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You are on page 1of 36

Course Book

Mechanics of Materials and Finite

Element Method

Lecturer: Assist .Prof.Dr.Basim M. Fadhel

Coordinator:

3

rd

Stage

Petroleum Engineering Department

School Of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering

Engineering Faculty

Koya University

2

Course overview

Mechanics of materials is a basic engineering subject that must be understood

by anyone concerned with the strength and physical performance of structures,

whether those structures are man-made or natural. The subject matter includes

such fundamental concepts as stresses and strains, deformations and

displacements, elasticity and inelasticity, strain energy, and load-carrying

capacity. These concepts underlie the design and analysis of a huge variety of

mechanical and structural systems.

Finite element method (FEM) is a numerical approach by which partial

differential equations can be solved approximately. From an engineering

standpoint, the FEM is a method for solving engineering problems such as

stress analysis, heat transfer, fluid flow and electromagnetics by computer

simulation.

Course objective

It is intended that this course provide the student with a clear and through

presentation of the theory and applications of the principles of mechanics of

materials and finite element method.

Course Reading List and References

1-Mechanics of materials,R.C.Hibbeler

2-A First Course in Finite Elements ,Jacob Fish

3

Lecture Schedules

Weeks

Contents

Mechanics of Materials (1

st

Course)

1

Stress, Introduction, Equilibrium Of Deformable Body ,Stress,

Normal Stress, Shear Stress, Allowable Stress

2 Strain, Deformation, Strain.

3

Mechanical Properties Of Materials, Tension And Compression

Test, The Stress Strain Diagram.

4

Stress Strain Behavior Of Ductile And Brittle Materials,

Hookes Law, Strain Energy, Poissons Ratio. The Shear Stress

Strain Diagram.

5

Axial Load, Saint-Venants Principle, Elastic Deformation Of An

Axially Loaded Member, Principle Of Superposition.

6

Thermal Stress, Stress Concentration, Inelastic Axial

Deformation, Residual Stresses.

7

Torsion,Torsional Deformation Of A Circular Shaft,Torsion

Formula,Power Transmission .Angle Of Twist

8 Stress Concentration, Inelastic Torsion,Residual Stress

9

Bending, Shear And Moment Diagram, Flexure

Formula,Composite Beams,

10

Combined Loading, Thin Walled Pressure Vessels, State Of

Stress Caused By Combined Loading

11

Plane-Stress Transformation, Principal Stress ,Mohrs Circle-

Plane Stress

12

Buckling Of Columns, Critical Load Ideal Column With Pin

Supports.

13

Columns Having Various Types Of Supports, Secant Formula

,Inelastic Buckling

14

Energy Method, External Work And Strain Energy, Conservation

Of Energy

15 Impact Loading, Principle Of Virtual Work

FEM( 2

nd

Course)

16

Introduction,\basic concepts, why FEM, applications of FEM in

Eng.,FEM in Structural analysis, Objective of This course.

17

Review of matrix algebra, spring Element ,one spring

element,spring system,

18,19

Bar and beam element (linear static analysis, bar element

,stiffness matrix ,direct method,formal approach

20,21

Distributed load, bar element in 2D and 3D,stiffness matrix in the

2D space

22,23 Beam element, direct method ,formal approach,3D beam element

24 FE analysis of frame structure,

25,26

2D Problems,plane 2D problems,stress-strain

temp.relations,strain and displacement relations,boundary

conditions

27,28

FE for 2D problems,general formula for the stiffness matrix,linear

strain triangle ,linear quadrilateral element,quadratic quadrilateral

element.

29

Equation solving,gauss elimination ,iterative method, nature of

FE solutions

4

Exams:

There will be two exams (each at the end of first and second semester) and one final.

General instructions and commandments:

1-Not eligible for the student to enter the lecture after the professor.

2-The student is responsible for any oral or written notes that mention

inside the lecture hall.

3- It is not allowed to the student to borrow a pen or calculator or

anything during the exam.

4-It is not allowed to re-exam, just by an official excuse.

5

Topic No: 1

A

P

A

F

ave

A

=

A

A

=

A

o o

0

lim

6

The corresponding average shear stress is,

A

P

=

ave

t

7

Topic No: 2

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS

Stress-strain diagram for a typical structural steel in tension

8

Hookes Law

Topic No: 3

Axial Load

strain normal

stress

= =

= =

L

A

P

o

c

o

L

A

P

A

P

o

c

o

=

= =

2

2

L L

A

P

o o

c

o

= =

=

2

2

9

A temperature change results in a change in

length or thermal strain. There is no stress

associated with the thermal strain unless the

elongation is restrained by the supports.

=

i i i

i i

E A

L P

o

11

Treat the additional support as

redundant and apply the principle of

superposition.

- The thermal deformation and the

deformation from the redundant

support must be compatible

( )

coef. expansion thermal =

= A =

o

o o o

AE

PL

L T

P T

0 = + =

P T

o o o

( )

( )

( ) T E

A

P

T AE P

AE

PL

L T

A = =

A =

= + A

o o

o

o 0

11

Topic No: 4

Torsion

Torsion of a screwdriver due to a torque T applied to the handle

Torsional Deformation Of A Circular Shaft,Torsion

Where T =torque

=angular velocity

12

Topic No: 5

Bending

13

14

Topic No: 6

Combined Loading, Thin Walled Pressure Vessels, State Of Stress Caused

By Combined Loading

15

Topic No: 7

Plane-Stress Transformation, Principal Stress ,Mohrs Circle-Plane Stress

16

17

Topic No: 8

Buckling of Columns

Critical Load

The transition between the stable and unstable conditions occurs at a special value of the

axial force known as the critical load (denoted by the symbol Pcr).

18

19

Topic No: 9

Energy Method

21

Where U

c

is the external work and U

i

is the internal work

Impact loading

The max. force

21

22

2

nd

Course

FINITE ELEMENT METHOD

23

Topic No: 1

Introduction

The finite element method (FEM), or finite element analysis (FEA), is based on the idea of

building a complicated object with simple blocks, or, dividing a complicated object into

small and manageable pieces. Application of this simple idea can be found everywhere in

everyday life as well as in engineering.

Why Finite Element Method?

- Design analysis: hand calculations, experiments, and computer simulations

- FEM/FEA is the most widely applied computer simulation method in engineering

- Closely integrated with CAD/CAM applications

Applications of FEM in Engineering

- Mechanical/Aerospace/Civil/Automobile Engineering

- Structure analysis (static/dynamic, linear/nonlinear)

- Thermal/fluid flows

- Electromagnetics

- Geomechanics

- Biomechanics

FEM in Structural Analysis

Procedures:

- Divide structure into pieces (elements with nodes) - Describe the behavior of the

physical quantities on each element

- Connect (assemble) the elements at the nodes to form an approximate system of

equations for the whole structure

- Solve the system of equations involving unknown quantities at the nodes (e.g.,

displacements)

- Calculate desired quantities (e.g., strains and stresses) at selected elements

Objectives of This FEM Course

- Understand the fundamental ideas of the FEM

- Know the behavior and usage of each type of elements covered in this

course

- Be able to prepare a suitable FE model for given problems

24

- Can interpret and evaluate the quality of the results (know the physics of the

problems)

- Be aware of the limitations of the FEM (dont misuse the FEM - a numerical

tool)

Topic No: 2

Review of matrix algebra; spring Element, one spring element,

spring system

25

Types of Finite Elements

III. Spring Element

26

Everything important is simple.

One Spring Element

Topic No: 2

Bar and Beam Elements.

Linear Static Analysis

Bar Element

Stiffness Matrix --- Direct Method

27

Stiffness Matrix --- A Formal Approach

Topic No: 3

Distributed load, bar element in 2D and 3D, stiffness

matrix in the 2D space

28

Distributed Load

29

Topic No: 4

Beam element, direct method, formal approach, 3D beam

element

Beam Element

31

Direct Method

Using the results from elementary beam theory to compute each column of the stiffness

matrix.

Formal Approach

Apply the formula,

Stiffness matrix of a general 2-D beam element,

31

Topic No: 4

FE analysis of frame structure

Members in a frame are considered to be rigidly connected. Both forces and

moments can be transmitted through their joints. We need the general beam

element (combinations of bar and simple beam elements) to model frames.

Two-Dimensional Problems

32

Topic No: 4

FE for 2D problems

A General Formula for the Stiffness Matrix

33

Constant Strain Triangle (CST or T3)

This is the simplest 2-D element, which is also called

linear triangular element.

Applying formula (13), we obtain the element stiffness matrix for the

CST element,

Example

34

35

36

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