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Roger Brisson Analytic Paper History 597A 15 December 1992
Arnold Ruge is generally considered, along with David Friedrich Strauß, Ludwig Feuerbach, and Bruno Bauer, a central figure in the Young Hegelian movement of the 1830's and early 1840's. Though his thought was not as original as the other three men, he played an instrumental role in making Hegel accessible to a broad reading public throughout the middle part of the nineteenth century. In Karl Marx and Friedrich Engel's critique of Young Hegelian thought, The German Ideology, references to Ruge occur, unaccountably, in only three or four passages throughout the some 500 pages of the work.' That Marx failed to critique Ruge's contribution to the movement could not have been a simple oversight, for the two men were friends and working colleagues up to a year before Marx and Engels began work on The German Ideology. As he did with the other Young Hegelians, Marx broke with Ruge on both a personal and an intellectual level, and their parting of ways was more or less permanent. Since it had occurred shortly before he began work on The German Ideology, it is possible that Manx's omission of Ruge was a conscious slight on his part. To be satisfied with such a simple explanation, however, would not do justice to the complex relationship that these two intellectuals certainly experienced. Since the portrayal of the other key Young Hegelians is hardly a flattering one in The German Ideology, assessing Ruge's absence is difficult. Was Ruge left out of Marx's attack because of his continuing respect for Ruge, or was it rather because Marx did not consider Ruge's thought original or important enough to critique? Assessing the work in this light requires careful consideration both of the nature of the work and its purpose, and of Manx's intellectual and personal relationship with Ruge. To find a credible explanation to this problem, it will be necessary to explore their relationship on many levels, focusing on the tensions that existed as their ideas developed during the years leading to the revolution of 1848. In attempting to answer the question why Ruge's thought is not treated in The German Ideology, this paper will look both at Ruge's and Marx's biographies in light of the relationship that existed between them, and in so doing will highlight the various social and political issues that they considered critical during the 1840's. For as we shall see, their differing response to these issues as they unfolded provide an important reason why Marx found it necessary to break with Ruge, and in
a controversial figure in Biedermeier Germany. was instrumental to the nineteenth-century German's understanding of his philosophical heritage. Awareness of three aspects of Ruge's biography are necessary in understanding his intellectual development. and earliest. it would not be difficult to explain his absence in The German Ideology. Ruge possessed a fluid and eminently readable writing style. As the editor of the 1886 edition of Ruge's collected works. but they also shared common elements. and they are qualities that continued with him throughout his life. they believed that the German nation was destined to be united as a single political entity . They held a wide spectrum of often conflicting views. Paul Nerrlich remarks in somewhat exaggerated fashion. Ruge worked tirelessly to spread his views. Schiller. Ruge was a well-known. and Jean-Paul 2 As a publicist for liberal interpretations of Hegelian ideas.addition will point to a reason why he did not treat Ruge's thought in The German Ideology. As the prolific popularizer of Hegelianism. in addition to his understanding of earlier writers such as Lessing. then Ruge's absence will need to be explained. Unlike most of the other Young Hegelians. and. Herder. and if the work is a settling of accounts with the Young Hegelians. along with his contemporaries Heine and Feuerbach. This allowed him to take complex Hegelian ideas and present them in ways that made Hegel accessible to a far wider reading audience. he continued to play a role in German social life. These liberal student groups represent the first stirrings of organized political protest in modem German history. 4 Continuing the romantic idealism that dominated the Wars of Liberation in the Napoleonic period. however. The first. as is demonstrated in his participation in the Frankfurter Parliament of 1848. Ruge's interpretation of Hegel. If one judged Ruge's place in the Young Hegelian movement on the basis of his relative ob scurity today.. His collected works span twelve volumes. Though his influence waned in the years after his break with Marx. First and foremost they were dissatisfied with the stifling social and political atmosphere that dominated the numerous German principalities after the implementation of the Karlsbad Decrees of 1819. Goethe. part of his life concerns his active participation in the German Burschenschaftmovement of the 1820's. In any case. as Engels later said it was. partly because of his criticism of Prussian society and politics. and together they show the wide range of topics that Ruge felt capable of writing on. Ruge was still a significant figure in the Young Hegelian movement when Marx and Engels wrote The German Ideology.
in that he believed that man's perfection would be attained in the cultivating of classical ideals through learning. He received his . Ruge founded his ideal of man in the freedom necessary to aspire to this ideal. he took on a teaching position at a Gymnasium in Halle. Goethe. Altenstein. combined to form a productive tension in the writings of his most active years. they were convinced that Germany would continue the cultural renaissance that had been introduced by Kant. but unlike most other German academics of the nineteenth century. like many others of his generation. Hence any form of social control external to the individual was anathema to Ruge.5 Consistent with the tenets of humanism.under a constitutional monarchy. Fichte. The marked political frame of reference he acquired while associated with the Burschenschaften stayed with him all his life. This tension is also present in the secondary literature on Ruge.Stein. Schiller. They were predominantly Protestant. From the beginning he was an academic and a scholar. he developed his intellect with a decidedly political edge. The purpose of government and society was to optimize the conditions for such individual development. which variously ascribes to him political convictions ranging from a traditional liberal to a radical democrat. along with the humanism he developed as a scholar. to name the most important. For Ruge's generation it was believed that the period of cultural greatness they were experiencing was a re-kindling of the classical and humanistic principles that guided Ancient Greece and Rome. was convinced of the moral integrity of this vision of a Germany free and united. This political emphasis in his work. Finally. a balanced assessment of Ruge's personal philosophy would be impossible without addressing his professional activity as a journalist. and as such were anti-montane and anti-Austrian. Assessing his political views is complicated by Ruge's often bitterly critical stance to existing political conditions in Prussia and the other German principalities. Thus a second important consideration in assessing Ruge is his essential humanism. Ruge. Through the appreciation of art and in creative endeavor the individual could develop his personality according to his own inner principles. After Ruge completed five years of imprisonment because of his supposed involvement in illegal political activities. Humboldt.Ruge's generation was confident that the persuasive force of humanity found in their ideas would sweep away the antiquated social institutions still existing in the German principalities. and others. Like the older generation of reformers before them. Under a politically united sovereign. Süvern.
Establishing his reputation as a journalist. but in this he was apparently not very successful. In Hegel he believed he had found the most powerful and. at the University of Halle. it was through his journalistic activity that he believed he could politicize humanistic values. or the later published The Essence of Christianity by Ludwig Feuerbach. and Ruge's Hallische Jahrbücher was now going into its fourth year . After he married Charlotte Duffer. relevant interpretation of humanistic values that had ever been formulated. the HallischeJahrbücherprovided him a broad forum for publishing both his own ideas and those who shared in his enthusiasm for Hegel. wrote on the topic of Plato's aesthetics. a wealthy heiress. a journal that would become the most important publication for the Young Hegelians.7 The Young Hegelian movement had exerted an active influence on German cultural life for several years. both his political past and his humanistic values were brought to good use. characteristically. for the nineteenth century. With Ruge's success in editing the Hallische Jahrbücher. After several years of quiet work at his country manor. Following this he held lectures on the same topic at Halle. It was a hard lesson for the Young Hegelians during the 1830's that their ideas. were most often met with further repression and censorship from the authorities. and he. With journalistic organs such as the Hallische Jahrbücher participating in and influencing public debate. The discussion that arose around brilliant.doctorate in 1831. The compelling appeal of humanistic ideas embodied in Hegel's works would thus become the moving force behind social change. In fact. was met by such disapproval by the religious establishment that they were able to convince the political authorities in the German states to tighten further the censorship against Young Hegelian literature . His discovery of Hegel allowed him to bring his political convictions and his humanism together. he felt social and political reforms would be the natural result. His marriage to Charlotte Düffer in 1832.6 Karl Marx was still a young student when the Prussian monarch Friedrich Wilhelm IV ascended the throne in 1840. instead of meeting general approval. provided him the financial security necessary to continue pursuing his studies. though controversial works such as Strauß's Life of Jesus. he believed that a cultural regeneration of German society could be effected by spreading Hegelian ideas to all levels of society. he went into seclusion and spent the next few years carefully studying Hegel's works. Following the political convictions he had acquired from his Burschenschaft years. he left his seclusion in 1837 to found and edit the Hallische Jahrbücher.
Because of the critical reformist nature of their writings. As intellectuals who were denied full academic appointments. was the power of Hegel's system of philosophy. and Marx also followed this pattern. a kind of stalemate between the Young Hegelians and the Prussian govemment had been reached. Instead they tended to eke out a living working as independent lecturers in universities. As we have seen.' a liberal group of academics in Berlin). or by writing articles for journals and newspapers. The Young Hegelians were for the most part recruited from the middle classes. younger Hegelians such as Marx and Engels began to question the degree to which Young Hegelian ideas truly influenced the course of events. At the University of Berlin Marx learned to accept Prussian repression as a matter of course.' a state security based on informers and . In the 'clubs. mostly older Young Hegelians. maintained an essentially philosophical outlook in their writings.8 Under Prussian repression. They set the tone of debate with conservative academics after Hegel's death in their continuing conviction that man's history was a movement and tension between competing ideas. and consciousness moved and changed in time through attaining a new level of enlightenment . he leamed to accept his activity with an air of subversity.' or social groupings that he circulated in (such as the 'Doctors' Club. however. Other. or understanding. this was certainly the case for Ruge. This. Protestantism continued to exert a powerful influence on all levels of Prussian society. they believed. By the time Marx and Engels entered the university. As such the Prussian authorities were very sensitive to the power that ideas held in society. but they had also developed a notorious 'Spitzelstaat.of publication. while at the same time expressing their social discontent in their writings. and they were intellectuals with a university education. they were generally unable to gain full professorial appointments at universities. The bureaucracy had worked out not only an increasingly effective censorship on publishing. But he was some fifteen years younger than Ruge. though their outlook also became more trenchant as time went on. Man's nature was his nature in consciousness. including the apparatus of government. confrontative manner. and so was of a later generation. This undoubtedly had a lasting effect on Marx. regarding his nature. they reflected both the traditional role of German intellectuals whose training was grounded in theology or philosophy. Marx grew up in a social environment that interacted with the state bureaucracy in an alienated. that what was discussed and done was not acceptable socially. such as Strauß and Feuerbach. and both Strauß and Feuerbach were convinced that they had demonstrated this with their seminal works based on Hegelian philosophy.
As a student interested in Hegel's philosophy. Since Marx and Engels recognized that Hegel's philosophy.' and that he found Marx "an absolutely desperate revolutionary. and even though he. Ruge had recently moved his Hallische Jahrbücher from the Prussian city of Halle to Dresden in Saxony. and in so doing changed the name of his journal to Deutsche Jahrbücher. As writers and editors of journals that were critical of German society and politics. Bauer relays Marx's greetings to Ruge.spies. In the respective collected works of the two men.1° In this letter he tells Ruge that Marx." Marx's sharp wit and critical intelligence was attracting attention among the Young Hegelians. In a letter that Bruno Bauer wrote to Ruge at the end of the year. and. Marx almost certainly took an interest in the articles appearing in the Hallische Jahrbücher. sought gainful employment writing for newspapers and journals. had come to be incompatible with the existing order. having received his doctorate from the University of Berlin shortly before. they developed a more cynical opinion of the power of ideas to institute reform. like many other Young Hegelians before him. Although Ruge was now publishing his journal in Saxon Dresden. the two men came under increasing scrutiny by Prussian authorities. and so. Upon graduating. Bauer. Marx first corresponded with Ruge while both were involved with joumals that were forums of opinion for Young Hegelian views. Indeed. as they interpreted it. and so became familiar with Ruge's editorial work with the journal. appeared to them to be increasingly impotent. and Feuerbach were working together on a 'theological-philosophical joumal. at 23.9 Marx. and continues until their quarrel and break some two years later. the German states had learned to work together in censoring or banning individuals from public life which they . Marx writes Ruge to let him know that he had just written something (his well-known essay on the Prussian censorship) for Ruge's Deutsche Jahrbücher. The work of the Young Hegelians. the first reference indicating that they at least knew of one another was in a letter that Jung wrote to Ruge in October of 1841.12 From this letter on a lively epistolary relationship develops between the two men. in February of 1842. had just recently graduated. he quickly worked his way into the most prominent circle of the group. was writing articles for the Rheinische Zeitung and would soon become its editor. in effect. Marx also ran into difficulties finding a position which satisfied his academic ambitions. and the other Young Hegelians saw in this another opportunity to have their articles published.11 It was at this time they appear to have gotten to know one another. By the end of the year he had take over Moses Hess's position as editor of the Rheinische Zeitung.
But here Ruge's own reaction betrays a good deal of inconsistency. naturally gravitated to one another as they shared in the degrading treatment of the authorities. a promising and ambitious young intellectual. looking for good writers to further his publishing projects. was greeted with a good deal of ambivalence because it continued the Young Hegelian practice of treating theological themes on the level of ideas. made it clear that.deemed too critical of the established order. a growing tension was developing among the members of the group. and Ruge. It is here that he prepared a compendium of essays and articles he had earlier self-censored from his Deutsche Jahrbücher. the Prussian authorities succeeded in pressuring Ruge out of Saxony. and he first took refuge in Switzerland. Its population was increasing dramatically.13 More and more individuals in the movement felt compelled to address social and political wrongs. The sense of hope that the accession of Friedrich Wilhelm IV had engendered had been shattered when it was recognized that he was an even greater romantic reactionary than his father. The reaction to this work by the Young Hegelians. The subject matter of the book became an important topic in Young Hegelian writings for the next year. however. without regarding political or social aspects. They. While his . and it included not only such well-known articles as Feuerbach's Provisional Theses for the Reformation of Philosophy. Feuerbach had published his The Essence of Christianity in 1842. entitled Anekdota. During the 1830's Germany continued to undergo radical social changes. Marx saw in Ruge an established writer who could assist him in getting his own career started. The effectiveness of the German authorities is betrayed by the ever-increasing predominance that censorship and repression takes in the two men's lives and writings. and economic pressures from outside were causing social upheavals of ever-increasing intensity. though considered generally as a groundbreaking work. as a result of changing social and political circumstances. like Heinrich Heine and others before them. and Marx. and the work placed Feuerbach back into the center of the movement. By the end of 1842. found in Marx's readiness to openly critique the existing order a willing ally. Ruge. Ruge had moved in his political orientation from a traditional liberal who affirmed the essential soundness of the Prussian monarchy. and its effect was to instill new life in the Young Hegelian movement. reacted to this pressure by looking for suitable places for their publishing activities outside the borders of the German principalities. but also Marx's article on the Prussian censorship. the successful and well-known editor of his Deutsche Jahrbücher. to an ever more radical democrat. Feuerbach's The Essence of Christianity.
for they reveal to what degree Marx had turned away from all possibility of working toward reform of Germany within the .own political convictions were becoming more and more radical. Thus. as exemplified in the French Revolution and in the Revolution of 1830. The French were disinclined to get involved in German affairs. and believed the French would receive them sympathetically. the interest in French philosophy had been growing among German philosophers of the left. in February of 1844. Marx and Ruge perceived a spiritual kinship to these French philosophers. There is a sense of historical destiny in the fact that both Ruge's and Marx's journals were censored and forced to stop publication at the same time. he nonetheless continued to hold that there existed an objective spirit (Geist) and reason (Vernunft). required such an objective spirit for its existence. based on their perceived affinity for French political philosophy. The two decided to start a journal which would. Like others. from the safe distance of Paris. among them Saint Simon. As implied in one of Feuerbach's theses for reforming philosophy. For Marx at least. a journal that seemed very promising on paper. and in co-editing the joumal significant differences in personal philosophy between Marx and Ruge were revealed. Hence began their involvement with the short-lived Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher. but in execution turned out to be a tremendous disappointment for all who worked on it. Ruge also included in this issue an epistolary exchange between Marx and himself. it was natural that Ruge and Marx would propose founding a new journal in Paris. Interestingly enough. and Fourier. This emphasis possessed a strong appeal to those Germans who were unsatisfied with the unpolitical nature of German philosophy. grounded in the German concept of cultivation (Bildung). and indeed he affirmed Feuerbach's essential thesis that religion should be sought in man's own nature and not in the heavens. A number of interesting minds in French philosophy had appeared over the past several years. the French had also demonstrated their ability to redress social wrongs through asserted action. incorporate French philosophy with the more politically-inclined among the disaffected Young Hegelians. and social issues played a far more important role. which was essentially Hegelian. Only one issue was published. Proudhon. and shortly afterwards the simmering tensions that had been developing between the two men led to an open break in their friendship. French philosophy was decidedly more political in nature than that of the Young Hegelians. These letters provide us with a fascinating picture of the differences in political orientation that were developing between Marx and Ruge. Ruge's form of humanism.
Careful with his money. though also highly critical. were still too fixated in the realm of ideas. Ricardo. and Malthus. and as late as September 1843 he . formally broke off any future relationship with Ruge. He spent his time in Paris reading the French socialists.confines of the existing social order. Ruge continued to live as one would expect a North German Protestant with his bourgeois origins. Marx and Ruge struggled to re-orient themselves to the rapidly deteriorating circumstances. and this is an important reason their relationship still holds its interest for us today. Marx struggled with all he was assimilating for some time. Both Marx and his wife Jenny were so generous with their own finances in helping friends in need that on occasion they endangered their own financial stability. with his long hair and beard.16 Clearly the incompatibility in lifestyles contributed significantly to the tensions between the two men. Ruge and the young Marx appeared to have much in common. Though Feuerbach had taken Hegel to a 'materialistic' level. was no exception. In Paris the two quarrelled repeatedly over money. both intellectually and in their respective roles in the Young Hegelian movement. and Marx. he also carefully studied the English philosophers of political economy. but the tension between the two increased until Marx. in a letter dated May 1844. Secure in his inherited wealth. Marx felt that Young Hegelian thought was inadequate for understanding the political and social events taking place in Germany. As noted above. Ruge's letters reflect someone who is less trenchant in tone. The French socialists and the English economists. and after his lifelong association with Engels began.14 The friendship and subsequent parting of ways with Ruge embody many of the conflicts existing in Marx's own life at the time. Frustrated with the turn of events in Prussia and the other German states. Adam Smith.15 The differences in their personalities was reflected in their lifestyles. ordered in his habits. Ruge had been known to have difficulties with the perceived bohemian lifestyle that other Young Hegelians had led. he held tight control over the journal's budget. Marx believed that the Young Hegelians. in focusing in on the psychology of the individual or on abstract categories such as the 'species' (Gattung). the publication of the Deutsch-Französische Jahrbücher occurred when the Young Hegelians were in disarray. found in them the intellectual tools for giving shape and substance to his own developing ideas. and as the primary financer of the journal. In comparison. and their effectiveness as an organized group of intellectuals and propagandists had begun a period of steady decline. however much Marx criticized the substance of their thought.
In the years leading to the completion The German Ideology. broke off his friendship with the other German intellectuals who formed part of the Young Hegelians. he had. For Ruge. both in terms of temperament and political circumstances. he would not be able to retum to live in any of the German states. felt compelled to exorcise his own thinking of the deleterious aspects of Young Hegelianism. unless he changed his political convictions. . to an aspiring leader of the Communist movement in Europe. This period of time in Marx's life is an extremely rich one. he returned to Switzerland disenchanted. He had slowly come to the realization that. alienated himself from German intellectual endeavor.dismissed Communism in a letter to Ruge. but deciding to remain in exile also had its advantages for Marx's future role as a communist leader. after having moved there from Paris. it was in part through formulating his concept of ideology that Marx was able to create enough intellectual distance from his Young Hegelian roots to allow him to develop his own unique theories of society and human behavior. By the time he arrived in Brussels and began work on The German Ideology. for in the short span of a couple of years he developed from a young German intellectual with a recently awarded doctorate. who came to believe that the failure of the Young Hegelians was inherent in their nature as a group. This of course he refused to do. From Brussels. French socialism had turned out to be anathema to the humanistic principles that guided his thinking. The German Ideology was intended to expose the social origins of Young Hegelian thought. The German Ideology was written while Marx was living in Brussels. Karl Marx slowly. Feuerbach. the interaction between the continued threat of repression and his working out of Hegelian ideas pushed him to an ever greater emphasis on political and social principles. From this perspective he believed the thought of Young Hegelians as Strauß." Marx. but unlike Marx they chose to keep their writings in an acceptable form to the Prussian authorities. Most of the other writers associated with the Young Hegelians were also under the threat of censorship. The German Ideology. and Bruno was conditioned by the desire to conform to political circumstances. on the other hand. almost methodically. as Marx continued to develop his ideas. In fact. As noted earlier. This he did by spending the two years after his break with Ruge composing the analysis of Young Hegelianism. Marx was able to survey his position both as a German and a Young Hegelian from a distance. though he found the free and creative air of Paris invigorating.
It would seem. rather than objective reality. By the 1820's Destutt de Tracy's science of ideology had become well known not only in his own France. In 1813. that is very close to the use of the words in Marx and Engel's work. if he is not an ideologist?" Several other passages from the 1830's and 1840's are quoted in this dictionary. Britain. 18 Hegel mentions the Ideologues at least on two occasions in his works. for he uses it as a negative term of abuse in his work. in any case.20 The dictionary entry goes on to mention a cryptic quote found in a treatise published in 1831: "Cannot every Prussian subject repeat it. Though this provides us with evidence that Marx knew of the work of the Ideologues and their intentions as scientists. in a letter that is quoted in TrObner's Deutsches Wörterbuch. most notably in his History of Philosophy. he not only became familiar with the French socialists. that the word had come to be more . He considers their work as 'abstract metaphysics. for example. In the chapter on Locke. presumably less because of the Ideologues affinity with Scottish philosophy than because it introduces the reader to the next section on French philosophy itself. but also beyond its borders. This use of the word appears to have entered the German language soon after Napoleon's formulation. in fact. the two sentences that he devotes to them indicate clearly that he does not hold them in high regard. at least in tone. it can certainly not be the sole source for his use of the word ideology.1H While Marx was in Paris in 1843 and 1844. He mentions them once at the end of his treatment of Scottish philosophy. but he also read the works of Destutt de Tracy. ideologists are lumped together derogatively with Cossacks and other rabble. had continued to be used until Marx and Engels established this meaning in their own science. when Destutt de Tracy applied it to signify the science he founded that studied men's ideas in society. that also made it a term denoting that the ideas one held were more reflective of one's own biases. and Germany. In fact. It is curious that he would mention them here. The term was of course first used systematically at the turn of the century in France. In the 1830's and 1840's the word appears to have gained a widespread use in France. he also notes that the analysis of the Ideologues is nothing more than the utilization of the Lockean notion of what ideas are. the well-known twist that Napoleon gave to the word.' a simple listing and analyzing of the simplest thought processes. that similarly attest to ideology and ideologist being used in a way.Marx's use of the word ideology perhaps provides us with an important clue as to why he omits critiquing Ruge in the work.
as it interacted with Hegel's philosophy. the word as Marx and Engels define it is used strictly in its distorted sense. The realm of discourse. that is. and as such Marx views the development of Young Hegelian thought. absolute. it is striking how correct Marx was in his assessment. principle. They believed Hegel's philosophy was essentially religious in nature. However radical in its implications .21 When one surveys the literature written by the Young Hegelians. That Young Hegelianism never ventured beyond critiquing topics of a religious nature Marx explained with his concept of ideology: it was bound by its own socio-economic origins in the German middle class. to political categories. Indeed. psychological. Ideas are based on other ideas and form an antithesis to the idea it derives from. the driving force of ideology as a Marxist concept comes from Hegel's dialectic itself.known in its negative sense. Thus. Marx argued that the Young Hegelians had never left the realm of religion in their further development of Hegel's philosophy. the development of Young Hegelian thought itself took on the appearance of a dialectical movement. that they themselves were still exposed to a dialectical critique. Each of the Young Hegelians developed a specific aspect of Hegel's thought. In dialectical fashion aspects of Hegel's thought were further developed and then critiqued from an intellectual distance. and each believed. In the first part of The German Ideology. than in its meaning denoting a scientific discipline. of one's ideas distorted by one's own perspective. Hegel's thought itself was essentially that of analytic philosophy. in a dialectical manner. that they were extending his ideas to ever more radical conclusions. He believed that with his analysis of the socio-economic origins of thought he had reached the logical end of this dialectical movement. in that its foundation was based on an objective. The Young Hegelians critiqued his ideas in ways that led to ever-increasing anthropological. until they essentially became new ideas. This basic concept is only applied here to the Young Hegelians. sociological. remained theological in nature for the Young Hegelians. He was thus able to critique the Young Hegelians for not having gone far enough. The development of Hegelianism after the philosopher's death took on precisely this character. that someone holding an ideology is unable to see beyond his own ideational world to social reality. For the Young Hegelians this critique went in a very specific direction. however. it remained in the realm of philosophical discourse. and finally. that he had found the true reason why the Young Hegelians explained even non-religious phenomena such as politics in only religious terms. One exposes the idea based on principles no longer conforming to the original idea. rightly.
Werke. but it was also his humanism which prevented him from going further and following Man( to socialism. and spreading the tenets of Young Hegelianism. though Ruge never renounced his essential humanism. Briefe. 111. With the working notion of ideology that Marx had developed. the language of anthropological works as Feuerbach's The Essence of Christianity is still essentially theological in both substance and tone. Schriften. 10.: Aalen : Scientia Verlag. guiding. This edition of Marx and Engel's works will be abbreviated as MEGA in the following footnotes. Footnotes for: Arnold Ruge and Karl Marx: An Investigation of Ruge's Absence in The German Ideology In: Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels. Disregarding the historical determinism inherent in this view. v. but it was Marx who struggled and was destined to discover and formulate modem communist principles. erste Abteilung. Marxist scholarship has placed Ruge's ideas close to Marx's intellectual development at this time. As we have seen. Marx was not able to include Ruge in The German Ideology because the principles that are subject to an ideological analysis were not found in as clear a form in Ruge as they were in the other Young Hegelians. von D. and it sees Ruge as having stopped short of taking the logical step to communism. Werke und Briefe / herausgegeben von HansMartin Sass. 1970. Ruge's place in the movement could not be relegated so easily under the category of ideology. 215. Band 5. most notably his critique of Ruge's essay on the Prussian monarchy. 1985-. and represented this group in the Frankfurt Parliament of 1848. who was more interested in interpreting.for man's image of himself. . / Hrsg. p. This made it much more problematic for Marx to incorporate Ruge in his attack on the Young Hegelians. It was Ruge's humanism that compelled him to become a radical democrat. XII. Detly Auvermann KG. As a publicist with a political past. Rjazanov. The references to Ruge are found on p. Historischkritische Gesamtausgabe. there is much truth in these sentiments. with the exception of perhaps Moses Hess he went much further than the other Young Hegelians toward adopting radical democratic political principles. Ruge became a radical democrat. and 227. Arnold Ruge. Glashutten. Ruge was more flexible than the others of the group in venturing beyond the strict confines of philosophical Hegelianism and adapting openly political principles to his own needs. Though Marx criticized in other essays specific views and opinions that Ruge held.
General material can also be found in Bruno Gebhardt's Handbuch der deutschen Geschichte 9. Beck. c1978. Karl Manx. McLellan. letter from Georg Jung. 27 ff. 1933. The end of philosophy. Bd. c1987. ch. Nipperdey. including those to Marx. in vol. MEGA. c1983. p.ibid. The editor was thus barred access to them. his life and thought. Simon and Schuster. Beck. Winter. Munchen.. Jahrhunderts. Karl Marx. hrsg. where the chapter on the Burschenschaften is on p. [1974. Munchen. New York. ein Beitrag zur Deutschen Geschichte des 19. Wolfgang. 266. 1985. F. Burgerwelt und starker Staat.S. Winter. c1973]. p. . C. p. New York. Marx. 261. 1. letters from Bruno Bauer. New York. ibid. 18 ff. letter from Karl Marx. Harold Mah. David. David.H. Karl Marx and the crisis of the young Hegelians Berkeley.]. Heidelberg. Arnold Ruge als politiker und politischer Schriftsteller. Vol. p. This volume would have contained all the letters between Ruge and the other Young Hegelians. 1970-1976. Praeger. Deutsche Geschichte 1800-1866. .. but none of them were to any of the Young Hegelians.H. I used the dtv paperback edition. Burgerwelt und starker Staat. Stuttgart. A. Thomas. I wasn't able to find out if vol. p. 10 and 11 include Ruge's letters. 1 and 2. 12 has been published yet. c1983. C. ibid.H. I found general information on Marx's biography in: Robert Payne. p.. c1983. Hardtwig. since these letters were taken by the Prussian authorities and kept in a sealed container until shortly before the First World War. Heidelberg. Arnold Ruge als politiker und politischer Schriftsteller. p. The young Hegelians and Karl Marx. 403 ff. McLellan. 15. McGraw-Hill. C. Vormarz : der monarchische Staat und das Burgertum Munchen. Walter Neher. Saul K. C. Union Verlag. an intimate biography. C. BurgerweltundstarkerStaat. Munchen. ed. erste Abteilung. p. von Herbert Grundmann. Walter Neher. 263. [1st U. 279 ff. Padover. Beck. New York. 1933. Thomas. . University of California Press. Jahrhunderts. the origin of "ideology". 75 ff. 396 ff. The work on the German Vormärz period by Thomas Nipperdey also had a useful section on them: Deutsche Geschichte 1800-1866. Deutsche Geschichte 1800-1866. 9 ff. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag. Nipperdey. p. ein Beitrag zur Deutschen Geschichte des 19. neu bearbeitete Auflage. Harper & Row. 265.
p. Band 5.: Eva Moldenhauer und Karl Markus Michel). erw. It isn't found in MEGA. Bibliography Note. also Walter Neher. 286.. von Arnold Ruge und Karl Marx. Erlenbach-Zurich. 221p. p. 1939-56. I didn't have the opportunity to look at this work. p. Red. Werke. W. Suhrkamp. Russell & Russell. vol. Henry Packwood. C. A. Trübners Deutsches Wörterbuch. Cass. I [Auf der Grundlage der Werke von 1832-1845 neu edierte Ausg. David. Rentsch. 219. the Historisch-kritische Gesamtausgabe. London. Praeger. Hans.Because of time constraints. E. [2. . Winter. Aufl. Berlin. Wahrheit und Ideologie. Ibid.. Found in the microfilm collection: Goldsmiths'Kress Library of Economic Literature. 1933. Bibliography: p. F. Jahrhunderts.. 1904-1965. no. New York.1. im Auftrag der Arbeitsgemeinschaft für Deutsche Wortforschung herausgegeben von Alfred Goetze. 1844. Leipzig : W. The young Hegelians and Karl Marx. 41. erste Abteilung. Barth. MEGA. P. Cf. Hegel. Adams. ch. McLellan. 1846 (Found in the microfilm collection: Goldsmiths'-Kress Library of Economic Literature. 8v. Karl Marx in his earlier writings. Discusses material in the latest and exhaustive edition of the works of Marx and Engels. 1. no. 1927-1932. Hans. Heidelberg. p. 1971]. 8 ff. 1969-1979. 1965. 20. ein Beitrag zur Deutschen Geschichte des 19. Frankfurt am Main. de Gruyter & co. "First published in 1940". 34910). Adams. I couldn't locate a copy of this letter that McLellan refers to.]. I was unable to re-format these LIAS entries into MLA-acceptable form (a couple of entries were taken from another online catalog). New York. as I believe they readily identify the materials I used. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. First published 1940 by F. All the were works listed were either read in part or referred to while writing the essay. Barth. I hope this is acceptable. Paris : Im Bureau der Jahrbücher. Jurany. / H. . Ruge writes of his experiences in: Arnold Ruge. 19cm. 37 ff. 28x21 1/2cm. . Arnold Ruge als politiker und politischer Schriftsteller. Zwei Jahre in Paris: Studien und Erinnerungen.217-218.Deutsch-französische Jahrbücher/ hrsg. [v. 34030.
8-10. Der zweite Weltkrieg. 25cm.21. Union Verlag. Knopf. Series: Theorie-Werkausgabe. D.]. 20 cm. Handbuch der deutschen Geschichte.in 5. Jenaer Schriften. 110 p. Vorlesungen uber die Asthetik -16-17. 1770-1831.7. Rentsch. / ausgewahlte Texte.. hrsg. Red. Georg Wilhelm Friedrich. Fruhe Schriften -. Wolfgang.: Eva Moldenhauer und Karl Markus Michel). 1902-1969. Hajo. Contents:  The Reformation.291-327). The political collapse of Europe. 24 cm.4.Wahrheit und Ideologie. Amold Ruge. Grundlinien der Philosophie des Rechts -.--Bd.--Bd. A.--v. Frankfurt am Main. Steussloff. Berlin. Holborn. Numberger und Heidelberger Schriften. Fruhzeit und Mittelalter. von K.13-15. D. [1st ed. 1933-1938..3. Vorlesungen uber die Philosophie der Religion -. 1969-1979.). Erlenbach-Zurich.-- 1648-1840. 1970-1976. 4. 22cm. Aufl. Die Junghegelianer: David Friedrich Strauss.11. 1959-. Phanomenologie des Geistes -. Werke.1.]. Zusammengestellt und eingeleitet von H. illus. 1858-1905. Series: Schriftenreihe Philosophisches erbe. Der erste Weltkrieg. 9.18-20. [v. Enzyklopadie der philosophischen Wissenschaften im Grundrisse (1830) -. Von der Reformation bis zum Ende des Absolutismus. 1. 1963. 1801-1807 -. 4v. 3. von K. 21v. die Weimarer Republik. Published: Munchen : Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag. Berliner Schriften. neu bearbeitete Auflage. Stuttgart. maps (part fold. 1818-1831 -. Hardtwig. A history of modem Germany. 18cm. [2. 5. Das Ende des Reiches und die Entstehung der Republik Osterreich.2. Bruno Bauer. Von der Franzosischen Revolution bis zum Ersten Weltkrieg. Includes bibliographies. Vorlesungen uber die Geschichte der Philosophie -. New York. erw. Hegel. Erdmann. von Herbert Grundmann. v. / [Auf der Grundlage der Werke von 1832-1845 neu edierte Ausg. 2. der Bundesrepublik Deutschaldn und der Deutschen Demokratischen Republik.12. E. Bibliographical references included in "Anmerkungen" (p. Bd. Contents: Bd.1.--Bd. . 327p.. Vorlesungen uber die Philosophie der Geschichte -.5-6. Register.-- 1840-1945. 1971]. Gebhardt. Wissenschaft der Logik -.4. Contents: 1. Die Zeit der Weltkriege. . T. Suhrkamp. Deutscher Verlag der Wissenschaften. Title: Vormarz : der monarchische Staat und das Burgertum Edition: Originalausg. Deutschland unter der Herrschaft des Nationalsozialismus. 1808-1817 -. A. Erdmann. Bruno.2. T. 1985.
ports. 1970. Marx. Bibliography: p. translated in part. / Harold Mah. by C.Y. Karl. Die Hegelsche Linke. 281-298. Kosok. N. [cl 962]. 25cm.--Select bibliography (p. cxii. Karl Marx und soren Kierkegaard. New York.--Hegel revisited. Karl Marx and the crisis of the young Hegelians. Schriften. Karl. ill.--The Hegel myth and its method. 13v. Some vols.-Notes on Hegel's "Lordship and bondage. Marx. Solomon. . Maclntyre. by J. F. German. Glashutten. Karl. Stuttgart.. 19 cm.] The portable Karl Marx. / selected. by A. the origin of "ideology". Texte aus den Werken." by G. [Selections. Kelly. 24 cm. 23 cm. A." by R. 1897-1973. The young Hegel and religion. Arnold Ruge. L. Viking Press. von D. by R. 22 cm. Karl Marx/Friedrich Engels. The end of philosophy. Munchen.--Hegel on faces and skulls.]. 1983. viii. / ausgewahlt und kommentiert von Saul K. No more published. Anchor Books. [1st ed. 606 p. Werke. Contents: The contemporary relevance of Hegel. Includes index. Includes index. 611 p. Kaufmann. Marx. Hegel. Findlay. Berkeley. Beck. Briefe. Hartmann. -350). Includes index. Historischkritische Gesamtausgabe. by M. 305 p. 1818-1883. Moses Hess. c1987. [The letters of Karl Marx. Maclntyre. C. Mah. Detly Auvermann KG. Adoratskij. Harold.--Hegel on freedom. Alasdair C. c1981. by K. 1818-1883. Translation of: The letters of Kari Marx. Max Stirner. Series: Modern studies in philosophy.Lowith. and with an introduction by Eugene Kamenka. 287 p. / edited by Alasdair Maclntyre. ix. ed.] Karl Marx in seinen Briefen. 1818-1883. Bruno Bauer. by S. Padover. University of California Press.. Schacht.--Hegel's concept of "geist. Garden City. 350 p. Ludwig Feuerbach. N. Avineri. Fromann. 1972. English. / Hrsg. 19 cm. 1983.--The formalization of Hegel's dialectical logic. By W. Rjazanov. / von Heinrich Heine. Series: Viking portable library.--The opening arguments of the Phenomenology. Taylor. edited by V..-Hegel: a non-metaphysical view. comp. a collection of critical essays. Karl.
Karl Marx: his life and thought. von Arnold Ruge . Series: Heidelberger abhandlungen zur mittleren und neueren geschichte . C.]. McLellan. 64... C. Ruge. 498 p. -489. Politische bilder aus der zeit. / Thomas Nipperdey... 1802-1880. 644-651. / von Walter Neher. ein beitrag zur deutschen geschichte des 19. New York. -824. I. ed. or Moscow andd Leningrad. Includes index. Ruge. The young Hegelians and Karl Marx. David. 4 p. Saul Kussiel. xix. F. Harper & Row. 22 cm. / [by] Robert Payne. Marx before Marxism. Nipperdey. Burgerwelt und starker Staat. Jahrhunderts. facsims. Harper & Row. ill. illus. A. Thomas. Neher. ports. Arnold. Leipzig. Bibliography: p. 838 p.[Abt. New York. Padover.H. Arnold. 667 p. 1905-.18cm. New York. Bibliography: p. 1847-1848. . 23 cm. 223-229. New York. Deutsche Geschichte 1800-1866. Simon and Schuster. 25 cm. Munchen. map. David. Walter. 226 p.. Arnold Ruge als politiker und politischer schriftsteller. New York. Bibliography: p. 1802-1880. Praeger. cl 978. ed. c1983. xii. Bibliography: p. [1st U.S. Heidelberg. Bibliography: p. 2v. Robert. 23 cm. . . 170 p. 233 p. 582 p.. 1933. Padover.. cl 973]. 24 cm. Bibliography: p.. Verlagsbureau.  leaves of plates. Includes index. Reprint of 1927 edition published in Frankfurt. David. Karl Marx.S. 162-166. 24 cm. 1911-.4] called Sonerausgabe zum vierzigsten Todesbage von Friedrich Engels.. 553-556. [1st U. ed. / Hrsg. Beck. McLellan.]. illus. hft.in1. . or Berlin. Winter. McLellan. / by Saul K. Marx. [1974. 23 cm. Payne. McGraw-Hill. an intimate biography.
: Aalen : Scientia Verlag. ! introduced and edited by Lawrence S. 22 cm. herausgegeben von Hans-Martin Sass. Stepelevich. 1838-1846 -. 2. 1983. ISBN: 3511060605 (set) The Young liegelians. 10-11. Literarische Kritiken. : ports. 24 cm. Philosophische Kritiken. New York. 416 p. 4. 1985 DESCRIPTION: v.Werke und Briefe / Arnold Ruge . 411-413. CONTENTS: -. Originally published: Berlin. xiii. Cambridge University Press. 1838-1846 -. . 1838-1846 -.Bd. 1886. . 3.Bd. Translations from the German. an anthology. Series: Texts in German philosophy. Bibliography: p. Politische Kritiken. Briefwechsel und NOTES: Reprint. Cambridge [Cambridgeshire].Bd.Bd. Includes bibliographical references and indexes.