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Domestic Water Supply

Engineering Manual

Domestic Water Supply

Second edition Copyright 2000 by GRUNDFOS A/S DK-8850 Bjerringbro Denmark All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means without the prior written permission of the publisher. Drawings: Hakon Lund Jensen Printed in Denmark

Chapters

Domestic Water Supply

1.

Introduction

2.

Water requirement

3.

Water sources

4.

Water quality

5.

Pollution and infiltration

6.

Disinfection

7.

Water treatment

8.

Pump selection

9.

Control system andstorage

10.

Piping and electrical installations

10

11.

Trouble-shooting

11

Contents

Introduction
General 8

Disinfection
Methods of disinfection Chlorination in general Simple chlorination Chlorination terms Super chlorination Well injection Pumped dose Dosing pump capacity Injector chlorination General facts about ultra-violet light Installation of ultra-violet light Safety control Pasteurization Reverse osmosis in general Solar distillation in general 52 53 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 64 65 66

Water requirement
Calculation of water requirement 12

Water sources
General Drilled wells Driven wells Washed or jetted wells Dug wells Bored wells Springs Cisterns Lakes and rivers Capacity check Drilled well test Diagram for calculating the flow Water level measuring Procedure Regular water level checks Driven well test Calculation of drawdown at fixed flow Spring capacity Cistern capacity Capacity of catchment area Shallow wells 18 19 20 21 22 22 23 23 23 24 24 25 26 26 27 29 30 31 32 33 34

Water treatment
Water treatment in general Hard water Ion exchange in general Recharging Acid water Acid treatment Red water (dissolved iron) Red water (iron bacteria) Brownish-black water (Dissolved manganese) Fertilizer-contaminated water (nitrate content) What is osmosis? Water smelling like rotten eggs Turbid or evil-tasting water 68 70 72 73 74 77 78 82 84 86 88 91 92

Water quality
Official tests Do-it-yourself tests Coliform contamination Nitrate contamination Consequence of contaminated water 36 36 37 38 39

Pump selection
Typical pump types for water supply Centrifugal principle Calculation example NPSH Pump curves Maximum suction lift Pump curves Cavitation Pump applications 1. Installation conditions 2. Water quality 3. Drives Normal water flow Likely maximum flow Sustained use Actual pump head Friction loss curves and figures Example 96 97 98 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 106 111 117 119 120 121 124 125

Pollution and infiltration


Industrial and commercial pollution Municipal and rural pollution Sources of pollution Formation sealing of drilled wells Sanitary sealing of drilled wells Evacuation of gas Vacuum wells Formation sealing of dug, driven or washed wells Formation sealing of driven or washed wells Formation sealing of springs Design of collecting reservoir Other sources of pollution 42 43 44 45 46 47 47 48 48 49 49 50

Contents

Control systems and storage


Storage capacity 1. Capacity of water source versus peak demand Automatic air control device Electric water level control and air compressor Reservoir 2. Optimum economy of the water supply system 3 & 4. Water supply in case of power failure 128 129 132 134 136 137 138

Piping and electrical installations


Piping Importance of stable power supply Protective equipment Different starting methods 140 142 144 146

Trouble-shooting
Water hammer Solution Pipe corrosion Solution Sand yielding wells Solution Pump and pipe corrosion Solution Service overhaul of simple water supply systems Regeneration State of the system Periodic cleaning and service overhaul Calculation of the constant (C) 152 152 153 153 154 154 155 155 156 157 158 159 161

Introduction

Domestic Water Supply

Introduction
Chapter 1

Introduction

Domestic Water Supply

Fig. 1 Different types of domestic water consumptionGeneral

General
Clean water is the key to a healthy life. Abundant water is the key to progress and a comfortable life. Water supply systems should be planned the right way for any size of installation - single-family house, housing estate, etc. If not, the result will often be a bad investment, too high operating costs or even unhealthy water. In this manual, the term Water Supply Systems covers raw water supply, pump equipment, storage tanks, water treatment equipment, distribution pipes and electrical installations. The manual tells you how to plan safe water supplies for a house, a farm, a block of flats, etc. Groundwater is the main source for private water supply systems. The global amount of groundwater is constant, based on the worldss oldest recycling system. The system will function forever unless we human beings destroy it.

Introduction

Domestic Water Supply

Plenty to eat, but no water!

If I dont get water, my growth will be hampered

Fig. 2 Watering and irrigation

Water for the agricultural sector


Farms need water for a wide variety of applications. The following are typical examples of water usage. Increased milk production Practice has shown that providing water (for milking cows) by means of automatic drinking bowls, so that the cows can drink whenever they wish, increases the yield of good cows by approx. 4 per cent over watering twice daily and approx. 11 per cent compared with watering once daily. Yield stability To most farmers, the most important advantgage of an irrigation system is the stability yield that can be obtained, i.e. 1. An optimal constant yield year after year, only influenced by the sun, fertilization and wind. 2. Production equalizing advantages - all crops give optimum yields when the land is irrigated, and the growing season is increased, unlike in non-irrigated areas where the crops often fail completely. 3. Sandy soil will often yield up to twice as much. 4. Irrigation will often prevent erosion of the land.

Importance of water quality Development of allergy is an increasing problem in almost all parts of the world. In certain parts of the world, the use of DDT is still accepted to fight moscitoes and malaria. In these areas, a content of DDT 42 times what is internationally accepted as the maximum value has been measured. This shockingly high figure is not just the result of polluted drinking water, but also of polluted food. It is, therefore, important, too, that water for irrigation and for watering of livestock is of the best quality. Coming generations depend on our decisions of applying clean production methods and consequently clean products.

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Water requirement

Domestic Water Supply

Water requirement
Chapter 2

11

Water requirement

Domestic Water Supply

Fig. 3 Problem solving

Calculation of water requirement


The basis for planning a water supply system depends on water requirements. First determine the daily water consumption and peak demand. Then test the water source to see if it will meet the requirements. Observations have shown that the water consumption in a house varies a lot depending on housing standards and life style. During hot periods, watering the garden increases water consumption up to 45 times the normal requirement. Evaporation from swimming pools and garden ponds also requires nearly the same quantity of water per square metre as lawn sprinkling.

12

Water requirement
Irrigation
Generally, the yield depends on the type of crop, the soil and how it is prepared, the use of fertilizers, irrigation methods, rotation of crops, weed and disease control. The table states the maximum yield of certain crops growing in light soil when treated in the optimum way. If the yield is lower, irrigation should be considered.

Domestic Water Supply

Type of crop Maize Cotton Wheat Barley Grass

Maximum yield 8,000 kg/ha 2,800 kg/ha of seeds and lint, of which 2,000 kg are fibres 5,000 kg/ha 5,000 kg/ha 20,000 kg/ha, i.e. 15,000 feed units

2
Approximate daily water requirement Application For kitchen and laundry use, bathing, sanitary use and other uses inside the house For replenishment of swimming pool Lawn and garden For lawn sprinkling per 100 m2 per sprinkling For garden sprinkling per 100 m2 per sprinkling Dairy cows Calves Beef calves (one year old) Breeding cattle and beef cattle Sheep or goats Farming Horses or mules Swine Sows (nursing) Laying hens Broilers Turkeys (1519 weeks) Sanitation (cleaning of installation and milking room) Washdown of floors Water consumption (litres/day) 400 per person 120 2,400 (approx. 24 mm) 2,400 (approx. 24 mm) 80 per head 30 per head 80 per head 50 per head 10 per head 50 per head 20 per head 25 per head 40 per 100 birds 25 per 100 birds 80 per 100 birds 2,000 per day 50 per 10 m3

Home

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Water requirement

Domestic Water Supply

Peak demand Water storage system Elevated reservoir. Min. volume: of daily consumption l/s Single-family house (for all activities inside the house) Lawn, garden and replenishment of swimming pool Farming (average) (less than 40 head of cattle or 200 pigs) Farming (intensive animal production) (more than 50 head of cattle or 300 pigs) Cleaning of installation and milking room Washdown of floors 0.1 0.28 0.15 m3/h 0.36 1.0 0.54 Non-elevated reservoir. Limited reservoir l/s 0.34 0.28 0.56 m3/h 1.2 1.0 2.0

Add to this consumption for domestic use, garden and irrigation 0.28 1.0 0.56 2.0

Add to this consumption for domestic use, garden and irrigation 0.07 0.07 0.25 0.25 0.34 0.34 1.0 1.0

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Water requirement

Domestic Water Supply

mm

2
Natural precipitation Need for irrigation Water requirement for crops

Saturation and percolation

Jan.

Febr.

March

April

May

June

July

Aug.

Sept.

Oct.

Nov.

Dec.

Fig. 4 Correlation between natural precipitation and requirement for water to crops

Latitude 30 40 50 60

Water requirement A total of 810 mm per day for approx. 220 days a year A total of 68 mm per day for approx. 150 days a year A total of 36 mm per day for approx. 40 days a year A total of 23 mm per day for approx. 20 days a year

Dependent on the number of working hours available per day, the required flow rate can be calculated as follows: 80 20 = 4 m3 per ha. per hour.

By multiplying the above figure by the number of hectares to be irrigated, the necessary pump performance can be found. In order to calculate water requirements using the table on page 11, the following example may be useful.

The irrigation requirement depends on evaporation (evapo-transpiration) which again depends on the type and stage of crop (germination, growth, ripening). With an evaporation of 8 mm per ha. per day, 80 m3 of water disappears per ha. per day.

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Water requirement
Example Assume you have a small farm consisting of a farmhouse, garden, swimming pool, family of four, 30 head of cattle, 40 pigs and 1,000 laying hens. The table overleaf will give you the water requirement. 4 persons, 400 litres per person Home 600 m2 of garden to be sprinkled (6 x 2,400 litres per 100 m2) 20 m2 of swimming pool (2 x 120 litres) 30 dairy cows, 80 litres each Farm Dairy sanitation 40 pigs, 20 litres each 1,000 laying hens, 40 litres per 100 hens Total maximum water requirement At peak demand when using a pressure tank (see page 12): Home Lawn and garden sprinkling, swimming pool maintenance Animals Dairy sanitation Probable maximum peak demand

Domestic Water Supply

1,600 l/day 14,400 l/day 240 l/day 2,400 l/day 2,000 l/day 800 l/day 400 l/day 21,840 l/day

1.2 m3/h 1.0 m3/h 2.0 m3/h 1.0 m3/h 5.2 m3/h

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Water sources

Domestic Water Supply

Water sources
Chapter 3

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Water sources

Domestic Water Supply

Fig. 5 Well drilling

General
If your present water source supplies ample and clean water, even during droughts, it is natural to select this for the new pumping system, too. If, however, a new water source has to be found, the best and most reliable one would be ground water, but other water sources can also be used if no suitable ground water is available in the area. Before developing a well, local geological services and local well drillers should be contacted for advice.

Different types of water sources:


drilled wells driven wells jetted wells dug wells bored wells springs cisterns lakes and rivers The above types will be described on the following pages.

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Water sources

Domestic Water Supply

Installation pit Cement grout Casing

Cone of depression Gravel pack Screen

Drawdown Static water level

Dynamic water level

Aquifer

Fig. 6 Drilled well

Drilled wells
A drilled well usually consists of a hole drilled to a depth where a water-bearing stratum (aquifer) is reached and lined with a steel or PVC casing. If the aquifer supplies ample clean water, a screen surrounded by a gravel pack is installed. The pumped water is filtered by the gravel pack. If there are several aquifers of limited capacity, a well screen is installed in every aquifer the casing passes through. Drilled wells can be developed in soil, gravel or solid rock, as special well-drilling machines are available for different underground formations. Drilled wells typically range from 4" to 10" in diameter with depths down to 50 metres, but, if necessary, wells down to 700 metres can be developed. It is advisable to provide a clay or cement seal between the casing and the strata at the top of the borehole to prevent surface water from entering the borehole. A good, drilled well is an excellent source of water as it is usually unpolluted and provides ample water. If, however, the well is affected by pollutants, it may be necessary to drill it deeper in order to get down to strata which are better protected against infiltration.

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Water sources

Domestic Water Supply

Drive cap

Well pit Drive pipe

Screen Well point


Fig. 7 Driven wells

Water table

Driven wells
A driven well usually consists of a well point and a screen of between 1" and 2" screwed on a galvanized pipe which is driven into the ground until the screen is below the ground water table. Normally, driven wells cannot be used if the water table is more than 8 metres below the pump. The capacity of a driven well is usually limited, often to a maximum 12 m3/h, as it has no gravel pack to protect the well screen against blockage by migrating particles. Therefore, it is often necessary to connect two or more driven wells to the same pump. To regenerate a driven well, water should be pumped back through the screen using a high-velocity water jet to flush blocking particles away from the screen. Driven wells cannot be constructed in rocky ground. It is extremely important to seal driven wells by means of cement grout around the galvanized pipe to prevent polluted surface water from penetrating into the borehole.

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Water sources

Domestic Water Supply

Connecting branch Filter Centre pipe

Filter

Centre pipe

Casing

Ball valve

3
Screen setting

Well point
Fig. 8 Washed or jetted wells

Washed or jetted wells


A 1"2" washed or jetted well usually consists of a screen with a centre pipe and a ball valve as shown above. At the same time as the well screen is driven into the borehole, water is forced down the centre pipe under high pressure. The water jet will remove the material at the lower end of the screen. Such wells can have a depth of up to 8 metres. 3"4" jetted wells usually consist of a casing with a centre pipe. At the same time as the casing is pressed into the borehole, the water jet forces the material at the bottom of the borehole to the surface through the clearance between casing and centre pipe. When the casing has been positioned correctly, the centre pipe is pressed deeper down into the borehole to make room for the well screen. This is then installed at the end of the casing. The screen is of the telescopic type with an elastic gasket sealing against the casing. The outside diameter of a telescopic screen is smaller than the inside diameter of the casing. Such screens are suitable for telescoping through long strings of casing. Jetted wells with a diameter of more than 3" can be up to 40 metres deep.

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Water sources

Domestic Water Supply

Fig. 9 Dug well (left) and bored well

Dug wells
A dug well is usually cased with concrete pipes or concrete brick masonry with a diameter of 12 metres extending down below the water table causing water to accumulate in the well. Most dug wells are less than 20 metres deep. The pump equipment is typically installed on two or three steel beams, 34 metres above the water table.

Bored wells
The auger used to make bored wells can be handoperated, but is usually power-driven. Typical well diameters range from 6" to 14". Such wells are seldom deeper than 40 metres. The casing is often made of concrete pipes or short steel pipes which are screwed together and inserted as the hole is being bored. Existing wells are often a combination of a dug well and a bored well, as the originally dug wells have dried up because of a lowering of the water table by a few metres and a hole has been bored down below the new ground water table to obtain ample water all year round.

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Water sources

Domestic Water Supply

Cistern Spring Lake

Fig. 10 Other water sources

Springs
A spring is ground water under pressure which has been forced through the permeable strata to the surface of the earth. Springs are rather common in hilly or mountainous areas. Normally, springs give off so little water that a reservoir has to be built to ensure a reliable supply during peak demand.

Lakes and rivers


Lakes and rivers consist of surface water. Water for use in the household should never be pumped directly from here to the consumer, but should be taken from a shallow well at the lake shore or river bank and filtered through at least 510 metres of sand, as it may have been exposed to pollution and pesticides.

Cisterns
A cistern usually consists of a watertight underground concrete tank which is filled with rainwater from roofs. In dry periods, water is drawn into the cistern from areas with a reliable water supply. Cisterns are used in areas where no suitable ground water is available, e.g. islands and peninsulas where the ground water is saline. Water from springs or cisterns should not be used for cooking purposes or as drinking water if safe ground water is available. Spring water may be subject to some pollution.

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Water sources

Domestic Water Supply

Water level tape measure Drawdown at peak demand Water meter

Fig. 11 Performance test

Capacity check
When the water source that best meets the requirements has been selected, the following must be performed as a minimum: Determination of capacity and drawdown Analysis of water quality (discussed later)

Drilled well test


When a well is drilled, you will normally have a test report from the well driller. If you cannot obtain updated information on the capacity, the well driller or local pump dealer can probably supply a test pump. Let it operate for 24 hours, if possible, at a pumping rate corresponding to the calculated peak demand and then measure the drawdown. Use a water meter for measuring the flow. If no water meter is available, fit an undersized pipe to the outlet of the discharge pipe in horizontal position and measure the height from ground level to the pipe centre. During pumping, measure the length from the pipe outlet to the splashing point. With these two values, it is possible to find the approximate flow from the diagram.

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Water sources

Domestic Water Supply

Minimum 1.5 metres h

Fig. 12 Measuring of flow without a water meter

Diagram for calculating the flow


Note that the discharge pipe must be fully filled with water.

X in metres

The flow rate (Q) is found to be 10.7 m3/h

1.5 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2

50 m 60 m

0.1 0.1

0.2

0.3 0.4

0.6 0.8 1.0

1.5

2 2.5 3

10

Q in m3/h

m m 4"

80

m m 3"

1/

2"

m m 2"

40

30

m 1 1 m 1/ 4" 1/ 2"

25

Example: Pipe: 1 1/2" X: 1.2 m h: 1.5 m

0.1 4 3 2.5

0.2

0.3 0.4

0.6 0.8 1.0

1.5

2 2.5 3
m m

5
2" 1/

7
m

9
m 3/4 m "

h in metres

Horizontal
10

20

1"

25

Water sources

Domestic Water Supply

Fig. 13 Measuring of water level

Water level measuring


When the pump performance has been measured, the depth to the dynamic water level must be measured too. This can easily be done by means of water level measuring equipment, which you may borrow from the well driller.

Procedure
Lower plumb slowly into the well. Make sure that the cable is not damaged by the sharp edge of the upper end of the pipe if not properly deburred. When the builtin electrode is immersed in water, the red light will switch on. Pull the cable up slightly; when the electrode is no longer in the water, the light will go out. The exact distance to the water level can thus be read on the cable.

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Water sources

Domestic Water Supply

1 metre

Fig. 14 Installation for checking the drawdown

Regular water level checks


For regular checks of the drawdown, it is advisable to install a water level indicator together with the pump. The water level indicator consists of a rigid 1/8" plastic tube connected to a pressure gauge and an air valve.

Procedure
1. Fit the open end of the tube to the riser main. Measure the distance from the pump inlet to the open end of the tube. Install the pumping equipment in the well - while measuring the vertical distance from the open end of the tube to the ground level. It is important that the open end of the tube is not fitted closer than 30 centimetres above the pump inlet. One metre is recommended. 2. Record the distance from ground level to the open end of the tube. 3. Pump air into the tube until the pressure gauge reading remains constant. If the pressure gauge pointer returns to zero, there may be a small leak in the tube connections, or the water level is below the open end of the tube. Check for leaks in the tube or at the connections and then fill up with air until the pressure gauge pointer remains constant. 4. Record pressure gauge reading. 5. Start the pump.

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Water sources

Domestic Water Supply

Initial reading

Final reading

Fig. 15 Readings and calculations

6. Measure the quantity of water. 7. Check the pressure gauge reading at the end of the pumping period, while the pump is still running. 8. Subtract the lower reading from the higher reading. Most pressure gauges are calibrated in bars. In the figure, the difference between the two readings is 0.5 bar. 9. Multiply the reading (in bars) by 10. A 10-metre water column will develop a pressure of one bar. Consequently, the drawdown can be calculated in metres by multiplying 0.5 bar by 10. The drawdown itself (static water level less dynamic water level) says nothing about the water level above the pump; however, it tells you whether the screen is clogging or not. 10. Calculation of water level above pump. Multiply the lower reading (0.7 bar) by 10; this gives a dynamic water level of 7 metres above the open end of the tube. The open end of the tube is one metre above pump inlet and the total water level above pump inlet is 8 metres during pumping.

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Water sources

Domestic Water Supply

Fig. 16 Testing of driven wells

Driven well test


For small-diameter driven or jetted wells, the pump suction pipe may be the only means to check the drawdown and the friction loss in the suction pipe. Use a jet pump for the task. This pump will lift water up to 78 metres under normal conditions. Fit a non-return valve and a vacuum gauge on the suction side of the pump as shown.

Procedure
1. Prime the pump. 2. Start the pump and let it run until the well is free of air. 3. Stop the pump and check that the vacuum gauge pointer does not move. 4. Record gauge reading (static water level). 5. Restart the pump and throttle the pump until the required peak demand is obtained. 6. Make sure that the vacuum gauge pointer does not move. If it vibrates, this might be an indication that the pump is cavitating. 7. Record gauge reading (dynamic water level) at the end of the test period. 8. Subtract lower reading from higher reading. The difference is a combination of drawdown and friction loss.

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Water sources

Domestic Water Supply

If the pump cavitates, throttle the flow rate on the discharge side

Throttle valve

Drawdown: 2.04 metres at a flow rate of 1 m3/h

Dynamic water level at throtled pump flow

Drawdown: 4 metres at a flow rate of 1.4 m3/h

Dynamic water level at peak demand

Fig. 17 Drawdown

Calculation of drawdown at fixed flow


As the hydraulic conditions around the screen inlet are unknown, the drawdown can only be roughly estimated at other flow rates using the following formula: Drawdown = constant factor flow rate squared. D = C Q2 C = Known data: Q = 1.4 Constant factor C = D Q2 m3 /h at D = 4 metres At a flow rate of 1 m3/h, the drawdown D = C Q2 = 2.04 12 = 2.04 metres, which is approximately half the drawdown at a flow rate of 1.4 m3/h. This calculation may be necessary if the dynamic water level at peak demand drops so much that the pump starts cavitating. In case of cavitation, the only possibility is to throttle the flow on the discharge side of the pump and thus reduce the drawdown.

Drawdown 4 = = 2.04 Flow rate squared 1.42

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Water sources

Domestic Water Supply

Dug channel

Depth of water to the bottom of the notch

V-shaped weir

3
Spring

Fig. 18 Calculation of spring capacity

Spring capacity
As the amount of water in springs tends to fluctuate over the year, the flow should be checked in the driest season. If the spring is on a hillside, the easiest way to check the flow is to make a channel with a notch weir.
30 20 15 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 10 15 20 30 40

If this arrangement is not satisfactory, you have to arrange with your pump dealer for a test pump to check the spring. If you have noticed major variations over the year, the spring is not reliable as a water source. It may also constitute a health risk, if not properly protected. For springs with a capacity exceeding the daily needs, but still less than peak demand, a reservoir must be constructed.

h (cm)

90 h

m3/h
60 80 100150 200

Fig. 19 Calculation diagram

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Water sources

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Rainwater pipe For supply tank

Screen Deposits Filter intake

Pump for removal of sediments

Fig. 20 Cistern installation

Cistern capacity
Cisterns should only be used when all other sources fail. In practice, some other water source is often used in combination with a cistern, e.g. water brought in by road tanker. To calculate the size of the cistern, the following information is required: 1. Minimum annual rainfall recorded in the area. 2. Difference between minimum rainfall in the wet season and the daily consumption that is to be stored for the dry season. 3. The degree of collection in the area (normally, there is a total loss (e.g. from evaporation) of 3040% of the rainfall before it is collected in the cistern). 4. The longest period of drought recorded for the area. 5. The available roof area from which water can be drained into a cistern. Rain-collecting surfaces are called catchment areas. A catchment area includes both roofs and paved areas. The latter method is occasionally used in dry regions or on islands and peninsulas with saline ground water.

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Water sources

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L4 B

L2

3
B2 L3 L1 B1 Catchment area is based on these measurements A = area of roof surface L1 + L2 L3 + L4 A = B1 ------------------- + B2 ------------------2 2
Fig. 21 Catchment area

Capacity of catchment area


Net amount of water per square metre of catchment area Minimum annual rainfall [mm] 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000 Annual quantity of water per square metre [litres] 66 133 200 266 333 400 466 533 600 666

In the table, deduction has been made for losses (approx. 1/3) due to evaporation, leakage and removal of tank sediments. With this information, it is possible to calculate whether the precipitation is sufficient to satisfy the annual requirement it is possible to build a cistern big enough to store excess water from the wet season to the dry season for use in the dry season.

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Water sources

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Dynamic water level Static water level

Drawdown Float Plumb

Fig. 22 Shallow well test

Shallow wells
Lakes and rivers should only be used directly as a water source for irrigation. For drinking and cooking purposes, water should be taken from a well constructed close to the river bank. Check the capacity of the well by means of a water meter and the drawdown when the pump is throttled for peak demand. If there is space enough, the string-and-float method can be used to check the drawdown. In other situations, see page 24.

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Water quality

Domestic Water Supply

Water quality
Chapter 4

35

Water quality

Domestic Water Supply

Fig. 23 Laboratory

Official tests
When the water source has been developed, it is of the utmost importance to have the water quality checked. You may contact your local health authorities or an analytical laboratory to have the water tested, both chemically and bacteriologically. The results of this will show whether the water source meets the quality requirements in your country.

Do-it-yourself tests
If the water source is exposed to pollution, which is the case for springs, cisterns, lakes and rivers, water stored in open containers at temperatures higher than +15C for more than three days before tapping, it is a good idea to test the water regularly. For this purpose, a number of do-it-yourself kits are available. With such test kits it is possible to check the occurrence of the most frequent types of pollution such as

coliform bacteria from warm-blooded animals or human beings. Nitrate coming from both natural and artificial fertilizers. Changes in pH value.

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Water quality

Domestic Water Supply

After 48 hours in an incubator at a temperature of 38C, any coliform bacteria will have developed a growth colony

Water containing coliform bacteria

Fig. 24 Test for coliform bacteria. Do-it-yourself test kits are available with step-by-step instructions

Coliform contamination
A newly completed well will contain coliform bacteria for at least 50 days. If the well has had a service overhaul, the same may be the case. If coliform bacteria can be detected permanently in the drinking water, the water source constitutes a health hazard.

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Water quality

Domestic Water Supply

Water containing nitrate

Fig. 25 Test for nitrate contamination caused by fertilizers

Nitrate contamination
Nitrate in the drinking water may well stem from rain that fell on a fertilized field some 40 years ago. As nitrate is easier to trace than the various pesticides that have replaced each other since the intensification of agriculture started in the 1960s, nitrate is used as a possible indication of other environmental poisons.

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Water quality

Domestic Water Supply

Fig. 26 Test for pH value. At pH values lower than 6, calcium oxide should be added to the water to avoid corrosion

Consequence of contaminated water


If the water source contains coliform bacteria or nitrate in small quantities, it does not necessarily mean that it is infected with typhoid fever germs, disease-causing bacteria or parasites, but it does tell you that you have to consider disinfection of the water and that the source of pollution should be found and eliminated. If not, a new water source will have to be developed.

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40

Pollution and infiltration

Domestic Water Supply

Pollution and infiltration


Chapter 5

41

Pollution and infiltration

Domestic Water Supply

Leaking undergrund storage tank

Stream

Dump

Spills and leaks

Leaking sewage Abandoned well system

Surface impound

Water table

Fig. 27 Industrial and commercial pollution

Industrial and commercial pollution


Contamination of lakes, rivers and underground water sources is often the result of ignorance, carelessness and a wish for fast profit. Many rivers are so polluted that large investments in water treatment are required to provide safe drinking water. Ground water sources which make up 2030 times as much water as all lakes, streams and rivers, were once considered protected against contamination by the overlying layers of earth - but now we know that they are as likely to be contaminated as surface water if not protected. It is only a question of time. There are two types of ground water contamination: 1. Infiltration of the ground water because of polluted water passing the aquifer on its way to a stream or the sea. Your chance of stopping contamination is limited to supporting movements in the region aiming at minimizing the overall pollution. 2. Pollution seeping down at your site. Stopping pollution at your site is left to you alone.

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Pollution and infiltration

Domestic Water Supply

Pesticides and fertilizers

Landfill

Abandoned well

Stream

Septic system Potable water source

Water table

Fig. 28 Municipal and rural pollution

5 Municipal and rural pollution


Source Municipal landfill Industrial landfill Hazardous waste disposal sites Possible major contaminants Heavy metals, chloride, sodium, calcium Wide variety of organic and inorganic constituents Wide variety of inorganic constituents (particularly heavy metals such as hexavalent chromium) and organic compounds (pesticides, solvents, PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls)) Heavy metals solvents and brines Organic compounds (solvents), nitrates, sulphates, sodium and microbiological contaminants Variety of organic and inorganic compounds Nitrates, herbicides and pesticides Heavy metals, organic compounds, inorganic compounds, and microbiological contaminants Inorganic compounds, heavy metals and petroleum products Chlorides, sodium and calcium Variety of organic, inorganic and microbiological contaminants from surface runoff and other contaminated aquifers.

Liquid waste storage ponds (lagoons, leaching ponds, and evaporation basins) Septic tanks and leach fields Deep-well waste injection Agricultural activities Wastewater and sludge spread on the ground Infiltration caused by urban runoff Deicing activities (removal of snow and ice on roads) Improperly abandoned wells and exploration holes

43

Pollution and infiltration

Domestic Water Supply

Casing Borehole

Annular space

Contamination from overlying formations

Aquifer

Fig. 29 Pollution

Sources of pollution
Pollution of the ground water is typically caused by one or more of the following conditions: Leaking sewage pipes. Seepage from cesspool. Open well casing enabling animals to pollute the casing or shallow well directly. Lacking sealing around the casing (annular space) allowing unfiltered surface water to drain directly to the filter setting. Oil or chemical spillage seeping down (one litre of oil can make 10,000 litres of water undrinkable). Overfertilization of fields. A well-developed and protected water source may last for decades, providing safe drinking water. It is therefore of great importance that the source is protected and properly sealed.

44

Pollution and infiltration

Domestic Water Supply

Splashproof cover Concrete slab

Splashproof cover Concrete slab

Clay

Frost line Concrete

Casing

Grout seal

Screen sealing

Well screen

Filter gravel

Fig. 30 Protection of wells

Formation sealing of drilled wells


The borehole diameter of a well is usually larger than the casing, which leaves an open space around the casing. This is known as the annular space; it provides an open pathway for contamination from the surface or from aquifers of poor quality intersected by the well before this reaches the desired aquifer. The annular space must be properly filled with grout to protect the aquifer. The grout consists of cement and water (usually mixed in the proportion of 50 kg of Portland cement to 25 litres of water) plus bentonite (special clay) and additives to reduce shrinkage. A reinforced concrete slab at the top of the well is also important for protection.

45

Pollution and infiltration

Domestic Water Supply

Pipe plug Discharge pipe Well vent

Sanitary well seal Submersible drop cable

Rubber

Riser main

Casing

Riser main Soft rubber expanding gasket Well casing

Fig. 31 Sanitary sealing

Sanitary sealing of drilled wells


The top of the casing must extend approximately 0.3 metre above the surface of the ground or floor and be watertight with a tight sanitary well seal where the pump connections enter the well. The seal must close all openings for riser mains, cables and monitoring equipment. If a deep well turbine pump is used, the top must be sealed by the pump head. Any vent pipe should be screened to prevent entry of insects, snakes or the like. The ground level around the well top must be constructed so that it slopes down from the well in all directions. If the water source is a combination well (a dug well which has been drilled deeper to get down to reliable water-bearing strata), a drainage pump should be installed in the shallow well to drain this during the wet season when there is an inflow of surface water.

46

Pollution and infiltration

Domestic Water Supply

Vacuum switch

Vacuum gauge

Vacuum pump Non-return valve

Gas

Gas sleeve Pump intake

Gas vacuum Casing water level

Gas Ground water level

57 m

Fig. 32 Evacuation of gas

Evacuation of gas
Some wells contain so much gas suspended in the water that it causes a bad odour or taste. In extreme cases, the gas may even block the pump. This can usually be overcome by installing a sleeve around the pump just below the pump inlet, extending upwards as far as possible.

Vacuum wells
If the water in the well contains so much gas in suspension that a sleeve is insufficient to meet the water quality requirements, a vacuum must be created in the well casing. This can be done by connecting a vacuum pump to the vent pipe when the casing is hermetically sealed. Before doing this, it must be checked that the well casing is strong enough to withstand the vacuum.

47

Pollution and infiltration

Domestic Water Supply

Splashproof cover Concrete slab

Splashproof cover Ventilation

Cement grout Frost line Clay Gaskets Clay

Gaskets Thin cement grout Cement grout

Water table

Crushed rock

Well point

Fig. 33 Formation sealing

Formation sealing of dug, driven or washed wells


The hole diameter of the dug well is only a little larger than the precast concrete pipes and the annular space around the lower pipes is filled with cave-ins. Pour lowviscosity cement grout around the pipes up to the frostproof depth. When the cement grout reaches the water level, it will create a formation seal (cake). Between the frost-proof depth and the concrete slab, plastic clay (bentonite) should be compressed. Clay is only slightly affected by frost.

Formation sealing of driven or washed wells


As the well point is being driven or washed through the formations, these will be somewhat damaged. This can be avoided by pouring a low-viscosity cement grout along the pipe to create a sealing cake at the water level. Plastic clay should be filled in and compressed from the frost protection line to the well slab.

48

Pollution and infiltration

Domestic Water Supply

Clay and cement grout Collecting chamber Fence Removable cover Trap Surface water diversion

Perforated pipes Spring (waterbearing gravel)

Pump Overflow
Fig. 34 Sealing

Perforated pipes Level switch

Formation sealing of springs


Springs with a water quality suitable for drinking are normally located on a hillside. The spring water is collected by placing perforated drains wound with fibres in the aquifer. After installing these pipes, the aquifer should be enclosed in fat compressed clay so that polluting surface water will not infiltrate. When constructing the collecting reservoir, all surfaces in connection with the surrounding clay should be sealed with cement grout.

Design of collecting reservoir


It is important that a splashproof removable cover is built approximatelly 30 cm above the top of the collecting reservoir so that a drainage pump, type KP, can be lowered to the bottom to remove penetrating fine sand and silt. It is important to install an overflow pipe with trap to allow throughflow of the total yield of the spring when there is no consumption. The trap is designed to prevent mosquito larvae, etc. from hatching in the collecting reservoir. A low level cut-out switch should be fitted in the collecting reservoir and a ditch should be dug around the source of the spring to carry surface water round the collecting arrangement. If the spring is in an area with livestock, a fence should be erected at a distance of at least 20 metres from the spring.

49

Pollution and infiltration

Domestic Water Supply

Septic tank

Underground disposal system

Fig. 35 Contamination of well water

Other sources of pollution


If the water source is safely protected against surface contamination as described formerly and still supplies polluted water, there are two possible polluting sources left: 1. The ground water is infiltrated by contaminated ground water. 2. The water source is contaminated by a dunghill or a septic tank. In both cases, it is too late to do anything; a new water source has to be developed somewhere else. Geological conditions determine where the most reliable water source can be found. Often you have to search further upstream.

50

Disinfection

Domestic Water Supply

Disinfection
Chapter 6
6

51

Disinfection

Domestic Water Supply

Chlorine

Germs Ultra-violet light

Pasteurization
Contam inated w ater

Purified

water

Waste

Screen

Reverse osmosis (screening)

Germ exit

Fig. 36 Different weapons against bacteria

Methods of disinfection
If it is not possible to find a non-contaminated water source, the water must be disinfected for human and livestock use. There are five different methods to choose between: 1. Chlorination 2. Exposure to ultra-violet light 3. Pasteurization 4. Reverse osmosis 5. Solar distillation (only in tropical regions)

52

Disinfection
Chlorination in general
Chlorination is the most common method of disinfection due to its lasting effect after the initial dose. This means that germs will be eliminated in stagnant water pipes. The other disinfecting methods will only kill bacteria and viruses as the water passes through the disinfection zone. If a virus or bacterium is allowed to infect the water after the disinfection zone, it will breed uninhibited. The chlorine method has two minor disadvantages: 1. Chlorine in water leaves a slightly unpleasant taste in the mouth; coffee and tea taste different when made from chlorinated water. 2. If chlorine is applied in too large a quantity, it will have a corrosive effect on most metals and elastomers.

Domestic Water Supply

Simple chlorination
The quantity of chlorine to be added in order to disinfect the water depends on the composition and temperature of the water as well as on the retention time (the time passed from when the chlorine is added till water containing chlorine comes out of the tap). The typical dosage is 1.01.5 mg/litre at a retention time of approx. 30 minutes. The quantity of chlorine must be increased if the retention time is shorter than 30 minutes the amount of iron, sulphur, ammonia or organic matter is substantial the water temperature is below 10C the pH value of the water is higher than 7

53

Disinfection

Domestic Water Supply

Chlorine dosage

Chlorine demand

Combined chlorine residual

Chlorine residual

Minerals

Metal

Slime and organic matter

Ammonia

Fig. 37 Enemies of chlorine

Chlorination terms
Only little chlorine is needed to kill bacteria whereas a little larger amount is necessary to kill viruses. The dosage is measured in mg/litre or part per million (ppm). 1 ppm is equal to one litre of concentrated chlorine in one million litres of water or one litre of concentrated chlorine in 1,000 m of water. Some of the added chlorine is passivated by the metals, minerals, slime and organic matter in the water and is consequently made inert. Some of the added chlorine will combine with the ammonia present in the water, which will hamper the killing action. This is called combined chlorine residual. The remaining chlorine is called free chlorine residual. The free chlorine residual is approximately 20 times more effective in destroying bacteria than the combined chlorine residual, so it is the free chlorine residual you must rely on and check. The free chlorine residual content must periodically be checked. Usually a test kit is supplied with the chlorinator unit. If not, it can be purchased separately. The free chlorine residual must be at least 0.20.5 ppm after 30 minutes retention time in water with a pH value of max. 7. If the pH value is higher than 7, the chlorine residual must be at least 0.8 ppm.

54

Disinfection

Domestic Water Supply

Simple chlorination (small dosage)

Super chlorination (big dosage)

Systems with long retention time, e.g. where there is large pressure tank capacity or chlorination directly in well

Systems with short retention time, e.g. where there is low pressure tank capacity

Fig. 38 Simple chlorination and super chlorination

Super chlorination
In systems where you cannot ensure 30 minutes retention, a larger quantity of chlorine must be used; this is called super chlorination. If the chlorine taste in super-chlorinated water is too dominant for drinking purposes, the taste can be removed by passing the water through activated carbon.
ppm 6

5 4 3 Free chlorine residuals pH value above 8 pH value below 7

1 0

10

20

30

min.

Retention time
Fig. 39 Relation between retention time and residual chlorine concentration

55

Disinfection

Domestic Water Supply

Tube

Tablets Tablet dispenser

Tablets

Well

Fig. 40 Feeding of tablets containing chlorine

Well injection
In order to prolong the retention time and in this way reduce the dosage of chlorine, it is practical to inject chlorine directly into the well. Calcium hypochlorite is available in tablet form. It contains approx. 50% active chlorine by weight and can be injected directly into the well by means of a chlorine tablet dispenser that only feeds the well when the water pump is in operation. This method is preferable in areas where it is legal to chlorinate directly into the ground water well. The tablets must be led directly into the water through a plastic tube to avoid corrosive attacks on casing and riser main. If the well water is infected by iron bacteria which produce iron slime on the screen and the surrounding gravel to a degree that makes the screen clog, the only way to keep the well clean is to chlorinate directly into the well. In this way the iron bacteria will be killed.

56

Disinfection

Domestic Water Supply

Principle of dosage pump Dosage pump

Plastic tubing

Nonreturn valve

Delivery Sodium hypochlorite Well seal

Suction
Fig. 41 Dosing pump

Pumped dose
If you are not allowed to inject chlorine into the well, it is also possible to chlorinate after the ground water has been pumped up. Sodium hypochlorite is a solution of sodium, water and chlorine. Domestic sodium hypochlorite is a 5% chlorine solution Commercial sodium hypochlorite is a 20% chlorine solution For dosing, use a membrane pump or the like as it delivers a definite amount of chlorine solution with each stroke. The pumping action is usually developed by a membrane and valves that open and close the suction and delivery of the pump housing.

57

Disinfection

Domestic Water Supply

Fig. 42 Dosing

Dosing pump capacity


The pump capacity is adjusted by varying the length of the pump stroke. The chlorinator pump operates continuously while the water pump is in operation. For a home with a daily water consumption of 2,000 litres, the consumption of chlorine at a dose of 10 ppm will be 10 x 2,000 1,000,000 = 0.02 litre = 20 millilitres/day When using a 5% chlorine solution, the chlorinator pump is to pump 20 x 100 5 = 4 millilitres/day

which should be dosed when the water pump is in operation. If it is not possible to find a membrane pump yielding the small amount of chlorine needed, it is possible to dilute it 10 times with soft water (1:10) and dose a 10 times larger quantity.

58

Disinfection

Domestic Water Supply

Closed

Open

Sodium hypochlorite

Test cock

Fig. 43 Injector chlorination

Injector chlorination
The cheapest form of injector chlorination is achieved by using a jet pump or a centrifugal pump located above the ground level. The injecting effect is created by the differential pressure between suction side and discharge side of the pump during operation. As water from the discharge side of the pump passes through the nozzle at a very high velocity, a suction effect is created in the chlorine solution line. Chlorine is drawn up and mixed with water in the jet stream of the diffusor. From the diffusor, water-mixed chlorine is drawn to the water pump suction line and delivered to the pressure tank. The amount of chlorine sucked from the chlorine container is adjusted by a needle valve placed in the chlorine solution piping. This piping must be equipped with a plastic or stainless steel non-return valve to avoid backflow when the water pump is not operating. In systems where the chlorination process takes place near to the consumer taps, it is important that the volume (in litres) of the pressure tank is half the pumped peak demand per hour in order to create enough retention time to have the bacteria killed when using simple chlorination. If this not possible, superchlorination must be applied. The pressure tank must be equipped with an inlet and outlet diffusor to prevent water from streaming straight through the water tank.

59

Disinfection

Domestic Water Supply

Water inlet

Outer Quartz Ultra-violet sleeve sleeve lamp

Water outlet
Fig. 44 Treatment by means of ultra-violet light

General facts about ultra-violet light


The use of ultra-violet light for disinfection of small quantities of water for domestic water supply is relatively new. However, it is a well-known method for large water supply systems for which it has been used for decades. The method consists in passing a thin layer of water along a lamp that emits bacteria-killing ultra-violet light. The ultra-violet lamp is protected against cooling and water by a quartz sleeve. In this way the lamp can be replaced without emptying the system of water. The quartz sleeve tends to become coated with particles that limit the emission of light from the ultra-violet lamp. Consequently, all makes of lamps are available with wipers that can keep the sleeve clean either manually or automatically by means of a time control. Each individual ultra-violet unit is designed for a certain maximum capacity which must not be exceeded. Consequently, most units are available with a flow-regulating valve that throttles the water flow from the pump when too much water is used.

60

Disinfection

Domestic Water Supply

Tank volume Control panel Manometric pressure % 100 90 80 Bars 2.0 1.0 70 60 50 40 30 0.5 20 10 Flow regulating valve 0 1/4 3/4 1.5 Water volume 2/3 Air volume 1/3 Absolute pressure (bars) 3 Draining volume

Fig. 45 Installation with ultra-violet light

Installation of ultra-violet light


The ultra-violet unit should be installed between pump and pressure tank. The capacity of the unit can be adjusted to the capacity of the pump. When the water requirement is greater than the capacity of the ultra-violet unit, water will be drawn from the pressure tank. When the pressure in the tank has dropped to 0.5 bar, the water volume will have decreased to 1/4 of the volume of the pressure tank. A total of 0.4 m3 of water has been forced out of the pressure tank to the taps. With a pressure tank of 1 m3 we have been capable of managing a peak demand which is 2.0 - 1.5 1.5 x 100 = 33%

Example
Max. capacity of ultra-violet unit is 1.5 m3/h. Water peak demand 2.0 m3 (for short periods). Total pressure tank volume is 1.0 m3 of which normally 2/3 is water, i.e. 0.66 m3 under a pressure of 2 bar. When too much water is used, the pressure in the main will decrease. The compressed air in the pressure tank will therefore start forcing the water out of the tank into the pipe system

higher than the max. capacity of the ultra-violet unit for approx. 50 minutes. 0.4 m3 0.5 m3/h = 0.8 h ~ 48 minutes.

61

Disinfection

Domestic Water Supply

Safety control

Light sensor

Flow regulating valve

Solenoid valve (open)

Fig. 46 Safety control

Safety control
The intensity of radiation from the ultra-violet lamp decreases over time and it will finally become so weak that it will no longer kill bacteria and viruses. In order to ensure disinfecting efficiency, most ultra-violet units are provided with an electric eye. This electric eye registers the light intensity of the most effective radiation frequency, approx. 2,537 ngstrm. When the lamp gets older or if dirt collects on the quartz sleeve, the electric eye will close the solenoid valve by switching off the current for the magnet coil. Consequently, the water supply will be stopped in case of power failure. Ultra-violet units are designed for continuous operation. When there is no consumption, the water around the quartz sleeve will therefore be heated. If the water contains polluting particles, these will settle around the quartz sleeve. To avoid this, polluted water should always be filtered efficiently before passing the ultraviolet unit.

62

Disinfection

Domestic Water Supply

Alarm

Volts

Power supply

Power supply

Amps

Alarm

Control circuit Solenoid valve

Control circuit

Flow regulating valve

Fig. 47 Safety control

Safety control
(continued)
Another type of safety control on the market measures the volt and amp consumption in order to determine the condition of the ultra-violet unit. An ultra-violet lamp receiving lower voltage than what it has been designed for will not kill bacteria and viruses as it was designed to do. If this situation arises, the water supply should be disconnected. This is done by means of a relay which disconnects the power supply for the solenoid valve when it registers undervoltage in the mains. When the solenoid valve coil is made currentless, the valve will close and thus prevent water from passing through. As the lamp gets older, the light intensity decreases and at the same time the amps consumption increases. This is utilized to activate a current relay. When the current relay registers power consumption exceeding what is optimal for the lamp type in question, the relay interrupts the power supply for the solenoid valve.

63

Disinfection

Domestic Water Supply

75C

Temperature sensor

Con- sumption

68C

73C

Storage tank 10C 15C


Fig. 48 Pasteurization

Pasteurization
In areas with hard water and where electricity prices are very low, pasteurization can be found as a method of disinfection. The method is based on the principle that heating of water to a temperature of at least 70C will kill all bacteria and virus cultures harmful to the human organism. At the same time, large amounts of the calcium in the water will end up on the heating elements which heat the water. This calcium is removed by scaling these with acid. To save energy, some of the heat is recovered by sending the heated water through a heat exchanger of the counterflow type where it transfers some of its energy to the cold water from the water source.

The system works in the following way:


The cold water (10C) is fed into a heat exchanger where it is heated to approx. 68C by the hot disinfected water (approx. 75C) which flows through the exchanger in the opposite direction towards the storage tank. From the heat exchanger the water continues to a water heater where it is heated to approx. 75C. When it has the right temperature, it is pumped through a solenoid valve via the heat exchanger to the storage tank. If the water does not have the necessary temperature, the thermostat controlling the solenoid valve will change the position of this so that the water is pumped through the heater once more.

64

Disinfection

Domestic Water Supply

Fig. 49 Reverse osmosis unit

Reverse osmosis in general


Reverse osmosis is used for disinfection in domestic systems. However, due to the higher energy costs in comparison with chlorination and removal of taste-creating minerals and salts dissolved in the water, reverse osmosis is only chosen for disinfection when there is also a wish to remove other dissolved materials, e.g. nitrates, chlorides, etc. Disinfection by means of reverse osmosis is described in the following chapter.

65

Disinfection

Domestic Water Supply

Steam and condensate on its way to the condensate tank

By-pass Thermostatically regulated valve opens at 100C

Cold water inlet

Circulator
Fig. 50 Solar distillation unit

Solar distillation in general


Distilled water does not taste good, actually it has no taste. Distilled water should always be treated before drinking. In some areas, the water is so unfit for drinking that treatment by means of reverse osmosis or distillation is necessary. Distillation of water is only competitive in comparison with reverse osmosis if solar distillation or distillation by means of waste heat can be used. Solar distillation takes place by concentrating the rays of the sun by using reflectors. If these are designed correctly, the temperature in the focal axis can become very high. Here, the water that you wish to distill is circulated at a pressure slightly above atmospheric. When the temperature of the water is approx. 100C, a valve which is protected by a thermostat opens. When passing through the valve, some of the water is transformed into steam. The steam is collected in a pipe which slopes down to a condensate tank with cooled water. Concurrently with the evaporation of water from the system, new cold water is added so that the process may continue as long as the solar energy can raise the water temperature higher than 100C. Impurities concentrated at the bottom of the tank should frequently be removed. The water is circulated by a circulator pump which is protected against steam backflow by means of a non-return valve. It must not be possible to cut off the pipe system completely; there should always be a small bypass.

66

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Water treatment
Chapter 7
7

67

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Rain containing impurities Spring

Carbon dioxide Dump

Waste water Sand Silt Ochre

Swamp

Clay Lake Gravel

Fig. 51 Sources of pollution

Water treatment in general


Even when the water source supplies ample noninfected water, water treatment should still be considered in certain areas to ensure good water quality. Rain absorbs impurities from the air. Nitrogen is one of the gases that after a period of time may cause wells to be abandoned due to contamination. Gases like sulphur dioxide (SO2) and carbon dioxide (CO2) react with water to form acids (sulphuric acid and carbonic acid). These acids will not only kill the forests, woodlands, etc. nearest to the major source of contamination. They will also cause chemical changes in underground strata and consequently affect ground water quality.

68

Water treatment
When ground water containing sulphuric and carbonic acids seeps through sand, soil or rocks, it dissolves large quantities of calcium, iron, aluminium, magnesium and other minerals, and holds them in a solution. When this happens, the underground water becomes acid and the chemical reactions as well as the water quality change. The water source may be affected so much that the quality of the water has to be improved by treatment.

Domestic Water Supply

Various causes for treatment: 1. Hard water (see page 68) (dissolved calcium and magnesium) 2. Acid water (see page 72) (dissolved sulphur and carbon dioxide) 3. Red water (see page 76) (dissolved iron) 4. Brownish-black water (see page 82) (dissolved manganese) 5. Fertilizer-contaminated water (see page 84) (dissolved nitrate) 6. Rotten egg water (see page 89)(dissolved hydrogen sulphide gas) 7. Turbid or evil-tasting water (see page 90) (dissolved sediments and organic matter, minerals in high concentrations)

69

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Streaky grey

Overdose of soap

Grey coatings

Fig. 52 Result of hard water

Hard water
Symptoms Large quantities of soap are required to get a proper result from washing machines. The use of soap results in slimy scum and not a bright foam. Glassware and windows appear streaky grey after washing. Heavy coatings below the waterline in the bathtub. Hot water installations develop hard deposits on pipe walls. Causes Calcium and magnesium in the water. Bicarbonates, sulphates or chlorides in the water. Dissolved iron in small quantities. Dissolved aluminium.

70

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Magnetic flux density: Minimum 6,0007,000 gauss

Magnetic treatment of hard water reduces calcium deposits

Fig. 53 Result of hard water

Hard water
(continued) The hardness of water is mainly due to the calcium content, but many other minerals are absorbed as the water seeps through the ground. Hard water normally occurs where the ground consists of clay, rock or limestone formations. Level 1 2 3 4 5 Hardness of water soft moderately hard hard very hard extremely hard Concentration [ppm] 50 50100 100200 200300 >300 It is usually only the levels 4 to 5 which cause direct problems. At level 3 it is economic to soften water for washing machines and dishwashers. For this purpose, lots of chemicals and dosing devices are available. Very hard and extremely hard water is usually softened by means of reverse osmosis or ion exchange. Reverse osmosis is described in detail under Fertilizer-contaminated water (page 84) as it is a universal method of treatment to remove all undesirable particles from drinking water. Here only ion exchange is described. It is to be observed that ion exchange of drinking water is not permitted in all areas. Therefore the local water authorities should be contacted before installing such a system.

71

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Section of the periodic system

Two-tank system Increasing electric charge


Fig. 54 Ion exchange

Ion exchange in general


Softening of water by means of ion-exchange is a process in which some electriclly charged particles (ions) that do not contribute to the hardness of the water, e.g. sodium ions (Na+), are added to a porous material (called an ion-exchange resin). When sodium chloride (NaCl) is dissolved in water, the sodium atoms (Na) separate from the chloride into sodium ions (Na+) and the chloride atoms (Cl) separate into chloride ions (Cl). The sodium ions (Na+) that are added to the ionexchange resin are lower electrically charged than the molecules causing hardness, such as calcium ions (Ca++) and magnesium ions (Mg++) in the water. When passing through the ion-exchange unit, most of the dissolved Ca++ and Mg++ ions are replaced by Na+ ions. This means that for every exchanged Ca++ ion and Mg++ ion two Na+ ions are received. Na+ ions do not contribute to the hardness of the water. This will result in softer water. When most of the Na+ ions have been replaced by Ca++ and Mg++ ions, the unit has to be recharged in order to make the softening process continue.

72

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Section of the periodic system

One-tank system

Increasing electric charge


Fig. 55 Recharging

Recharging
Recharging is carried out manually (the one-tank type or the resin-replacement type) or automatically (the two-tank type), depending on the type of unit. A concentrated brine solution (NaCl) is passed through the unit, and the Ca++ and Mg++ ions are released and exchanged for the Na+ ions from the salt when passing through the ion-exchange resin. When excess salt has been washed out of the exchange material, the water softening system functions as well as a new one. As the frequency of recharging depends on the type of equipment, the instruction manual must be consulted. If recharging is not carried out regularly, bacteria, slime and dirt may collect on the exchange resin. That is why the ion-exchange method is not permitted for drinking water in some areas. Persons suffering from a heart disease or circulatory disturbances should never consume water containing sodium. Water containing oxidated iron (rust) should be filtered before passing through the water softener or a type of softener should be used where used exchange resin is removed from the container and replaced by a new one. The old one can then be returned to be recharged.

73

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Corrosion on copper solderings

Grout joints disappear Corrosion of brass gives green stains Corrosion on steel pipes and fittings

Fig. 56 Results of acid water

Acid water
Symptoms Corrosion on steel parts and copper solderings. Grout joints in the shower disappear. Corrosion of steel makes red stains in the wash basin and lavatory. Corrosion of copper and brass makes green stains in wash basins and baths. The iron-removal system does not work optimally. Causes The water contains sulphuric, carbonic and nitric acids that have never been neutralized. Acid may also derive from decaying organic matter from swamps or bogs.

74

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

In cold drinks

Steam irons filled with acidic water will corrode inside

No danger

In hot drinks

Will damage your teeth


Fig. 57 Results of acid water

Acid water
(continued) Acid water is mainly caused by atmospheric pollution. Polluted rainwater seeps through the ground without passing through neutralizing substances. That means that slightly acid water (pH > 5.5) occurs in places with lime-deficient, sandy subsoils where the topsoil is thin and lime-deficient, and often in places where the ground water level is close to the surface. Extremely acid water (pH < 5.5) occurs in lakes, meadows, and bogs where the amount of water running in is far bigger than the amount running out. Due to evaporation, the added acids and acid residue are concentrated - socalled brackish water. Cold acid ground water is comparatively harmless, but when it is heated, it becomes aggressive. The aggressiveness doubles for every 15C increase. That is why coffee and tea made from acid water will quickly damage your teeth. Likewise, a steam iron filled with acid water will quickly corrode inside. Drinking water with a pH value of 5.56 used for cooking, coffee and tea should be neutralized. On the next page, the acidity of various refreshing drinks, foodstuffs and cleaning agents are compared.

75

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

pH

Gastric juice

Lemon 3 Cider 4 Tomatoes 5 Beer Grapes Wine Vinegar Orange juice

Potatoes Cows milk

7 Potable water Mothers milk Wine

Neutral

10 Domestic detergents (medium concentration) 11 Increasing alkalinity

12

13

Domestic detergents (high concentration)

14

Fig. 58 Comparison of pH values of different products

76

Increasing acidity

Lime

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Dosing pump

Air compressor

Nonreturn valve

Soda ash Soda ash

Fig. 59 Acid treatment installation

Acid treatment
When it has been decided to treat acid water, there are at least three ways to do it: Neutralization tank (the water passes through limestone or marble). Addition of soda ash. Addition of caustic soda. Neutralizing tanks should mainly be chosen for water with pH values higher than 5.5 (slightly acid water). The neutralization tank is filled with limestone or marble chips. The acid in the water reacts with (consumes) the limestone which means that the limestone has to be replaced frequently. Another way is to purchase a neutralization unit where a new bag is simply inserted when the old one is used up. Soda ash is put into chlorine tanks, and in this way the chlorinator is used for neutralization, too. Soda ash adds sodium bicarbonate to the water. If this is not acceptable, caustic soda can be used instead. Caustic soda is also called household lye, and it requires more care in handling than soda ash. If there is no chlorination unit, feeding has to take place direct into the well by means of a dosing pump in order to protect screen, casing and piping against corrosion.

77

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Metallic taste

Red deposits

Iron mould on laundry

Red stains

Fig. 60 Results of dissolved iron

Red water (dissolved iron)


Symptoms White clothes turn reddish or yellow when washed. Bathtubs and toilet bowls get red stains. Pots turn red inside. After a long period without water consumption, the first water that comes out of the tap is red. In extreme cases, the water will taste metallic. Causes Corrosion of steel pipes and tanks. Dissolving action of water as it passes through deposits of iron in the ground. Acid ions in the water, even at normal pH values. The red colour is mainly due to the iron content in the water. Red-brownish water is the result of iron and a little manganese in the water. Normally, the oxygen of rainwater is used up by biological and chemical processes when passing through the ground. That is why ground water is deficient in oxygen, and the iron ions taken up will not become visible until they are oxidized into ferric oxide. In wells where the air above the water surface liberates oxygen to the water, iron ions get access to oxygen.

78

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Hermetically sealed

Membrane

Membrane

The pump has been stopped. The diaphragm tank is filled with water and the system is under pressure.

Water is being tapped. The pressure in the diaphragm tank and the system pressure drop.

When the pressure is below the set switch-on limit, the pump will start.

Fig. 61 Membrane tanks prevent contact between air and water

Red water
(continued) The iron ions will also be in contact with oxygen in the pressure tank in which there is an air cushion at the top, exerting pressure on the water surface. At a moderate iron content of 0.31.5 ppm in the ground water, the water quality can be considerably improved in the following ways: 1. The top of the well is sealed (the access of air to the well is prevented). In this way, the oxygen above the water surface will quickly be absorbed by the water in the well. Only nitrogen and water vapour, which do not oxidize the iron ions, will remain. 2. A diaphragm tank is used instead of a pressure tank. When there is an airtight diaphragm between the water in the pressure tank and the air above it, the possibility of oxidation is also eliminated here. When applying the above methods, the iron ions will not oxidize until oxygen from the air mixes with the ions when water is tapped. As the oxidation of the iron ions takes time, most of the ions will not oxidize until they are washed out into the sewage system where rust does not harm. To complete the above-mentioned methods, a phosphate feeder can be inserted between pump and pressure tank. The phosphate feeder may be of the tablet type where part of the water is fed through a porous layer of phosphate, or it may be a fluid feeder as mentioned under chlorination.

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Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Hermetically sealed

Membrane

In phosphate feeder installations, part of the water is directed through the feeder to dissolve some phosphate

Phosphate feeder

Fig. 62 Phosphate feeder installation

Red water
(continued) Phosphate passivates iron ions so that they do not oxidize. Instead of a phosphate feeder, you may choose an ionexchange unit which functions as mentioned under hard water. An ion-exchange unit for removal of iron in the water has another type of resin than the one mentioned under hard water. If the content of iron in the water is higher than 1.5 ppm, the water should be aerated and filtered as follows: Oxidize the iron ions. Let the oxidized ions flocculate. Remove the flocculated material from the drinking water by filtration. Various types of pre-manufactured systems are available on the market, but you may also build one yourself. First an oxidizing device must be built in. It can be done by means of a small compressor which is activated when the water pump starts. Then the compressor adds oxygen to the pumped water. Then there must be a reaction zone where all the iron ions can react with the added oxygen. When the iron has been oxidized, it will flocculate where the velocity is low, i.e. form small flocs consisting of many oxidized iron ions. This flocculation zone is easiest to establish at the top of the filtration tank.

80

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Air compressor

Valve to be closed for filter backwash

Automatic vent

Flocculation Reaction zone Filtration

Valve to be opened for filter backwash

Air injection Valve to be opened for filter backwash

Drain valve Pressure tank

Fig. 63 Filter bed with backwashing installation

Red water
(continued) The top of the tank must be equipped with an automatic vent so that the air that has not been used can escape. The flocculated rust is easily removed by means of a filter. You can make a filter yourself in a tank with two large manholes in the side. Porous Leca blocks (or another similar inorganic material) are placed at the bottom of the tank. A 1520 cm layer of small stones with a diameter of about 1020 mm is put on top of this filter base. Then a 6080 cm layer of filter sand ( 0.91.4 mm) completes the filter. The flocculated rust will be detained in the top of the filter whereas the non-flocculated iron ions will precipitate 2040 cm down in the filter sand. The filter sand should be cleaned of rust particles regularly by pumping water into the bottom of the tank while the compressor pumps air into the water (backwashing). When the outlet in the top of the tank is opened, it will make the sand particles in the filter sand vibrate whereby loose rust particles and flocs of rust are flushed into the sewer system. When the filter has been backwashed, the water inlet at the bottom of the tank and the outlet at the top are shut off, and the filter will function as a new one again.

81

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Screens blocked by slimy rust

Pressure gauge inlets blocked by slimy rust

Red slime in toilet tank

Wire meshes blocked by slimy rust Filters blocked by slimy rust

Fig. 64 Result of iron bacteria in water

Red water (iron bacteria)


Symptoms Red slime develops in sewage siphons. Screens in taps may be blocked by slimy rust. Red slime develops in toilet cisterns. Pressure gauges do not function due to inlets being blocked by slimy rust. Cause The well is infected with iron bacteria which will spread to the whole water supply system.

82

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Dosing pump

Sodium hypochlorite and soda ash

Well chlorination

Problem

Solution

Fig. 65 Installation for solving problems with iron bacteria

Red water (iron bacteria)


(continued) Iron bacteria can be moved from one place to another by aquifers and by the drillers equipment when he has been working in an infected well. The easiest way to check whether there are iron bacteria in the water is to remove the cover of the toilet cistern. If bottom and sides have a slimy layer, the well is probably infected by iron bacteria. Iron bacteria subsist on the iron in the water. If there are iron bacteria in the water, it is probably acid too. If so, the pipe system will be corroded, resulting in rust stains in wash basin, bathtub and other places where water may be dripping. If the water contains iron bacteria, it cannot be purified of iron ions without killing the iron bacteria by chlorination first. The well should be chlorinated directly, otherwise it will continue to produce bacteria and corrosion on casing, filter and riser main. If the water in the well is acid, soda ash or caustic soda should be added together with chlorine to make the water neutral before filtration. One of the standard filters available on the market may be installed, or you can build one yourself in accordance with the guidelines given above on page 79. It is not essential to oxidize the water when you chlorinate as chlorine oxidizes the iron ions present. On the other hand, oxidation helps to improve flocculation of the oxidized iron ions.

83

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Coffee and tea taste bitter Turns brown or black inside

Brownish-black stains

Fig. 66 Result of dissolved manganese in the water

Brownish-black water (Dissolved manganese)


Symptoms White clothes turn brownish when washed. Bathtubs, wash basins and toilets get brownish stains caused by dripping water. Pots turn brown or black inside. After a long period without water consumption, the first water which is tapped is black. Coffee and tea taste bitter. Causes Dissolving action of water when it passes through underground layers containing manganese. Acid ions in the water, even at normal pH values. Blackish water is rather rare, but it occurs. More often brownish water containing manganese and iron is found. Even if the manganese content in the water is as low as 0.1 ppm, there will be black stains in wash basin, toilet and bath tub.

84

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Shock-chlorination up to 25 ppm

Air compressor The pump mixes chlorine and well water

Adjustment of chlorinator

Closed

Compressed air is pumped down into the well so that chlorine water is forced out into the filter gravel
Fig. 67 Overcoming of difficulties caused by the existence of manganese in ground water

Pump the well clean

Brownish-black water
(continued) Manganese is removed from water in the same way as iron. Manganese bacteria exist like iron bacteria in the water and subsist on the manganese ions. These bacteria should be killed by chlorination of the well. Chlorination of wells containing iron and manganese bacteria should start with a shock chlorination, i.e. so much chlorine is added to the well that all the water in the well ends up containing at least 25 ppm. Then compressed air is pumped into the sealed well so that the water surface in the well is lowered and the chlorine water forced out into the surrounding sand layer of the filter to kill all bacteria. After the shock chlorination, the chlorine water containing the dead bacteria must be pumped out and diverted from filter and pressure tank until the chlorine content has dropped to about 0.5 ppm. After this has been done, the continuous chlorination can be adjusted.

85

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Fertilizer Manure

Nitrate

Nitrate

Fig. 68 Pollution of ground water caused by fertilizers

Fertilizer-contaminated water (nitrate content)


Symptoms Nitrate dissolved in water cannot be immediately observed but must be found by means of a test. Causes Contamination from cesspools and silage. Contamination from farming where fertilization is incorrectly adapted to the rainfall, type of crop and method of cultivation. Inadequate treatment of wastewater. Nitrogen from combustion engines and chimneys. Nitrate in the ground water can be caused by at least four factors: Rainwater adds 12 kg of nitrogen per hectare to the ground every year. Wastewater from households and industry. Manure and fertilizers spread on lands from which the ground water is drawn. Bacterial conversion of ammonium via nitrite into nitrate by oxidation.

86

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Babies should never drink water containing nitrate

A nitrate content higher than 200 ppm increases the risk of cancer

Fig. 69 Water containing high concentrations of nitrate is damaging to the health

Fertilizer-contaminated water
(continued) Contamination of drinking water is considered to be at a critical level if the nitrate content is between 2550 ppm. Investigations indicate that nitrate contents higher than 200 ppm will increase the risk of stomach cancer by long-term effect. It will also negatively affect the bloods ability to hold/absorb oxygen. The worst immediate problem with nitrate in drinking water is that dangerous waterborn bacteria benefit from it. If you have considerable quantities of nitrate in the ground water, there are three ways of solving the problem: 1. Abandon the well and find an alternative clean water supply. 2. Drill a deeper well. As it is often only the upper 1030 metres of ground water that is infiltrated with nitrate, the problem can often be solved by drilling down to a depth of 6070 metres below the ground water table. 3. Purify the drinking water. Purifying drinking water of nitrate can be carried out by ion exchange, but as this method involves a bacterial risk, the purification can take place in a safer and often cheaper way by means of the process called reverse osmosis. A process that for many years has been used for converting sea water into drinking water.

87

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Starting situation

Osmosis

Reverse osmosis

in

ss

2O

pa

pa

ss

Pollluted H2O

2O

ing

H2O

Equalization of number of fresh water molecules in both containers

Fresh water molecules are forced through the membrane to the fresh water side

Fig. 70 Principle of osmosis and reverse osmosis

What is osmosis?
By mounting a semi-permeable membrane (a membrane with pores so small that only water molecules can pass freely) between two chambers of a vessel and by filling one chamber with fresh water and the other with salt water at equal levels, you will have started the following process: The level in the salt water chamber gradually rises while the level in the fresh water chamber drops as the fresh water moves through the membrane into the salt water side. This process of equalizing the number of fresh water molecules in both chambers is called osmosis. In the salt water chamber, the number of fresh water molecules is the same as in the fresh water chamber, but in addition, the salt water also contains salt molecules. This causes a difference in level between the two sides of the membrane. This is called the osmotic pressure (H). In sea water containing 20,000 ppm of chloride, the osmotic pressure is about 300 metres equivalent to 30 bars. If the water contains only 200 ppm of chloride, the osmotic pressure is about 3 metres equivalent to 0.3 bar. This illustrates that the osmotic pressure only depends on the salt concentration. If the salt water chamber is put under a pressure higher than the osmotic pressure, the reverse action takes place: Fresh water passes through the membrane in the reverse direction, i.e. from the salt water side to the fresh water side until the concentration of salt is so high that the osmotic pressure equalizes the pressure created by the pump. This is called reverse osmosis.

88

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Pump unit Membrane

Counterpressure valve

Fresh water

Concentrate (waste) (25% vol.)

+ salts

Fresh water (75% vol.) Pre-manufactured unit Waste outlet Pumped water (100% vol.)

Fig. 71 Reverse osmosis system

Osmosis
(continued) To continue the process, new salt water is pumped into the vessel while the impurities that have been concentrated in the pressure chamber are flushed away through a waste outlet at the top, and the fresh water continues to pass through the membrane into the fresh water chamber. When treating slightly brackish water, you get 25% waste (concentrate) and 75% fresh water (permeate) at a pump pressure of 15 bars - depending on the concentration of salt. Not all the salt is retained in the salt water chamber. Dependent on the quality of the membrane, small quantities of salt pass through the membrane (1.510%). Reverse osmosis is the ideal method for removing various undesirable particles from drinking water. See table below. Type of particle Bacteria and viruses Sulphate Calcium Magnesium Chloride Nitrate Percentage removed 100 99 98 98 96 90

The above data apply to a specific type of membrane, but other types with better or poorer purifying qualities are available. Choose the type of membrane that meets your requirements for water quality.

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Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Large pre-manufactured reverse osmosis system

RO

Purifier

Submersible pumps enclosed in sleeves force water through the membrane

Pre-manufactured above-the-sink type

Fig. 72 Different types of reverse osmosis system

Osmosis
(continued) If the water source contains 200 ppm of chloride and you wish to have it reduced to 20 ppm, the osmotic pressure in the feed water must be 0.3 bar. That means that at pressures higher than 0.3 bar, water begins to pass through the membrane into the fresh water chamber. When fresh water leaves the salt water, the concentration of salt increases, and a higher pressure is required. The maximum operating pressure of the membrane unit must, however, never be exceeded. As will appear, reverse osmosis is a unique way to treat contaminated water. In one operation, water can be cleaned of bacteria, viruses, calcium, magnesium, chloride and nitrate. Always make sure, however, that the feed water does not contain iron or manganese, as this will destroy the permeability of the membrane. Therefore water containing iron or manganese must always be oxidized and filtered before being passed to a reverse osmosis unit. It may be decided to treat the entire water supply by means of a large central reverse osmosis unit or an above-the-sink type. Most of the latter type of reverse osmosis unit produce about 20 l/h or 0.5 m3/day.

90

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Smell of rotten eggs Silverware turns black

Fig. 73 Result of dissolved hydrogen sulphide gas in the water

Water smelling like rotten eggs


This is caused by dissolved hydrogen sulphide gas. Symptoms When cooking, the food gets a taste of rotten eggs The surface of silverware turns black Corrosion on steel and copper piping Causes Hydrogen sulphide gas in the water Sulphate-reducing bacteria in the water Sulphur bacteria in the water Water containing sulphide gas has probably passed through decaying organic matter or algae on its way to the water source. It may be difficult to identify the source, and the following alternative treatments should be considered: Chlorinate the well Aerate the water Flocculate the impurities Filter through a fine-grained sand filter

91

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Coffee tastes salty, bitter or oily

Sedimentation agent

Rainbow on surface Sediment

Solids

Fig. 74 Turbid or evil-flavoured water

Turbid or evil-tasting water


This may be caused by dissolved sediments (organic or mineral matter). Symptoms The water appears opaque or even muddy The water tastes salty or brackish The water tastes bitter The water tastes oily Causes Screen in casing is without gravel packing Casing or screen suffers from pitting corrosion Pumping of sea water The water has passed areas containing oily or chemical waste When the water is turbid or evil-flavoured, it is quite certain that the well, too, contains bacteria. Next step is to aerate the water in order to provide the best possible flocculation and oxidation of the water. Fine-filtering by means of a sand filter is preferable, but if the turbid particles consist of silt or even smaller particles, it may be necessary to use a diatomite filter or an activated carbon filter.

92

Water treatment

Domestic Water Supply

Outlet for filtered water

Removable cover for refilling

Untreated water Diatomite or activated carbon Activated carbon filtering unit Gravel

Raw water supply Bed-type unit Bag-exchange type

Fig. 75 Different filter types

Turbid or evil-tasting water


(continued) Diatomite filters, also called diatomaceous earth filters, consist of shells from a class of microscopic marine algae called diatoms. The shells have a large surface and provide excellent filtering properties. Prefabricated filters are available where the maintenance consists in exchanging a bag when it has been used up. Another solution is a bed-type unit where it is possible to add diatomite filter aid material if the filtering action is slower than the peak demand. Activated carbon filters are made from bituminous coal, lignite, petroleum coke and peat. These materials are heated and react with steam to develop the extensive internal pore structure required for absorption. This is called activation. Activated carbon filters are used to dechlorinate water remove organic compounds remove pesticides remove microscopic particles Prefabricated filters are of the bag-exchange type (element exchange). Combined activated carbon filters are typically a combination of a rapid sand filter and a final layer consisting of activated granulated carbon.

93

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Pump selection

Domestic Water Supply

Pump selection
Chapter 8

95

Pump selection

Domestic Water Supply

Fig. 76 Different pump types

Typical pump types for water supply


The function of centrifugal pumps is based on the same principle, no matter which of the following pump types we are talking about: Non-self-priming centrifugal pumps Jet pumps Submersible pumps Ejector pumps Submersible sump pumps Wastewater pumps

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Pump selection

Domestic Water Supply

Vacuum gauge Priming

Pressure gauge Atmospheric pressure

Atmospheric pressure Discharge head

Suction side Suction lift

Discharge side Non-return valve

Fig. 77 Principle of a centrifugal pump

Centrifugal principle
The principal difference in the design of the pumps mentioned on the previous page is found in their fields of application and thus in the installations where they are found. A normal non-self-priming pump, which is used for drawing liquids, boosting or liquid transfer to a higher level, requires a foot valve on the suction side to avoid the liquid from running back when the pump is stopped. When the pump has been installed, the pump itself and the suction pipe must be primed, i.e. filled with liquid. After priming, the pump can be started. When the pump is operating, the rotation of the impeller throws the water out into the pump discharge. Hereby a negative pressure is created at the eye of the impeller (suction side); as a result, the atmospheric pressure forces the liquid through foot valve and suction pipe into the impeller, which throws the liquid out into the pump discharge. Thus the measured negative pressure at the suction port of the pump depends on the distance to the surface from where the liquid is drawn the frictional resistance in foot valve and suction pipe the density of the liquid. The positive pressure that can be measured at the pump discharge port is dependent on the counter pressure in the system. If the water runs directly out of the pump discharge, there will be no counter pressure apart from the atmospheric pressure. The work that the pump has to carry out is to lift the pumped liquid from the reservoir and overcome the friction loss in the piping.

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Pump selection

Domestic Water Supply

2 m friction loss on discharge side 10 m discharge head Atmospheric pressure Flow 40 m3/h

3m suction lift

2 m friction loss on suction side

Fig. 78 Example

Calculation example
If liquid is to be pumped to a tank situated 10 metres above the pump, the pump must lift the liquid from the reservoir and boost the pressure to 1 bar above atmospheric pressure as well as overcome the friction loss in the suction and discharge pipes. The pump characteristics will appear as shown on the following page when applying a Grundfos pump, type LP 65-125, operating at an efficiency of more than 73% and under the following conditions: the lift on the suction side of the pump is 3 metres the pumped quantity is 40 m3/h the friction loss in the suction pipe of the pump is 2 metres including the loss in the foot valve the loss in the discharge pipe of the pump is 2 metres

NPSH
NPSH stands for Net Positive Suction Head. Generally speaking, it is the pumps inability to create a complete vacuum. All centrifugal pumps have an NPSH curve showing the pumps inability to draw a 10.33 metre water column which under normal conditions is the established head of a complete vacuum at sea level. The NPSH curve depends on the flow rate; it rises with increasing flow. A rising curve is a sign of a reduced ability of the pump to create a negative pressure.

98

Pump selection

Domestic Water Supply

Friction loss

Head

{
{
} NPSH value

}Friction loss discharge loss } Friction side suction

Suction lift

8
Fig. 79 Pump curves for LP 65-125

Pump curves
The performance curves are based on a water temperatue of 20C with tolerances in accordance with DIN 1944, III. v (m/s or ft/s) is the liquid velocity at the suction and discharge ports. Maximum operating pressure: 1.0 MPA (10 bars). Liquid temperature: -15C to 120C.

99

Pump selection
Maximum suction lift
Can a Grundfos LP 65-125 in this installation create the necessary suction lift to draw 40 m3/h from the reservoir? The answer is yes! You can calculate the suction head of a pump by means of the following values: Hmax = A - NPSH - Hf - Hv - Hs Hmax = maximum suction lift A = atmospheric pressure at installation NPSH= inability to create a vacuum Hf Hv Hs = friction loss in foot valve and suction pipe = vapour pressure of the liquid = safety margin; included as all friction losses are not accurately calculated and the atmospheric pressure varies

Domestic Water Supply

Maximum suction lift: Hmax = 10 - 1.5 - 2 - 0.45 - 0.0 = 6.05 metres That means that the pump is able to draw water from a depth of 6.05 metres and as we need to draw 3 metres only, the installation is correct. If a pipe break occurs at the discharge pipe of the pump 5 metres above the level of the pump and the water streams out freely, will it then affect the suction lift of the pump? - The answer is yes! When the counter pressure of the pump decreases, the pump tries to pump more water. (See diagram on the next page.) If the flow rate is increased to 51 m 3/h, the following factors also increase: The friction loss in the suction pipe and the foot valve increases to 3.25 metres. The friction loss in the 5-metre discharge pipe increases to 1.63 metres. The NPSH value increases to 3.3 metres. Maximum suction lift of the pump in this situation: Hmax = 10 - 3.3 - 3.25 - 0.45 - 0.0 = 3.0 metres This is exactly the suction lift from which we need to draw. This installation is now critical as we have no safety margin left if we have miscalculated the friction loss or other factors.

The following applies to our installation: A = 10 metres at a height of about 500 metres above sea level NPSH= 1.5 metres at 40 m3/h Hf Hv Hs = 2 metres on the suction side of the pump at 40 m3/h = 0.45 metre at 31C = 0.51.0 metre in practice, but in this example no safety margin has been included

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Pump selection

Domestic Water Supply

Friction loss

Head

{
{

}
}

Friction loss discharge side Friction loss suction side

Suction lift

NPSH value

8
Fig. 80 Pump curve for LP 65-125

Pump curves
The performance curves are based on a water temperatue of 20C with tolerances in accordance with DIN 1944, III. v (m/s or ft/s) is the liquid velocity at the suction and discharge ports. Maximum operating pressure: 1.0 MPA (10 bars). Liquid temperature: -15C to 120C.

101

Pump selection

Domestic Water Supply

Empty Atmospheric pressure 1.63 m friction loss on discharge side 5 m discharge head Flow 51 m3/h Atmospheric pressure

3m suction lift

3.25 m friction loss on suction side

Fig. 81 Installation example causing cavitation

Cavitation
If the pipe break mentioned previously had occurred lower down than 5 metres above the pump level, the pump would have started cavitating. Cavitation occurs when the pump tries to lift water from a greater depth than what is possible. In such a situation, the impeller will break the flow of water causing the creation of air pockets in the water. These vapour pockets will implode (the opposite of explode) shortly after they have been formed. The implosion takes place with a lot of noise and with such a force that it will damage the pump and its bearings after a period of operation. In pumps where the impellers are not made of sturdy stainless steel, cavitation will quickly cause some damage. Typical impeller materials which are quickly affected are cast iron, plastic or bronze. A table of the weight loss for different materials in connection with cavitation shows that stainless steel loses only 0.05% of the corresponding cast iron loss under the same conditions. Cast iron Bronze Bronze alloys Stainless steel Weight loss (cast iron used as reference value) 1.0 0.5 0.1 0.05

If you wish to know more about the above subject, special literature on the subject should be consulted. Here cavitation has just been mentioned to show the limitation of application of pumps used for drawing from considerable depths, and thus make it easier to make the right pump selection.

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Pump selection

Domestic Water Supply

Which pump should I choose?

A pump like this pumping gaseous water (the inlet slopes downwards in the flow direction) might be damaged

Gaseous water

Flooding level in 1996

8
An installation like this might be drowned at the next flooding
Fig. 82 Considerations concerning pump selection

Pump applications
Correct pump selection depends on several conditions, such as 1. installation conditions 2. water quality (gaseous, corrosive) 3. drive - electric motor - internal combustion engine - solar energy

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Pump selection

Domestic Water Supply

When the ground water level is more than 67 metres below the pit floor, a submersible pump, type SP, is suitable for the majority of wells.

Ejector pumps are reliable for moderate capacities, even from small 3 wells when the ground water level is more than 67 metres below the pit floor.

Convertible jet pumps are able to supply a household from depths down to 30 metres.

Fig. 83 Different types of pump for different types of installation

1. Installation conditions
If the pump can be mounted on a base or dry well where it is protected against drowning during heavy showers or varying ground water levels, a non-self-priming centrifugal pump will often be a good choice. If, however, the distance between pump and water surface is more than 67 metres, a different pump type should be chosen, for instance an ejector pump or a submersible pump. Ejector pumps or convertible jet pumps are typically applied under the following conditions: The well diameter is less than 3. Small daily water consumption, maximum 23 m3/h. Low price of energy (kWh price) Water containing high concentrations of ochre. The ejector, which is suspended from plastic hoses, can be quickly and easily pulled up and placed in an ochre dissolving liquid. Installations where heavy lightning strikes are frequent. It is easier to replace a standard motor on the ground than a submersible motor.

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Pump selection

Domestic Water Supply

Single-phase Submersible pump with asynchronous motor exposed to undervoltage

Single-phase Submersible pump with permanent magnet motor and frequency converter exposed to undervoltage

Fig. 84 Submersibe pump installations

1. Installation conditions
(continued) If the above-mentioned conditions do not apply to the installation, a 3-phase submersible pump solution is always to be preferred. The single-phase asynchronous motor loses performance already at 5% undervoltage and operational problems already at 10% undervoltage (starting problems). If only single-phase power supply is available and undervoltage is to be expected, an alternative to an asynchronous motor with a starting capacitor should be considered. This could be a permanent magnet motor with a frequency converter providing 3-phase starting torque and fixed performance up to 15% undervoltage. This solution will also lose performance and finally show operational starting problems at 35% undervoltage.

105

Pump selection

Domestic Water Supply

Pressure energy Recirculated water and air are led to inlet of impeller

Intake of air from suction pipe

Velocity is converted into pressure

Nozzle made of stainless steel Pressure from impeller Recirculated water from impeller Velocity energy
Fig. 85 Ejector principle

Impeller inlet

2. Water quality
If the liquid which is to be drawn is highly gaseous, a jet pump should be chosen instead of a non-self-priming pump. A jet pump usually operates with inlet pressure on the suction side of the impeller. This inlet pressure has been created by the nozzle/diffuser construction of the pump. The inlet pressure causes the gas content of the liquid to be flushed out of the impeller as opposed to the situation in a non-self-priming pump, in which the gas contained in the liquid may accumulate in the impeller and disturb the function of the pump. As gas has a low density, it can be difficult for the impeller to sling out the gas when there is a negative pressure on the suction side of the impeller. If it is probable that the well, piping or reservoir from which liquid is drawn may run dry, a jet pump should be chosen. Such a pump needs no priming after having taken in air if there is a foot valve on the suction pipe. If the pumped liquid is corrosive, the chosen pump is made of materials which are resistant to the aggressive substaances in the water. Corrosion is a far-reaching problem which very often requires expert assistance. The pH value is the first factor that should be checked when the aggressiveness of the water is examined.

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Pump selection

Domestic Water Supply

Cathodically protected cast iron

Cast iron

Bronze *1

Neutral

4 Acid

10

11

12

13

14

Alkaline Stainless steel, W.Nr. 1.4301 Stainless steel, W.Nr. 1.4401

*2

*2

* 1: If there is a high salt content, sea water resisting bronze should be used. * 2: Do not forget to check the content of chloride, chlorine, hydrogen sulphide and the temperature.

Fig. 86 pH value

Influence of pH value
As an initial guide, the durability of different materials in relation to the pH value is shown above. As will appear, stainless steel is the material that has the widest field of application, but it has its limitations too. If the liquid contains salts and acid residues, etc., the durability should be checked according to the following guidelines:

Crevice corrosion Crevice corrosion appears, as the word says, in cracks and crevices, e.g. where two pieces of stainless steel bear against each other or under seals (O-rings) and in connection with bad welds. Theoretically, both corrosion types are of the same nature and may be very violent and progress very fast under corrosively optimal conditions, i.e. in salty water (chloride), at a high temperature and a low pH value. Conditions become even worse if the water is stagnant. From the corrosion diagram on the following page it is possible to calculate the influence of the content of chloride, chlorine and hydrogen sulphide and also ions of sulphate, bicarbonate, carbonate, nitrate and phosphate.

Corrosion
There are two type of corrosion in connection with stainless steel in salty liquids: Pitting and crevice corrosion. Pitting Pitting appears as small holes on the stainless steel surface and arises where there are small imperfections in the material. Pitting may also arise where there are residues of ordinary carbon steel on the stainless steel surface, for instance from filing and grinding. This is why cleanliness in connection with the machining of stainless steel is very important.

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Pump selection

Domestic Water Supply

0 0.3 1 3 10 30 100

ppm chlorine(Cl2)

No corrosion

Corrosion
Fresh water
100
40

Brackish water
4 500 6
100

Sea water
4 6 5000 10000 20000 3 4

2
0

1000
1000 300

2
50

10

15

ppm chloride eq.* (Cl ppm chloride eq.* (Cl -) -)

20
60

ppm hydrogen sulphide (H2S)

25

80

70

12

30
40 27 50 37

22

35

17
0 10 11 12

pH
47

90

10

Fig. 87 Diagram for corrosion test

Explanation of diagram
The above diagram only includes pitting and crevice corrosion, which are the most serious ones for stainless steel in liquids containing chloride. Maximum allowable temperatures: W.Nr. 1.4301: ---------W.Nr. 1.4401: W.Nr. 1.4539: - At these and higher concentrations of either chlorine or hydrogen sulphide, please contact Grundfos. * ppm chloride equivalent = ppm chloride 0.5 x (ppm SO4-- + HCO3- + NO3- + PO4---).

108

Pump selection
Example
An analysis of the pumped liquid gives the following result: Chemical components Chloride Chlorine Hydrogen sulphide Sulphate Bicarbonate Carbonate Nitrate Phosphate Shortform/ symbol ClCl2 H2S SO4
--

Domestic Water Supply

Typical ground water


In normal wells and in brackish water and sea water, chlorine and hydrogen sulphide will not be present. They are only included here for the sake of the example. Simple test To make it easier to check the water for potential corrosion risk, your Grundfos dealer can provide you with a conducting power meter. It functions by means of a glass with built-in electrodes. When filling the glass with the liquid that you want to pump, the ability of the liquid to conduct current can be measured, and the result is shown at the built-in display. If the liquid has a high conducting power, there are many electrically charged ions in it, and the liquid is most probably aggressive. A diagram of stainless steel W.Nr. 1.4301 and 1.4401 between two axes has been put on the front of the conducting power meter. The y axis indicates the temperature of the water, the x axis the conducting power. From these two values, it is possible to determine directly whether a pump with components made of stainless steel W.Nr. 1.4301 or 1.4401 should be chosen.

ppm 4,500 0.3 10 800 200 0 0 0

HCO3CO3 PO4
-

NO3---

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - pH = 6 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - From this, the ppm chloride equivalent is calculated: ppm chloride eq. = ppm chloride - 0.5 (ppm SO4-- + HCO3- + NO3- + PO4---) = 4,500 - 0.5 (800 + 200 + 0 + 0 + 0) = 4,000 ppm. Begin on the ppm chloride eq. axis at 4,000 ppm. Go straight up to intersection with the sloping line. From here horizontally to intersection with the line for 0.3 ppm chlorine. Then straight down to the temperature At pH = 6, upwards to intersection with the 10 ppm H2S line and further on horizontally to intersection with the formerly drawn vertical line. The last point of intersection gives the following result: Acceptable maximum temperature for W.Nr. 1.4401 is 25C.

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Fig. 88 Conducting power meter

Conducting power meter


If the conducting power meter shows that stainless steel W.Nr. 1.4401 is not sufficiently resistant, a water analysis should be made to find out exactly what the liquid and check the result with the diagram. The conducting power meter provided by your Grundfos dealer measures all ions in the liquid, but as only few of these are corrosive, a real analysis is necessary to make the right pump selection when a combined value between temperature and conducting power has been measured that is higher than what is permissible for stainless steel W.Nr. 1.4401.

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Submersible asynchronous motor

Submersible motor with permanent magnet

Standard asynchronous motor

Modified asynchronous motor

Fig. 89 Different pump types

3. Drives
Electric motors
In areas with sufficient and reliable power supply and where the ground water level is lower than 7 metres below the ground, four different types of Grundfos pump with electric motors are available: Submersible pumps (asynchronous) Submersible pumps (with permanent magnet) Ejector pumps Convertible jet pumps

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Standard asynchronous motor. Max. depth: 6 m Max. flow rate: 160 m3/h

Standard asynchronous motor. Max. depth: 7 m Max. flow rate: 90 m3/h

Modified asynchronous motor. Max. depth: 6 m Max. flow rate: 8 m3/h

Modified asynchronous motor. Max. depth: 8 m Max. flow rate: 3 m3/h

Fig. 90 Different pump types

3. Drives
(continued) Electric motors In areas with sufficient and relable power supply and where the ground water level is maximum 7 metres below the ground, four alternative Grundfos pumps with electric motors are available: Single-stage centrifugal pumps (in-line) Multi-stage centrifugal pumps (in-line) Horizontal multi-stage centrifugal pumps Horizontal jet pumps With these pump types it is possible to select the pump type that is most suitable for the installation.

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Domestic Water Supply

Solar-powered pumping system

Max. depth: 120 m Max. flow rate: 260 m3/day ~ 23 m3/h

Submersible pump with diesel generating set. Max. depth: 600 m Max. flow rate: 280 m3/h

Fig. 91 Generators and solar energy

3. Drives
(continued) Generators For installations without power supply, Grundfos can deliver optimized petrol/diesel operated generators that are suitable for driving all types of Grundfos pumps mounted with a standard motor. Solar energy In sunny areas, a solar operated pumping system is often more economic than a fuel operated system when all the pumped water can be utilized and the investment is compared to the operating costs over a period of about five years.

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Hand pump Max. depth: 60 m Max. flow rate: 2 m3/h

Centrifugal pump with V-belt drive and diesel engine Max. depth: 7 m Max. flow rate: 90 m3/h

Ejector pump with V-belt drive and combustion engine Max. depth: 150 m Max. flow rate: 5 m3/h

Fig. 92 Manually operated

3. Drives
(continued) Manpower Provided there is sufficient low-paid labour available, a hand pump may often meet the water demand for livestock and domestic use. However, the hand pump cannot supply water under pressure which means that the water has to be carried in buckets or transported in containers. Internal combustion engines Multi-stage centrifugal pumps, type CR, and ejector pumps, type CPE, are available for belt drive with a V-belt pulley head suitable for power transmission from internal combustion engines.

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CU 300

CU 300

Max. (stop) Warning Max. (stop) Min. (start) Warning Min. (start)

Pumping to reservoir from low-capacity well

Pumping between two reservoirs

Max. (start)

SQE

Min. (stop)

CRE booster

Canned rotor pump Flow switch

Intensified pressure from elevated tank

Fig. 93 Domestic pumps and drives

3. Drives
(continued) Variable speed drives For more complex apllications and installations, Grundfos has developed several variable speed drives: Maintenance-free submersible systems: SQE/SQNE & CU 300 Maintenance-free, leak-free canned rotor pressure intensifier pumps CRE/CRNE/CRTE multi-stage pumps with integrated frequency converter

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Domestic Water Supply

Fig. 94 Home boosting

3. Drives
(continued) The flow switch pump with integrated canned rotor drive is not a stand-alone booster. It requires inlet pressure from the mains or an elevated water tank. The pump is activated by the flow switch when water flows in the pipe. The pump is deactivated by the flow switch when a tap is turned off. The pump is used in the following situations: Mains pressure is too low Pipe dimensions are too small Elevated tank is placed too low Pipe system is partly blocked by lime or rust

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Fig. 95 Different applications of water

Normal water flow


Now the most suitable pump type has been found. Before making the final pump selection, the peak demand and the required head must be known. This is found by dividing the different tap points into two categories: One for intermittent use and one for sustained use. Category one comprises taps for intermittent use, i.e. taps from which water is drawn for maximum 10 minutes at a time, e.g. wash-basins, kitchen sinks, toilets, etc. Characteristic of this category is that water is never drawn from all taps at the same time. A family consisting of two persons, for instance, usually use no more than two taps at a time, no matter how many tap points they have got. Furthermore, washing machines and dishwashers only draw water periodically depending on the programme that is being used. It is therefore obvious that it costs money to choose a pump with a too large capacity which is never fully utilized. The table on the following page shows normal water flows at different types of taps for intermittent use. The normal flow is the average water consumption at the tap at sufficient pump pressure, typically about 10 metres at the tap.

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Normal flows at the most frequently used tap points Normal flow qn Tap points Bathtub Bidet Shower Wash-basin Kitchen sink Rinsing sink Showers used at the same time (in factories and the like) Wash-basins etc. used at the same time (for instance in factories) Drinking bowls for cattle Flush valve for urinal Flush valve for toilet Drinking water taps in stables Domestic washing machines & dishwashers WC cistern Cold water l/s 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.03 0.03 0.4 1.5 0.2 0.2 0.1 m3 /h 1.08 0.36 0.72 0.36 0.72 0.72 0.36 0.11 0.11 1.44 5.40 0.72 0.72 0.36 0.2 0.2 0.72 0.72 l/s 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.03 Hot water m3/h 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 0.11

Practical example Normal flow qn Tap points Bathtub Shower Wash-basin Kitchen sink Domestic washing machines & dishwashers WC cistern Total Cold water l/s 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 1.1 m3/h 1.08 0.72 0.36 0.72 0.72 0.36 3.96 1.0 3.60 l/s 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 Hot water m3/h 1.08 1.08 1.08 1.08 0.72

The total of the normal flows is 1.1 l/s (cold water) + 1 l/s (hot water) = 2.1 l/s corresponding to 7.56 m3/h.

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50 Highest likely flow (l/s)

Curve 1: q n = 0.1 l/s 10 Curve 2: q n = 0.2 l/s Curve 3: q n = 0.3 l/s Curve 4: q n = 0.4 l/s 5

5 1.0 0.57 0.5 3 2 0.1 1 0.1 0.5 1.0 2.1 5 10 50 Total of normal flows (l/s)

Fig. 96 Chart showing likely maximum flow

Likely maximum flow


This total of flows never occurs in practice and this can be converted into the highest flow that is likely in practice by using the chart above. The tap with the highest normal flow determines which curve (1, 2, 3 or 4) to use. If the highest normal flow in the house is the bathtub (0.3 l/s), curve No. 3 should be applied. Begin on the x axis of the diagram, go vertically to intersection with curve 3 and from here horizontally to intersection with the vertical y axis. In the example, it will appear from the diagram that the highest likely normal flow is 0.57 l/s, corresponding to 2.05 m3/h for all taps for intermittent use (category 1).

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Pump selection
Sustained use
After calculating the highest likely flow of category 1 taps, the normal flows of category 2 taps are added. Category 2 consists of taps that are opened for more than 10 minutes when they are in use. For example, connections for heat pump plants, taps for garden/lawn irrigation, milk and evaporation coolers. Normal flows for tap points with sustained use Normal flow qn Tap points Heat pump plant for soil heat extraction Garden and lawn irrigation (each sprinkler) Filling of swimming pools Milk and evaporation coolers Irrigation systems Cold water l/s 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 m3 /h 0.72 0.72 0.72 0.72 l/s Hot water

Domestic Water Supply

m3/h

Ask the manufacturer

Peak demand If there is a heat pump for soil heat extraction in the house which cools in the summer and heats in the winter, as well as a tap for garden and lawn irrigation, the total pumping peak demand is as follows: Household 0.57 2.05 Heat pump Garden irrigation Total peak demand 0.2 0.2 0.97 0.72 0.72 3.49

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Required head at the taps

Tap

Pressure tank

Pump head

Friction loss on the discharge side of the pump

Suction lift

Friction loss in suction pipe and foot valve


Fig. 97 Actual pump head

Actual pump head


A centrifugal pump is affected by a number of factors when it supplies water: Suction lift from the water surface to the pump Friction loss in suction pipe and foot valve Height from pump to upper tap Friction loss in the piping on the discharge side of the pump (depending on capacity) Required minimum pressure at the taps (depending on fittings) When calculating the actual pump head, the pump peak demand, in this case 0.97 l/s (3.49 m3/h), should be used. Select a CR 4 pump with 1" pipe connection and 1" Grundfos foot valve with a friction loss as shown on the following page.

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Head loss (m)

10

5.0
3/4"

1"

11/4" 11/2"

2"

21/2"

3"

4 & 5"

6"

3.0 2.0

1.0 0.8

0.4 0.3 0.2

0.1 1 2 3 4 5 10 20 30 40 50 100 Flow (m3/h)

Fig. 98 Head loss in foot valve and non-return valves with spring, types BVF and MVF

Type of loss (see Figs. 97, 98 and 99) Friction loss in foot valve Friction loss in 8 m of 1 suction pipe is 8 0.08 m Friction loss in 60 m of 1 discharge pipe: Straight pipes: 60 0.08 m 6 bends, 3 valves 0.05 (6 0.5 + 3 1.5) Friction loss in upper tap fittings (stated by the manufacturer at a flow of 0.2 l/s) Suction lift from water level to pump Height from pump to upper tap Required minimum pressure at the tap (stated by the manufacturer at a flow of 0.2 l/s) Actual pump head at 3.49 m3/h

Loss in metres 0.80 0.64 4.80 0.38 2.00 6.05 21.50 10.00 46.17

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Internal diameter mm

Capacity l/s

Velocity/Dynamic pressure

Pressure loss Pa pr. m

Reynolds nuimber Curve for the calculatlion of the frictional resistance in the individual resistances. (The dynamic pressure should be multiplied by the resistance values of the individual resistances. Curve for the calculation of the frictional resistance in straight pipes

Fig. 99 Head loss in hot galvanized steel pipes with deposits

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Resistance figures (Z) for individual resistances in water pipes Branching and convergence

Va V (Z = 0)
V = velocity of water in passage

Va V (Z = 0)

Va = velocity of water in branching or convergence Z = 2.0 for Va V Drilling and tapping (called X in the following) Z = 1.0 for Va > V Z = 5.0 for X in top if d 25 mm Z = 5.0 for X in side if d < 25 mm Z = 5.0 for X in side if d 25 mm where d = hole diameter Bend r r Z = 0.5 for -- 3 and Z = 0 for -d d r = bend radius

>3

Change of dimensions Valves Straightway seated valve Diaphragm valve Slide valve Seated valve

d = internal diameter of pipe Z = 0.2 (in connection with maximum velocity) (d = hole diameter) Z = 0.3 Z = 5.0 Z = 2.0 for d 25 mm Z = 1.5 for d > 25 mm Z = 10.0 for d 25 mm

Angle

Z = 5.0 for d > 25 mm Z = 1.0

Friction loss curves and figures


The above tables and diagrams for the calculation of the friction loss in straight pipes and individual resistances, such as valves, bends, etc. are not necessarily the same as those that you use in your daily work, but the principle is the same. You should always use the tables and diagrams that you consider most suitable.

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p H [MPa] [m]
2.2 220 210 2.0 200 190 1.8 180 170 1.6 160 150 1.4 140 130 1.2 120 110 1.0 100 90 0.8 80 70 0.6 60 50 0.4 40 30 0.2 20 10 0.0 0

-220

CR 4
50 Hz
ISO 2548 Annex B

-190

-160

-160/14

-120 -100

-80 -80/7 -60 -50 -40 -30 -20 -20/1

0.0

0.5

1.0

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

7.5

Q [m/h] Q [l/s] [%]

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

1.2

1.4

1.6

1.8

2.0

P2 P2 [hp] [kW]
0.20 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.16 0.12 0.08 0.04 0.00 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0

eta P2

60 50 40 30 20 10 0

7.5

Q [m/h] NPSH [m]


1.6 1.2

Q-H [kPa]
80

[m]
10 8 6

QH 2900 rpm

40

4 2

NPSH

0.8 0.4 0.0

0 0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0 5.5 6.0 6.5 7.0 7.5

Q [m/h]

Fig. 100 CR 4 multi-stage in-line centrifugal pump

Example
On the basis of the calculations, the final pump selection will be a CR 4-60.

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Pump selection
In practice, about 80% of pump sales are replacements for old worn-out pumps. In such systems, age of pipes, type of foot valve in the well, tap types in the house and degree of encrustation of rust and lime in the pipes will be unknown. It is therefore necessary to try to make a qualified guess in order to determine frictional coefficients. First you should find out which type of pump was previously installed in the installation. Based on this information, you may be able to determine which new pump type you should select for the customer. If there are no available data on the old pump, you should find out from which depth the pump is to pump (e.g. 6.05 metres) and how far there is from the pump to the upper tap (e.g. 21.5 metres). Then add 10 metres corresponding to the required pressure at the upper tap. This makes a total of 6.05 + 21.5 + 10 = 37.55 metres to which you add approximately 30%, equal to 11.26 metres corresponding to the probable friction losses in foot valve, pipings, tap fittings, etc. The estimated actual pump head is then 37.55 + 11.26 = 48.81 metres. In some systems, this procedure will result in either too high or too low pump heads.

Domestic Water Supply

If a multi-stage in-line pump has been chosen, this problem is easily solved by replacing the pump by a pump with another number of stages without changing anything else in the installation. The last thing to do before installing the pump is to check whether the pump is able to draw the required amount of water: Location: temperature: Safety margin: 300 metres above sea level Water 17C 1 metre

Hmax = A - NPSH - Hfriction - Hvapour - Hsafety Hmax = 10.1 - 1.0 - (0.8 + 0.64) - 0.2 - 1.0 Hmax = 6.46 metres This is more than the actual suction lift of 6.05. This means that the right pump has been selected for the installation. Note: If you have any problems with the suction lift, the pump should be installed with an oversize suction pipe and foot valve.

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Domestic Water Supply

Control systems and storage


Chapter 9

127

Control systems and storage

Domestic Water Supply

Pressure shortage for washing machine

Purchase price

Purchase price

Operating expenses

Operating expenses

Fig. 101 Relation between storage capacity and operating costs

Storage capacity
The necessity of providing your water supply system with a water reservoir depends on various factors: 1. Whether the water source is able to meet the peak demand. 2. Optimum economy of the water supply system (purchase price & operating expenses). 3. Reliability of the electricity supply compared to the dependence on a reliable water supply system. 4. Dependence on fire-fighting capacity in case of power supply failure which is likely to be caused by a fire.

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Domestic Water Supply

Pressure gauge Positive pressure in pressure tank

Tank volume (%) 100 bars 90 5 4 3 2 80 70 60 1 50 40 33 30 0.5 25 20 16.6 10 0 1/4 3/4 1/5 1/2 1/2 2 Water volume 5/6 4/5 3/4 2/3 Air volume 1/6 1/5 1/4 1/3 Absolute pressure 6 5 4 3

Draining volume (%)

4.16 5.0 8.3 16.7

25

Fig. 102 Relation between water, air and pressure in a pressure tank

1. Capacity of water source versus peak demand


If the water source cannot fully meet the peak demand, a water reservoir is required from which water can be pumped during peak demand. For small peak demands of 010 m3/h, the most common method is to install a pre-compressed pressure tank with a large volume. To understand the advantages of a pre-compressed pressure tank, we shall look at how a tank without pre-compression works. For an ordinary pressure tank without water level control devices which is filled with water, the relationship between water, air and pressure will be as shown above. If the water supply pump starts at a cut-in pressure of 2 bars and stops at a cut-out pressure of 3 bars, the figure shows that at a gauge pressure of 3 bars, 75% of the tank is filled with water and that the original air volume has been compressed to 25% of the tank volume which results in the actual tank pressure of 3 bars (see Fig. 103).

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Control systems and storage

Domestic Water Supply

Positive pressure in pressure tank bars

Tank volume (%)

Draining volume (%)

Water volume 75 66.6 3/4 2/3

Air volume 1/4 1/3

Absolute pressure 4 3

3 2

Cycle variation 8.3 Reserve capacity 16.7

50

1/2

1/2

Fig. 103 Relation between water, air and pressure in a pressure tank

Capacity of water source versus peak demand


(continued) When water is tapped, the air cushion will press the water level in the tank down until two thirds of the tank is filled with water. The last third will be taken up by air. Therefore, the pressure drops to 2 bars, and the pump starts. If the pump capacity is lower than the quantity of water tapped from the tank, the tank reserve will be reduced until the air volume in the tank has increased and the pressure has dropped to a level where the pressure is no longer high enough to meet the water requirements at the taps. It is then necessary to restore the balance between consumption and water supply. A pressure tank without water level control has to be drained of water every 6 months to renew the air in the tank as air is gradually absorbed in the water. If the tank has a volume of 1 m3 and the minimum permissible pressure for correct use of the taps is 1 bar, the water reserve will be 16.7% of the tank volume, i.e. 167 litres. If this quantity is insufficient to cover the difference between the pump capacity and the maximum consumption, a larger tank can be installed, but a precompressed tank is often to be preferred.

130

Control systems and storage

Domestic Water Supply

Tank volume (%) 100 90 80 70 60 Cut-in 50 Water level control 40 Acceptable minimum 30 pressure 20 10 0

Cut-out

Cycle variation

Reserve capacity

Fig. 104 Pressure tank with water level control

Capacity of water source versus peak demand


(continued) A pre-compressed tank has an air volume for a given pressure which is larger than that of an empty tank which is simply filled with water until the required tank pressure is reached. To control the air volume, fit a water level control below the middle of the tank and pump compressed air into the tank. If the water level control is installed so that the tank holds equal shares of air and water at the cut-in pressure, the tank discharge capacity between stop and start of the pump will be increased by 50100%, dependent on the differential pressure. If the water level control is installed so that the tank holds equal shares of air and water at the cut-out pressure, the tank discharge capacity between stop and start of the pump will be increased by 100150%, dependent on manometric difference. An ideal control of the water level in the tank can be performed in two ways: 1. For pumps with a suction lift, an automatic air control device is installed. 2. For pumps without a suction lift, e.g. submersible pumps, an electric water level control and an air compressor are installed.

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Control systems and storage

Domestic Water Supply

Fig. 105 Automatic air control device

Automatic air control device Method of operation


When the pump starts, a vacuum is created in the suction chamber. The vacuum is transferred through the copper connecting pipe to the spring chamber (4) of the automatic air control device and draws the diaphragm (5) against the spring. Thus air is drawn in from the atmosphere through the nozzle (6) and the lip valve (7) to the chamber (8). When the pump stops, the pressure in the tank is transmitted to the suction chamber of the base and to the foot valve. This means that there is the same pressure in chambers 4 and 8. This allows the spring to force the diaphragm to the opposite side and force the air through the nozzle (9) and the lip valve (10) into the pressure tank. This takes place if there is so much water in the tank that the float (2) is in a horizontal position or points upwards. When so much air has entered into the tank that the float (2) drops below the horizontal position, the lip valve (10) opens, and the automatic air control device draws air through the nozzel (9) instead of the nozzle (6). Thus the air from the tank is pumped to and fro, and no air is drawn in from the atmosphere as long as the water level is so low that the float is below the horizontal position.

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Control systems and storage

Domestic Water Supply

Snifter valve (open)

Pressure tank

Float Valve

Snifter valve (closed) Air volume control Suction pipe

Fig. 106 Alternative control device

Automatic air control device Method of operation


(continued) Note In order that the automatic air control device can work, a non-return valve must not be used between the pump and the pressure tank. In addition, a suction lift of about 2 metres is required. If the suction pressure is positive or above 2 metres, the required suction head should be obtained by throttling a valve mounted on the suction pipe.

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Control systems and storage

Domestic Water Supply

Shut-off valve Non-return valve Relief valve

Oil and water separator C

R C = Cycle variation R = Reserve volume

Fig. 107 Electric water level control and air compressor

Electric water level control and air compressor


The water in the pressure tank will absorb oxygen from the air cushion in the tank which is replenished by the compressor. The compressor should be electrically connected so that it can only operate when the water pump is operating, to prevent it from bursting the tank or pipe. This can be achieved by means of a float switch signalling that the water level in the tank is too high. The electrical connection can for instance be carried out as shown on the following page.

134

Control systems and storage

Domestic Water Supply

Thermal relays

Pressure switches

P3

P2

P1

9
Compressor

Control current

Fig. 108 Simplified diagram for electrical interlocking of compressor in pressure tank system with pre-compression

Start/stop

Level control

135

Control systems and storage

Domestic Water Supply

From reservoir

Reservoir

Fig. 109 Reservoir

Reservoir
If the water source has a capacity which is very much lower than the peak demand, e.g. if a 4" well is to be used for both drinking water supply and irrigation in the driest season, a reservoir has to be installed which can equalize the difference between the yield of the water source and the peak demand. The volume of the reservoir can be estimated from the following formula: Volume of reservoir = number of peak hours (Qpeak demand - Qwater source).

136

Control systems and storage

Domestic Water Supply

130 litres
24 litres

15 litres

For weekend cottages

For domestic use

For farms with animal production (automatic drinking bowls)

Fig. 110 Different tank types and sizes

2. Optimum economy of the water supply system


If the water source is able to meet the peak demand and a high-level tank is not required, e.g. for fire-fighting purposes, only equipment for regulating the number of starts and stops necessary for pump operation need to be installed. For installation in weekend cottages, for instance, a hydrostat or a small 1524-litre diaphragm tank in conjunction with a pressure switch to obtain an ideal water supply system as the annual operating hours are limited. For houses suitable for use throughout the year, a precompressed diaphragm tank of 24 litres or a 65130 litre pressure tank is needed. For a farm with animal production, a pre-compressed pressure tank of at least 130 litres or a diaphragm tank is required. For pressure boosting in multi-storey buildings with some consumption during the night and with several pumps in operation, pump control by means of a frequency converter or a Triac control will often be a good alternative to exact pressure control. In order to optimize operating economy, water pressure should be kept as low as possible, without disturbing the function of the tap points. If, in certain periods, an extremely high water pressure is required for washdown of vehicles, loading platforms, etc. it is advisable to install a washdown pump, especially for those taps which are periodically used for these applications. Always remember to fit a non-return valve to the pipework to which washdown hoses are likely to be fitted. This valve will prevent the water supply from being contaminated.

137

Control systems and storage

Domestic Water Supply

Frost-protected elevated tank

Fire pump

Generator

Fig. 111 Water supply in case of power failure

3 & 4. Water supply in case of power failure


If a reliable water supply is required even in the event of power failure, e.g. for fire-fighting, the following two options should be considered: 1. Installation of a high-level tank (water tower). 2. Installation of a pump powered by a fuel injection engine or generator which is started automatically in case of power failure. Solution No. 1 is usually preferred if the building is high enough for the installation of a storage tank. Usually, it is necessary to insulate the tank and the inlet and outlet pipes to protect them against damage caused by frost and against excessive heat during the hot season and to let all the water pass through the tank to keep it fresh. The tank should at least hold a quantity of water that corresponds to 30 minutes fire-fighting when all fire hoses are activated. Water is also drawn from the high-level tank if the water source delivers an insufficient amount of water at peak demand.

138

Piping and electrical installations

Domestic Water Supply

Piping and electrical installations


Chapter 10

10

139

Piping and electrical installations

Domestic Water Supply

Underground pipes above water level: PE-PVC, copper, galvanized Pipes in wells: PE-PVC, stainless steel copper, galvanized

Underground pipes below water level: PE-PVC

Pipes in houses: Accessible pipes: PE-PVC, copper and galvanized. Hidden pipes: Copper and PE-PVC.

Fig. 112 Which kind of pipe to choose

Piping
The selection of piping (materials and dimensions) is decisive for the choice of pumps and for the economy. When dimensioning the water supply system, four factors are important: 1. Static (geodetic) head 2. Friction loss in pipes and fittings 3. Differential pressure of pressure switch 4. Required tap pressure

2. Friction loss
The friction loss, on the other hand, solely depends on the choice of piping and pipe dimensions. Friction loss is tantamount to loss of money. Doubling of the friction loss means doubling of the costs for water transfer. When calculating the friction loss in the piping, it is important to use a diagram which takes its starting point in rough pipes as all water pipes will eventually be coated with a thick layer of rust, lime etc. on the inside. The flow velocity in the piping must be kept appropriately low. If the flow velocity is higher than 4 m/s, there is a risk of noise because of turbulence in elbows, branches and valves as well as water hammer in very long pipes. All outdoor pipes for cattle drinking bowls, washdown taps, irrigation etc as well as all pipes placed above floor level in non-insulated buildings are to be protected against frost or drained during periods of frost.

1. Static (geodetic) head


The static head, i.e. the distance from the ground water level to the uppermost tap, is normally a factor on which you have no influence.

140

Piping and electrical installations

Domestic Water Supply

Head 160 500 150 140 400 130 120 110 100 300 90 80 70 200 60 50 100 40 30 20 0 10 0 0 1 5 2 3 10 4 %
Maximum efficiency Pump cut-out Pump cut-in

Cut-in Q-H

Cut-out

Diff. pressure pressure switch

Transportation costs

}
15

Friction loss Required tap pressure

Static (geodetic) lift

Drawdown m3/h

IMP GPM

Pumping peak demand


Fig. 113 Constitution of pressure requirements

3. Differential pressure of pressure switch


If the differential pressure of the pressure switch is too high (difference between cutting-in and cutting-out), the pump expenses will increase. Cut-in pressure is the minimum acceptable pressure for optimal function of the water-consuming installation. Consequently, the cut-out pressure should not lie much more than one bar above the cut-in pressure.

4. Required tap pressure


Required tap pressure depends on the choice of faucets. Consequently, a type which functions perfectly at a pressure of max. one bar should be chosen.

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Domestic Water Supply

10 kV Industrial voltage

60 kV Power

60 kV 10 kV 10 kV Domestic voltage

Domestic consumers

Fig. 114 General distribution of electric power from power station to consumer

Importance of stable power supply


Hydraulic and mechanical conditions around your pump are not the only decisive factors for a properly functioning unit. Defects in the electric system are generally the most common cause of problem with water supply systems. 'Overload' on motors built together with a centrifugal pump by the factory almost never occurs, but the term also covers a number of unfavourable circumstances which may accur when the power supply is insufficient or subject to failure. In order to look further into this, we must find out from where the power comes. The illustration above shows the distribution of electricity from the station to a step-up transformer (60 kV) followed by the main high tension overhead transmission line. This line transmits the power over a long distance (50100 km). At the other end of the transmission line, a step-down transformer is placed (from 60 kV to 10 kV). The 10 kV supply will normally cover an area with a radius of about 2050 km. Near the consumption area, the voltage is stepped down again to low voltage, 3 380 V, 3 415 V, 3 240 V, etc, depending on the area. Depending on power consumption and the ability of the mains to supply power, various faults may occur that will damage and even destroy the motor.

142

Piping and electrical installations


Excessive power consumption
If consumption is higher than the ability of the mains to supply power, undervoltage occurs. Undervoltage causes the motor speed to decrease and at the same time, the motor windings will develop more heat. Depending on the cooling of the motor, most motors can stand up to 10% undervoltage before they are damaged. It should be noted that when the motor speed decreases, the pump performance also decreases.

Domestic Water Supply

Reduced ability to supply power


If too many single-phase electric appliances are connected to one of the three phases of the mains, the result will be voltage/current asymmetry. Motor protection equipment should be selected according to mains stability and ability to supply power in the area as well as the costs and the degree of inconvenience in connection with replacement of a burnt-out motor. However, the local pump/motor supplier should always be contacted in order to find out whether he makes specific demands on maintenance of warranty. The simplest type of protection to choose for the water pump (if it does not have built-in motor protection) is a circuit breaker with bimetallic overload protection or a magnetic switch with a thermal overload switch relay. If, however, the water supply should be protected against all common potential disturbances of operation, a motor starter improved with the following should be used: 1. Main switch (isolates the starter during servicing). 2. Circuit breakers (protect the motor effectively in case of a short-ciruit in the mains). 3. Contactors with thermal relays. (The thermal relay must be adjusted to the full-load current of the motor). 4. Phase failure relay (protects effectively when the voltage of one phase becomes lower thant 0.85 normal voltage for more than three seconds as well as phase failure). 5. Water level relay (protects the pump against dryrunning).

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Domestic Water Supply

Earthed lightning arrester

Lightning arrester

Cable termination kit

Fig. 115 Lightning arrester

Protective equipment
If the power is supplied via poles, the installation of an earthed lightning arrester in the starter should be considered unless such a device has already been installed in the building. For future service requirements, it would be useful to have a voltmeter and an ammeter built into the front cover of the control box. The above-mentioned relay-based protective functions as well as a total supervision of the working conditions of the motor can today be provided by installing a single control unit in the starter, called CU 3. A CU 3 control unit is used where optimal protection is required as it covers the following events: 0: Low insulation resistance 1: High motor temperature 2: Current asymmetry 3: Overload 4: Underload (dry-running) 5: Undervoltage 6: Overvoltage 7: Phase failure Of the above-mentioned list, only items 0 and 1 require further explanation.

144

Piping and electrical installations

Domestic Water Supply

Fig. 116 CU 3 control unit

Insulation resistance
Monitoring of the insulation resistance, i.e. the degree of ageing of the insulation, makes it possible to predict motor failure and plan for motor replacement. The Grundfos CU 3 unit is the only motor protection device on the market with this advantage.

Motor temperature
Only applies to CU 3 units connected to the submersible motor, type MS 600. Monitoring of motor temperature by a temperature transducer incorporated in the motor ensures constant supervision of the state of the motor, so that any alteration to the cooling conditions are discovered in time before the CU 3 unit disconnects the power, possibly at an inopportune moment. Cooling conditions can be affected by clogging of part of the borehole or well by silt, resulting in insufficient water flow past the motor.

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Piping and electrical installations

Domestic Water Supply

Amps x operating current

Amps x operating current Power consumption for starting up

Amps x operating current

Power consumption for starting up

Power consumption for starting up Operating current Operating current Operating current

35 cycles 1/10 second Time

Mininimum 8 cycles 1/10 second Time

Mininimum 8 cycles 1/10 second Time

Sine cycles Direct-on-line start

Sine cycles Star/Delta start

Sine cycles Autotransformer start

Fig. 117 Different starting methods

Different starting methods


For starting of the pumps, there are three different methods: 1. Direct-On-Line start (DOL) 2. Star/Delta start (Y/ ) 3. Autotransformer start

Start/Delta start
The star/delta starter uses only approximately 1.5 times the normal amount of power when starting in star position, but when shifting to delta, it uses nearly as much power as in the case of a DOL start and because of this, Grundfos does not recommend star/delta starting. However, in certain areas the law dictates that this starting method is used.

Direct-on-Line start
The DOL starter is the simplest, cheapest and most reliable starter. Grundfos submersible motors built with Grundfos pumps have a low moment of inertia, due to the use of stainless steel impellers, and consequently they start very easily. The starting current is 46 times as high as the full load current. The starting time is max. 5 cycles = approx. 1/10th of a second; you cannot even sense the slightest disturbance on the mains when a Grundfos pump starts.

Autotransformer start
The autotransformer starting method uses approx. 2 times the normal amount of amps at transformer start. When shifting to mains voltage, it uses approx. 2 times the normal amount of power, however only for approx. 1 cycle. For motors of more than 75 kW, autotransformer start should always be used.

146

Piping and electrical installations

Domestic Water Supply

Provide shade for controls and cables

Do not install a control box or cables in direct sunlight


Fig. 118 Protection of installation

After selecting suitable starting and protecting methods for the system, the right size and type of supply cable should be chosen. Wires and cables are available for all types of installation: Dry installations Moist installations Inflammable installations Underground installations Tropical installations (Must be resistant for instance to termite attacks) Wires and cables are usually available in both a copper and an aluminium version. Copper has the highest current density which means that it can be loaded with the largest ampere consumption per mm2.

When sizing wires and cables, however, it is rarely the current density which is the decisive factor, but the voltage loss in the cable leading to the motor. Pump and motor operate optimally at the voltage for which the motor has been built. Consequently, the function is reduced if a voltage loss occurs in the mains. Voltage loss in the cable from the starter to the motor should, under normal conditions, be restricted to maximum 35%. A higher loss is acceptable only in the event of local overvoltage. Current density and voltage loss can be calculated manually, but it is easier to contact the cable supplier and request a Quick Selction Table as shown overleaf.

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500 Nominal motor curent (ampere) Nominal motor curent (ampere) 400 250 207 169 135 108 82 61 44 34 26 18 15 10 Direct or 8 autotransformer start One-cable connection 6 Voltage: 3 x 380 V Voltage loss: 3% 5 Ambient temp.: 30C 4 3 2 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 150 200 300
2. 1. 5 m 5 4 m m 6 m 10 16 m 25 m 35 m 50 m 70 m

400 300
95 m

200
m2

m2

150 100 80 60 50 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 L (m)

m2

m2

m2

m2

m2

m2

m2

m2

m2

Fig. 119 Quick Selection Table from the cable supplier

The example stated in the diagram shows: Power consumption of motor: 28 A Required cable length: Minimum cable requirement: 40 metres 3 4 mm2.

Example For a mains voltage of 500 V, the permissible cable length will be L= 500 380 the length observed in the diagram.

A cable of 3 4 mm2 may not be longer than 57 m when the power consumption is 28 A and the maximum allowed voltage loss is 3%. For other mains voltages than 380 V, the lengths must be recalculated correspondingly.

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Domestic Water Supply

Nominal motor curent (ampere)

291 234 187 142 106 76 59 45 31


2. 4 5 m m 6 m 10 16 m 25 m 35 m 50 m 70 m

95 m

300
m

m2 m2

200 150 100 80 60 50 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 5 4 3 2

m2

m2

m2

m2

m2

m2

m2

20 15 10 Star/Delta start Two-cable connection Voltage: 3 x 380 V Voltage loss: 3% Ambient temp.: 30C 8 6 5 4 3 2 10 15 20 30

1.

m2

m2

40 50 60

80 100

150 200

300

L (m)

Fig. 120 Quick Selection Table from the cable supplier

The example stated in the diagram shows: Power consumption of motor: 28 A Required cable length: Minimum cable requirement: 40 metres 3 2.5 mm2.

Example For a mains voltage of 500 V, the permissible cable length will be L= 500 380 the length observed in the diagram.

The two cables of 3 2.5 mm2 may not be longer than 53 m when the power consumption is 28 A and the maximum allowed voltage loss is 3%. For other mains voltages than 380 V, the lengths must be recalculated correspondingly.

Nominal motor curent (ampere)

433 357

500 400

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Piping and electrical installations

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500 400 Nominal motor curent (ampere) 400 300 250 207 169 135 108 82 61 44 34 26 18 15 10 Direct start 8 One-cable connection 6 Voltage: 1 x 220 V Voltage loss: 3% 5 Ambient temp.: 30C 4 3 2 10 15 20 30 40 50 60 80 100 150 200 300
1. 5 2. m 5 6 4 m m m 10 16 m 25 m 35 m 50 m 70 m 95 m m

200 150
m2 m2

100 80 60 50 40 30 20 15 10 8 6 5 4 3 2 L (m)

m2

m2

m2

m2

m2

m2

m2

m2

m2

Fig. 121 Quick Selection Table from the cable supplier

The example stated in the diagram shows: Power consumption of motor: 28 A Required cable length: Minimum cable requirement:
2

Example For a mains voltage of 240 V, the permissible cable length will be L= 240 220 the length observed in the diagram.

40 metres 3 10 mm2.

A cable of 3 10 mm may not be longer than 56 m when the power consumption is 28 A and the maximum allowed voltage loss is 3%. For other mains voltages than 220 V, the lengths must be recalculated correspondingly.

150

Nominal motor curent (ampere)

Trouble-shooting

Domestic Water Supply

Trouble-shooting
Chapter 11

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151

Trouble-shooting

Domestic Water Supply

Water flows at Large pressure high velocity swings caused by water hammer

Non-return valve with 4 mm by-pass

Water forced back by gravitation


Fig. 122 Water hammer

Discharge at pump cutout

Recharging when water runs back

Water hammer
When the horizontal discharge pipe from a well is long and thin, which increases the water velocity, water hammer may arise when the pump is switched off. When the pump stops, the water flow in the riser main will stop rapidly due to gravity. The water flow in the horizontal discharge pipe, however, is stopped gradually by the friction loss in the pipe. This creates a vacuum in the riser main, which will cause the water column to separate and water will be transformed into vapour. When the water flow in the horizontal pipe has lost its velocity, water will be sucked back into the well by the vacuum which has been created in the riser main. When the returning water flow collides with the water in the riser main, water hammer will occur. In serious cases, water hammer can damage the installation, and in any case it makes a terrible noise.

Solution
The solution is to fit a 50 litre diaphragm tank where riser main and discharge pipe meet. Water from this tank will be discharged when the pump is switched off and thus prevent a vacuum from occurring. The tank is filled up again when the water from the horizontal pipe starts running backwards.

152

Trouble-shooting

Domestic Water Supply

Problem:

Solution 1:

Solution 2:

Solution 3:

Solution 4:

Pipe corrosion

Stainless steel pipes

PEL pipes + compression couplings

PEM pipes, flanged or threaded.

Well Master hose

Fig. 123 Different ways of preventing or reducing pipe corrosion

Pipe corrosion
In certain wells, the water quality is of such a kind that serious corrosive attacks may occur on metal riser mains, even if they are coated or galvanized. It is quite likely that the reason for this corrosive attack will have to do with the amount of aggressive carbonic acid in the water.

Solution
Today there are several solution to this problem. One solution is to use stainless steel riser pipes which are just as corrosion resistant as the pump itself. It will, however, often be best to use pipes made of a non-conductive material. For relatively small pumps with a discharge dimension of up to 50 mm (2), it will be both economically and corrosively sensible to use PEL or PEM pipes. These types are available in lengths of up to 100 m. The pipes are fitted to pump and well head by means of compression couplings. Use a type with an internal supporting bushing. Furthermore, secure the pump by means of a nylon or stainless steel wire. For large pumps with discharge dimensions between 50 mm (2") and 150 mm (6") PEM or Well Master hoses should be used. Suitable connecting fittings for the two types are available on the market. When using plastic pipes, the drop cable must be 4% longer than the riser main as the latter will stretch under the load of the pump.

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Trouble-shooting

Domestic Water Supply

Sandfree water Pump inlet

Pump well clean

Sand separator Sand discharged deep in the well clogs the screen Problem: Sand yielding well Pump protection: Sand separator

Removed impellers

Well protection

Fig. 124 Sand problems and how to limit them

Sand yielding wells


Some wells are supplied with a screen that cannot prevent sand particles from penetrating into the well. To avoid pump damage, a sand separator is sometimes mounted just below the pump. The sand separator is of the cyclone type that separates sand from water, the sand particles falling down to the bottom of the well screen. This is not the best solution as the well screen will be clogged by sand and consequently has to be cleaned regularly.

Solution
The best solution is to pump the well clean at the highest possible pumping rate. When the sand particles have been removed from the screen (a glass of water must look clear), the pump capacity should be adjusted to the lowest possible rate and a double sized pressure tank installed to reduce peak pumping demand and one or two impellers removed from the pump (or a smaller pump type chosen). The amount of sand penetrating the well screen increases with the square of the water flow. If sand has penetrated the screen, it is better to remove it from the well than to let it fall to the well bottom.

154

Trouble-shooting

Domestic Water Supply

Clamp

Zinc

Stainless steel

Zinc

Clamp Zinc

Fig. 125 Protection of pump and riser main against corrosion

Pump and pipe corrosion


In certain wells with very hot and aggressive water, e.g. in geothermal wells, mine wells, etc., both pump and riser main corrosion may arise.

Solution
In such wells cathodic protection of pump and riser main should be used by fitting sacrificial zinc anodes below the ground water level on pump, motor and riser main at a max. distance of 3 metres apart. The zinc must be fitted in such a way that it is electrically connected to the steel to be protected. The amount of zinc required depends on the aggressiveness of the pumped liquid and on the surface area of the steel parts to be protected. A zinc quantity of 20% of the net weight of motor, pump and riser main will usually be sufficient for long-term protection.

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Trouble-shooting

Domestic Water Supply

Fig. 126 Service overhaul

Service overhaul of simple water supply systems


Depending on the characteristicsof the individual water supply system, the optimal overhaul periods may vary considerably. In a water supply system for a small household with an average water consumption of 1 m3/day, the daily duty time for a typical pump fitted with a 0.75 kW motor will be max. one hour, corresponding to a power consumption of 300 kWh per year. Based on this consumption, it is evident that it is not economically profitable to perform a service overhaul even if the power consumption doubles as such an overhaul will cost more than 10 times the saving. This type of system typically requires overhauling only in connection with a functional system problem such as: a stroke of lightning destroying electric components scaling of the pipe system significantly blocking the water passages water leaking through corrosion holes reduced water level in the well restricting pump performance A reduction in water level over time may be caused by several things. One reason can be overpumping of the well during a very dry period. Another reason could be scaling and encrustations on the well screen or in the gravel pack.

156

Trouble-shooting

Domestic Water Supply

HCL HCl

Avoid to pump acid residues and hexametaphosphate into lakes and streams where these substances will be harmful. Pump the liquid instead onto the ground where it will be transformed into salt and water.

Acid and hexametaphosphate reduce the particle size. The particles are removed by clean pumping
Fig. 127 Regeneration of a well

Regeneration
Falling water level in the well caused by scaling and encrustation on the well screen and in the gravel pack can be cured by acidization. By means of a hose of the same length as the depth of the well, a dose of acid (HCl) is distributed in the whole filter. The amount of acid to be added must be equal to or bigger than the filter volume. This acid solution must be left in the well for approx. four hours. Then a pump is lowered to the bottom of the well and operated at maximum performance for about one hour. This process is repeated until the well performance is back to normal. If this result has not been obtained after two or three rounds, the well must be treated with hexametaphosphate. 10 kg of hexametaphosphate is dissolved in approx. 500 litres of water at a temperature of 60C. This solution is distributed along the whole filter by means of the hose. Finally 500 litres of pure water is poured down into the well. This solution is left in the well for about two hours. The well is then pumped clean at maximum performance for approx. one hour. After this the well yield will be as it was originally or even better. If the well or filter is made of steel, it is advisable to use only hexametaphosphate.

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Trouble-shooting

Domestic Water Supply

bars s ur e 4 k pres ter level Tan ss = to wa Depth ed friction lo lat Calcu mo u n t Pu mp r of wate po we r =

m = 40.8 0.5 m = 3 3.7 m 7 5 .0 m 240 m .6 k n 93


3

mptio co ns u

Wh
3 /m

Wh =

1000 93.6 75 240

Wh/m = 5 .2

Fig. 128 System data

State of the system


In large water supply systems where the daily duty time of the raw water pumps varies between 4 and 18 hours, the following metering should be available: Quantity of pumped water Total head Power consumption of pumps Based on these measurements, it is possible to set up an expression for the operating state of the plant, called the watt hour consumption per cubic metre of pumped water per metre head, from water level to top point, including friction loss in piping and overcoming of hydrophoric pressure. Wh = The watt hour consumption factor Wh is calculated in the following way: Wh = kWh consumption 1000 m3 of pumped water total head 93.6 1000 240 75 = 5.2 Wh/m3/m

For a well dimensioned and well-functioning system, the Wh factor will typically be 56 Wh/m3/m. If the well filter is clogged, the Wh factor will increase. The same happens if rust, lime, etc. is deposited in the raw water pipe. The Wh factor thus gives a good indication of the state of the system.

158

Trouble-shooting

Domestic Water Supply

Wh/m3/m Operating costs on the date of service and cleaning Corrosion holes in riser main

Operating costs saved by comparison with costs of repair

Operating costs for new system

Operating costs after replacement of pipes, service and cleaning 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998

4 1988 1989 1990 1991

Fig. 129 The effect of service overhaul on duty costs

Periodic cleaning and service overhaul


Planning of the date when it is economically profitable to clean and service large systems can be effected by means of the Wh factor, i.e. the watt hour consumption per m3 per m head. When the new system has been started and adjusted, the necessary data for calculating the Wh factor for the first month can be found. Example: Calculation of Wh First months operation 10,800 m3 of pumped raw water 77 m average total head 4,211 kWh used by the pumps Wh = 4,211 1,000 10,800 77 = 5.06

These calculations are made currently as shown in the figure above. First two months operation 20,520 m3 pumped raw water 77.5 m average total head 8,055 kWh used by the pumps Wh = 8,055 1,000 20,520 77.5 = 5.065

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159

Trouble-shooting

Domestic Water Supply

Wh/m3/m

Sediments

8 Cut-in Additional consumption Wh = 5.08 - 5.06 = 0.02

Capacity of worn pump

Capacity of new pump


Maximum flow rate, Q

5 4 1997 1998

Ochre and rust in the screen

Fig. 130 Service overhaul planning

Periodic cleaning and service overhaul


(continued) First years operation: 168,480 m3 pumped raw water 77 m average total head 65,700 kWh used by the pumps Wh = 65,700 1,000 168,480 77 = 5.08 The additional consumption may be due to: 1. Larger drawdown in the borehole caused by obstruction of the filter. 2. Wear and tear of the pump causing reduced efficiency. 3. Sediments of ochre, lime, etc. in riser mains and raw water pipes which will increase the friction loss in the pipes and consequently reduce the pump performance. 4. Riser main or raw water pipe perforated due to corrosion causing water loss and consequently longer pump operation. 5. Increased resistance of the filter if a pressure filter is installed. When pumping raw water (cold water), the additional consumption will develop approximately according to a parabolic curve y = C x2. y is Wh/m3/m. C is a constant factor. x is time of operation expressed in years. However, the curve is never unique, as various conditions concerning the chemistry of the ground water and the geology of the borehole eventually change the character of the sediments. Consequently, you have to use accumulated data to calculate the Wh and C factors.

The additional consumption is therefore:

Wh = 5.08 x 5.06 = 0.02 Wh/m3/m after one years


operation.

160

Trouble-shooting

Domestic Water Supply

Wh/m3/m

y = C x2

6 x 5 4 1997
Fig. 131 Calculation of the constant

97

98

99

1st years sediments 2nd years sediments 1998

Calculation of the constant (C)


The C constant is calculated as follows: The diagram is used with the above-mentioned data as starting point, i.e.: Q H kWh price C = = = = 168,480 m3/year 77 m 0.15 US$ 0.02

= Wh (after x years) minus Wh (new installation)

In the example above:

y
C x

= 5.08 - 5.06 = 0.02 =

Begin at pumped water quantity per year = 168,480 m3/year. Continue vertically until you reach the point of 77 m actual head. Turn left and follow a horizontal line until you reach the price to be paid per kWh. Descend to the curve for the C constant = 0.02 (to be found a little above the curve drawn for C = 0.025). Turn to the right and continue horizontally until you cross the line which states the expected price of renovation. As will appear from the diagram, the economically most advantageous overhaul date depends on the price of giving the water supply system back its original efficiency.

y
x
2

0.02 = 0.02 12

= number of years (here one year)

The diagram on the following page is used in order to find an approximate additional consumption curve. This figure shows that the most approximate additional consumption curve drawn is for the C constant equal to 0.02.

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Domestic Water Supply

Price of kWh (US$) 0.05

Total head (m) 80 70 60 50 40

0.10 30 0.15 0.20 0.25 Quantity of water pumped per year, Q (1000 m3/year) 100 200 300 400 500 600 Price of renovation (US$) 500 The constant C reflects the rate of increase in consumption with time

1,000 1,500 2,000 3,000 6,000

C = 0.01 C = 0.025 C = 0.05 C = 0.1 C = 0.3 C = 0.4

4 5 years Time of renovation

Fig. 132 The diagram shows the number of years of operation before the cumulative cost of increased power consumptionequals the cost of renovaton. Note: Inflation and interest on capital are not included in the diagram.

162

Trouble-shooting

Domestic Water Supply

Washdown of well screen

Cleaning and recoating of riser mains

Fig. 133 Cleaning and washdown of installation

Calculation of the constant (C)


(continued) Now it is possible to find the reason for the increasing additional consumption and at the same time find out how much it costs to bring the system up to top condition. During the time up to the date of overhaul, you continue to calculate Wh and the constant C as these may change radically if the process of sedimentation in the tubes change or if riser main pipes and raw water are perforated by corrosion. With the new C values, it is possible to currently check when the optimal time for overhaul has come.

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163

Being responsible is our foundation Thinking ahead makes it possible Innovation is the essence

Denmark
GRUNDFOS DK A/S Martin Bachs Vej 3 DK-8850 Bjerringbro Tlf.: +45-87 50 50 50 Telefax: +45-87 50 51 51 E-mail: info_GDK@grundfos.com www.grundfos.com/DK

Estonia
GRUNDFOS Pumps Eesti O Peterburi tee 44 11415 Tallinn Tel: + 372 606 1690 Fax: + 372 606 1691

Korea
GRUNDFOS Pumps Korea Ltd. 6th Floor, Aju Building 679-5 Yeoksam-dong, Kangnam-ku, 135-916 Seoul, Korea Phone: +82-2-5317 600 Telefax: +82-2-5633 725

Singapore
GRUNDFOS (Singapore) Pte. Ltd. 24 Tuas West Road Jurong Town Singapore 638381 Phone: +65-6865 1222 Telefax: +65-6861 8402

Finland
OY GRUNDFOS Pumput AB Mestarintie 11 Piispankyl FIN-01730 Vantaa (Helsinki) Phone: +358-9 878 9150 Telefax: +358-9 878 91550

Latvia
SIA GRUNDFOS Pumps Latvia Deglava biznesa centrs Augusta Deglava iel 60, LV-1035, Rga, Tlr.: + 371 714 9640, 7 149 641 Fakss: + 371 914 9646

Slovenia
GRUNDFOS PUMPEN VERTRIEB Ges.m.b.H., Podrunica Ljubljana Blatnica 1, SI-1236 Trzin Phone: +386 1 563 5338 Telefax: +386 1 563 2098 E-mail: slovenia@grundfos.si

Argentina
Bombas GRUNDFOS de Argentina S.A. Ruta Panamericana km. 37.500 Lote 34A 1619 - Garin Pcia. de Buenos Aires Phone: +54-3327 414 444 Telefax: +54-3327 411 111

France
Pompes GRUNDFOS Distribution S.A. Parc dActivits de Chesnes 57, rue de Malacombe F-38290 St. Quentin Fallavier (Lyon) Tl.: +33-4 74 82 15 15 Tlcopie: +33-4 74 94 10 51

Lithuania
GRUNDFOS Pumps UAB Smolensko g. 6 LT-03201 Vilnius Tel: + 370 52 395 430 Fax: + 370 52 395 431

Australia
GRUNDFOS Pumps Pty. Ltd. P.O. Box 2040 Regency Park South Australia 5942 Phone: +61-8-8461-4611 Telefax: +61-8-8340 0155

Spain
Bombas GRUNDFOS Espaa S.A. Camino de la Fuentecilla, s/n E-28110 Algete (Madrid) Tel.: +34-91-848 8800 Telefax: +34-91-628 0465

Malaysia
GRUNDFOS Pumps Sdn. Bhd. 7 Jalan Peguam U1/25 Glenmarie Industrial Park 40150 Shah Alam Selangor Phone: +60-3-5569 2922 Telefax: +60-3-5569 2866

Germany
GRUNDFOS GMBH Schlterstr. 33 40699 Erkrath Tel.: +49-(0) 211 929 69-0 Telefax: +49-(0) 211 929 69-3799 e-mail: infoservice@grundfos.de Service in Deutschland: e-mail: kundendienst@grundfos.de

Sweden
GRUNDFOS AB Lunnagrdsgatan 6 431 90 Mlndal Tel.: +46-0771-32 23 00 Telefax: +46-31 331 94 60

Austria
GRUNDFOS Pumpen Vertrieb Ges.m.b.H. Grundfosstrae 2 A-5082 Grdig/Salzburg Tel.: +43-6246-883-0 Telefax: +43-6246-883-30

Mexico
Bombas GRUNDFOS de Mexico S.A. de C.V. Boulevard TLC No. 15 Parque Industrial Stiva Aeropuerto Apodaca, N.L. 66600 Mexico Phone: +52-81-8144 4000 Telefax: +52-81-8144 4010

Switzerland
GRUNDFOS Pumpen AG Bruggacherstrasse 10 CH-8117 Fllanden/ZH Tel.: +41-1-806 8111 Telefax: +41-1-806 8115

Belgium
N.V. GRUNDFOS Bellux S.A. Boomsesteenweg 81-83 B-2630 Aartselaar Tl.: +32-3-870 7300 Tlcopie: +32-3-870 7301

Greece
GRUNDFOS Hellas A.E.B.E. 20th km. Athinon-Markopoulou Av. P.O. Box 71 GR-19002 Peania Phone: +0030-210-66 83 400 Telefax: +0030-210-66 46 273

Taiwan
GRUNDFOS Pumps (Taiwan) Ltd. 7 Floor, 219 Min-Chuan Road Taichung, Taiwan, R.O.C. Phone: +886-4-2305 0868 Telefax: +886-4-2305 0878

Belorussia
220090 . 14 : (8632) 62-40-49 : (8632) 62-40-49

Hong Kong
GRUNDFOS Pumps (Hong Kong) Ltd. Unit 1, Ground floor Siu Wai Industrial Centre 29-33 Wing Hong Street & 68 King Lam Street, Cheung Sha Wan Kowloon Phone: +852-27861706/27861741 Telefax: +852-27858664

Netherlands
GRUNDFOS Nederland B.V. Postbus 104 NL-1380 AC Weesp Tel.: +31-294-492 211 Telefax: +31-294-492244/492299

Bosnia/Herzegovina
GRUNDFOS Sarajevo Paromlinska br. 16, BiH-71000 Sarajevo Phone: +387 33 713290 Telefax: +387 33 231795

Thailand
GRUNDFOS (Thailand) Ltd. 947/168 Moo 12, Bangna-Trad Rd., K.M. 3, Bangna, Phrakanong Bangkok 10260 Phone: +66-2-744 1785 ... 91 Telefax: +66-2-744 1775 ... 6

New Zealand
GRUNDFOS Pumps NZ Ltd. 17 Beatrice Tinsley Crescent North Harbour Industrial Estate Albany, Auckland Phone: +64-9-415 3240 Telefax: +64-9-415 3250

Brazil
GRUNDFOS do Brasil Ltda. Rua Tomazina 106 CEP 83325 - 040 Pinhais - PR Phone: +55-41 668 3555 Telefax: +55-41 668 3554

Hungary
GRUNDFOS Hungria Kft. Park u. 8 H-2045 Trkblint, Phone: +36-23 511 110 Telefax: +36-23 511 111

Turkey
GRUNDFOS POMPA San. ve Tic. Ltd. Sti. Gebze Organize Sanayi Blgesi

Norway
GRUNDFOS Pumper A/S Strmsveien 344 Postboks 235, Leirdal N-1011 Oslo Tlf.: +47-22 90 47 00 Telefax: +47-22 32 21 50

Ihsan dede Caddesi, 2. yol 200. Sokak No. 204


41490 Gebze/ Kocaeli Phone: +90 - 262-679 7979 Telefax: +90 - 262-679 7905

India
GRUNDFOS Pumps India Private Limited 118 Old Mahabalipuram Road Thoraipakkam Chamiers Road Chennai 600 096 Phone: +91-44 2496 6800

Bulgaria
GRUNDFOS Pumpen Vertrieb Representative Office - Bulgaria Bulgaria, 1421 Sofia Lozenetz District 105-107 Arsenalski blvd. Phone: +359 2963 3820, 2963 5653 Telefax: +359 2963 1305

E-mail: satis@grundfos.com

Ukraine
. , 71, . 45 . , 01033, , . +380 44 289 4050 +380 44 289 4139

Poland
GRUNDFOS Pompy Sp. z o.o. ul. Klonowa 23 Baranowo k. Poznania PL-62-081 Przemierowo Phone: (+48-61) 650 13 00 Telefax: (+48-61) 650 13 50

Indonesia
PT GRUNDFOS Pompa Jl. Rawa Sumur III, Blok III / CC-1 Kawasan Industri, Pulogadung Jakarta 13930 Phone: +62-21-460 6909 Telefax: +62-21-460 6910/460 6901

Canada
GRUNDFOS Canada Inc. 2941 Brighton Road Oakville, Ontario L6H 6C9 Phone: +1-905 829 9533 Telefax: +1-905 829 9512

United Arab Emirates


GRUNDFOS Gulf Distribution P.O. Box 16768 Jebel Ali Free Zone Dubai Phone: +971-4- 8815 166 Telefax: +971-4-8815 136

Portugal
Bombas GRUNDFOS Portugal, S.A. Rua Calvet de Magalhes, 241 Apartado 1079 P-2770-153 Pao de Arcos Tel.: +351-21-440 76 00 Telefax: +351-21-440 76 90

Ireland
GRUNDFOS (Ireland) Ltd. Unit A, Merrywell Business Park Ballymount Road Lower Dublin 12 Phone: +353-1-4089 800 Telefax: +353-1-4089 830

China
GRUNDFOS Pumps (Shanghai) Co. Ltd. 22 Floor, Xin Hua Lian Building 755-775 Huai Hai Rd, (M) Shanghai 200020 PRC Phone: +86-512-67 61 11 80 Telefax: +86-512-67 61 81 67

United Kingdom
GRUNDFOS Pumps Ltd. Grovebury Road Leighton Buzzard/Beds. LU7 8TL Phone: +44-1525-850000 Telefax: +44-1525-850011

Romnia
GRUNDFOS Pompe Romnia SRL Bd. Biruintei, nr 103 Pantelimon county Ilfov Phone: +40 21 200 4100 Telefax: +40 21 200 4101 E-mail: romania@grundfos.ro

Italy
GRUNDFOS Pompe Italia S.r.l. Via Gran Sasso 4 I-20060 Truccazzano (Milano) Tel.: +39-02-95838112 Telefax: +39-02-95309290/95838461

Croatia
GRUNDFOS predstavnitvo Zagreb Cebini 37, Buzin HR-10000 Zagreb Phone: +385 1 6595 400 Telefax: +385 1 6595 499

U.S.A.
GRUNDFOS Pumps Corporation 17100 West 118th Terrace Olathe, Kansas 66061 Phone: +1-913-227-3400 Telefax: +1-913-227-3500

Russia
, 109544 , 39 . (+7) 095 737 30 00, 564 88 00 (+7) 095 737 75 36, 564 88 11 E-mail grundfos.moscow@grundfos.com

Japan
GRUNDFOS Pumps K.K. 1-2-3, Shin Miyakoda Hamamatsu City Shizuoka pref. 431-21 Phone: +81-53-428 4760 Telefax: +81-53-484 1014

Czech Republic
GRUNDFOS s.r.o. apkovskho 21 779 00 Olomouc Phone: +420-585-716 111 Telefax: +420-585-716 299

Usbekistan
700000 . 1- 5 : (3712) 55-68-15 : (3712) 53-36-35

Serbia and Montenegro


GRUNDFOS Predstavnitvo Beograd Dr. Milutina Ivkovia 2a/29 YU-11000 Beograd Phone: +381 11 26 47 877, 11 26 47 496 Telefax: +381 11 26 48 340

V7162707 0906
Repl. V7162707 0600

GB

Subject to alterations.

www.grundfos.com