You are on page 1of 24


Semester # 3

Mr. Usama Shanta

Lecture #1:

*English punctuation in use

Mark Hancock
Cambridge University Press

*English Phonetics and Phonology

A Practical course – 2nd edition
Peter Roach
Cambridge University Press

Phonetics is like Mathematics

If you follow the rule,
Everything will be so cool
‫على طؤل‬
Copyright: Mr. Shanta (:P)

Keep in mind, sounds not letters!!

In English alphabet we’ve 5vowels as letter but as sounds we’ve 12 vowels…

Phonetics & Phonology Page 2

Lecture #2:

What do we mean by Phonetics?

Phonetics is the study of all human speech sounds in a given language.

What is a sound?
A sound is a rapid continuous movement that travel either through water or air and they can
be heard when they reach human’s or animal’s ears.

How can we study sounds?

We can study them through knowing a great deal of knowledge about “Articulatory

What do we mean by Articulatory Phonetics?

It is the study of the place where the sound is produced or articulated.

Phonetics & Phonology Page 3

How can we know the exact placement of the sound?
In order to know the exact placement of sound, you need to know the organs of speech.

It’s a tube which begins just above the larynx. It is about 7cm long in women and 8cm
long in men, and its top end is divided into two parts. One part, being the back of the mouth,
and the other, being the beginning of the way through the nasal cavity.

Soft Palate/Velum:
It’s an organ which allows air to pass through nose or through the mouth. Yours is
probably in that position now, but often in speech it’s raised so that air can’t escape through
the nose. The sound produced by Velum will be called Velar.

Phonetics & Phonology Page 4

Lecture #3:

Such a bad day!!!

Phonetics & Phonology Page 5

Lecture #4:
Hard Palate:
It is between alveolar ridge and Soft Palate and known as the roof of the mouth.
Everybody can feel its smooth surface with the tongue. The sound produced by Hard Palate
will be called Palatal.

Alveolar Ridge:
It is between top front teeth and hard palate. You can feel its shape with your tongue.
It surface is really much rougher than it feels, and is covered with little ridges.

It is very important organ and it can be moved into many different places and different
shapes. It is usual to divide the tongue into different parts such as tip, blade, front, back and

The Teeth:
We have upper teeth and lower teeth only at the front of the mouth, immediately
behind the lips.

The Lips:
They are very important in speech. Sounds in which the lips are in contact with each
other are called bilabial while those with lip-to-teeth contact are called labio-dental.

The Vocal Cords:

It is the part of sound that produces the voice, also known as voice box.

Phonetics & Phonology Page 6

The Larynx:
A space like a box near the top of the throat. It contains the vocal cords that produce
the voice.
Lecture #5:
What do we mean by consonants? / What is a consonant Sound?
It is a speech sound i.e. made by completely or partly stopping the air flow being breathed out
through the mouth. Consonants in English can be divided into 6 categories:
Glides (Slip)

What are the principles of analyzing and producing a consonant sound?

1. The state of the vocal Cords.

a. When the vocal cords are apart and there is no vibration, the sound is

b. When the vocal cords are together and there is a vibration, the sound is voiced.

2. The Place of Articulation

Phonetics & Phonology Page 7
((The Place where the sound is produced))

3. The manner of articulation

((How the sound is produced))
Lecture #6:
What do we mean by Plosives? / What is a plosive Sound?
It’s a speech sound that involves contact between two organs of speech completely blocking
the air flow for a while and then releasing it with an explosion.

/p/ voiceless bilabial plosive

/b/ voiced bilabial plosive

Position of /p/ & /b/:

/p/ initially: park, party, pan, and pen
/p/ mid position: apple, open, spring
/p/ finally: Tape, help, jump

/b/ initially: buy, bird, bed, and bell

/b/ mid position: rubber, about, able
/b/ finally: job, web, and globe

Speech Mechanism of /p/ & /b/:

1. Lips closed ((stop air)).

2. Move open lips ((release air)).

Tongue Twisters of /p/ & /b/:

/p/: Pat Put purple paint in the pool.

Phonetics & Phonology Page 8

/b/: Bernie brought a big breakfast back to bed.

/t/ voiceless alveolar plosive

/d/ voiced alveolar plosive

Position of /t/ & /d/:

/t/ initially: Talk, tiger, time, teacher
/t/ mid position: better, until, hated
/t/ finally: night, fight, right, might

/d/ initially: desk, dear, dad, down

/d/ mid position: address, advice, sudden
/d/ finally: third, mad, mind, food, rude

Speech Mechanism of /t/ & /d/:

1. Tongue touches alveolar ridge ((Stop air))

2. Move tongue away from alveolar ridge ((release air))

Tongue Twisters of /t/ & /d/:

/t/: Betty bought a bit of butter
/d/: David’s daughter didn’t dance but David’s dad did.

Phonetics & Phonology Page 9

:Lecture # 7
/k/ voiceless velar plosive
/g/ voiced velar plosive

Position of /k/ & /g/:

/k/ initially: card, cake, car, key, club
/k/ mid position: school, soccer, taxi
/k/ finally: milk, ache, like

/g/ initially: girl, ghost, grapes, green, and gun

/g/ mid position: bigger, longer, ago, burger, angry, hungry
/g/ finally: leg, egg, dog, log, mug, hug, bug, rug, rug, jogging, league

Speech Mechanism of /k/ & /g/:

1. The back of the tongue touches the lower side of the velum ((stop air))
2. Move your tongue away from the velum ((release air))

Tongue Twisters of /k/ & /g/:

/k/: The king cooked the carrots and the queen cut the cake.
/g/: My Grandma gave guests eggs and frog’s leg.

Phonetics & Phonology Page 10

What do you mean by Fricative sound?
A fricative sound is a speech sound that is articulated with accompanying friction, caused by
2organs of speech coming into close contact but allowing a restricted passage of air to pass
/f/ voiceless labio-dental fricative
/v/ voiced labio-dental fricative

Position of /f/ & /v/:

/f/ initially: father, frank, fox, fake, phone, fish, fight
/f/ mid position: offer, selfish, gift
/f/ finally: knife, wife, thief, laugh, enough, half, leaf

/v/ initially: visa, vote, voice, van, and volcano

/v/ mid position: river, wives, loved, never, ever
/v/ finally: love, wave, have, twelve, five, cave

Speech Mechanism of /f/ & /v/:

1. Top teeth on bottom lip ((push air through the gap))

Tongue Twisters of /f/ & /v/:

/f/: Frank found four frogs laughing on the floor
/v/: Vera drove to Venice in a van.

Phonetics & Phonology Page 11


Phonetics & Phonology Page 12

:Lecture #8
/θ/ voiceless inter-dental fricative
/ð/ voiced inter-dental fricative

Position of /θ/ & /ð/:

/θ/ initially: Thank, three, thieve, thumb, thought
/θ/ mid position: Healthy, birthday, Maths
/θ/ finally: Earth, length, north, south, mouth, warmth, breath, depth, fifth

/ð/ initially: This, these, that, those, the

/ð/ mid position: Other, mother, father, weather, clothes
/ð/ finally: Breathe, with, sunbathe

Speech Mechanism of /θ/ & /ð/:

1. Tongue between top and bottom teeth ((push air through the gap))

Tongue Twisters of /θ/ & /ð/:

/θ/: Martha is an author and an athlete.
/ð/: My father and mother live together with my other brother.

Phonetics & Phonology Page 13

/s/ voiceless alveolar fricative
/z/ voiced alveolar fricative

Position of /s/ & /z/:

/s/ initially: sad, set, son, soon, sit, smoke, sick, see
/s/ mid position: glasses, concert, lost, host, post, last
/s/ finally: house, mouse, place, boss, face, class, bus

/z/ initially: zero, zoo, zoro, zoom

/z/ mid position: lazy, busy, easy, exact, scissors
/z/ finally: wise, lies, size, times, beds

Speech Mechanism of /s/ & /z/:

1. Tongue near tooth ridge ((push air through the gap))

Tongue Twisters of /s/ & /z/:

/s/: It’s six or seven years since Sydney’s sister sang that song.
/z/: Zebras in zoos are like dolphins in pools.

Phonetics & Phonology Page 14

/ / voiceless palatal fricative
/З/ voiced palatal fricative

Position of / / & /З/:

/ / initially: shop, shirt, shoes, short, sugar, share
/ / mid position: fashion, nation, ocean, action, fiction
/ / finally: wish, fish, push, English, smash, vanish

/З/ initially: ǿ initial

/З / mid & final position: vision, decision, supervision, television

Speech Mechanism of / / & /З/:

1. End of covered back behind tooth ridge ((push air through the gap))

Tongue Twisters of / / & /З/:

/ /: Sharon shouldn’t wash her shoes in the shower.
/З/: ---

Phonetics & Phonology Page 15

/h/ voiceless glottal fricative

Position of /h/:
/h/ initially: hot, hand, house, hello, hotel, hat
/h/ mid position: perhaps, ahead, behave, behind
/h/ finally: ǿ final position

Phonetics & Phonology Page 16

:Lecture #9
What do you mean by the term Affricates?
It’s a speech sound that starts as plosive continues to be a fricative.

/ts/ voiceless palate alveolar affricate

/d3/ voiced palate alveolar affricate

Position of /ts/ & /dЗ/:

/ts/ initially: choose, cheese, chair, chalk, check, chicken, chamber

/ts/ mid position: kitchen, future, question, teacher
/ts/ finally: rich, witch, which, march, torch

/d3/ initially: juice, July, June, job, Japan, jug

/d3/ mid: danger, agenda, object
/d3/ finally: edge, age, page, village, cage

Speech Mechanism of /ts/ & /d3/:

1. Tongue touches tooth ridges ((stop air))

2. Tongue moves behind tooth ridge ((release air))

Tongue Twisters of /ts/ & /d3/:

/ts/: which child puts chalk on the teacher’s chair?
/d3/: ginger spilt orange juice on George’s jacket

Phonetics & Phonology Page 17

What are Nasals?
A Nasal sound is a speech sound whose production involves the use of the nasal cavity. ((All
nasals are voiced))

/m/ voiced bilabial nasal

Position of /m/

/m/ initially: man, mad, mat, mouse

/m/ mid: smoke, jump, harmed
/m/ finally: comb, film, come, mum

Speech mechanism of /m/

1. Stop the gap with the lips so air goes through nose

Tongue twister for /m/

My mum made me move my models

/n/ voiced bilabial nasal

Phonetics & Phonology Page 18

Position of /n/

/n/ initially: nose, nest, net, no, noise, not, know, niece, neck
/n/ mid: snow, snooze, dinner, winner, manner, sound, wound, ground, found
/n/ finally: listen, lesson, open, pen, women, men, gone, gun, won, fun

Speech mechanism of /n/

1. Stop the gap with tongue and tooth ridge so air goes through nose

Tongue twister for /n/

There was no one on the moon the ninth of June

Phonetics & Phonology Page 19

/ŋ/ voiced velar nasal

Position of /ŋ/

/ŋ/ Initially: ǿ final position

/ŋ/ Mid/final: sing, king, wing, singer, think, thing, sink, bang, bank, banks, finger

Speech Mechanism of /ŋ/:

1. Stop air gap with the back of te tongue and top mouth so air goes through nose.

Tongue Twister of /ŋ/:

Young King Kong was stronger than strong.

Phonetics & Phonology Page 20

:Lecture #10

/l/ voiced alveolar liquid

Positions of /l/:

/l/ initially: lord, love, land, liar

/l/ mid: slow, color, caller, help
/l/ finally: fill, will, kill, final, whistle

Speech mechanism of /l/

1. The tongue is raised to the alveolar ridge but the sides of the tongue are down,
permitting the air to escape over the slides of the tongue.

Tongue Twister of /l/:

Clara is really clever but Lilly is a little silly.

Phonetics & Phonology Page 21

/r/ voiced alveolar liquid

Positions of /r/

/r/ initially: right, write, red, rat, ram, rest, real

/r/ mid: carrot, parrot, sorry, dress
/r/ finally: ǿ final position

Speech mechanism of /r/:

1. The tip of the tongue is curled back behind alveolar ridge

Tongue Twister of /r/:

The rabbits raced right around the ring.

Phonetics & Phonology Page 22

What are glides?
They are sounds that are produced with little or no obstruction to the air stream.

/j/ voiced palatal glide

Position of /j/

/j/ initially: yes, used, yellow, yet, university, you

/j/ mid: few, new, view, dew, cure, pure
/j/ finally: ǿ final position

Speech mechanism for /j/

1. The blade of the tongue is raised to the hard palatal

Tongue twister for /j/

We didn’t use Euros in Europe a few years ago

Phonetics & Phonology Page 23

/w/ voiced labio-velar glide

Position of /w/:

/w/ initially: wet, one, win, wind, wink

/w/ mid: language, quick, queen, square
/w/ finally: ǿ final position

Speech mechanism for /w/

1. The back of the tongue is raised to the soft palate ((velum)) and the lips will be

Tongue twister for /w/:

Wendy went away twice a week.

*** Why do we call /j/ and /w/ glides?

We call them glides because the tongue moves quickly to the vowel sounds that follows e.g
word [w3:d], work [w3:k]

Phonetics & Phonology Page 24