Here is a list of modals: Modal Verb Meaning to have to Expressing 100 % obligation logical conclusion (deduction) Example I must

stop when the traffic lights turn red. He must be very tired after such enormous work You must not smoke in the hospital. I can swim Can I use your phone please? Smoking can cause cancer ! When I was younger I could stay up all night and not get tired..

must

to be very probable

must not

not to be allowed to prohibition to be able to ability permission possibility ability in the past

can

to be allowed to it is possible to be able to

could

to be allowed to it is possible to be allowed to

more polite permission Excuse me, could I just say something? possibility permission possibility, probability It could rain tomorrow! May I use your phone please? It may rain tomorrow!

may

it is possible, probable to be allowed to

more polite permission Might I use your phone please? weak possibility, probability necessity lack of necessity/absence of obligation 50 % obligation I might come and visit you in America next year, if I can save enough money. Need I say more? I need not buy any tomatoes. There are plenty in the fridge. I should / ought to see a doctor. I have a terrible headache. You should / ought to revise your lessons He should / ought to be very tired after such enormous work You 'd better revise your lessons

might

it is possible, probable necessary not necessary

need need not

used to say or ask what is the correct or best thing to do

should/ought or to show that it is to necessary
to be very probable

to suggest an action

advice

logical conclusion (deduction) advice

had better

to suggest an action or to show that it is necessary

PENGGUNAAN MODAL AUXILIARY

CAN Dipakai untuk menyatakan: 1. Kesanggupan atau kemahiran seseorang. Contoh: She can sing beautifully. I can speak English. 2. Minta izin. Contoh: Can I borrow your book? Can I come to your house? 3. Kemungkinan. Contoh: - She can be at home at noon. - He can be ill. (mungkin dia sakit). COULD Adalah bentuk Past Tense dari CAN dan bentuknya sama untuk semua subyek. Namun dalam penggunaannya tidak selamanya berarti past time (masa lalu). COULD dipakai untuk menyatakan: 1. Bentuk lampau dari Can. Contoh: Mary could sing a song when she was young. She could not come here yesterday because she was ill. 2. Permintaan dengan sopan. Contoh: Could you help me now? Could you take that book for me? 3. Kemungkinan. Contoh: - She could be at home now, but she usually plays volleyball. - He could be very busy at that time. SHALL Digunakan untuk menyatakan: 1. Artinya “akan” dalam bentuk Future Tense. Contoh: I shall go to London tomorrow. (Saya akan pergi ke London besok). We shall buy a new motorcycle next week. 2. Menawarkan Bantuan. Contoh: Shall I open the window? Shall I make coffee for you? 3. Janji. Contoh: - You shall have a motorcycle.(Saya janjikan anda akan dapat mempunyai sepeda motor). - I shall meet her tomorrow.

SHOULD Digunakan untuk menyatakan: 1. Bentuk lampau dari shall. Contoh: When he come to my house I should go. I should visit to your house before you came to my house. 2. Anjuran (Artinya “sebaiknya”). Contoh: You are ill, you should go to the doctor soon. She is tired, she should take a rest. 3. Keharusan Dalam hal ini SHOULD sama artinya dengan Ought to. Contoh: You should (ought to) do your homework every day. He should (ought to) study hard. 4. Dalam bentuk lampaunya berarti menunjukkan suatu kegiatan yang seharusnya dikerjakan tetapi kenyataannya tidak dikerjakan. Atau dapat juga berarti penyesalan dimasa lampau. Contoh: - You should (ought to) have studied hard before take an exam. = Anda seharusnya belajar dengan keras sebelum mengikuti ujian. (Dalam kenyataannya Anda tidak belajar dengan keras, tetapi tetap mengikuti ujian). - John should (ought to) have gone to the dentist yesterday. (Dalam kenyataannya John tidak pergi ke dokter gigi kemarin – he did not go). WILL Digunakan untuk menyatakan: 1. Artinya “akan” dalam bentuk Future simple tense, dan sama dengan to be going to. Contoh: I will go to Jakarta next week. (=I am going to Jakarta next week). She will come here soon. 2. Permintaan dengan sopan atau menawarkan. Contoh: - Will you carry that bag for me? - Will you go with me? WOULD Digunakan untuk menyatakan: 1. Bentuk lampau dari Will yang berarti “akan”. Contoh: He would be punished before he escaped. She knows that it would be pleasant in Bali. 2. Suatu permohonan/permintaan dengan sopan. Contoh: Would you please help me? Would you mind closing the window? 3. Jika digabung dengan kata LIKE menunjukkan hasrat atau keinginan. Contoh: I would like to eat. Would you like to go there? 4. Digabung dengan kata “rather” menunjukkan arti Lebih suka (prefer). Contoh:

-

I would rather be a doctor than a president. I would rather have stayed home than went to the movies.

MAY Kata kerja bantu yang berarti “boleh/mungkin” yang digunakan untuk menyatakan: 1. Permohonan izin. Contoh: - May I borrow your motorcycle? Yes, you may. (Bolehkah aku pinjam sepeda motormu?) - May I go home now? No, you may not. (Bolehkah aku pulang sekarang?) - Henry may be late. (Mungkin Henry terlambat). 2. Permohonan atau harapan. Contoh: - May you both the happy. (Mudah-mudahan Anda berdua bahagia). - May God bless you. (Mudah-mudahan Tuhan memberkati Anda). MIGHT Bentuk lampau (past tense) dari MAY, namun pemakaiannya juga dapat untuk masa kini atau masa datang. Contoh: - Alex might be late yesterday. (Mungkin Alex terlambat kemarin). - Please take an umbrella with you, It might rain. (Bawalah payung, hari mungkin hujan). - I told him that he might go home. (Saya beritahukan kepadanya bahwa ia boleh pulang). - You might try to be more careful. MUST Kata kerja bantu yang berarti harus atau wajib, digunakan untuk menyatakan: 1. Keharusan/mesti. Contoh: - You must go now. (Anda harus pergi sekarang!) - I must do my homework soon. (Saya harus segera mengerjakan peker aan rumahku). - She must study hard. (Dia harus belajar keras). 2. Dalam kalimat menyangkal (negatif) dan membuat jawaban dari kalimat tanya, selalu digunakan NEED NOT atau Needn’t bukan musn’t (must not). Contoh: - Must I go now? Yes, you must atau yes, you need. - Must she pay it? No, she needn’t. - You needn’t go now. (Anda tidak perlu pergi sekarang) bukan musn’t. - She need not come here. again. (Dia tak perlu lagi datang ke sini). 3. Must not (musn’t) menunjukkan (berarti) larangan atau tidak boleh. Contoh: - You must not smoke in the class. (Anda dilarang merokok di dalam kelas). - Susan mustn’t go there alone. (Susan tidak boleh (dilarang) pergi ke sana sendirian). 4. Must = Have to (she/he has to) berarti harus. Contoh: - You must (have to) read this book. (Anda harus membaca buku ini). - She must (has to) go to school today. (Dia harus ke sekolah hari ini). - They must (or have to) work hard. (Mereka harus bekerja keras).

5. Must tidak mempunyai bentuk Past Tense. Bentuk lampau yang berarti “harus/mesti” adalah HAD TO, dan bentuknya sama untuk semua obyek. Contoh: - I had to meet my sister yesterday. (Saya kemarin harus berjumpa saudara perempuanku). - She had to leave for Jakarta last week. (Dia harus meninggalkan Jakarta pekan lalu). OUGHT TO = SHOULD 1. Kata kerja bantu yang artinya sebaiknya atau seharusnya. Contoh: - She ought to be here now. (Dia seharusnya ada di sini sekarang). - Ought she to come here again? (Haruskah dia datang ke sini lagi?) - She asked me what ought to be typed. (Dia bertanya kepadaku apa yang harus diketik). 2. Menyatakan tugas/pekerjaan yang tidak terselesaikan/terpenuhi atau terabaikan. Biasanya dalam bentuk Perfect Infinitives Contoh: - The work ought to have been finished last week. (Pekerjaan itu seharusnya sudah diselesaikan pekan lalu). - You ought not (oughtn’t) to have crossed the road when the lights were red. (Anda seharusnya tidak menyeberang jalan ketika lampu berwarna merah). - You ought to have told him that the paint on that seat is wet. (Anda seharusnya sudah memberi tahu dia bahwa cat pada tempat duduk itu masih basah). NEED Need artinya “Perlu” dan digunakan sebagai: 1. Untuk membuat kalimat negatif dan jawaban dari pertanyaan yang memakai MUST Contoh: - I must go now. (Positif). - I needn’t go now. (Negatif). bukan: I mustn’t go now, karena kalimat ini berarti.: (Saya dilarang pergi sekarang). - Must I go now? No, you needn’t atau Yes, you must. 2. Sebagai kata kerja biasa yang berarti “perlu” dan mengalami perubahan bentuk. --> need - needs (Present Tense) --> needed – (Past Tense). Dalam hal ini, bentuk interrogative dan negative-nya dibuat dengan auxiliary verb “do/does” untuk present tense, dan dengan “did” untuk past tense, sebagaimana umumnya kata kerja biasa. Contoh: - They need some milk. - They don’t need any milk. - Do they need any milk? - She doesn’t need much money. - Did Ali need to meet with you? - Ali didn’t need to go with you. - Ali need to go with you.

DARE Artinya “berani” dan digunakan sebagai: 1. Kata kerja bantu Contoh: - He dare go there alone. (Dia berani pergi sendirian ke sana) - Dare he do it? - I dare not to climb the tree. Catatan: “DARE” jika berfungsi sebagai Kata Kerja Bantu tidak memakai “S” untuk orang ketiga tunggal, jadi untuk kalimat nomor I, bukan: She/He dares. 2. Kata kerja biasa Kalau DARE berfungsi sebagai kata kerja biasa, maka pemakaiannya sama seperti kata kerja biasa lainnya, yaitu dalam kalimat tanya dan negatif menggunakan auxiliary verb. Do/Does atau Did. Contoh: - She doesn’t dare to go there alone. - Does he dare to come here again? - I don’t dare to climb the tree. Dalam bentuk past tense, Dare mempunyai dua macam bentuk yang dapat dipakai untuk kalimat tanya atau kalimat negatif . Contoh: - He dared not to go there alone yesterday, atau He didn’t dare (to) go three alone. - Dared he go there alone? atau Did he dare (to) go there alone? - She dared not visit me last week, atau She didn’t dare (to) visit me last week.

Choose the correct answer 1. Your glass is empty. …………. I get you some more fresh water? A. shall B. will C. can D. should E. Shall have 2. We ………. like to visit that new store some day. A. shall B. will C. can D. would E. Shall have 3. You are sick, but you don’t come hospital to see a doctor. You ………. visit him soon. A. would B. could C. should D. will E, can 4. “I really don’t know why Tony didn’t come to the meeting”. “There ……… something wrong with him. A. might be B. could be C. will be D. should have been E. must have been 5. “Rini is old enough. She ……. know better than the others about it. A. will B. could C. must D. may be E. can 6. My motorcycle runs out of oil. I …….buy it because I will ride it to the meeting. A. should B. may C. can D. must E. might 7. Yanti looks so pale and weak. He must be sick. The underlined sentence means: A. He has to be sick B. Maybe he is sick C. It’s possible that he is sick. D. He is rather sick E. I conclude that he is sick

8. “I could have somebody else to carry the heavy bags” It means : A. I carried the heavy bags B Somebody else carried the heavy bags for me C. I asked someone carry the heavy bags. D. I would carry the heavy bags myself. E. I didn’t want to carry the heavy bags.

Part A. Directions: Complete each question or sentence with a modal verb and a main verb. Modal verbs: can / may / should / must / will / might / could (use more than once) Main verbs: see / live / bring / eat / find / do / help / play / pay / rain (use only once) 1. My teacher ________ __________ some cookies to class today. We don't know yet. 2. You really _________ __________ a doctor about your illness. 3. __________ I ___________ you? 4. After Jeff graduates from college, he ________ definitely ____________ in New York. 5. Tatania ________ __________ the piano really well. 6. We __________ ____________ our taxes before April 15. 7. The weatherman said that it __________ __________ later tonight. 8. You _________ ___________ less meat because it's not good for your health to eat too much. 9. They _________ probably ___________ good jobs in Minnesota if they decide to move there. 10. __________ you __________ me a favor, please? Part B. Directions: Choose the correct modal verb and main verb to complete each sentence. 1. The doctor told me that I ______________ smoking. A. will like B. should stop C. must try 2. My girlfriend ______________ to the party this weekend because she is scheduled to work. A. can't go B. shouldn't drive C. will go 3. This computer ______________ better if it has more memory. A. can't move B. should go C. will work 4. If I don't stop at a gas station soon, I ____________ out of gas. A. might run B. can be C. will do 5. The young woman called her boss to tell him that she _____________ late to work this morning. A. can be B. must be C. will be

Choose the correct answer from two choice.
1) I (could, can) help you with your homework now. 2) Five years ago, I (cannot, couldn’t) play the piano. 3) I (can, could) get an A on the test. 4) I (can, could) run ten miles if I train hard enough. 5) We (can, could) speak English well. 6) Matt (could, can) be sick today. 7) The volleyball team (can, could) go to the Olympics this year if they are lucky. 8) I think I (can, could) help you learn math if you promise to study hard. 9) (Can, Could) we go to the zoo tomorrow? 10) I (cannot, couldn’t) run that fast when I was six years old.

1) When I grow up, I (may, might) become an engineer. 2) There is a small chance the we (may, might) go to the beach this weekend. 3) There is a good change that we (might, may) have to postpone the meeting. 4) Billy and I (may, might) cook dinner tonight. 5) The airplane (might, may) crash. 6) You never know, I (may, might) become president one day. 7) (May, Might) I have a piece of bread please? 8) It (might, may) snow tonight, but I doubt it. 9) If Jane studied harder, she (might, may) have gotten a better grade on the test. 10) I (might, may) not be coming to your party tonight. I told my mother that I would stay home and make cookies with her already. I’m sorry. 1) My boss told me that I (have to, must) work overtime this week. 2) I (must, have to) get my hair cut before the dance. 3) She (has to, must) pay monthly rent to live in her apartment. 4) Ted’s dad said that he (must, has to) clean his room before he can play. 5) I (have to, must) buy those pretty red shoes. 6) The runner (has to, must) win the race to get a gold medal. 7) The police officer said that I (must, have to) go to jail. 8) I (must, have to) win this game of cards. 9) I (have to, must) become a tennis champion. 10) People (must, have to) eat to live. 1) I (had better / ought to, will) wash the dishes before mom gets home. 2) If she wants to, Hopi (had better / ought to, could) become a famous actor. 3) I can’t decide if I (had better / ought to, should) go to the movie tonight. I guess I will, because I don’t have anything else to do. 4) Jerry (had better / ought to, might) mow the lawn before the family picnic. 5) The firemen (would, ought to / had better) extinguish the fire quickly. 6) Drivers (had better / ought to, have to) stop at red lights. 7) Trees (had better / ought to, can) make light into food. 8) They (had better / ought to, may) eat a cookie. 9) The students (had better / ought to, could) finish their homework before class. 10) The war (had better / ought to, used to) end soon. 1) Mom thinks you (should, shall) clean your room. 2) Trains (shall, should) go faster. 3) This weekend (should, shall) be the best weekend ever! 4) I (should, shall) be a writer when I get older. 5) Police (shan’t, shouldn’t) be allowed to drive so fast. 6) Our team (should, shall) have tried harder. 7) After you are finished washing my car, you (shall, should) get me something to eat. 8) (Shall, Should) we be ready by ten? 9) If we want to make money, we (should, shall) get a job. 10) The world (should, shall) be peaceful. 1) My dog and I (would, will) go for walks when she was younger. 2) I (will, would) buy new shoes if I had enough money. 3) I am feeling tired. I think I (would, will) go to sleep now. 4) I (will, would) like more milk when you get a chance. 5) I don’t think we (will, would) ever win the game. 6) If you get in trouble, I (won’t, wouldn’t) help you. 7) When we were in sixth grade, we (will, would) usually play kick ball at recess. 8) (Will, Would) you like steak or chicken? 9) If I was a famous tennis player, I (won’t, wouldn’t) like to lose. 10) I am hungry. I (will, would) get something to eat.

PENGGUNAAN AUXILIARY VERB 1. Linking Verbs Adalah kata kerja bantu yang berfungsi untuk menghubungkan antara subyek dan predikat. Adapun kata kerja bantu yang dapat berfungsi sebagai linking (copulative) verb yaitu: To Be = (am, is, are, was, were, be, being dan been). Contoh: - She was at my house yesterday - I am a doctor 2. do, does, did dan done Dapat berfungsi sebagai kata kerja biasa yang berarti mengerjakan. Contoh: - She did her homework yesterday. - I do my homework every day. Sebagai kata kerja bantu dalam membentuk kalimat tanya, kalimat menyangkal (negative), atau jawaban singkat. Contoh: - Did you go to church yesterday? - Does he come to your house? - Do you know about Anne? Yes, I do. 3. Have – has dan had Berfungsi sebagai kata kerja biasa yang berarti “mempunyai”. Contoh: - I have a new care. - She has much money. - He had two cars last year. Sebagai kata kerja bantu dalam membentuk Tense, misalnya present perfect tense, past perfect tense dan sebagainya. Contoh: - She has bought a new car. - He had studies French. - She has been working here for 12 years.

FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH "DO-DOES-DON'T-DOESN'T" 1. How ___ you get to school? By car or by bus? 2. Alex ___ play football in the school team. 3. What ___"get on well" mean? I can't find it on the net. 4. Where ___ your parents usually go on summer holidays? 5. We ___ know how to go to the library.Can you help us? 6. ___ we have enough money to buy a birthday cake for Jim? 7. How much sugar ___ she need for the cake? 8. Patrick ___ eat fastfood because it is bad for his health. 9. Why ___ they use another grammar book? This one is very complex. 10. How many books ___ Jack and Rachel read a year? 11. Where ___ Joseph have his lunch? At home or in the canteen? 12. I ___ stay in front of the computer for a long time. 13. Pamela ___ throw away waste paper.She sends them for recycling. 14. What time ___ the train leave? I don't want to miss it. 15. Janie ___ have any homework so she wants to go out. 16. ___ they send ecards to their friends on special days? 17. I like Sandra because she ___ tell lies to her friends. 18. How many apples ___ Tim eat every week ? 19. I and my friends ___ like watching series on TV. 20. Our car is really excellent because it ___ break down often. 21. ___ it often rain here in this city in this season? 22. People ___ like working for long hours on hot summer days. 23. Where ___ people in this town usually spend their holidays? 24. We ___ buy anything from this shop because the prices are very high. 25. What time ___ Thomas get on the school bus in the morning? 26. Our dog ___ like running or walking.He is really lazy. 27. What ___ you drink at breakfast? Milk or orange juice? 28. The students ___ speak their native language in English class.

Choose the correct answer
1. Where ___ they usually play basketball? In the sports hall. a) do a) do a) isn't a) are a) is b) are b) are c) does d) is c) does d) is 2. ___ Susan watching a film at the cinema? No. 3. Mary is good at checkers,but Helen ___ play well. b) don't c) aren't d) doesn't b) aren't c) is d) isn't 4. What's Mrs.Green doing now? She ___ combing her daughter's hair. 5. Mr.Hardy ___ driving a lorry, he's driving a school bus. b) isn't c) does d) doesn't c) do b) aren't c) am d) is d) are c) don't d) isn't 6. ___ Mr.Birdy work at a restaurant? No,he works in a company. a) does b) is a) doesn't a) do b) are 7. Mr. and Mrs Harrods ___ go to a language course. They go to a dance course. 8. Hey, Rachel what are you doing? I ___ looking after the baby. 9. They ___ surfing on the internet.

a) do

b) are

c) am

d) is

10. I ___ resting tonight. I have got a lot of work to do. a) don't b) aren't c) doesn't d) am not 11. Meg and Pamela ___ eating pudding. a) aren't b) isn't c) doesn't d) am not 12. ____ an engineer paint houses ? No,of course not. a) does b) is c) do d) are 13. I'm afraid I ___ doing well in this exam. a) aren't b) isn't c) don't d) am not 14. Brian and Andy ___ watching a comedy film at the moment. a) do b) does c) are d) is 15. Jack ___ climbing up the stairs. a) aren't b) isn't c) don't d) doesn't 16. How ___ you go to school ? By bike. a) does b) do c) is a) do b) is c) am d) are d) are 17. I ___ dreaming of a nice summer holiday in Paris. 18. Sandra ___ like summer holidays.She prefers winter holidays. a) aren't b) isn't c) don't d) doesn't

FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH "WAS-WASN'T-WERE-WEREN'T"

Yesterday ............ Monday. John ............ at work because he went to his hometown after ten years.When he arrived there , he couldn't believe his eyes. It ............ completely different. There ............ a lot of cars on the roads and the streets ............ full of people. It ............ very crowded ten years ago. There ............ a lot of trees in the park in his youth , but he couldn't see any. He looked for the small grocer on the corner of Apple Avenue , but he saw a big supermarket on its place. He and his best friend Steven ............ in the same school , and they ............ always together. He wanted to see the school building , but it was destroyed.There ............ any children in the old playground. The toys ............ out of order. He ............ very happy to visit his hometown because everything ............quite unfamiliar and strange to him.
FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH "WAS/WASN'T / WERE/WEREN'T / DID/DIDN'T" 1. After my mother ______ the housework , she went to the shopping center. 2. There ______ many people in the supermarket because it was very early in the morning.I bought everything I needed and ______ wait too much at the cashier's. 3. I ______ need to study much for the Maths exam last night because I felt ready for it.When I saw the questions , I thought they ______ quite easy and I ______ all of them. 4. Last Saturday there ______ a concert in the park , but unfortunately the best singer of the pop group ______ there because he ______ seriously ill. 5. All my school marks ______ brillant so my father decided to buy me a new bicycle as a present.When I heard this news , I ______ over the moon. 6. If you ______ like the fruit cake I can give you a piece of chocolate one. 7. Marilyn wanted to make apple pie yesterday morning but there ______ enough flour. 8. ______ Anny and Fanny at the spring party yesterday? I ______ see them there. 9. There ______ many houses around here a few years ago.There ______ a lot of trees and

flowers. 10. We ______ have any homework and we ______ very bored last Sunday so we went to an internet cafe and played some computer games. 11. Cindrella ______ a lot more beautiful than her step sisters so they ______ jealous of her. 12. The hunter ______ kill Snow White because she ______ very innocent and pretty. 13. The guests in the living room ______ quite terrified and shocked when they suddenly saw agiant spider on the carpet. 14. The student said "Teacher, I ______ do my homework because I ______ at the hospital all night." 15. All the t-shirts in the clothes shop ______ expensive so I ______ buy any. Choose the correct answer 1. He ......... swim in the lake. It ......... too cold. a) didn't-was b) was-didn't c) didn't-didn't 2. We ......... at the cinema yesterday. The film ......... exciting. a) was-were b) were-were c) were-was 3. A: Where ......... you born? B: I ......... born in Manchester. a) did-were b) were-was c) was-did 4. A: ......... you finish the novel? B: No,it ......... boring. a) did-did b) was-did c) did-was 5. Janet ......... feel well because she ......... have breakfast. a) did-didn't b) didn't-didn't c)didn't-did 6. A: ......... your car American? B: No,it ......... American. It was German. a) was-wasn't b) was-was c) wasn't-was 7. A: Who ......... with you on the boat? B: My classmates ......... with me. a) was-was b) were-were c) was-were 8.......... you see my book? I can't find it. a) did b) was c) were
FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH "HAVE-HAS-HAVEN’T-HASN’T" 1. Mike ____ brought the pizza. Let's eat it immediately. I'm very hungry. 2. I ____ finished washing the dishes yet. Can somebody help me, please? 3. We ____ bought the TV yet. We can't decide which one to buy. 4. Clara's bus ____ arrived at the bus station yet because of the heavy rain. 5. ____ you ever wanted to ride on an elephant? It sounds exciting. 6. People ____ always wanted to earn more and more money since it was invented. 7. The weather ____ been terrible since Monday. It's snowy and cold. 8. Peter ____ worked as a policeman for more than 25 years. 9. Samuel ____ started writing his new novel yet. He hasn't got any time. 10. The cat ____ eaten anything since yesterday morning. I'll give her food. 11. What ____ the students done to the classroom? The door is broken. 12. Jack and Pam ____ been to a foreign country before. They look excited. 13. Rachel ____ just come home from the shopping center. She looks tired. 14. They ____ sent the dishwasher I bought last week yet. I'll complain about it.

15. Helen ____ finished doing her homework yet. She can't come out with you. 16. ____ you ever seen the fairy chimneys in Nevsehir, Turkey? 17. How long ____ those women worked in this factory? 18. She ____ seen her parents since she went to university.She feels homesick. 19. My grandparents ____ called me for two weeks.I really missed them. 20. ____ Mary collected the cherries on the tree yet? I want to eat some. 21. The bad news ____ made people in this town upset and pessimistic. 22. I ____ visited Jack in the hospital yet.Shall we go there together? 23. ____ Tracy and Fanny moved to another flat yet? 24. It ____ been twenty days since I went on this strict diet.

Conjuctions (Kata Penghubung) - You use "and" to combine two similar information together. Examples: 1. I am tall and plump. 2. Susan likes Maths and Art. 3. He got up and got dressed. 4. Go and bring me the map. - You use "but" to combine two conflicting or opposing information together. Examples: 1.Planes are fast and comfortable ,but they are very scary. 2.It's nice, but short. - You use "or" to combine two options together. Examples: 1. I want to buy a grey or a black car. 2. Do you like playing football or basketball? 3. Tea or coffee please? - You use "so" to say that the second information is the result of the first one. Examples: 1. I am very tired so I'll sleep early today. 2. It is cold and windy so we are staying at home. You use "because" to tell the reason of something. You can also use "because of" to tell the reason of something but it's followed by a noun or a noun phrase. Examples : 1. Because I am very tired I'll sleep early today. 2. We are staying at home because the weather cold and windy. 3. I was late for work because of the heavy traffic. -

FILL IN THE BLANKS WITH "AND – BUT – OR – SO – BECAUSE - BECAUSE OF 1. He got off the bus, bought a newspaper _____ went into a cafe. 2. There was a little cat at the top of a tall tree ____ I called the rescue team. 3. I bought everything in the shopping list _____ I couldn't find any oranges. 4. She can buy a nice laptop _____ she can have a short holiday with the money she saved. 5. My father didn't come home yesterday evening ____ he had an important meeting. 6. I don't want to watch this film _____ I didn't like the plot of it. 7. Steven stays out late _____ spend time with his friends. 8. My mom doesn't let me go out _____ I haven't 9. Our teacher prepared a poster on environmental problems _____ hanged it on the bulletin board. 10. Rachel was quite wet _____ the heavy rain today. 11. I really liked the new mobile phone on the window of the shop _____ I bought it. 12. ____ the high oil prices,I can't use my car often. 13. Nancy is a good friend _____ sometimes she can be very pessimistic about her future. 14. You can have pudding _____ ice-cream after meal. 15. She has got a nice expensive piano _____ she doesn't know how to play it. 16. The security guard said "Stop _____ I'll shoot you" _____ the robber went on running. 17. I've got a terrible headache _____ I can't come to the theatre with you. 18. Do you want milk _____ fruit juice for breakfast? 19. A lot of people are protesting the government _____ the high taxes. 20. _____ there was a snake in the school garden,the students were screaming. 21. Don't forget to take your umbrella with you _____ you will be soaked. 22. Stop wasting your time with that computer game _____ study for your exam. 23. Marilyn wants to give up eating fast food _____ she is overweight. 24. Sharon wants to look well and be healthy _____ does exercises every morning. 25. I think we have to sell the company _____ the bad economic conditions. Finished my homework yet.

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