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• • • • • • Colonial / Zamindari System Food-deficient Share-cropping, landless / marginal farmers Land Reforms Monsoon-dependent Green Revolution - Wheat: 800% increase during 1950-90 - Rice: 350% increase during 1950-90
Triumphant Institute of Management Education Pvt. Ltd.
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We are the…
• Largest producer of Tea, Black Pepper, Cashewnuts, Pulses, Jute, and milk. • Second largest producer of fruits, vegetables sugarcane and sugar in the world. • Fourth largest producer of Eggs • Largest population of buffaloes in the world • Largest exporter of Rice
1 • • • • Declining % contribution to GDP High % of dependent population Small land holding Share-cropping.Indian Agriculture Key Issues. . TIME . . Ltd.. . . landless / marginal farmers Triumphant Institute of Management Education Pvt.
Indian Agriculture Contribution to GDP 1995 25% 47% 2005 20% 54% 26% 28% Agriculture Manufacturing Services Agriculture Manufacturing Services Shrinking Pie of Agriculture .
Population Dependence 1995 23% 2005 28% 15% 62% 60% 12% Agriculture Manufacturing Services Agriculture Manufacturing Services Marginal Reduction in dependence on Agriculture due to migration of labour to urban areas .
1 (15) Average land holding: 1.9 (24) .Distribution of Land Holdings % of Total Land Holdings & Net Cultivated Area • • • • • Marginal (<1 ha) Small (1-2 ha) Semi-medium ( 2-4 ha ) Medium ( 4-10 ha ) Large ( > 10 ha ) .06 ha 41% of the cultivated area is under share-cropping.4 (24) . Source: NSSO Low Economies of Scale .70 (22) .16 (15) .
Jute. Coarse cereals Multi-cropping / Inter-cropping Crop rotation . Sunflower. Cotton. Maize. Pulses. Sugarcane. Groundnut.Indian Agriculture Crops • • • • • Foodgrains: Slow growth ( 190-210 MT ) Rabi: Wheat. Rice Kharif: Rice. Rapeseed.
Indian Agriculture Low growth in Foodgrains Production 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 94-95 97-98 '00-01 in Mln MT '03-04 '05-06 .
Indian Agriculture Land Productivity Land productivity or yield / hectare is much lower than other countries ( 2800 kg / ha ) ● Small land holding – low scale economies ● Poor knowledge of farmer ● Lack of irrigation ● Lack of finance / credit availability ● Disparity amongst states .
Rhizobium & Azatobacter etc.. Source: www.micro-nutrients: low usage of Zinc. .pnbkrishi..bio-fertilizers. Magnesium • Use of Organic Resources . e.crop residue.2 • Lack of soil testing / enriching • Nutrient Deficiency ( low fertilizer usage / ha ) • Unscientific use of fertilizers . .Issues in Indian Agriculture Land Productivity.g.com .macro-nutrients imbalance ( 4:2:1::N:P:K ) .compost.
very acid soils 49% of the soil is deficient Deficient in parts of Bihar. west Bengal . high in 17 districts Deficiencies encountered in 100 districts Kerala. other southern and northeastern states. high in 18 districts Low in 170 districts. medium in 118. Karnataka. high in 17 districts Low in 47 districts. medium in 192. medium in 184.Issues in Indian Agriculture Nutrient Deficiency Nutrient Nitrogen Phosphoprus Potassium Sulphur Magnesium Zinc Boron Soil fertility status Low in 228 districts.
poor farmers Taxing revenue vs. profit Loopholes in current system Income from non-foodgrain agriculture .Issues in Indian Agriculture Tax on Agricultural Income • • • • • Income-tax on Agricultural income Rich vs.
Indian Agriculture Issues in Indian Agriculture • Low knowledge / ability to get good prices post-harvesting • Lack of holding capabilities / storage space for the produce • Power of unscrupulous middlemen • Partial employment of farmers • Droughts & Floods .
Electricity. Seeds etc. NPAs in agri loans Antiquated laws ( APMC act ) . RRBs. MSP. Diesel. Micro-finance organisations Credit – how to reach it to farmers in time? Subsidies: FertiIizers.Indian Agriculture Commercial Issues • • • • • • • • • Pricing of food-grains & other agri-produce PDS & role it pays MSP – Do we need it? Can India export food-grains / agri-products? Credit organisations: NABARD.
Indian Agriculture Technical Issues • • • • • • • Hybrids vs.eutrophication Bio-degradable pesticides . cross-breeds Cloning GM Crops Nutrition & Diseases Farm Mechanisation Chemical vs. bio-fertlizers .
Alphonso Mangoes etc. Darjeeling Tea. • Leverage unique strengths of Indian Produce: Spices. Organic farming..1 • Micro-credit ( Bangladesh Grameen Bank ) • Co-operatives: AMUL etc. specialty crops .Indian Agriculture Possible Solutions.. • Agri-processing for value addition / reduce perishability • Cold chain to extend shelf life • Superior Marketing / branding of agri-brands: Basmati.
Indian Agriculture Possible Solutions. fishery .Cottage sector units • IT initiatives: e-chaupal • River-linking / canal systems: Improved irrigation coverage • Bio-degradable pesticides .2 • Supplementary income to farmer ..Animal Husbandry: dairy. poultry.
Snow-capped peas. Mushrooms.Indian Agriculture Possible Solutions. low cycle-time seeds • Floriculture • Exotic Crops for export: Zucchini. • Govt. Initiatives: Kisan Credit Cards.. Farm Insurance – are they serving the purpose? • GM Crops ( BT Cotton )? . pest-resistant.3 • High-yielding. Vanilla etc.
000 villages covered by 2006 .IT Initiatives ITC’s e-chaupal • • • • • Eliminating middlemen Fair prices Prompt payment Better information 31.
HP -Jagdish Chander ( TOI Delhi – 16th Jan 07 ) • Tarun Bharat Sangh – Rajendra Singh – water management through small check dams • Chauka Model of check dams – Laxman Singh ( TOI Delhi – 18th Jan 07 ) .com ) Gyandoot Project.gyandoot. Dhar ( www.Other Initiatives Other initiatives • • • • EID Parry initiative ( www.indiagriline.net ) Ralegaon Siddhi – Anna Hazare Churah Valley Flowers Co-operative.
Sugar + molasses-based units Gasohol Vegetables Fruits Jute / Cotton .Indian Agriculture Agro-processing Industry • • • • • • • • Cane vs.Textiles Oilseeds / Oil Refining Oils for Industrial Applications Bio-diesel .
Yellow & Blue Revolutions Dairy Industry Poultry Fisheries / Aquaculture Sericulture Meat processing Cottage Industry in villages .Rural India: Non-agri Opportunities • • • • • • • Green. White.
Healthcare • • • • Unemployment / Partial employment Low Literacy Poverty Strong caste barriers .Roads .Drinking Water .Sanitation .Rural India: Issues • Infrastructure .Power .
AMUL Anna Hazare . big dams Erosion of Green Cover – De-forestation NREP NGOs like SEWA .Ralegaon Siddhi Baba Amte & Lepers’ Anandvan Rajendra Singh – Tarun Bharat Sangh Ramon Magsaysay Awards Small dams vs.Important Persons / Issues • • • • • • • • • • • Sundarlal Bahuguna / Chandi Prasad Bhatt – Chipko Medha Patkar – Narmada Bachao Andolan Dr V Kurien / Amrita Patel .
com ● www.in ) ● www.org ) GOI Ministries .com ● www.nic.org ● www.org ● www.indiaagronet.com ) ● Dairy Industry ( www.rmaf.nic.ph • • .fao.in ) .echaupal.nafed-india.farmsubsidy.com ● www.nic.in ) ● NAFED ( www.com ) ● FCI ( www.grameen-info.Key Organisations / Websites FAO ( www.Agriculture & C-operation ( www.agricoop.fciweb.nabard.apeda.Rural Development ( www.indiandairy.org.com ● www.rural.
Poultry Industry Tuesday. which yield 5. Poultry industry has made great progress after Independence. September 28. 2004. September 27 • With annual output of 37 billion eggs and 1000 million broilers.0 per cent and is now a Rs 65 billion mega industry providing employment to 1.5-2. The Tribune. The poultry sector accounts for about 2 per cent of the GDP of India and about 10 per cent of total GNP attributable to livestock. while the output of crops is going up at the rate of 1. It has grown rapidly at the rate of 4-6 per cent in layers and 8-10 per cent in broilers in the past two decades. Chandigarh Future of poultry in India bright : PAU scientists Tribune News Service Ludhiana.75 lakh tonnes of poultry meat.6 million people. India is the fourth highest producer of eggs and eighth highest producer of broilers in the world. • .
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