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Course Book


Mechanics of Materials and Finite
Element Method



Lecturer: Assist .Prof.Dr.Basim M. Fadhel

Coordinator:



3
rd
Stage
Petroleum Engineering Department
School Of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering
Engineering Faculty
Koya University



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Course overview
Mechanics of materials is a basic engineering subject that must be understood
by anyone concerned with the strength and physical performance of structures,
whether those structures are man-made or natural. The subject matter includes
such fundamental concepts as stresses and strains, deformations and
displacements, elasticity and inelasticity, strain energy, and load-carrying
capacity. These concepts underlie the design and analysis of a huge variety of
mechanical and structural systems.
Finite element method (FEM) is a numerical approach by which partial
differential equations can be solved approximately. From an engineering
standpoint, the FEM is a method for solving engineering problems such as
stress analysis, heat transfer, fluid flow and electromagnetics by computer
simulation.




Course objective


It is intended that this course provide the student with a clear and through
presentation of the theory and applications of the principles of mechanics of
materials and finite element method.





Course Reading List and References

1-Mechanics of materials,R.C.Hibbeler
2-A First Course in Finite Elements ,Jacob Fish




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Lecture Schedules
Weeks
Contents

Mechanics of Materials (1
st
Course)
1
Stress, Introduction, Equilibrium Of Deformable Body ,Stress,
Normal Stress, Shear Stress, Allowable Stress
2 Strain, Deformation, Strain.
3
Mechanical Properties Of Materials, Tension And Compression
Test, The Stress Strain Diagram.
4
Stress Strain Behavior Of Ductile And Brittle Materials,
Hookes Law, Strain Energy, Poissons Ratio. The Shear Stress
Strain Diagram.
5
Axial Load, Saint-Venants Principle, Elastic Deformation Of An
Axially Loaded Member, Principle Of Superposition.
6
Thermal Stress, Stress Concentration, Inelastic Axial
Deformation, Residual Stresses.
7
Torsion,Torsional Deformation Of A Circular Shaft,Torsion
Formula,Power Transmission .Angle Of Twist
8 Stress Concentration, Inelastic Torsion,Residual Stress
9
Bending, Shear And Moment Diagram, Flexure
Formula,Composite Beams,
10
Combined Loading, Thin Walled Pressure Vessels, State Of
Stress Caused By Combined Loading
11
Plane-Stress Transformation, Principal Stress ,Mohrs Circle-
Plane Stress
12
Buckling Of Columns, Critical Load Ideal Column With Pin
Supports.
13
Columns Having Various Types Of Supports, Secant Formula
,Inelastic Buckling
14
Energy Method, External Work And Strain Energy, Conservation
Of Energy
15 Impact Loading, Principle Of Virtual Work

FEM( 2
nd
Course)
16
Introduction,\basic concepts, why FEM, applications of FEM in
Eng.,FEM in Structural analysis, Objective of This course.
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Review of matrix algebra, spring Element ,one spring
element,spring system,
18,19
Bar and beam element (linear static analysis, bar element
,stiffness matrix ,direct method,formal approach
20,21
Distributed load, bar element in 2D and 3D,stiffness matrix in the
2D space
22,23 Beam element, direct method ,formal approach,3D beam element
24 FE analysis of frame structure,
25,26
2D Problems,plane 2D problems,stress-strain
temp.relations,strain and displacement relations,boundary
conditions
27,28
FE for 2D problems,general formula for the stiffness matrix,linear
strain triangle ,linear quadrilateral element,quadratic quadrilateral
element.
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Equation solving,gauss elimination ,iterative method, nature of
FE solutions







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Exams:
There will be two exams (each at the end of first and second semester) and one final.


General instructions and commandments:

1-Not eligible for the student to enter the lecture after the professor.
2-The student is responsible for any oral or written notes that mention
inside the lecture hall.
3- It is not allowed to the student to borrow a pen or calculator or
anything during the exam.
4-It is not allowed to re-exam, just by an official excuse.

























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Topic No: 1











A
P
A
F
ave
A
=
A
A
=
A
o o
0
lim
6





The corresponding average shear stress is,






A
P
=
ave
t
7



Topic No: 2

MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF MATERIALS







Stress-strain diagram for a typical structural steel in tension
8


Hookes Law



Topic No: 3

Axial Load














strain normal
stress
= =
= =
L
A
P
o
c
o
L
A
P
A
P
o
c
o
=
= =
2
2
L L
A
P
o o
c
o
= =
=
2
2
9












A temperature change results in a change in
length or thermal strain. There is no stress
associated with the thermal strain unless the
elongation is restrained by the supports.

=
i i i
i i
E A
L P
o
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Treat the additional support as
redundant and apply the principle of
superposition.

- The thermal deformation and the
deformation from the redundant
support must be compatible



















( )
coef. expansion thermal =
= A =
o
o o o
AE
PL
L T
P T
0 = + =
P T
o o o
( )
( )
( ) T E
A
P
T AE P
AE
PL
L T
A = =
A =
= + A
o o
o
o 0
11

Topic No: 4
Torsion

Torsion of a screwdriver due to a torque T applied to the handle

Torsional Deformation Of A Circular Shaft,Torsion







Where T =torque
=angular velocity



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Topic No: 5
Bending




13











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Topic No: 6

Combined Loading, Thin Walled Pressure Vessels, State Of Stress Caused
By Combined Loading







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Topic No: 7
Plane-Stress Transformation, Principal Stress ,Mohrs Circle-Plane Stress



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Topic No: 8

Buckling of Columns


Critical Load
The transition between the stable and unstable conditions occurs at a special value of the
axial force known as the critical load (denoted by the symbol Pcr).
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Topic No: 9
Energy Method





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Where U
c
is the external work and U
i
is the internal work


Impact loading


The max. force






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2
nd
Course
FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
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Topic No: 1
Introduction
The finite element method (FEM), or finite element analysis (FEA), is based on the idea of
building a complicated object with simple blocks, or, dividing a complicated object into
small and manageable pieces. Application of this simple idea can be found everywhere in
everyday life as well as in engineering.

Why Finite Element Method?
- Design analysis: hand calculations, experiments, and computer simulations
- FEM/FEA is the most widely applied computer simulation method in engineering
- Closely integrated with CAD/CAM applications

Applications of FEM in Engineering
- Mechanical/Aerospace/Civil/Automobile Engineering
- Structure analysis (static/dynamic, linear/nonlinear)
- Thermal/fluid flows
- Electromagnetics
- Geomechanics
- Biomechanics

FEM in Structural Analysis
Procedures:
- Divide structure into pieces (elements with nodes) - Describe the behavior of the
physical quantities on each element
- Connect (assemble) the elements at the nodes to form an approximate system of
equations for the whole structure
- Solve the system of equations involving unknown quantities at the nodes (e.g.,
displacements)
- Calculate desired quantities (e.g., strains and stresses) at selected elements








Objectives of This FEM Course
- Understand the fundamental ideas of the FEM
- Know the behavior and usage of each type of elements covered in this
course
- Be able to prepare a suitable FE model for given problems
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- Can interpret and evaluate the quality of the results (know the physics of the
problems)
- Be aware of the limitations of the FEM (dont misuse the FEM - a numerical
tool)


Topic No: 2
Review of matrix algebra; spring Element, one spring element,
spring system


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Types of Finite Elements



III. Spring Element
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Everything important is simple.
One Spring Element


Topic No: 2

Bar and Beam Elements.
Linear Static Analysis
Bar Element

Stiffness Matrix --- Direct Method

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Stiffness Matrix --- A Formal Approach












Topic No: 3
Distributed load, bar element in 2D and 3D, stiffness
matrix in the 2D space

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Distributed Load






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Topic No: 4
Beam element, direct method, formal approach, 3D beam
element

Beam Element
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Direct Method
Using the results from elementary beam theory to compute each column of the stiffness
matrix.


Formal Approach
Apply the formula,





Stiffness matrix of a general 2-D beam element,

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Topic No: 4
FE analysis of frame structure

Members in a frame are considered to be rigidly connected. Both forces and
moments can be transmitted through their joints. We need the general beam
element (combinations of bar and simple beam elements) to model frames.

Two-Dimensional Problems





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Topic No: 4
FE for 2D problems
A General Formula for the Stiffness Matrix
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Constant Strain Triangle (CST or T3)
This is the simplest 2-D element, which is also called
linear triangular element.


Applying formula (13), we obtain the element stiffness matrix for the
CST element,





Example
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