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Selecting A Distillation Column Control Strategy 1.0 Objectives a) To identify the suitable scheme for the distillation column.

b) To learn about the basic ideas and rules of selecting a distillation column. c) To get stable condition for column operation. d) To regulate conditions in the column so that the product always meet the required specification.

2.0 Introduction

3.0 Discussion The objective of this assignment is to identify the suitable scheme for the distillation column control. It is also to learn about basic ideas and rules of selecting a distillation column. Distillation column control is the most common unit operation in the chemical industry. Mixtures of liquid can often be separated by a process of evaporation and re-condensation; this will concentrate one of them in the end product. The principle on which this process depends is that difference liquid evaporates at difference temperature. This approach to separating mixtures is called distillation. The process began by the feed entering the column about midway up the vertical shell. Its introduced their feet tray and flows down the column. At the bottom a pipe conveys the feed into the reboiler, where it is heated to high temperature. The vapour re-enters and ascends the column; once it exceeds at the top it is cooled by a condenser and flows into the reflux drum. The reflux drum returns some of these materials to the column as reflux while the distillate will be removed. The material flows through this system are methanol and water. The calculation below shows the mixture flows through the column. The external and internal liquid together with the vapour flows is found 32.5kg/hr for both external and internal liquid while the vapour flows is 68.5kg/hr. Based on the calculation below a suitable configuration strategy is chosen. There are 3 types of scheme which is LV configuration, LB configuration and DV configuration for selecting the distillation column. Each of these configurations has its own advantages. The suitable configuration found is LV configuration. The LV configuration follows the scheme 1 process. In this scheme the rule of thumb used is 3 which states that it favoured small reflux ratio. (L/D) < 1 (if L is small in comparison to D then relatively small changes in D will ensure good level control, hence the process gain is large. Based on the results obtained, the L/D ratio is 1.1077 which is approximately 1. Hence, LV is the chosen as the control strategy for the distillation column. LV configuration is almost independent of the level control tuning but for other configuration it is important. It also reduces the disturbances and performs poorly with large dead-times. The LV configuration controls the boiler and the reflux drum while the level flow, L and the vapour flow act as the degree of freedom. Besides that, even after the two level loops have been closed is practically unstable with drifting composition profile. To avoid this drift, one loop should be closed and one loop should be opened. On the other hand, with the LV-conguration (where D is used for top level control), the remaining flow L has a direct effect on the column and the level control

tuning has no (or negligible) effect on the composition response for L. Therefore, it is concluded that the LV configuration is better than the other configuration. XF = 50 % F = 65 kg/hr ; XD = 95% ; XB = 5% ; L = 36 kg/hr Material balance equation: F=D+B FXF = DXD + BXB

= = 0.5 Therefore, D = F (0.5) = 65 kg/hr (0.5) = 32.5 kg/hr

= 0.5
Therefore, B = F (0.5) = 65 kg/hr (0.5) = 32.5 kg/hr Hence, The ratio of L/D is as below:

= 1.1077 D=VL 32.5 kg/hr = V 36 kg/hr V = 68.5 kg/hr

4.0 Conclusion The objective of this assignment is achieved. The bottom distillate, top distillate and vapour flow rate was determined and the suitable control strategy has been identified. Besides, the rule of thumb is well understood and can identify the best control strategy using the rules and the conditions required in the rules of the control. Finally, it is found that the LV-configuration shows the best control strategy to the process above.

5.0 References a) "The Comparison of Disturbance Rejection Properties of One-point Control Schemes for Etbe Reactive Distillation." Taylor and Francis. N.p., n.d. Web. 27 Sept. 2012. <http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00986440211832>. b) The Distillation Column Strategy S. SkogestaDepartment of Chemical Engineering, Norwegian University of Science and Technology,Trondheim, Norway. Web. 27 Sept 2012. c) Qiaoyi Wang, Baoru Yu, Chunjian Xu, Design and Control of Distillation System for Methylal/Methanol Separation. Part 1: Extractive Distillation Using DMF as an Entrainer, Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 2012, 51, 3, 1281 d) I. David, L. Bogle, Keming Ma, Johannes Hagemann, Erik S. Fraga, The Integration of Process Design and Control, 2004,