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Sinha, K, C. Transportation The Engineering Handbook. Ed. Richard C.

Dorf Boca Raton: CRC Press LLC, 2000

1998 by CRC PRESS LLC

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This aerial view of the Eurotunnel is located near Folkestone in England. The Eurotunnel, also called the

1998 by CRC PRESS LLC

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1998 by CRC PRESS LLC

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Channel Tunnel, stretches from the UK under the English Channel to Calais, France. The overall tunnel length is 31.35 miles (50.45 km); 24 miles (38 km) are under the sea. The tunnel lies an average of 148 ft (45 m) below the seabed, with a maximum depth of 246 ft (75 m) below the seabed. The tunnel carries four types of traffic. At full capacity a shuttle carries 800 passengers, 120 cars, and 12 coaches (which could be replaced by an additional 60 cars). Up to 28 heavy-goods vehicles (HGVs) with a gross weight of 44 tonnes can be carried in a freight shuttle. At peak times, trains thunder along the tunnel every three minutes at up to 100 mph (160 km/h). Thousands of vehicles and tens of thousands of people pass through the tunnel every day. The tunnel is in operation 24 hours a day, seven days a week, 52 weeks a year in virtually all types of weather. See pages 852 and 853 for additional information on the Eurotunnel. (Copyright Eurotunnel 1994. Photo by QA Photos, Hythe. Used with permission.)

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Transportation
Kumares C. Sinha

Purdue University

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Transportation Planning

M. D. Meyer J. Leonard II and M. D. Meyer

Basic Framework of Transportation Planning Transportation Modeling

Design of Transportation Facilities

Components of the Project Development Process Basic Concepts of Project Design Intermodal Transportation Terminals or Transfer Facilities Advanced Technology Projects

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Operations and Environmental Impacts

P. W. Shuldiner and K. B. Black

Fundamental Equations Flow, Speed, and Density Relationships Traffic Measurements Level of Service (LOS) Highway Capacity Intersection Capacity Traffic Control Devices Stop Sign Warrants Traffic Signal Warrants Air Quality Effects

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Transportation Systems

P. Schonfeld

Transportation System Components Evaluation Measures Air Transportation Railroad Transportation Highway Transportation Water Transportation Public Transportation

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Safety Analysis

T. B. Khalil

Mathematical Models Summary

AS TRANSPORTATION IS CONCERNED with the movement of people and goods, it has a far-ranging impact on society. It plays a vital role in a country's economy. In the U.S. transportation makes up about 20% of GDP. Transportation engineering cuts through a broad array of disciplines to deal with planning design, construction, maintenance, and operation of various transportation modes. While it has drawn strong contributions from civil, mechanical, and electrical engineering, social, political, and management sciences are also becoming important areas in influencing the transportation engineering field. With the immense growth of the transportation sector in the 20th century, the environmental aspects are fast becoming the limiting constraint for transportation systems. This section presents an overview of transportation engineering with emphasis on planning, facility design, operations and environmental impacts, characteristics of various transport modes, and safety. Transportation planning is concerned with meeting system demand in the most cost-effective manner. Through transportation planning, the formulation of optimal transportation policies can be achieved. The design of transportation facilities implements transportation policies, particularly in the supply side of transportation infrastructure development. Facility design must consider the traditional engineering aspects of design, such as geotechnical, structural, and geometric design as well as legal, environmental, and land use concerns. Once completed, operational aspects of transportation facilities must be continually monitored to provide for the safest and most efficient means of travel without causing environmental degradation. The

1998 by CRC PRESS LLC

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1998 by CRC PRESS LLC

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fundamental principles of highway traffic flow are presented, the understanding of which is essential to guide, advise, and regulate vehicle operators. The aspect of highway safety is emphasized from an impact-crashworthiness point of view in a separate chapter. Because transportation of people and goods uses various modes, another chapter presents a discussion of different subsystems. Modern-day challenges to the transportation system exist in the form of increasing system efficiency to minimize adverse environmental effects and to maintain economic viability. To meet such challenges, the synthesis of traditional modes of transportation with emerging technologies is required. Alternative forms of energy (e.g., electric vehicles) and support mechanisms (e.g., magnetic levitation) can provide meaningful solutions. This section presents the key elements involved in the planning, design, and operation of a safe and efficient transportation system. The text applies basic laws of engineering to illustrate transportation-related concepts in a manner understandable to a wide range of readers.