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ROCK EXCAVATION METHODS

EXCAVATION
Objective: Create surface or underground space for a specific engineering purpose, e.g. a foundation, a cutting for a road, a shaft for a hydroelectric scheme, a railway tunnel, a repository for disposing of radioactive waste

EXCAVATION METHODS
I. Blasting II. Ripping III. Breaking

BLASTING
controlled use of explosives to excavate rock

BLASTING

Considerations: Geologic structure, degree of scarring, cost, safety

GEOLOGIC STRUCTURE
I. Discontinuity Sets
spacing and orientation of any breaks in the rock

II. Slope Dip


imaginary line running down the steepest part of the slope

III. Slope Strike


direction the crest of the slope travels

IV. Mud and Soft Seams

DISCONTINUITY SETS
orientation of discontinuity sets with respect to cut slope will influence any slope failures that may occur along the slope face

DISCONTINUITY SETS
Discontinuity set PARALLEL to cut slope Discontinuity set PERPENDICULAR to cut slope

increasing borehole spacing will reduce fragmentation size

reducing diameter of boreholes will reduce breakage

DISCONTINUITY SETS

SLOPE DIP

blasts against the dip on the left side and with the dip on the right side

SLOPE DIP
Blasting WITH dip greater risk of backbreak (fractures that extend from the blastholes back into the final slope face) allows engineers to use less explosives creates better-looking slope toe Blasting AGAINST dip creates less backbreak leaves more material at the slope toe resulting in rough surface

SLOPE STRIKE
Blasting parallel to strike can produce unpredictable results

Mud and Soft Seams


It is necessary to stem across soft seams to obtain good blasting results

BLASTING METHODS
I. Production Blasting II. Controlled Blasting
1. Presplit Blasting (Presplitting) 2. Smooth Blasting (Contour or Perimeter Blasting) 3. Cushion Blasting (Trim Blasting)

BLASTING METHODS
Production Blasting Controlled Blasting

uses large explosive charges, widely spread


designed to fragment a large amount of burden (rock between existing rock face and blasthole)

uses more tightly spaced drill holes with lighter charges used for removing material along final slope face

PRESPLIT BLASTING
blasted before production blasts creates a fracture plane along the final slope face, which prevents the radial cracks created by production blasting from penetrating into the finished face diameter: 5 - 10 cm blasting depth: 15 m spacing: usu. 10-20 times the hole diameter creates abundant drill traces performs best in competent, hard to extremely hard rock. does not perform well in highly fractured, weathered or soft rock

PRESPLIT BLASTING

SMOOTH BLASTING
can be used before production blasting as an alternative to presplitting also used after production blasts increased radial fractures from the controlled blasting and overall fracturing from production blasting diameter: 5 - 10 cm blasting depth: 15 m spacing: slightly further apart than presplitting drill hole traces are less apparent performs best in competent, hard to extremely hard rock. although it can be used in soft or highly fractured rock by increasing the spacing

CUSHION BLASTING
blasted after production blasts space around explosive is filled with crushed rock to cushion explosive force diameter: 5 16 cm blasting depth: 30 m spacing: 3 5 m performs well in all rock types

EXPLOSIVES
I. II. III. IV. Dynamite Ammonia Nitrate and Fuel Oil (ANFO) Slurry (water gel) Emulsion Explosives

DYNAMITE
best known and most widely used explosive contains nitroglycerine, sodium nitrate, and a combustible absorbent easy to obtain and relatively inexpensive

ANFO
contains ammonium nitrate mixed with 6% fuel oil poor water resistance least expensive and most available explosive

SLURRY
contains a sensitizer (usually TNT), an oxidizer (ammonium nitrate), water, and a thickener (starch) widely available, less expensive than dynamite, more expensive than ANFO

EMULSION EXPLOSIVES
contains an oxidizer solution (typically ammonium nitrate) and oil excellent water resistance similar in cost and availability to slurries

4 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF EXPLOSIVES


It is a chemical compound or mixture ignited by heat, shock, impact, friction, or a combination of these conditions Upon ignition, it decomposes rapidly in a detonation; There is a rapid release of heat and large quantities of high-pressure gases that expand rapidly with sufficient force to overcome confining forces; The energy released by the detonation of explosives produces four basic effects; (a) rock fragmentation; (b) rock displacement; (c) ground vibration; and (d) air blast.

DRILLING

DRILLING METHODS
I. Downhole Drilling (vertical or production drilling) II. Step Drilling III. Horizontal Drilling

STEP DRILLING
larger diameter drill holes, drilled vertically and used as production blasting slope face is formed along base of blast holes can produce extensive radial fracture if not designed properly best used in moderately to highly fractured rock. does not perform well in hard competent rock only applicable for slopes between 0.7H:1V and 1H:1V

STEP DRILLING

HORIZONTAL DRILLING
larger diameter, closely spaced, lightly loaded horizontal borings are used for production blasting used in massive rock to eliminate drill holes or in areas of poor access eliminate borehole traces when drilled perpendicular to the slope face can produce extensive radial fractures or inadequate base fracturing if not loaded properly

HORIZONTAL DRILLING

Drill hole traces left by horizontal drilling parallel to the rock face

Blast damage caused by horizontal drilling perpendicular to the rock face

DRILLING EQUIPMENT
Downhole Drilling Rig Track Drilling Rig (Percussion Drill Head) Portable Crane-Mounted or Hand-Held Drills

DOWNHOLE DRILLING RIG


best suited for vertical or near vertical boreholes, deep drilling, and hard rock bite diameters range from 75 to 230mm

TRACK DRILLING RIG


used to advance vertical, angled or horizontal boreholes up to 12m in depth. bite diameter ranges between 40 and 150mm

PORTABLE CRANE-MOUNTED OR HAND-HELD DRILLS


used in drilling on slopes with limited access can drill both vertical and angled borings

RIPPING

Process of breaking up rock and soil with a large tooth or teeth attached to the back of a bulldozer

RIPPING EQUIPMENT
Hinge Style Ripper Parallelogram-Style Ripper

HINGE STYLE RIPPER


also known as the radial type ripper is fixed to the bulldozer with a pin, around which the ripper arm rotates best at creating sculpted and naturalappearing rock cuts.

PARALLELOGRAM STYLE RIPPER


features two hinged arms, which keep the shank ( the tang of the tooth) vertical and hold the tooth at a constant angle as it is lowered into the material.

BREAKING

Breaking is done with the hydraulic hammer

BREAKING

A hydraulic hammer sculpting a rock face (the material to be removed has been outlined with common marking paint)

BREAKING

A hydraulic hammer expanding a sculpted area, creating planting areas and more natural-looking slope variation

BREAKING

Completed rock slope prior to placement of topsoil and a native seed mix