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Int J Adv Manuf Technol (1996) 12:37-46 1996 Springer-Verlag London Limited

l~e International Journal of

Advanced manufacturing Technology

An Integrated Monitoring and Diagnostic System for Roller Bearings


Hsin-Hao Huang* and H.P.- Ben Wang*
*Department of Industrial Engineering, National Yun-Lin Polytechnic Institute, Yun-Lin, Taiwan; and *Department of Industrial Engineering, Florida A&M University/Florida State University College of Engineering, Tallahassee, USA.

This paper discusses a machine fault diagnostic system which integrates three techniques: 1. An autoregressive model, which compresses digitised vibration signals and preserves the information carried in the original signal. 2. A supervised artificial neural network for fault classification. 3. A fuzzy logic-based "hypothesis and test" program, which, when the artificial neural network fails to provide any suggestion, is able to provide the human diagnostician with some initial "educated" guesses of machine conditions. This integrated machine diagnostic system was developed on a 486 personal computer. Throughout the course of this development, the program has been tested with three types of vibration signal: 1. Vibration signals created using bearing physical models. 2. Vibration signals collected from two laboratory experiments using accelerometers. 3. Vibration signals collected from real production machine tools. In this article, the authors discuss the underlying theory of those three techniques. Experimental apparatus is introduced. Performance statistics are provided. For those conditions it was designed and developed to diagnose, the program demonstrated remarkably dependable performance.

Keywords: Artificial neural Network; Autoregressive; Fuzzy logic; Machine monitoring

1.

Introduction

Nowadays, manufacturing companies are making every effort to reduce costs and improve quality in order to maintain their competitiveness in the global marketplaces. It is recognised

Correspondence and offprint requests to: Professor H.-P. Ben Wang, Department of Industrial Engineering, Florida A & M University, The Florida State University, Talllahassee, FL 32316, USA.

that true cost savings and profitability can be achieved by higher equipment availability, reliability, and maintainability. In order to reach this goal, it is necessary to implement an effective equipment maintenance program. This is why equipment maintenance was ranked as one of the top study priorities for the US manufacturing companies in a panel discussion at National Study Council [1]. The most important and expensive task in terms of labour time and cost in equipment maintenance is fault diagnostics, i.e. troubleshooting. Without accurate identification of machine fault, maintenance and production scheduling cannot be effectively planned; the necessary repair task cannot be carried out in time. In addition, accurate fault diagnosis is essential for reducing troubleshooting and repair time; both are important parts of the production cycle. As a result of correct and rapid fault diagnosis, equipment maintainability and availability may be improved significantly, leading to a much shorter production cycle. Over the last two decades, most of the fault diagnostic tasks have been performed off-line by using signal processing techniques, such as vibration analysis and parametric modelling [2-4]. However, these signal processing techniques are extremely complex, and require a highly trained, experienced human diagnostician in order to make an accurate diagnosis. To overcome the need for a human operator, many new technologies have been proposed, such as expert systems, fuzzy sets, pattern recognition, and artificial neural networks [5-8]. Although these technologies have been very effective in solving fault diagnostic problems, they still have some limitations, such as long execution time for expert systems and no explanation capability for neural networks [9]. Therefore, maintenance technicians and engineers face a bigger challenge than before when deciding the best available technique to use. Therefore, an approach that integrates a number of new technologies for machine fault diagnostics is used in this study. This integrated approach takes advantage of the strengths of each technology in order to increase the reliability and robustness of the diagnostic system. The specific objective of this study is to develop and implement a cost-effective machine fault diagnostic system which is able to accomplish the following tasks successfully:

38

H.-H. Huang and H.-P. Wang


FPE(.p) = 6~p\ N - (p + 1)]

Detect and identify correctly machine faults, in particular, bearing-related faults. Perform on-line monitoring and diagnostics. Accumulate diagnostic knowledge. Perform deep reasoning for complex machine conditions. The system has three major components, an autoregressive model, a fault diagnostic neural network, and a fuzzy logic-based hypothesis/test procedure. The development and implementation of these components are discussed in the following sections.

(2) (3)

AIC(p) = N l n ( @2) + p In(N)

where N is the number of data samples, p is the A R order, and d"2 is the estimated linear prediction error variance at order p. Once the A R order is determined, it is fixed and then the A R model can be fitted to the sensory data.

eg = ~ ( +
where 1

0b)

N-1

2. Autoregressive (AR) Model


One of the most widely used parametric methods is autoregressive (AR) modelling. The interest stems from two reasons. First, an A R spectrum can give a high resolution spectrum with easily recognisable peaks. Secondly, estimates of A R parameters can be obtained as solutions to a linear equation. In the work of Huang and Wang [10], an A R model is found to be a reliable technique for on-line signal processing. Hence, an A R model is used to process the sensory signals in this study. The mathematical form of an A R model is given in Fig. 1. X, = ~tX~-I + ~2 X,-2 + ..- + cbvXt-p + E, where Xt = time series dPl = the A R parameters P = the order of A R model, E~ = residuals with NID (0, o~e). The order of the A R model is to be determined with an approach described in Lin and Wang [11]. It selects the order with the highest final prediction error (FPE) and Akaike information criterion (AIC) level. The equations of FPE and AIC are given by the following: 1000 100 10 1 (1)

E of= N - p ,,=p Xn+ k~_=la.~Xn-k


~b -1

N--l-p p 2 E Xn -l- k~=lakXn+k N - p n=o =

In this study, an autoregressive ( A R ) modelling technique is used to process the sensory signals. The benefit of using this parametric model for signal processing is that it can dramatically reduce the amount of data and still preserve the important characteristics of the original signal. As a result of data reduction, the diagnosis and training times of a neural network are greatly reduced, as shown in Fig. 1 where a modified A R T M A P neural network is tested on a 486 PC. The training time increases by a factor of ten and the diagnosis time increases about six times when the number of input nodes increases from 200 to 2400. Normally, with a fast Fourier transformation procedure, the number of input data to the neural network is around 1200-2400. However, the number of input data is in the range of 20-30 with the A R parametric modelling approach. Furthermore, data reduction is very critical, especially when multiple sensors are used in a real-time situation since the amount of data involved is vastly increased. Therefore, a significant time reduction may be obtained when the parametric modelling technique is used to process the data.

3. Fault Diagnostic Network


The objective of using a fault diagnostic network (FDN) is to provide rapid and accurate diagnosis of machine faults. In our previous work, we have compared a multilayer feedforward network trained with back propagation, simulated annealing, and tabu search, with a modified A R T M A P neural network [12]. Among those different neural network paradigms investigated, the modified A R T M A P network was shown to be most efficient and robust. In addition, the modified A R T M A P network has the unique property of incremental learning. Unlike other popular neural networks, such as back propagation, the network does not have to be re-trained after each new pattern is discovered. Therefore, the modified A R T M A P neural network is adopted as the underlying model of the fault diagnostic network.

.1 .01 .001
I I I

--8

Training Diagnosis

'

" I

500

1 0 0 0 1500 2000

2500

3000

3500

Number of input data


Fig, 1. Impact of the number of input data on the neural network

performance.

An Integrated Monitoring and Diagnostic System

39

Targe~OutputVector

Map Field

10oo .
l

of the integrated activation signal. The filled circles are the gain control systems which normalise the integrated signals. For example, at the lower level of the F1 layer, vector wi is the integration of an intrafield input vector Ii and the interfield feedback signal, aui, i.e.
wi = Ii + aui

""

(4)

where i is the ith node at the F1 layer and a is a constant. Once the vector w,~is obtained, then it may be normatised to yield xi by the following equation:

Wi
xi = e + Itwl[

(5)

ART 2

where e is a constant close to zero and [lwll denotes the L2 norm of a vector w. The rest of activities in the F1 layer may be calculated according to the following equations:

-I

vi = f(xi) + bf(qi) ui = - Vj

(6) (7) (8) (9)

e + Ilvll e + [[p[[
Pi

InputVector
qi
=

Fig. 2. Modified ARTMAP architecture.


Pi = ui + ~ g(j) Tji

3.1

Modified ARTMAP Network

The A R T M A P neural network is an extension of the adaptive resonance theory (ART) network. A R T M A P autonomously learns to classify arbitrarily ordered vectors into recognition categories based on predictive success. This supervised learning system is built up from a pair of A R T modules and a map field which controls the mapping between two A R T recognition categories [13]. In this study, only one inPut pattern (i.e. A R parameters) was used for the network; a modification to the A R T M A P network was made in order to perform supervised learning. Figure 2 shows the modified A R T M A P architecture, in which, the second A R T module is replaced by a target output. The /:1 layer of the A R T 2 network (see Fig. 3) includes three processing levels which enable the network to separate a signal from noise and enhance the contrast of activation signals. Each level performs two computations: integration of intrafield and interfield inputs to that level and normalisation

where b is a constant, gO) is the activation of the jth F2 node, and T/i is the top-down weight between the jth F2 node and the ith Ft node. The linear signal function f in equation (6) is
f(x) =

{~ i f 0 - - < x < 0 ifx -> 0

(10)

where 0 is a threshold value. Once Fz nodes receive an input signal from F~, the matching score for F2 nodes is then computed according to the following:
=

piB j

(11)

where B e are the bottom-up weights. Then, a n F 2 node with the largest matching score is activated. The activation of F2 is given below:
g(1) =

{~ if thejth F2 node is active otherwise

(12)

qi
bf(q vi

~
au i
~wi

ri

where d is a constant between 0 and 1. At this point, the F2 activation is propagated back to the F1 layer, and the vigilance test is then carried out to determine whether the top-down signal matches the input pattern. The degree of match between an input pattern and the top-down signal is determined by the vector r, where
ui + cp~ ri - e + Llull+ Ilcpll

f(xi: xi

(13)

The vigilance test is done as follows: P 1? e + llr~I> (14)

Ii
Fig. 3. The/71 layer of ART 2 network.

where c is a constant and 0 < p < 1. If the match fails to

40

H.-H. Huang and H.-P. Wang mistake within the classification of data corrupts the entire data batch. In such a situation, one way to correct this mistake would be to retrain all the patterns except the undesired one, which is not very feasible. For these reasons, a unique function has been developed such that the fault diagnostic network is able to purge previously learned patterns. The unlearning function's approach is a more efficient way to clean a data batch; it is able to reset the network weights disregarding the incorrect pattern. Instead of adding a pattern to the network knowledge base, the unlearn procedure removes undesired knowledge that has previously been learned by the network. Once an F2 node passes both vigilance tests, the network weights are adapted according to the following equations: , 1 B~j = (1 - d)X/N Tj*i = 0 toj k = 1 (20) (21) (22)

pass the vigilance test, then a reset is sent to Fz which forces F2 to deactivate the selected/'2 node and search for the next best match. Otherwise, the bottom-up and top-down weights are adapted from the following equations: B~] (t
+

1)

d[p~ - B~] (t)]

(15) (16)

Ti*i (t + 1) = d[pi - T/*I(t)]

where J* is the selected Fz node. Once the ART module is presented with an input vector, it selects an F2 node which passes the vigilance test. Then, the Fz activations are propagated to the map field through the weighted connections between Fz and the map field. The signals received from Fz are calculated by the following equation: X = o] k (17)

At the map field, a second vigilance test is performed to determine the level of match between the predicted output from Fz(X) and the target output pattern (Y). A mismatch between X and Y will trigger a map field reset to the underlying ART module. This occurs whenever the following condition holds:
lIX]l

where N is the number of F1 nodes and d is a constant between 0 and 1.

lIYi--t<

9'

(18)

4.

Hypothesis and Test Procedure

where p' denotes the associative memory vigilance parameter. If the map field reset occurs, the vigilance of the underlying ART module is raised to prevent the system from making repeated errors. At this point, a reset is sent to F2 and forces F2 to find the next best match. This process will continue until the second vigilance test succeeds. Once the second vigilance test is passed, the top-down and bottom-up weights between Fa and F2 are then adapted according to equations (15) and (16), and the weights between F2 and the map field are updated by the following equation: (oj k = Yk (19)

For the bottom-up and top-down weights, the weight adaption process is done iteratively for each training pattern. This is because the normalised input vector, represented by p, is also updated after each update iteration is made. Then, the new vector p in the F1 layer is used for next weight update iteration (see equations (15) and (16)). During the training phase, both input vector (i.e. AR parameters) and target output vector (i.e. fault class) are presented to the network. Then the network starts to learn the association between the input vector and the target output vector according to the procedure described above. During the diagnosis phase, only an input vector is provided to the network. The F2 node which passes the F1 vigilance test represents the output of the network (i.e. predicted fault class).

The primary technique used for machine fault diagnostics is a modified ARTMAP network. As mentioned earlier, a network is first trained with examples so that the network is able to recognise a pattern when it has characteristics similar to one of the examples. However, there are times when a totally new pattern has developed and the network has not experienced such a pattern previously. Under such circumstances, the network will diagnose an unknown pattern. In order to help the human diagnostician to locate the root cause, physical bearing models and fuzzy logic were melded to perform "hypothesis and test" for analysing and pinpointing the unknown fault situations. The physical beating models may be used as a means of providing preliminary training data of common bearing defects for the fault diagnostic network when the machine is brandnew or when no historical sensory data is available. Some theoretical equations for calculating beating defect vibration signal frequencies are listed as follows [14,15]: )~r =N ~ (n)(1 +d ~cos@ (23) (24) (25)

N d for = 1 ~ ( n ) ( 1 - ~ cos@ _ d cosa)

frs=120\d] [ f,, = ~-0 (n) + 2 N Am = ~

(d

oso)]
2

(26) (27) (28)

3.2 Fault Diagnostic Network (FDN) Unlearn Procedure


At times, it is the human operator that causes a fault to appear within a network's training procedure. Any simple

An Integrated Monitoring and Diagnostic System


where N = shaft speed (CPM) n = number of rotating elements d = rolling element diameter D = bearing pitch diameter (to roller centre) = contact angle )it = inner race defect f o r = outer race defect fc = cage defect fr~ = roller spin f m = misalignment )~m = shaft imbalance In addition, physical bearing models can also be used as the basis of hypothesis and test for complex- or multiple-fault conditions. Normally, the fault reasoning process in a complex problem involves uncertainties and ambiguities. The signals collected from accelerometers are usually the interplay between normal and worn machine components mixed with background noises. One of the most effective tools for taking fuzziness into consideration is the fuzzy logic methodology [16]. Therefore, the hypothesis and test mechanism is decided to implement based on the fuzzy logic methodology. Figure 4 illustrates the fuzzy logic-based hypothesis and test procedure. This procedure is invoked when the FDN encounters an unknown signal. It starts with retrieving bearing geometry parameters, as well as the shaft speed, for calculating the corresponding bearing defect frequencies using the above equations. Each defect signal is combined with normal vibration signals to generate a set of fault signatures. These signatures are then fitted by an AR model to create a set of AR parameters. A reference (virtual) pattern for each bearing defect is generated by averaging a set of AR parameters for that defect. The hypothesis and test is then carried out as follows. It first assigns a fuzzy membership function to the parameters for each reference pattern. A linear membership function, as shown below, may be used, where a and b are appropriate ranges of the parameter value.

41

Acquire data

- Bearinggeometry Shaftspeed Normalvibrationsignals

Generate fault signatures i

model

I
Unknown vibrationsignal (AR parameters)

Generate ~ reference patterns I

Fuzzy logic

Display all I identifiable faults with possibility

Fig. 4. Fuzzy logic-based hypothesis and test procedure. two patterns are very similar, and vice versa. The hypothesis and test procedure described above was programmed to list all identifiable possible faults and their similarities are presented to the user for further confirmation.

1.0
~(x)=

(b<x)
(z<x-<b) (29)

(x - a) ~a) 0.0

5.

Results and Discussion

(x - a)

Then, the fuzzy logic unit hypothesises possible defects and tests the hypotheses by comparing the similarity between the reference patterns and the unknown vibration signal. The similarity between pattern Xi and Xj is defined as follows:
P

(Xi,Xf) = 1 - k = l P (~(x,~) + ~(xj~))


k=l

(30)

where p is the number of AR parameters in the pattern and m is a magnifying factor for increasing the distance between sample reference patterns. The value of m is set to 3 after a number of tests. A similarity score close to 1 means that the

In this study, the performance of the FDN is validated by employing three different kinds of sensory data: theoretical bearing signatures, laboratory bearing signatures, and real production machine signatures. In addition, the FDN is designed to provide two suggested fault classifications to the user in every diagnostic session. Before the results are discussed, it is necessary to mention how those neural network parameters were chosen. Note that the parameters of a network determine how sensitive a network is with respect to any change in an input pattern. There is no universal set of parameters which would make a network respond well to a variety of machine settings. Parameters must be determined empirically, i.e. through numerous experimentations. Here, the operator is able to define or adjust parameters until they fit within one category or another, i.e. nominal, misaligned, or otherwise. Again it

42

H.-H. Huang and H.-P. Wang

Table 1. Test results of FDN with theoretical data.

Data 1 2 3 4 5 Note: In O R C Im M

Inner race Train In,O In,O In,O In,O inner race outer race roller spin cage defect imbalance misalignment

Outer race Train O,In O,In O,In O,In

Roller spin Train R,In R,In R,O R,In

Cage defect Train C,In C,In C,In C,In

Imbalance Train Im,M Im,M Im,M Im,M

Misalignment Train M,Im M,Im M,Im M,Im

can only be determined through a series of experimentations and constant refinements. In this work, a, b, c, d, e, 0 and p were set to 5, 5, 0.225, 0.5, 0.000001, 0.1 and 0.7, respectively. Bi: is the bottom-up weight of the network. Its initial value was determined from equation (20). The threshold used in the vigilance tests was p', and was set to 1, because we wished to have an exact match between the A R q 2 output pattern and the target pattern.

5,1 Testing of FDN with Theoretical Vibration Signatures


The theoretical vibration signatures used to test the F D N are generated from bearing physical models. A total of six different bearing faults (inner race, outer race, roller spin, cage defect, misalignment, and imbalance) were used in this study. For each bearing fault, five data sets were generated to train and test the network. Different amplitudes and noise levels were used to simulate real-life data. The theoretical equations for calculating these bearing defect vibration frequencies are listed from equations (23) to (28). Table 1 shows the test results. Data set 1 of each defect was used to train the network while the rest were used to test the network performance. For each test, the F D N was programmed to list two faults, with the first one being the most likely cause. As expected, the F D N was able to correctly and rapidly identify the defect classification in the first guess when it was presented with a vibration signature.

contaminated bearing. Eight sets of vibration signals were collected under each condition. There were a total of 32 data sets. Each time domain signal was parameterised and transformed through an A R PSD (power spectrum density) transformation. Frequency components in each spectrum were compressed to only 13 parameters in each A R model, which means that the F D N dealt with a significantly reduced amount of data; this is extremely beneficial in real-time applications. Table 2 summafises the test results of the F D N on diagnosing 28 laboratory vibration signals. The F D N was trained with the first of the eight data sets for each condition and tested with the other seven data sets. The F D N was able to identify all defect patterns successfully.

Screw Power supplier

486 PC with dataacquisitionboard

Motor
s~l

--

X~" I I
I

~"

5.2 Testing of FDN with Laboratory Vibration Signatures


The FDN was validated within a laboratory using two experimental settings (see Fig. 5). The first setting consisted of a motor, two bearings, two pillow blocks, a drive belt, and a shaft. The second setting consisted of a motor, a shaft, two sleeve bearings, a belt, and two hubs. A n accelerometer is mounted on the bearing supporting block of each settirg. Vibration signals were collected via the accelerometers and the signals were magnified by a power supply unit, as required by a data acquisition board installed in a 486 personal computer. Four bearing conditions were created with the first experiment setting: normal, misaligned bearing, looseness, and

plate "'1~ t

Hub

Sleeve

Accelerometer

Motor

Fig. 5. Experimental settings.

An Integrated Monitoring and Diagnostic System


Table 2. Test results of FDN with laboratory data. Table 3. Test results of FDN with imbalance data.

43

Data 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Normal Train N,M N,M N,M N,M N,M N,M N,M

Contaminated Train C,L C,L C,L C,L C,L C,L C,L

Looseness Train L,C L,C L,C L,C L,C L,C L,C

Misalignment Train M,N M,N M,N M,N M,N M,N M,N

Data N 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Train N,C N,C N,C N,C N,C N,C N,C N,C N,C

S Train S,C S,C S,C C,S S,C S,C S,C S,C S,C

C Train C,S C,S C,S C,S C,S C,S C,S C,S

SC1
Train

SC2 Train SC2,C SC2,C SC2,C SC2,C SC2,C SC2,C SC2,C SC2,C SC2,C

SC3 Train SC3,C SC3,C SC3,C SC3,C SC3,C SC3,C SC3,C SC3,C SC3,C

Note: C L M N

contaminated bearing looseness misalignment normal

SC1 SC2 SC1 SC2 SCISC2 SC1 SC2 SC1 SC2 SC1 SC2 SC1 SC2 SC1 SC2 SC1 SC2

The primary objective of using the second experimental setting was to create different imbalance conditions. It is well known that imbalance is the most common machine fault. Therefore, it was beneficial to test the F D N with different imbalance conditions. Table 3 summarises the test results of the F D N with imbalance data. Five different levels of an imbalanced-hub condition were created by attaching a screw, a piece of clay, or both. Under each condition, 10 signals were collected. Data set 1 of each condition was used to train the F D N to learn the condition. The other nine data sets were then used as test patterns. Example plots of PSD and A R parameters of these imbalance conditions are shown in Fig. 6. All but two tests were passed. In those two failed tests, the faults were identified as the second cause (underlined tests). The letter before the comma indicates the condition chosen first by the computer. The letter after the comma indicates the computer's second guess.

Note: N S C SC1 SC2 SC3

normal imbalance caused by a screw on a hub imbalance caused by a piece of clay on a hub imbalance caused by screw and clay (0 phase angle) imbalance caused by screw and clay (180 phase angle) imbalance caused by screw and clay (90 phase angle)

5.3 Testing of FDN with Production Machine Vibration Signatures


Vibration data was collected from a K & T 7-axis machining centre and was used to train/test the FDN. There were three conditions: normal, imbalance, and electric motor stator defect. Two vibration signals were collected under each condition. Figure 7 shows the PSD and A R parameters plots of these three conditions. Note that there are 30 A R parameters in a data set. The F D N was trained for all three conditions using one vibration signal from each condition. The other signals were used for diagnosis. The result indicates that the F D N was able to correctly identify all conditions.

Fig. 6. PSD and AR parameters plots of imbalance conditions.

44

H.-H. Huang and H.-P. Wang

Fig. 7. PSD and AR parameters plots of production machine data.


5.4 Testing of FDN Unlearn Procedure
3550N0000032 ~tl

In this study, an unlearn procedure was developed to remove memories of undesired knowledge from the FDN. In order to gain insights into how the unlearn procedure works, a sample session of this procedure was performed. In the session, three simple data sets were used to train the network. Each data set consisted of a vector of three data elements as listed below: al: a2: a3: 1 0 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

4.999996 4.999996 0,000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.154701 0.000000 1.154701 0.[Xl0000 0,000000 0.000000 4,999996 4.999996 0.01300000~00~00 1.154701 0,000000 1,154701 0,000(~0 0.000000 0.~)0000 0,000000 0.000000 4.999996 4,999996 1.154701 0.00001301.154701 0.000000 1.000t300 0 . ~ O,O000000.0000CO0.000000 0~000000 1.0000000.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0,000000 0.000000 1,0000000.000000 0.000000 1.00(XD0 1 . ~ 1,000000 1,06(D00 t.C00000 1,000000 1.000IX?01,000000 1.000C00 1.000000

a. Network file before unlearning pattern a2

Each of the categories: a l , a2, and a3 was defined as cat1, cat2, and cat3, respectively. Figure 8 shows the network file of a 3 - 5 - 5 network before and after unlearning pattern cat2. The first row in the n e t w o r k file contains network information, such as number of input nodes, number of F2 nodes, number of map field nodes, vigilance value, number of assigned categories, and index of the last assigned node. Rows 2 to 6 store the category of patterns trained. The remaining portion of the file stores the table of network weights. After pattern cat2 was unlearned, the number of assigned categories and index of the last assigned node were changed from 3 to 2, and from 2 to 1, respectively. In addition, category "cat2" was removed from the network file and the weight table was updated. Figure 9 represents the network training log where training date, time, pattern name and category are recorded. For any unlearned pattern, an "unlearned message" is indicated.

3550.90000021 cad cat3

o.oocoooo.cooooo 4.9999964.9999961.1547010.0000001.15n701o.ooooooL1547010.000000 1.c~o~ooo o.oooooo o,o~oooo.oooo~o o.ooo~oo o,oooooo1,oooooo o.oooooo o.oooooo o.oooooo 1,oooooo1.oooooo1.oooooo1.ooo~ 1.oooooo
1.oooooo 1.o~o0o 1.oooooo 1.oooooo 1.oooooo l.OOOOOOl.eO~oo a.oooooo 1.oooooo 1.ooooo 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 0.000000 1.154701 0.000000 1,154701 0.000000 1.154701 0.0000~

4.999996 4.999996 0.000000 0.000000 1.154701 0.000000 1.154701 0.000000 1.154701 0.000000

Fig. 8. Network file of a 3-5-5 network.


sensory input. Two sensory signals, vibration and sound, were collected from the first experimental setting. In addition to an accelerometer, an acoustic emission transducer was mounted on the bearing housing to collect sound signals. During the training and testing process, both vibration and sound signals were presented to the FDN. In this study, both sensory inputs were treated as equally important, i.e. they were designated as having the same network weights. If the importance between these two sensors is unequal, then this difference may be represented by adjusting the initial bottom-up weight settings. The initial bottom-up weight settings for two different sensory inputs are given in the following equation:

5.5 Testing of FDN with Vibration and Sound Signatures


Utilising multiple sensors can improve diagnostic reliability. The capability of the F D N was further tested with multiple

An Integrated Monitoring and Diagnostic System


5.6 Testing of Hypothesis and Test Procedure
5-24-1993 10:42:51 al catl 5-24-1993 10:43:43 a2 cat2 5-24-1993 10:44:5 a3 cat3 5-24-1993 11:2:19 a2 cat2 *unleamed*

45

Fig. 9. Network training log. (1 + ml)

(1-d)X/(NI+Nz) B =
(1 (1 + mz)

i f i < N1

d)N/(NI + N2)

ifNl <-i<N2

O<-i<NI + Nz
where NI is the dimension of vibration input vector N2 is the dimension of sound input vector ml is the weighting factor of vibration signal me is the weighting factor of sound signal For example, if 70% emphasis is placed on the vibration signal and 30% on the sound signal, then the value of ma and m2 is equal to 0.7 and 0.3, respectively, Four bearing conditions were generated with the first experimental setting: normal, misaligned, looseness, and contaminated. Eight sets of vibration signals and sound signals were collected under each condition. Unsurprisingly, the same result when using vibration data occurred - the F D N was able to make correct identification for all the test patterns. Table 4. Testing of hypothesis and test: single fault patterns. Reference Inner race Test Inner race Outer race Roller spin Cage defect Imbalance Misalignment 0.88 0.81 0.76 0.76 0.75 0.66 0.82 0.93 0.75 0.76 0.77 0.68 0.83 0.81 0.91 0.74 0.75 0.65 Outer race Roller spin

The hypothesis and test procedure described above has been tested with a number of bearing fault patterns. Tables 4 and 5 depict the test results. In Table 4, in the left-hand column are signal patterns generated with the physical patterns of various faults: inner race defect, outer race defect, roller spin, etc. These patterns were used as test patterns to verify that the fuzzy logic similarity estimator was able to recognise the correct pattern. Across the top of the table are the patterns to match. As seen in this table, the hypothesis and test procedure was able to successfully recognise fault patterns; i.e. inner race defect matched with inner race defect (highest similarity index 0.88), outer race defect matched with outer race defect (highest similarity index 0.93), and so on. The hypothesis and test procedure was then tested with signals containing two faults combined: inner race defect and imbalance, roller spin and misaligned bearing, and outer race defect and imbalance. The fuzzy logic similarity estimator was able to make a correct evaluation in two out of three tests as shown in Table 5. The only prediction error was that [inner race defect and imbalance] was recognised as [inner race defect and cage defect]. However, the similarity for imbalance was 0.75, very close to that of the cage defect (0.76). Therefore, the accuracy of the similarity estimator was still acceptable.

Cage defect

Imbalance

Misalignment

0.83 0.80 0.72 0.93 0.86 0.69

0.82 0.76 0.73 0.87 0.89 0.71

0.82 0.70 0.66 0.71 0.71 0.91

Table 5. Testing of hypothesis and test: two-fault patterns.

Reference Inner race Test Inner race + imbalance Roller spin + misalignment Outer race + imbalance 0.80

Outer race

Roller spin

Cage defect

Imbalance

Misalignment

0.67

0.69

0.76

0.75

0.65

0.59

0.65

0.69

0.61

0.61

0.71

0.79

0.81

0.79

0.80

0.82

0.79

46

11.-H. Huang and H.-P. Wang


meters, or adopting an additional neural network to handle this information.

6. Concluding Remarks
In this paper, a machine fault diagnostic system was presented. The primary technique for machine fault diagnosis is a fault diagnostic network (FDN). Several unique features have been added to the FDN, including unlearn and sensor fusion capabilities. In-depth testings have been performed to validate the performance of the FDN. The testing results show that the FDN is able to identify machine faults correctly with theoretical data, laboratory" data, and production machine data. In addition, the use of A R parameters as inputs to the FDN significantly improves the FDN's diagnosis and training performance. A hypothesis and test procedure based on the fuzzy logic methodology and physical bearing models was also developed to enhance the performance of the FDN in analysing and pinpointing unknown fault situations. The performance results indicate that this procedure is able to provide accurate fault diagnosis even for multiple faults conditions. The extensions of this study will include the following:

References
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1. Fuse more sensory information. The current system is only designed to integrate two sensory signals. It is necessary to expand its capability to include more sensory inputs, such as pressure, temperature, and oil, to further improve the reliability of diagnosis. Meanwhile, the effect of setting weighting factors among these different sources of information has to be investigated in order to achieve the best diagnostic results. 2. Enhance system's predictive capability. Although the system developed in this study is able to identify machine faults successfully, it is not yet fully tested to include the identification of different stages of component failure, in addition, to predict the remaining time before it fails. This is very important to an effective maintenance program because if the remaining time is able to be accurately predicted, the maintenance activities may be planned in advance and therefore allow for more effective maintenance management. Therefore, further studies have to be conducted in refining the capability of the diagnostic network and melding of the diagnostic network with simulation models to improve the prediction of component failure stage and time. 3. Diagnose under various speed and load. The developed fault diagnostic system monitors the machine condition at the same speed and without a load situation. It is not able to continuously monitor the machine condition under dynamic operating situations, such as different speed and load. In order to achieve this goal, some features must be added to the current diagnostic system. This will include either expanding the current modified A R T M A P network structure to accept and process machine operating para-