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8

Real time Face Recognition using Curvelet

Transform and Complete Local Binary Pattern

Sirshendu Arosh, Subhasis Chand and G.N.Rathna

Abstract—In this paper, we propose a novel method of face recognition. The method involves Curvelet Transform, Complete

Local Binary Pattern (CLBP), PCA and SVM. Curvelet transform function is a multi resolution and directional method which is

efficient in representing curve singularities and edges in an image. An image is decomposed into curvelet subbands of three

different resolutions resulting in a total nine output images. Later on, a CLBP applied to extract the descriptive feature sets. A

non-linear uncorrelated feature sets are obtained after applying PCA. The training of the dataset is carried out using SVM to

obtain feature face vectors. The experimental results were tested on the ORL, Faces94 and Grimace databases and found to be

about 98.5%, 99.74% and 99.45% accurate respectively. The real-time implementation is carried out on the PC and Beagle

Board using webcam.

Index Terms—Curvelet transform, Complete Local Binary Pattern, PCA, SVM.

——————————

——————————

1 INTRODUCTION

ACE recognition is very effective identification tech-

nique in public security system, checking or tracking

person in crowd. Studies in Human Visual System

and Image statistics reveals that image representations

should satisfy multi-resolution, localization, critical sam-

pling, directionality and anisotropy. Wavelet transform is

the well known multi-resolution tool with good localiza-

tion and critical sampling quality only. In the next genera-

tion multi-resolution technique, ridgelet, contourlet,

curvelet has proved efficient for directionality and anisot-

ropy also.

Curvelet Transform developed by Candes and Donoho

[1], [2] yields more sparse representation of an image. For

an image, curvelet transform gives three output parame-

ters such as scale parameters, orientation parameters, and

spatial location parameters. Curvelet transform has al-

ready been used for different image processing purposes

such as image denoising, image fusion, image compres-

sion and texture classification. A face recognition problem

using curvelet and PCA is proposed by Mandal and Wu

[3]. It outperforms the eigenfaces technique and wavelet

based PCA. A method combining curvelet and LDA is

proposed in [4] which works well in insufficient data and

gets higher accuracy but suffers problems when the num-

ber of training samples available for each subject is small-

er than the dimentionality of the samples and when face

patterns are subject to large variations in viewpoints or

illumination. An algorithm combining curvelet and SVM

for vehicle recognition was designed in [5]. A numeral

recognition algorithm using curvelet transform was pro-

posed in [6]. In [7], a curvelet based face recognition sys-

tem by fusing results from multiple SVM classifiers

trained with curvelet coefficients from images is pro-

posed. This technique appears to be robust to the changes

in facial expression but efficiency reduces with change in

illiumination and with increase in database size.

The proposed method is effiecient in change of light

condition and real time implenetation is also done on

opencv [8] and is ported on Beagle Board [9] which is a is

a low-power open source hardware single-board comput-

er produced by Texas Instruments in association with

Digi-Key.

In this paper, a novel method of face recognition is

proposed using curvelet transform and complete local

binary pattern (CLBP) [10] which is a generalized local

binary pattern and gives out higher accuracy in texture

classification than the normal LBP. The paper is struc-

tured as follows: Section 2 discusses the curvelet trans-

form. Complete local binary pattern is explained in sec-

tion 3. The general concept of PCA and SVM is given in

the section 4 and 5. In section 6 , the method is explained

with flowchart and the result is discussed in section 7. In

8, conclusion and future work is discussed.

2 CURVELET TRANSFORM

Wavelet Transform works well on piece wise smooth

function in one direction but it can not handle the curve

discontinuities. To overcome this drawback Candes and

Donoho [11] first proposed Ridgelet method for dealing

with line singularities in 2-D. Next Curvelet transform

was proposed which represent the curve singularities and

hyper plane singularities in higher dimension. Curvelet

Transform takes image edges as basic representation ele-

ment and it is anisotropic as it has both variable length

and width. The difference beteween general wavelet and

————————————————

- Mr. Sirshendu Arosh is student of Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore,

India.

- Mr. Subhasis Chand is student of National Institute of Technology, Rourke-

la, Orissa, India.

- Mrs.Dr. G.N. Rathna is Principal Research Scientist of Indian Institute of

Science, Bangalore, India.

F

© 2012 JICT

www.jict.co.uk

9

curvelet has been shown in figure 1. First generation

curvelet transform is ridgelet transform and work on line

Fig. 1. Edge representation by wavelets and curvelets (a) wavelet;

(b) curvelet [21].

discontinuities. Second generation curvelet consists of

four steps Sub-band decomposition, Smooth partitioning,

Renormalization and Ridgelet transform. This new gener-

ation curvelet transform is discrete and processes faster

and less redundant compared to first generation curvelet

transform on digital images.

There are two different implementation of second gen-

eration curvlet transform i.e. curvelet via USFFT (Une-

qually Spaced Fast Fourier Transform) and curvelet via

Wrapping. The differences of these two are on different

spatial grid used to translate curvelet in different scale

and angle. The curvlet Via Wrapping is faster than the

curvelet via USFFT. In this paper, curvelet via Wrapping

is used for implementation.

In wrapping based curvelet transform, a decimated

rectangular grid is aligned with the input image. Curvelet

transform using Wrapping takes a 2-D image as in-

put [ , ] f m n such that 0 , 0 m M n N s s s s and gen-

erates a number of curvelet coefficients indexed by a

scale f , an orientationl , and two spatial location param-

eters

1 2

( , ) k k

as output. Discrete curvelet coefficient can

be defined by

1 2

0

1 2 , , , [ , ]

0

( , , , ) [ , ]

m M

D D

j l k k m n

n N

C j l k k f m n

s s

s s

= u

¿

(1)

where each

1 2

, , , [ , ]

D

j l k k m n

u is a digital curvelet waveform.

This approach implements the effective parabolic scaling

law on the sub-bands in the frequency domain to capture

curved ages within the image more effectively. Wrapping

based curvelet transform is nothing but a multi-scale

transform with a pyramid structure consisting of many

orientations at each scale as shown in figure 2.

Fig. 2. 5-level curvelet digital pyramid structure of an image [21].

Fig. 3. Complete Local Binary Pattern algorithm [10].

Fig. 4. Central pixel and its P circularly and evenly spaced neighbors

with radius R [10].

Fig 5. Support Vector Machine.

10

Fig. 6. Current approach vs. approach in proposed method.

Fig. 7. Face Detection Algorithm.

Fig. 8 . Face Recognition Algorithm: Training.

Fig. 9 . Face Recognition Algorithm : Testing.

The discrete curvelet transform can be implemented by

four steps:

1. 2-D fast Fourier transforms on input image. It is

known as sub-band decomposition.

2. Multiply with a window

j

U for each scale and

angle which is referred as smooth partitioning.

3. A wrapping of this product is done around the

origin for Renormalization.

4. At the end, reverse Fourier transform to get the

curvelet coefficient.

11

3 COMPLETE LOCAL BINARY PATTERN (CLBP)

In order to enhance the information from curvelet trans-

form, Complete Local Binary Pattern (CLBP) is used.

CLBP is a generalized version of LBP which is introduced

by Guo et al [10] and it has proved to be effective on tex-

ture classification.

In CLBP, a local region is represented by center pixel

and the difference between the values with local center

pixel with magnitude that is called as Local difference

signmantude transform (LDSMT). CLBP has three diff-

erent components CLBP-S indicates the sign (positive or

negative) of difference between the center pixel and local

pixel, CLBP-M indicates the magnitude of the difference

between the center pixel and local pixel and CLBP-C

indcates the difference between local pixel value and av-

erage central pixel value. CLBP-S is nothing but normal

LBP. Algorithm is illustrated by figure 3. Mathematically,

1

1, 0

, 0, 0

0

_ ( )2 , ( ) {

P

p x

P R p c x

p

LBP S s g g s x

÷

>

<

=

= ÷ =

¿

(2)

Where

c

g is the gray value of center pixel and

p

g is the

value of its neighbors. P is the total no of involved

neighbors, and R is the radius of the neighborhood. The

illustration is done on the figure 4.

CLBP-M is calculated as same as CLBP-S but it deals

with the difference of the magnitude. Mathematically,

1

1,

, 0,

0

_ ( , )2 , ( , ) {

P

p x c

P R p x c

p

CLBP M t m c t x c

÷

>

<

=

= =

¿

(3)

Where c is the threshold and can be determined

adaptively. The central image pixel also has discriminant

information.Hence it is given by CLBP_C and

mathematically

,

_ ( , )

P R c l

CLBP C t g c = (4)

Where t is defined in equation no. 3 and threshold

l

c

can be calculated as the average gray level of the whole

image. The three operators CLBP_M, CLBP_S, CLBP_C

can be combined in two ways – jointly or hybridly. In the

first way, a 3-D joint histogram can be made .In hybrid

way, 2-D joint histogram CLBP_S/C or CLBP_M/C is

computed first and then it is converted to 1-D histogram

and then it is concatenated CLBP_M or CLBP_S to

generate joint histogram. So by this method, CLBP feature

map is got from Curvelet output images.

4 PCA (PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS)

Principal component analysis (PCA) is a standard tool in

modern data analysis which provides a process to reduce

a complex data set to a lower dimension to reveal the

sometimes hidden, simplified structures. The basic of

principal component analysis is to identify the most use-

ful basis to re express a data set. This basis will filter out

the noise and reveal the hidden structure in the data. Al-

gorithm for calculating PCA is as follows:

1. The mean is computed from the given dataset. The

mean value is subtracted to get zero-mean dataset.

2. Next, Covariance matrix for the database is calculat-

ed.

3. Since the covariance matrix is square, the eigen vec-

tors and eigenvalues are calculated for this matrix.

4. It turns out that, the eigen vector with the highest ei-

genvalue is the principal component of the data set. The

number of component can be decided by choosing the

dimensionality of the dataset.

5. Final PCA output will be the transposed multiplica-

tion of mean adjusted dataset and chosen eigenvectors in

previous step.

5 SUPPORT VECTOR MACHINE (SVM)

A support vector machine (SVM) is a concept in statistics

and machine learning that analyze data and recognize

patterns used for classication and regression analysis. The

standard SVM takes a set of input data and predicts, for

each given input, which of two possible classes forms the

input, making the SVM a non-probabilistic binary linear

classifier.

Suppose some given data points each belong to one of

two classes and the goal are to decide perfect class for a

new data point. A data point is viewed as a p-dimensional

vector, and motivation is to separate such points with a

(p-1)-dimensional hyper plane. This is called linear classi-

fier. There are many hyper planes that might classify the

data.One reasonable choice as the best hyperplane is the

one that represents the largest separation between the two

classes.

Given a finite sample pattern,{( , ), 1, 2,...., }

i i

x y i l = ,

where

n

i

x R e and { 1, 1}

i

y e ÷ + ,which is linearly

separable. Since pattern classes are linearly separable,

there exist

n

w R e andb R e , such that for

1, 2,......, i l =

0

T

i

w x b + > i ¬ Such that 1

i

y = + (5)

0

T

i

w x b + < i ¬ Such that 1

i

y = ÷ (6)

The hyper-plane in

n

R describe in , w b that satisfies the

above equation is called the separating hyper-plane and is

given by 0

T

i

w x b + = . (7)

The above equation can be written as the form follows

[ ] 1

T

i i

y w x b + > , 1, 2,..., i l = . (8)

Since the classes are linearly separable, there exist

infinitely many separating hyper-plane. So the distance

between two hyper-plane is

2

|| || w

. To maximize this

distance margin,

T

w w needs to be minimized. So the

constrained optimization problem can be looked as

min

1

2

T

w w

12

Subject to [ ] 1

T

i i

y w x b + > , 1, 2,..., i l = (9)

Introducing Lagrange multipliers, this problem can now

be solved by standard quadratic programming techniques

and programs to find out the optimized hyper-plane for

two-class problem. The parameters of the maximum-

margin hyperplane are derived by solving the

optimization. There exist several algorithms for quickly

solving the QP (quadratic programming) problem that

arises from SVMs, mostly relying on heuristics for

breaking the problem down into smaller, more-

manageable chunks. One popular approach is to use an

interior point method that uses Newton-like iterations to

find a solution of the Karush–Kuhn–Tucker conditions of

the primal and dual problem. To avoid solving a linear

system involving the large kernel matrix, a low rank

approximation to the matrix is often used in the kernel

trick by this algorithm.

6 PROPOSED REAL-TIME FACE RECOGNITION

METHOD

6.1 Contribution made in this paper

Curvelet transform using PCA is used for Face recogni-

tion in recent methods. Figure 6 illustrates the proposed

method with the existing one. The real time Face Detec-

tion and Recognition algorithm is explained here. The

system is comprised of two sections:

1. Face Detection using Web Cam and frames are

taken from camera. For unknown person who is

not in database, a password protected training

set will be generated. For testing purpose, 5

frames are taken after detection of the face and

saved in training folder.

2. After detection, Face Recognition system

starts.While a person comes in front of camera, if

he is not in the database, a face detected frame is

taken for testing purpose. Then the face recogni-

tion algorithm is used to take out the features.

Then machine learning algorithm is used to clas-

sify the particular face from others.

The whole algorithm is shown in flow-chat in gure 7, 8

and 9.

6.2 Explanation of the algorithm

1. Preprocessing Phase: The face area is extracted and

normalized to 112 *92 pixels after face detection. Input

faces are divided to training faces and testing faces. In the

training stage, a set of known faces (training faces) are

used to create training database or feature set. In the clas-

sication stage, a unknown facial image (testing faces) is

matched against the previous training feature set by

comparing the features. The input images are histogram

equalized.This process ends the preprocessed phase.

2. Curvelet Transform on normalized image: Curvelet

decomposition is done over preprocessed images of size

112*92 with a scale 2 (coarse and fine) and 8 orientations.

Output comes as one approximate coefficient image with

size 75 *61 and eight detailed coeffcients. From these four

are of size 66*123 and rests are of size 149*54. All the

curvelet coefficients are converted to a vector by row.

3. Generating Feature Vector using Complete Local Bi-

nary Pattern: The approximate sub-band obtained from

the curvelet transform is divided into k regions each of

size m*n pixels. From each of these k regions, the CLBP

histogram of 255 labels is calculated.

4. Classification Using PCA and SVM: The row input

patterns from the curvelet sub-bands and the correspond-

ing target patterns are used to train a network until it can

approximate to a function. Here PCA based SVM is used

to train the Neural Network.

7 RESULTS

The Face Recognition System is divided into two phase

(1) Training Phase (2) Testing Phase. Here ORL, Faces94

and Grimace face databases have been used to test the

algorithm. An OpenCV implementation of the whole al-

gorithm is done and for training purpose total 200 images

are used in ORL database. The ORL database comprises

of 40 different persons with 10 different face images each

having different pose and lighting condition, expression

and presence and absence of spectacles and mustache are

taken care of. The following results which are listed

where table 1 contains the results on ORL [12] database

and table 2 contains the results on Faces94 [13] database.

TABLE 1

Comparison of accuracy results for the different algorithms on

ORL Database.

Recognition Method Recognition Rate (%)

Curvefaces[15] 92.6

Waveletface+PCA[16] 94.5

Curveletface+PCA[17] 96.6

Curvelet+LDA[4] 98.0

SGCT+KPCA[18] 97.0

Proposed Method 98.5

TABLE 2

Comparison of accuracy results for the different algorithms on

Faces94 Database.

Recognition Method Recognition Rate (%)

PCA [19] 98.0

Waveletface+PCA[20] 99.26

Curveletface+PCA [17] 99.30

Proposed Method 99.74

The accuracy obtained by testing the proposed algo-

rithm on Grimace face database was 99.45%. During the

testing 5 arbitrary images of each person was taken.

During testing in real time the average recognition

time was recorded to be 0.07 second. This makes the sys-

13

tem more robust. With a good face detection algorithm

this can be implemented for almost all the real time pur-

poses.

8 CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORK

In this paper, a face recognition method is proposed

which uses Curvelet features to enhance the recognition

rate, and decreases the computational cost and time re-

quired for recognition. The technique introduced is robust

to change in facial expression as well as pose variations as

well as lighting conditions which are the main challanges

of the face recognition algorithms till now.It shows good

results for the different standard databases. The whole

detection and recognition system which is described here

is implemented in OpenCV code, real time testing is

made through the PC. With a logitech web cam with

normal light condition, this algorithm is giving good ac-

curacy and it can handle multiple faces at same time and

recognize it in real-time. Future work is suggested to-

wards experimenting different light condition such as if

high intensity light is coming on face or in almost dark

condition or testing noisy images to check the robustness

of the system.

9 REFERENCES

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[8] http://docs.opencv.org/doc/tutorials/tutorials.html

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[13] http://cswww.essex.ac.uk/mv/allfaces/faces94.html

[14] http://cswww.essex.ac.uk/mv/allfaces/grimace.html

[15] J. Zhang, Z. Zhang, W. Huang, Y. Lu, and Y. Wang. “Face

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[18] P. Shi and X. Li. “Face recognition based on second generation

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sis,” Image and Signal Processing (CISP), 2011. Volume 3, pp.

1513-1516. IEEE, 2011.

[19] M. Kirby and L. Sirovich. “Application of the karhunen-loeve

procedure for the characterization of human faces,” Pattern

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pp. 103-108, 1990.

[20] G. Feng, P. Yuen, and D. Dai. “Human face recognisation using

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[21] S. AlZubi, N. Islam, and M. Abbod. “Multiresolution analysis

using wavelet, ridgelet and curvelet transforms for medical im-

age segmentation,” Journal of Biomedical Imaging, 2011:4, 2011.

Mr. Sirshendu Arosh did his B.Tech on HIT(k),Kolkata,India on the

year of 2010.Currently, he has passed his M.E. from Indian Institute

of Science,Bangalore,India on the year 2012.

Mr. Subhasis Chand is currently pursuing his B.Tech from National

Institute of Technology, Rourkela, Orissa, India, in the department of

Electronics & Communication Engineering.

Mrs. Dr. G.N. is Principal Reserch Scientist in Indian Institute of Sci-

ence,Bangalore, India.

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