Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 500 (2003) 84–95

CHICSi—a compact ultra-high vacuum compatible detector system for nuclear reaction experiments at storage rings. I. General structure, mechanics and UHV compatibility
! L. Westerberga, V. Avdeichikovb, L. Carlenb, P. Golubevb, B. Jakobssonb,*, c a,d C. Rouki , A. Siwek , E.J. van Veldhuizenc, H.J. Whitlowb
The Svedberg Laboratory, Box 533, Uppsala SE-751 21, Sweden Deptartment of Physics, Lund University, Box 118, Lund SE-221 00, Sweden c Deptartment of Radiation Sciences, Box 535, Uppsala SE-751 21, Sweden d ! Henryk Niewodniczanski Institute of Nuclear Physics, Cracow PL-31-342, Poland
b a

CHIC Collaboration Received 12 August 2002; received in revised form 19 November 2002; accepted 2 January 2003

Abstract CELSIUS Heavy-Ion Collision Silicon detector system (CHICSi) is a large solid angle, barrel-shaped detector system, housing up to 600 detector telescopes arranged in rotational symmetry around the beam axis. CHICSi measures charged particles and fragments from nuclear reactions. It operates at internal targets of storage rings. In order to optimize space and momentum-space coverage and minimize the low-energy detection limits, CHICSi is designed for use in ultra-high vacuum (UHV, B10À8 Pa) inside a cluster-jet target chamber. This calls for materials in mechanical support, detectors, Very Large Scale Integrated (VLSI) electronics, connectors, cables and other signal transport devices with very low outgassing. Two auxiliary detector systems, which will operate in coincidence with CHICSi, a heavy-recoil, time-of-flight system (HR-TOF) also placed inside the target chamber and a projectile fragmentation wall (PF-WALL) located outside the chamber, have also been constructed. In total, this combined system registers more than 80% of all charged particles and fragments from typical heavy-ion reactions at energies of a few hundreds of MeV per nucleon. r 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.
PACS: 29.40.Wk; 25.70.Pq Keywords: Multi-detector system; Thin silicon detectors; GSO scintillators; Large solid angle; Ultra-high vacuum compatibility

1. Introduction Data on the disintegration in nucleus–nucleus collisions, collected in event-by-event mode, give unique information about formation and decay of

*Corresponding author. Tel.: +46-46-222-7708. E-mail address: bo.jakobsson@kosufy.lu.se (B. Jakobsson).

0168-9002/03/$ - see front matter r 2003 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved. doi:10.1016/S0168-9002(03)00301-2

1 15. could be developed for external mounting.6 128.L. In order to fulfil its mission.3 T. two auxiliary detector systems are under construction.0 466. comprised of some 2000 detector elements. protons are accelerated up to 1. Electronics for detector readout had to be designed in very large scale integration (VLSI) mode in order to reduce both size and cost [6].0 51.8 152. Since these requirements are very difficult to meet by detector systems placed outside the target chamber.7 85.6 95. Among the few sensors that could fulfil our requirements we chose a combination of ion implanted Si detectors and Gd2SiO5 (GSO) scintillating crystals [5] read out by photodiodes (PD).1 466. can be reached after a proposed upgrade of the maximum field strength of the bending magnets to 1. Therefore. light and intermediate mass fragments with high efficiency. the distance to the collision point (r) and the solid angle (O) for each ring with 28 telescopes. has also been developed [6]. pressure. Therefore. The Celsius Heavy-Ion Collision Silicon detector system (CHICSi) [1–3] is constructed with these viewpoints in mind. they cannot register the slowest.5 70.0 26.0 253. recoiling fragments and the projectile-like fragments.2 565.8 698. 1. Westerberg et al. Even 2 higher energies. starting with the digitalization of analogue spectroscopic signals. allows for configurations up to 600 telescopes.7 119.3 391.1 44. It may also be important to compare the disintegration in heavy-ion collisions and proton–nucleus collisions. The present set-up contains 18 azimuthal rings with a total of 504 telescopes.5 84. distance to collision point (r) and solid angle (O) coverage of the detector rings Ring 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Total Y (deg) 13.36 GeV and heavy ions.0 308.5 18.8 565.7 231. since no compression is expected in the latter case. the CHICSi detector must have as large coverage in space as the internal target system allows and in momentum-space as the detector techniques allow. with charge/mass ratio 1. we chose to construct the CHICSi detector essentially as an internal system.95 GeV and 720A MeV. Table 1 presents the emission angle (Y).2 37. like density. Sweden. Thereby it is important that as many as possible of the fragments and particles from each reaction are identified by charge (Z) and mass (A) number and that their momentum vectors (p) are measured.9 r (mm) 301.2 31.0 5828. based on VME/Lynx technique.8 166.7 110. Only the last part of the electronics in the readout chain.4 69.8 60.4 22. the internal heavyrecoil. emitted in a narrow forward cone in heavy-ion reactions.3 110. If time-dependent statistical parameters.4 63. Presently.1 308.4 60.6 77.0 . At present.9 214.3 99.9 43.3 70.0 698. At least three more rings can be added in the backward direction if it is found to be valuable later on. CHICSi is installed at the CELSIUS storage ring at The Svedberg Laboratory (TSL) in Uppsala. respectively. This internal detector system. entropy.6 110. temperature. up to 470A MeV [4].3 231. can be determined. etc. the telescopes are designed for proton and heavy-ion-induced reactions up to the maximum CELSIUS energies. thereby introducing the requirement that all details must be UHV compatible. / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 500 (2003) 84–95 85 highly excited nuclear matter. The granularity must be high enough to register all products in collisions with up to 100 charged particles with a multi-hit probability on the level of a few percent. A dedicated data acquisition system.2 391.3 84.3 63.0 142.7 180. important information about the nuclear equation of state may be obtained.2 119. However.1 O (msr) 30.1 95.4 77.8 80.9 129. The telescopes register all charged particles. This comparison is particularly valuable if the initial system can be created with the same nucleon number and excitation energy. time-of-flight system (HR-TOF) system based on time-of-flight measurements by micro- Table 1 Emission angle position (Y).2 136.

Brief descriptions of these auxiliary detector systems are given in Section 4. as compared to normal. Thus. Electron cooling. which provides very high beam energy precision (DE=EB10À4 ). These rectangular ports of size 377 mm  246 mm. Such excitation function experiments have been performed with fairly simple detector systems earlier [9–11]. 2. but both neutron detectors and p detectors could also well be introduced as external complements to CHICSi. Ne. It is possible to read out the time in the beam cycle simultaneously with the event trigger in the detector system. The internal diameter of the scattering chamber is 660 mm. N.5 mm  349.2) and in particular the precautions taken to allow operation in UHV. He. The CELSIUS storage ring. In such experiments CHICSi will serve as a general event-characterizing device. Large cryopumps are used to reduce the escape of target gas into other parts of the storage ring vacuum system [4] where a normal level of the vacuum is B10À8 Pa. Most experiments use fixed energy beams but it is also possible to accelerate the beam up to predefined start energy and then ramp the magnets slowly up to maximum beam energy. containing CHICSi. provides two experimental stations where one is equipped with a cluster-jet target for proton– nucleus and heavy-ion experiments. General structure of the complete detector system The complete detector system. which has a small aperture to the scattering chamber. placed outside the window. which are detected in the PF-WALL. A 0. In the cluster-jet target. There are four side ports in the form of rectangular Conflat-like flanges of a new construction. The target beam is dumped into a cryopump.78c and thus ion energies up to 550A MeV. This can be compared to the bake-out temperature of the detector systems. has been developed to provide a comprehensive characterization of nuclear reaction events in a wide dynamic range. Neutral particles are not registered by CHICSi. The storage ring environment Storage rings offer a quite different environment for nuclear reaction experiments. a gas flow of H. Ar. We discuss in Part I of this article the general structure of CHICSi and its auxiliary systems (Section 4. 1. The duration of the beam cycle in these experiments is 1–15 min. D. HR-TOF and PF-WALL detectors. CH4. In the scattering chamber the target gas collides with the circulating ion beam of the storage ring. The CHICSi and HR-TOF detector systems are installed through the two largest ports using a rail system. 349. A photo of this chamber as well as a detailed photo of the CHICSi installation flange is shown in Fig.86 L. These collisions have charged . which has been used earlier in experiments at CELSIUS [9–11]. / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 500 (2003) 84–95 channel plate (MCP) technique [7] and the external projectile fragmentation wall (PF-WALL) system. The scattering chamber A UHV compatible scattering chamber for CHICSi experiments at CELSIUS has been produced. which uses 2 mm thick copper gaskets. Kr or Xe is injected at supersonic speed through a system of differentially pumped chambers. 4. 3.5 mm and twice 380 mm  500 mm provide easy access for installing the detector systems. fixed target facilities. The achieved target thickness is e. the beam energy can be defined for each event with a resolution better than 1A MeV. Another example of a useful complementary system is the range telescope array for charged pions. with a circumference of 82 m. The chamber has been electro-polished and afterwards baked in situ to 300 C. O. This minimizes the energy loss for projectile-like fragments. B1  10À13 atoms/cm2 for argon.2. can be achieved for beam velocities up to 0. depending on the lifetime of the beam and therefore on the beam–target combination.8 mm thick semi-spherical Al window on a 550 mm internal diameter flange is installed in the forward direction. based on phoswich detectors [8]. which is limited to 150 C. Westerberg et al.g.

L. Westerberg et al. to avoid double-hits and still to limit the number of telescopes. had to be made. A detailed photo of the CHICSi installation flange (lower). The dimension of the flange in the lower photo and the right flange in the upper photo is 380 mm  500 mm. 1. The layout contains by necessity compromises. . A photo of the UHV scattering chamber for CHICSi experiments seen from the HR-TOF installation side (upper). / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 500 (2003) 84–95 87 Fig. particle multiplicities between two and one hundred. In particular a compromise between the wish to cover the largest possible solid angle.

Each such board. 2. The effective target volume is typically DxÂDyÂDz ¼ 3Â3Â11 mm3 for a cooled CELSIUS beam (z denotes the direction of the CELSIUS beam). It should be stressed that whenever a HR-TOF module is shadowed by CHICSi telescopes in the median plane. Fig. The GMBs are mounted in a barrelshaped configuration around the cluster-jet target. A 71 precision in the direction of the telescopes has been . is shown in Fig. All CHICSi detectors in the median plane are shown here. and the PF-WALL detector in front of it. The telescope system contains 18 concentric rings in which each telescope represents the same (laboratory) emission angle for the nuclear reaction. Fig. The CHICSi support structure also serves as a passive cooler and temperature stabilizer to minimize detector signal variations and electronics drift in general.1. / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 500 (2003) 84–95 Fig. All detectors must be shielded against electromagnetic pickup and delta electrons and therefore a metal box is introduced [12]. which increases the non-active volume of the CHICSi telescopes somewhat. Also the passage of the cluster-jet requires the dismount of four telescopes.and cryopump vibrations is minimized. This point falls on the axis of the cylindrical telescope set-up. All individual detectors are facing the point where the target jet beam is crossing the storage ring beam. 4. 3 shows a photo of the cogwheel-like support on which the GMBs are mounted. 4 shows this configuration in a computer image. The CHICSi detector CHICSi consists. The beam is entering from the left and the cluster-jet target beam from above at the elliptic crossing point. The telescopes have to be mounted on a support structure in such a way that the damage from turbo.88 L. called GrandMother Board (GMB) houses 18 detector telescope modules. although in reality CHICSi detectors shading recoil detectors are removed. in its present configuration. Layout of CHICSi and its subsystems in the median plane of the cluster-jet scattering chamber. Westerberg et al. of 28 boards for serial readout [6]. This support is a fixed part of the installation flange and thus CHICSi is installed into the target chamber as one single unit. these latter telescopes can be removed individually. The total layout of the CHICSi+HR-TOF system inside the cluster-jet scattering chamber. 2.

performed in the framework of quantum molecular dynamics (QMD). including GMB holders. The MB is connected to the GMB. / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 500 (2003) 84–95 89 Fig. The total geometrical coverage of CHICSi is 1:9p sr but the efficiency for covering the total charged particle yield is substantially higher due to the forward oriented kinematics of the particle emission. The telescopes are mounted by chip-on-board technique on to motherboards (MB) machined in ceramics (alumina). [12]. we found that the efficiency of CHICSi is B70%. In fact all spectra of the various particles and fragments are more or less forward peaked in the laboratory system. therefore helps in keeping the counting rate in each telescope at a reasonably constant level up to 90 . e. Since there were strong arguments for keeping an identical front area of all telescopes it is not possible to avoid a decrease in the counting rate at backward angles. Westerberg et al.g. distance to target and solid angle per telescope are presented in Table 1. achieved in the mechanical construction. 300A MeV Ar+Kr. The increasing solid angle with increasing angle of telescopes. up to Y ¼ 90 (Table 1). Beyond 90 the counting rate decreases both because of decreasing solid angle and decreasing differential cross sections. 3. A complete description of detectors and their properties are found in Part II [12] of the series of CHICSi articles. Each telescope module contains the following detector elements: a 10–14 mm thick (DE) and a 300 mm thick (E or DE) silicon detector followed by either a 300 mm (veto or active) silicon detector in the large angle telescopes (LAT) or by a 6 mm GSO (Ce doped Gd2SiO5 crystal) scintillator read out by a PD in the forward angle telescopes (FAT). Position. A photograph of the support structure. In fact the smearing in the angle due to finite target volume is slightly larger than 71 . The full length of the cog-wheel support is 460 mm. for positions around Y ¼ 90 . etc. In a simulation of a typical reaction that CHICSi is supposed to register.L. which also contains printed and surface mounted electronics elements for chip protection circuits. These circuits are processed on a . the total efficiency is 80% for registering charged particles and fragments. If also the PF-WALL and the HR-TOF systems are included.

The cables end with 50-pin DSUB type connectors. Two detector modules are removed on top and bottom for passage of the target beam. The cables connect two adjacent GMBs and are strung over or under CHICSi to the feedthrough flange. A computer image of half the CHICSi detector. which are mounted on the main CHICSi installation flange. at the cluster-jet scattering chamber (Fig. glass-fibre laminate (FR-4. The length of the GMB is 450 mm. which can safely slide with high precision into the chamber. for which gold plated contact pins were available commercially. [12]. Westerberg et al. This simplifies the design of the contact between the MB and the GMB. 5 shows how the limitation. First. FR stands for Flame Retardant) of 1. Photos and principle drawings of telescopes can be found in Ref. A rail system. Five UHV feedthroughs are placed on three of the four 150 mm inside diameter. 5) helps to perform the final installation on a transport table. 3). The GMBs are electrically connected to the flange through a mixture of coaxial and single conductor cables. this system is installed in a test chamber for bake-out and pretesting of signals with the use of pulse generators and radioactive sources.5 mm thick stainless steel bands on the support skeleton (see Fig. verti- . / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 500 (2003) 84–95 Fig.0 mm thickness. The GMBs are mounted on 0. The combination of stainless steel and laminate is quite stable and allows that the support of the detector elements is made through holes in the alumina MB. rectangular installation flange under clean-room conditions. These cables are of (commercially available) Kapton insulated type. Conflat flanges. Since standard PEEK (PolyEther EthetKetone) vacuum-side contacts could not be used due to excessive outgassing we prepared special contacts in Macort. Fig. The complete CHICSi system is thus mounted on the large.90 L. which is made as a clip that slides into a milled structure in the GMB and which is finally secured by a screw. 4.

Each of the eleven HR-TOF detectors consists of a start and a stop. Upper: CHICSi located outside the chamber. A detailed description of the HR-TOF system is given in Ref. 5.2. with area 10 mm  20 mm. 1) while the PF-WALL is mounted in front of the chamber. to measure energy and a second one of the same kind which operates in veto mode. produced with printed circuit technique on a ceramic substrate.L. A vertical plane cut of CHICSi and the scattering chamber. The HR-TOF modules are installed inside the scattering chamber through the main port opposite to the CHICSi port (Fig. cally. . Westerberg et al. 20 mg/cm2 carbon foil. 4. The time signal is derived from the electrons and produced when a charged particle passes through a thin. A UHV compatible high-voltage divider. outside the thin-walled halfsphere window (Fig. time detector followed by one 300 mm p–i–n-diode. 2). / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 500 (2003) 84–95 91 Fig. is set by the distance between the last collimator before injection of the cluster-jet beam and the cryogenic beam dump (255 mm). reduces the number of HV feedthroughs. Auxiliary detector systems Experiments with CHICSi will normally include coincidence measurements with the HR-TOF and PF-WALL auxiliary detector systems for heavy recoils and projectile-like fragments. These electrons are then accelerated up to 1 keV energy by a harp at 5 mm distance from the foil before they enter into an electrostatic mirror that bends them 90 towards the MCP. MCP. [7]. Lower: CHICSi located in the chamber The total (internal) height of the chamber is 456 mm.

like alumina. In CHICSi we therefore use alumina only for detector frames and detector readout boards. in the target area is 10À7–10À8 Pa.e. The PF-WALL system is described in detail in Ref. In order to reach this low pressure during an experiment. which can be lowered further by preheating in air and in situ baking. These tests are all performed in a general-purpose chamber of the UHV test facility at TSL. in the interval 100 A–500A MeV). The measurements were performed typically 1 day after the bake-out cycle (150 C for 24 h) was completed. has very low outgassing but is difficult to machine. plastic range telescopes has already been performed [9–11]. at the lowest beam energy. since it must be able to operate in excitation function experiments (i. Finally. The pressure that can be reached between two injections. By using a combination of normal (integrated) and differentiated photomultiplier output. / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 500 (2003) 84–95 The detection threshold of this system is as low as 35 keV/nucleon for a mass 100 ion [7]. The PF-WALL consists of 96 telescopes. The main outgassing problem is coming from the large-size GMBs and their connections (cables and contacts) to the outside part of the readout system. The in-vacuum electronics exposes a very small area and cause very little outgassing just as the shielding boxes for the telescopes. Since both silicon and GSO detectors have very low outgassing. implying that a pumping speed of 2500 l/s will give a pressure in the low 10À7 Pa range. the main problem is to find insulating materials for detector frames and readout boards (MB and GMB). it is necessary to minimize the outgassing from the vacuum chamber walls and the materials installed in the vacuum chamber. The cluster-jet target beam is therefore switched off during injection and only switched on again when the data taking part of the beam cycle starts.9 to 11. using an IR-lamp as a heat source. The mission of the PF-WALL detector is to identify projectile-like fragments from heavy-ion reactions in very wide dynamical range. 5. Here the lifetime of the beam is the shortest since the cross section for collisions. an experimental program at the CELSIUS storage ring for studying pion production and d/p ratios in proton and heavyion-induced reactions by means of external. a phoswich detector. High temperature ceramics. This uses a turbo pump initially and a 50 l/s ion pump finally and it has several types of pressure gauges and a residual-gas analyser. The telescope modules are of two alternative kinds. In fact. The materials that were tested for CHICSi are first cleaned in an ultrasonic bath and then dried on a clean-bench. It is therefore necessary to select materials with low enough outgassing. Adding more pumps is expensive and does usually not help since the conductance is limited. The results of outgassing tests and the residual gas composition of this material as well as of some others are presented in Tables 2 and 3. full charge identification up to Z ¼ 18 and also mass identification of H and He isotopes and an energy resolution of p8% have been achieved [8]. which are made of stainless steel. For the HR-TOF system there is also a problem with insulators. i. The FWHM of the time peak of alpha particles from 252Cf that can be achieved is B400 ps. .e.g. The requirement is that all materials in the scattering chamber must not give rise to a total outgassing of more than a few times 10À7 W. e.92 L. comprised of a 10 mm fast plastic scintillator glued on to an 80 mm CsI(Tl) scintillating crystal and a DE À E telescope with a 750 mm Si and a 80 mm CsI(Tl) detector. provide fast pump-down after the target is switched off. Westerberg et al. socalled MB [6]. with remaining target gas. is the largest. before and after the target. arranged in four concentric rings that cover an angular range from 3.7 . The cryopumps in the straight sections of the ring. The mass resolution of fragments in the A ¼ 50 region is B3% and the energy resolution is of the order of 2% at 100 A keV [7]. which is very important for the efficiency in registering the recoiling nuclei in all peripheral heavy-ion collisions. it should be mentioned that also other external detector systems can easily be combined with CHICSi. [8]. UHV requirements Storage ring operation requires particularly good overall vacuum in the ring during the injection phase.

are also critical with respect to material choice. was a multi-layer circuit board structure made from alumina. The choice of GMB material is therefore instead a standard material for printed circuit boards.4 Â 10À6 1. Connectors are commercially available in PEEK thermoplastics but this is a hygroscopic material and we found the outgassing rate too high (Table 2).4 Â 10À8 44 44 75 75 150 150 150 200 20 20 20 26 8 Â 10À7 5 Â 10À7 3 Â 10À6 1. This fulfils well the outgassing requirement but it turned out that the necessary 450 Â 46 mm2 size was too large to be manufactured in one piece. the gas load will be 6 Â 10À7 W.0 Â 10À8 3 Â 10À8 2 Â 10À7 1. Kapton insulated cables. The second choice. ( C) Time (h) 19 98 30 36 32 74 475 331 331 331 120 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 150 24 24 24 150 150 150 20 20 20 20 20 24 30 23 77 30 2 Â 10À5 2 Â 10À7 1 Â 10À7 4 Â 10À7 4 Â 10À7 4 Â 10À8 3 Â 10À7 4 Â 10À8 3 Â 10À6 3 Â 10À7 3 Â 10À7 4 Â 10À8 3 Â 10À5 1 Â 10À6 3 Â 10À6 2 Â 10À6 3 Â 10À7 2 Â 10À8 1. . 1. For a pumping speed of 2500 l/s in the target chamber. / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 500 (2003) 84–95 93 Table 2 Results of the outgassing measurements and residual gas analysis of printed circuit board materials and insulators. The materials that are used in CHICSi are presented in more details in the text Material Area Bake-out in air (cm2) Bake-out in vacuum H2 (W/m2) H2O (W/m2) CO (W/m2) Total outgassing rate (W/m2) Temp. a bisphenol epoxy resin with woven reinforcement by glass fibres. In CHICSi we use so far 25 single and 8 coaxial conductors per GMB. including a 50-pin DSUB contact on the vacuum side of the feedthrough.L. one could then reach a pressure of 2. This would have occupied too much space. ( C) Printed circuit board materials Pyralux (2 layers) AP (2 layers) Epoxy-acrylic (2 layers) Epoxy-glass fibre (1 layer) Alumina (14 layer electrical print) Glass reinforced Kaptont FR-4 FR-4 FR-4 FR-4 FR-4 – 6 layers Insulators PEEK Photoveel M-soft shapal Macort Macort (30 min air exposure) Time (h) Temp.2 m2. FR-4. It would therefore have been necessary to produce the GMB in four pieces and interconnect them with multi-pin connectors. Cables and connectors.0 Â 10À9 4 Â 10À9 1 Â 10À7 4 Â 10À8 2 Â 10À6 A first attempt to use Kapton for the GMB did not fulfil the outgassing requirement and furthermore most Kapton structures showed pockets of hidden liquid remnants or air pockets. wired to one 50-pin DSUB feedthrough per two GMBs. single conductor and coaxial cables as well as 15 and 25-conductor band cables are all available commercially and these are acceptable from outgassing point of view.5 Â 10À8 6 Â 10À7 6 Â 10À8 4 Â 10À9 5 Â 10À7 o2 Â 10À10 o1 Â 10À7 1.4 Â 10À7 Pa if no other source contributes.6 Â 10À7 1. Westerberg et al. The outgassing is acceptable (Table 2) and for the total surface from all 6-layer FR-4 GMBs. A second solution would be to use band cables in the form of printed circuits on Kapton or flexible glass-fibre reinforced material.

funding for travels between Lund and Uppsala has been provided by the Swedish Natural Science Research Council. detector system for (multi)hadron-nucleus collision experiments that can be mounted inside a cluster-jet target chamber of a storage ring facility. This is a very powerful instrument to tackle questions around the space–time evolution and break-up properties of the reactions since the combination with ultrathin targets.0 Â 10 6 Â 10À9 3 Â 10À11 À11 4 Â 10 8 Â 10À10 2 Â 10À11 The amount of glue on the GMB has been minimized but it cannot be totally avoided.G.90 Material Weight (g) . When combined with two auxiliary detector systems. slow ramping operation. Conclusions By selecting extremely low outgassing materials and introducing a novel very compact detector telescope design.90 3. In addition. etc. it registers X80% of all fragments and charged particles from intermediate energy heavy-ion reactions.5 1. H2O (W/g) H2 (W/g) Bake-out in vacuum Time (h) 24 24 150 1. Murin and A.94 L. / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 500 (2003) 84–95 Total outgassing (W/g) CO2 (W/g) CO (W/g) 2. Khlopin 90 90 90 90 90 90 Epoxy (EPO-TEK) 377 (non-cond.5 1. ( C) 1.15 2. Westerberg et al. offers a unique opportunity to perform excitation function experiments in an event-by-event mode. Thus it was found necessary to glue VLSI chips and surface mounted components to the GMB by conducting silver-epoxy (EPO-TEK H20E) and to secure the bonds from the chips by very small drops of non-conducting epoxy (EPO-TEK 377).6 Â 10À8 1. 600 telescope module. Guttormsen.5 À10 1.15 1.5 1.2 Â 10À10 À11 Acknowledgements The CHICSi project has been funded by the Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation. Yu. Non-conducting as well as conducting glues were tested and results from residual-gas analysis are displayed in Table 3.5 1. at storage rings.5 1.) 377 H20E (conductive) H20E H27D (conductive) H27D 1.3 Â 10 4 Â 10À8 4 Â 10À11 150 150 24 Table 3 Results of outgassing measurements and residual gas analysis of epoxies Time (h) Temp.16 2.8 Â 0 1.4 Â 10À11 6 Â 10 À12 1. CH4 (W/g) À12 1. Oskarsson for valuable contributions in the early phase of the CHICSi project.1 Â 10À7 3 Â 10À8 6. We wish particularly to thank M.4 Â 10À7 4 Â 10À10 6 Â 10À8 7 Â 10À10 1. for which we are deeply grateful. the HR-TOF detector and the PF-WALL detector. ( C) Bake-out in air Temp. The support from the V. it has been possible to construct a flexible.16 3. The total amount of glue is small enough to give negligible gas load compared to the load from the board and insulator materials.

Nucl. Kuznetsov. The technical assistance in the design and testing of the mechanical systems by L. et al. p. et al. .. Avdeichikov. T. and Meth. A 452 (2000) 525. Rev. Rev. Phys. submitted for publication. Fokin. [4] A. has been outstanding. A proposal for a Multi-Detector DEÀE Particle Telescope.. and Meth. St. Skwirczy" nska. Johnson and E. om.V. The cooperation with P. Nucl. C 62 (2000) 014610. Nucl. [5] V. 19. Nucl. Carl! n. P. [8] A. Lett. Phys. M( rtensson. I. Nucl. A. Instr... Golubev. et al. et al. Phys. Johansen. and Meth. A 349 (1994) 216.O.). [9] B. a [12] P.).. The CHIC Collaboration.-J. et al. Instr. B. Phys. Westerberg et al. Andersson.. et al. Phys. coordinated by Prof. Lindholm is gratefully acknowledged. [3] B. References [1] M. Jakobsson. and Meth. [2] V. Russia. [6] L. / Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A 500 (2003) 84–95 95 Radium Institute. The Svedberg Laboratory Progress Reports 1987–1991 and 2000–2001. University of Oslo. Guttormsen (Ed. Friden is deeply appreciated. Bystr. A. O. [7] A. [11] J. Staszel. Instr. Siwek. et al. Instr. C 60 (1999) 024601. Jakobsson. Budzanowski. Petersburg. Part III of this article. Lund University e Preprint NP 0301 (2003).. Oleg Lozhkin. Avdeichikov. Wegner in the UHV compatibility tests and all help with installation of the cluster-jet scattering ! chamber by C. Czech. Report UiO/PHYS/93–01. T. [10] A. Part II of this article.. 1993. A 626 (1997) 439c. A 482 (2002) 528. News Int. et al. Rev. Jahnke and A. 9 (2) (1999) 22. The CHICSi Design Group. 78 (1997) 3828. Nucl. Ingemarsson (Ed.L.

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