condensate at continuous load with 3/4 valve lift.

1 17.4 Valves for Special Purposes Condensate Drain Valve AK 45 Steam Traps for Sterile Applications.2 17. SMK 22 for the Pharmaceutical Industry Pump Trap UNA 25-PK Condensate Lifter UNA 25-PS 155 159 161 163 153 . 17.Page 17.3 17.

New Ideas. superseding expensive and complex systems for condensate discharge control. Experience In Motion .Proven Technology. It is the perfect solution for all sterile and aseptic applications. Once again GESTRA is at the forefront of steam trap technology with the new SMK 22 STERIline trap. Modern Production. This compact lightweight steam trap for pharmaceutical production plants is setting new standards in puresteam sterilization.

the residual steam condenses. a relatively large quality of condensate is produced but the existing steam trap is not yet able to discharge this start-up condensate without banking up.Deformation of the heating surfaces by vacuum . the incoming steam condenses very quickly but the pressure only builds up slowly. DN 15. This can be done with manually operated valves. There may be negative consequences: . Fig.Increased corrosion due to shut-down. In the process. 25 155 . When a plant is shut down. Valves for Special Purposes 17.17. 97 AK 45. Dangerous thermal waterhammer can occur.Waterhammer on start-up Remedy: Start-up drainage. This prolongs the start-up time. The pressure drops and a vacuum may result.1 Condensate Drain Valve AK 45 When steam-heated plants are taken into operation. 20. but is better effected automatically with the GESTRA drain valve AK 45 (see Fig. and danger of freezing through residual condensate . 97). evacuation and ventilation should be provided in addition to the steam trap.

Automatic drainage offers the following benefits in relation to manual draining: - Labour-saving - Excludes human error or negligence - Prevents steam losses by open valves - Prevents waterhammer and frost damage - Reduces the risk of accidents at poorly accessible points - Averts the need for an air-inlet valve The functional principle of the GESTRA AK 45 is based on a pressure-controlled seal plug. When there is no pressure, the AK 45 is held in the open position by a spring. When the plant is taken into operation, the condensate can drain freely out of the plant. Only when a certain steam pressure is reached (the closing pressure) does the valve close automatically. If the plant is shut down, causing the pressure to drop, the AK 45 opens at about the same pressure as the closing pressure in the start-up phase (i.e. opening pressure = closing pressure). A hand purging knob is provided, so that the AK 45 can be opened manually with the system under pressure to clear any deposits from the valve seat area.

Fig. 98

AK 45 capacities for cold condensate

When taking a steam line which has risers into service (e.g. a remote steam line), the steam trap is not able to discharge the condensate which is generated on start-up. Through friction between the two phases, the steam entrains the cold condensate and transports it into the rising part of the line. Pulsation and thermal waterhammer can result. Here too, the GESTRA AK 45 can provide the solution (Fig. 99).

Fig. 99

Installation example for AK 45


For heat exchangers operating in batch mode (e.g. boiling apparatus, autoclaves or evaporators), fast start-up and shut-down with frequent batch changes is required. The GESTRA AK 45 permits rapid start-up, because the condensate produced at start-up can be discharged freely. Waterhammer can no longer occur. When the plant has been shut down, the GESTRA AK 45 allows the residual condensate to drain, thereby preventing frost damage and distortion through the formation of vacuum and also reducing the downtime corrosion (see Fig. 100).

Fig. 100 Installation example for AK 45


8 µm. High sensitivity. The body gasket is of EPDM (O-ring) in accordance with the regulations specified by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The surface roughness Ra of the wetted surfaces is ≤ 0. The opening temperature is approximately 5 K below the boiling point. and is used for the discharging of condensate and the venting of steam in sterile and aseptic applications (SIP). Maximum differential pressure ∆p = 6 barg. All parts in contact with the fluid are of stainless steel. 159 . 101 This thermostatic steam trap features a minimum of stagnant area and a corrosion-resistant membrane regulator unaffected by waterhammer. Automatic air-venting and discharge of condensate without any banking-up within the rated pressure/temperature range.17. The try-clamp (a jointed clamp) permits easy maintenance of the SMK. thanks to reduced dimensions of the regulator (evaporation thermostat). thereby ensuring steam-tight shut-off unimpaired by particulate matter. The membrane regulator has a self-centering valve cone that can move freely. SMK 22 for the Pharmaceutical Industry SMK 22 SMK 22-81 SMK 22-51 Fig.2 Steam Traps for Sterile Applications. Reliable sterilization is safeguarded through rapid heating and drainage with absolutely no banking up during the sterilization process.

capacity of hot condensate 2 Max. capacity of cold condensate 160 .Fig. 102 Capacity chart for SMK 22 and SMK 22-51 1 Max.

it will switch the valve block. During the pumping process condensate collects in the supply line of the pump trap. the condensate level inside the trap body will continue to rise. however. Flowrate (trapping mode) Condensate (hot water) Flowrate 1) [kg/h] 2000 6 Cold water Flowrate 1) [kg/h] 2500 6 ∆PMX (differential pressure) [bar] 1) If this flowrate is exceeded.17. The equipment features integrated inlet and outlet check valves. a changeover linkage and a valve block for controlling the motive steam inlet and the vent outlet. the condensate will be discharged through the orifice and the check valve. If the differential pressure is sufficiently high. even if steam pressure is low or backpressures is high. an orifice. The float operates the rolling ball valve as a function of the condensate level inside the trap body. The equipment works primarily as a steam trap. When the float reaches its upper tripping point. and a new discharge cycle begins for the pump trap. The control mechanism consists of a control unit with ball float and rolling ball valve. Function The condensate flows through the integrated check valve into the trap body. a connection for motive steam and a connection for the vent valve. the equipment will change into pumping mode. This motivesteam powered pump trap lifts and discharges condensate. In this valve block the vent valve will be closed and the motive steam valve opened. The pressure now supplied by the motive steam forces the condensate out of the trap body. Condensate flows again through the check valve into the trap body. The equipment works as a normal steam trap.3 Pump Trap UNA 25-PK Description Ball-float operated steam trap with pumping function. see table “Flowrate” (equipment works as pump trap) ∆PMX (differential pressure) [bar] Flowrate (pumping mode) Condensate (hot water) Flowrate at 6 bar motive steam pressure and 1 m supply head Flowrate [kg/h] 460 1 PMOB (operating back pressure) [bar] 161 . When the lower tripping point is reached. thereby opening or closing the orifice. the position of the float will cause the valve block to open the vent valve and close the motive steam valve. the differential pressure is not sufficiently high. If.

5m 50 L min =2. 103 UNA 25-PK H min = 0.5m.Fig. supply not pressureless). Fig. 104 Discharge of condensate with low differential pressures 162 . DN40 Connection of UNA 25-PK to a heat exchanger or Connection of UNA 25-PS to heat exchanger or condensate line with vent line returned (hot condensate.

The control mechanism consists of a control unit with ball float. Condensate flows again through the check valve into the trap body. The equipment features integrated inlet and outlet check valves.4 Condensate Lifter UNA 25-PS Description Float-operated condensate lifter. In this valve block the vent valve will be closed and the motive steam valve opened. When the float reaches its upper tripping point. a connection for motive steam and a connection for the vent valve. a changeover linkage and a valve block for controlling the motive steam inlet and the vent outlet. During the pumping process condensate collects in the supply line of the condensate lifter. Flowrate (condensate lifting mode) Condensate (hot water) Flowrate at 13 bar motive steam pressure and 1 m supply head Flowrate [kg/h] 600 1 PMOB (operating back pressure) [bar] Cold water Flowrate at 13 bar motive steam pressure and 1 m supply head Flowrate [kg/h] 800 1 PMOB (operating back pressure) [bar] 163 . the position of the float will cause the valve block to open the vent valve and close the motive steam valve. designed for effective return of condensate. Function The condensate flows through the integrated check valve into the trap body. and a new discharge cycle begins for the condensate lifter. Steam is used as motive power for the operating cycle that displaces condensate out of the trap body.17. When the lower tripping point is reached. it will switch the valve block. The pressure now supplied by the motive steam forces the condensate out of the trap body.

supply pressureless. 105 UNA 25-PS Connection of UNA 25-PS (discharge to atmosphere. 106 Draining of heat exchanger with undercooled condensate 164 .Fig. Fig. recovery of highly undercooled condensates).

Symbols according to DIN 2481 Media and Lines Steam Steam boiler Condensate. Heat Exchangers and Equipment Air Line with heating or cooling Desuperheater with water injection Steam converter Intersection of two lines with junction Branch point Separator Intersection of two lines without junction Flash vessel Tundish Steam user without heating surface Discharge vent (canopy) Steam user with heating surface Surface heat exchanger 165 . feedwater Sensing line Steam boiler with superheater Boilers.

manually operated Steam accumulator Shut-off valve. general (vacuum pump) Vessel. general Liquid pump.Boilers. piston-operated 166 . general Compressor. motorized Steam trap Shut-off valve. general Vessel with dished end Valves Vessel with deaeration Shut-off valve. Heat Exchangers and Equipment Space heating Machines Steam turbine Open tank Electric motor. general Shut-off valve. solenoid-operated Vaposcope Shut-off valve.

diaphragm-operated Three-way cock Shut-off valve.Valves Shut-off valve. float-operated Check valve Swing check valve Valve DISCO non-return valve RK Angle valve Spring-loaded safety valve Butterfly valve Pressure-reducing valve Gate valve Cock 167 .

general Thermometer. general Liquid level Desuperheater with water injection and temperature controller Conductivity Pressure-reducing valve opens with decreasing pressure in line b pH meter Pressure-reducing valve opens with decreasing pressure in line a 168 . general Drain controller Flowmeter. general Control Equipment Controller.Instruments Pressure gauge.

Then PIC 110 means: Pressure lndicating Controller for control circuit 110. S = Switch (switching) can also mean Safety. general Capillary systems Pneumatic signalling lines Electrical signalling lines Circular symbols for equipment Locally fitted Panel mounting Rack mounting as first letter C D F H L M P S T 1 2 Letters used in multi-letter symbols as successive letters A C D G I R S T V Alarm Control Difference1 Gauge (sightGlass) Indicating Recording Switching2 Transmitter Valve Conductivity Density Flowrate. pressure (P). e. TD = temperature difference etc.International Symbols and Abbreviations Symbols Process lines Steam Water Air Instrument lines Lines. is to be indicated (I) and controlled (C). frequency Temperature PD = pressure difference. 169 . Example for the composition and meaning of a multi-letter symbol: The quantity to be measured. quantity Hand (manual operation) Level Moisture Pressure Speed. velocity.g.

4308 1.7335 1. austenitic Stainless steel (forged).7043 0.7043 0.4541 1.0619 1. unalloyed (carbon steel) Cast steel (carbon steel) Forged steel.4581 GX7CrNiMo12-1 GX5CrNi19-10 GX5CrNiMo19-11-2 X6CrNiTi18-10 X6CrNiNb18-10 GX5CrNiNb19-11 X6CrNiMoTi17-12-2 GX5CrNiMoNb19-11-2 1.7335 1.7357 ASTM Equivalent material1) A 126-B A 536 60-40-18 – – A 283-C A 105 A 216-WCB A 182-F1 A 217-WC1 A 182-F12-2 A 217-WC6 Category Grey cast iron S.5419 1.7357 EN designation Brief name EN-GJL-250 EN-GJS-400-15 EN-GJS-400-18-LT EN-GJMW-400-5 S235JRG2 P250GH GP240GH 16Mo3 G20Mo5 13CrMo4-5 G17CrMo5-5 EN designation Number EN-JL 1040 EN-JS 1030 EN-JS 1025 EN-JM 1030 1. heat resistant G-X 8 CrNi 13 G-X 6CrNi 18 9 G-X 6CrNiMo 18 10 X 6 CrNiTi 18 10 X 6 CrNiNb 18 10 G-X 5 CrNiNb 18 9 X 6 CrNiMoTi 17 12 2 G-X 5 CrNiMoNb 18 10 1.8 GS-C 25 15 Mo 3 GS-22 Mo 4 13 CrMo 4 4 GS-17 CrMo 5 5 Number 0.0970.0540 2.3 GTW-40 RSt 37-2 C22. (ductile) iron Malleable cast iron.4008 1.5419 1.4408 1.6025 0.4308 1.4571 1.0460 1. austenitic CuZn 39 Pb 3 CuZn 35 Ni 2 G-CuAl 9 Ni G-CuSn 10 GC-CuSn 12 1) 2.4571 1.4550 1.04 CuZn38Pb2 CuZn35Ni3Mn2AlPb CuAl10Ni3Fe2-C CuSn10-Cu CuSn12-C CW608N CW710R CC332G CC480K CC483K – – – – – Hot-pressed brass Brass Bronze Bronze Bronze Note the differences in chemical and physical properties! 170 171 .0460 1.5415 1.01 2.4552 1.0038 1.0619 1. heat resistant Forged steel.0401 2.01 2.4408 1. austenitic Stainless steel (forged).8040 1.4008 1. heat resistant Cast steel. (ductile) iron S. austenitic Stainless steel (casting). austenitic Stainless steel (casting). austenitic Stainless steel (casting).4552 1.G. austenitic Stainless steel (forged).4541 1. heat resistant Cast steel.0038 1.G.1052.Material Designations Old material designation (DIN) Brief name GG-25 GGG-40 GGG-40.4550 1.1050.4581 – A 351-CF8 A 351-CF8M – A 182-F347 A 351-CF8C – – Cast steel.5415 1. white Structural steel Forged steel. stainless Stainless steel (casting).

65 75 62 66 Examples of application F Finned-tube heaters Flash steam .compressed-air lines .in steam systems .Index Page Page A Acid baths Air conditioning plants Air heaters Air humidifiers Air vents (DISCO non-return valves RK) B Band driers Banking-up of condensate Baths (for cleaning and pickling) Boilers Boiling pans Brewing pans C Calenders Capacity charts for steam traps Cleaning machines .in compressed-air systems Condensate Lifter Condensate-line sizing Condensate-return systems Convectors for space heating Coppers Counterflow heat exchangers Cylinder drainage D Digesters Drainage .pipes Driers Dry-cleaning machines Drying cylinders Drying platens E Evaluation criteria for steam trap systems Evaporators 172 64 49 49 50 133 65 31 63 50 56 59 62.recovery systems Flow velocity in steam lines Flowrates in pipelines G Group trapping of heat exchangers H Heat exchangers Heaters Heating coils Hot mangles Hot tables I Individual trapping of heat exchangers Instrument tracing Ironers Ironing presses J Jacketed tracing lines L Laundry equipment M Mash tubs Monitoring of steam traps Multi-platen presses N Nominal size of pipework Non-return valves P Pans Preheaters Presses 27 46 92 93 112 111 29 43 48 48. 74 141 75 155 118 101 163 107 95 46 59 51 62 55 99 43 43. 56 53 67-69. 62.dry cleaning Condensate drain valves Condensate flowrates . 72 9 60 .amount . 63 74 66 29 78 72 72 77 72 59 83 67 107 133 55.

examples general principles Steam traps . 40 121 159 12 73 61 45 165-168 173 . utilization Sizing . 117 72 43 117 44 (46) 43 46 43 114 27 27 9 83 10.evaluation .Page Page Pressure control Pressure drop in steam lines Pressure-reducing valves Principles of steam trapping Process digesters Process heat exchangers Process pans Pump Trap R Radiant panels Radiators Rotating drying cylinders S Saturated steam mains drainage Selection of steam traps Sensible heat of condensate.selection .condensate return lines .steam traps steam lines Stain-removing tables Steam lines .sizing .monitoring .sterilizing steam systems Steaming mannequins Stills Superheated steam mains Symbols 125 109 125 27 55 53 55 161 T Tank heating Temperature control on the condensate side Temperature control on the steam side Temperature controllers Tracer lines Tube preheaters Tyre presses U Unit air heaters Utilizing the sensible heat V Vulcanizers Vulcanizing presses W Water separators Waterhammer 79 128 128 128 76 53 69 47 91 70 69 43 32 46 46 62 44 40 91 107 121 107.drainage sizing Steam mains Steam manifolds Steam radiators Steam separators Steam tables Steam trapping .

(Bimetallic) Regulator or Membrane Regulator . 174 .Steam Trap Units for Universal Connectors .Steam Trap Monitoring Equipment Non-Return Valves Gravity Circulation Checks .Thermostatic Steam Traps with Duo S. Return-Temperature Control Valves These directly controlled return-temperature control valves maintain constant return temperatures within their proportional range.Ball Float Traps .Thermodynamic Steam Traps .DISCO®-Check Valves .DISCOCHECK®-Dual-Plate Check Valves Cooling-Water Control Valves Direct-acting proportional controllers maintain the cooling water outlet temperature at a preset value as a function of the discharge temperature.DISCO®-Non-Return Valves .GESTRA Product Overview Steam Traps .S.

Blowdown Receiver (Mixing Cooler) . Suitable for applications in heating and cooling processes with steam.Control valves with radial stage nozzle Safety Valves Strainers Stop Valves Special Equipment and Vessels for Heat Recovery .Condensate Dampening Pots . neutral gases and liquids.Control valves with electric and pneumatic actuators .GESTRA Product Overview Pressure Control Valves Direct-acting pressure-reducing valve with large set-point ranges for steam.Condensate Recovery and Return System .Desuperheaters . gas and liquids.and reverse-acting valves with external feeler.Air/Steam Driers and Purifiers 175 .Feedwater Deaerating Plants . Control Valves . Temperature Control Valves Self-acting temperature control valves operate as normal.Steam Regenerators .

Monitoring and Alarm Temperature Control and Alarm Conductivity Monitoring Continuous and Intermittent Blowdown Valves Programme-Controlled Blowdown Systems Liquid Monitoring Flowmeters for Steam.GESTRA Product Overview Equipment for Energy Supply Centres All components for improving operational safety and monitoring steam and pressurized hot water plants in accordance with TRD 701 / 601 / 602 / 604 24h / 604 72h Level Control. Gases and Liquids Bus Technology 176 . 810580-06/1210 · © 2010 · GESTRA AG · Bremen · Printed in Germany With Energy into the Future .O. Box 10 54 60. D-28054 Bremen Telephone +49 (0) 421-35 03-0 Telefax +49 (0) 421-35 03-393 E-mail gestra.gestra. D-28215 Bremen Internet www.GESTRA GESTRA AG Münchener Str.

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