C O G N IT I O N A N D E M O T I O N , 1999, 13 (5), 551±573

Emotion Regulation: Past, Present, Future
Ja m es J. G ross
Stanford University, California, USA

M o d er n em o t io n th eo r ies em p h a sise t h e a d ap t ive va lu e o f em o t io n s. E m o tio n s a r e by n o m ean s always h elp fu l, h owever. T h ey o ften m u st b e r egu lat ed . T h e stu d y o f em o t io n regu la tio n h a s its o r igin s in t h e psych oa n a lytic a n d str ess a n d co p in g tr a d itio n s. R ecen t ly, in crea sed in t erest in em o t io n regu la tio n h a s led t o cru cia l b o u n d a r y a m b igu ities t h at n ow t h reat en p rogress in th is d o m a in . I t is a rgu ed t h at d ist in ct io n s n eed t o b e m ad e b et ween (1) r egu lat io n of em o t io n a n d regu la tio n by em o t io n ; (2) em o t io n r egu lat io n in self a n d em o t io n regu la tio n in o th er s; a n d (3) co n scio u s a n d n o n co nscio u s em o t io n regu la t io n . U sin g a p ro cess m o d el o f em o t io n gen er at io n , th is review co n sid er s p ro m isin g r esea r ch o n b a sic p ro cesses a n d in d ivid u a l d ifferen ces in em o t io n r egu lat io n a n d p o ses ® ve t heo r etica l ch a llen ges.

INTRODUCTION
C o n t em p o r a ry co n cep t io n s o f em o t io n em p h a sise em o t io n s’ p o sitive ro le in a d a p t a t io n (e.g. L a za ru s, 1991 ; To o b y & C o sm id es, 19 90). E m o t io n s a re sa id t o t a ilo r cogn itive style t o sit u a t io n a l d em a n d s (C lo re, 1994), t o fa cilit a te d ecisio n -m a k in g (O a t ley & Jo h n so n -L a ird , 1987), t o p rep a re t h e in d ivid u a l fo r ra p id m o t o r resp o n ses (F r ijd a , 19 86), a n d t o p ro m o t e lea r n in g (C a h ill, P rin s, Web er, & M cG a u gh , 1994). I n a d d itio n t o t h ese in t r a o rga n ism ic fu nct io n s, em o t io n s a lso a re t h o u gh t t o h ave im p o r t a n t so cia l fu n ct io n s. F o r exa m p le, em o t io n s a re h eld t o p ro vid e in fo r m a t io n ab o u t b eh avio u ra l in t en t io n s (E k m a n , F riesen , & E llswo rt h , 1972; F r id lu n d , 1994), t o give clu es a s t o wh et h er so m et h in g is go o d o r b a d (Wa ld en , 1991), a n d t o ¯ exib ly scr ip t co m p lex so cia l b eh avio u r (Averill, 1980). A t t en t io n t o t h e fu n ct io n s em o t io n s ser ve h a s p rovid ed a fo rcefu l a n d m u ch -n eed ed co u n t erp o in t t o t h e lo n g-st a n d in g view o f em o t io n s a s

R eq uest s fo r rep r in ts sh ou ld b e sen t to D r. Ja m es J. G ro ss, D ep ar tm ent o f P sych o logy, St an fo r d U n iver sity, St an fo r d, C A 943 05-2130; E -m a il: ja m es@ p sych .st an fo r d.ed u . P r ep ar atio n o f t his a r t icle wa s su pp o rt ed by G r a nt M H 53859 fro m th e N atio n a l I n st itu te o f M ent al H ealth . T h e a u t h o r wo u ld like t o th a nk Br a m F r idh a n dler, Ju d y M o skowitz, Jer r y P a r ro t t, two an o nym o u s r eviewer s, a n d m em b ers o f th e St a n fo r d P sych o p hysio logy L ab or a to r y fo r help fu l co m m en ts o n an ea r lier d r a ft of this a r ticle.

q

1999 P sych olo gy P ress L td

552

GROSS

d ysfu n ct io n a l a n d d isru p t ive (Yo u n g, 1943). I n d eed , t h e t ren d t owa rd fu n ct io n a l a p p ro a ch es h a s ga t h ered su ch m o m en t u m t h a t it n ow m u st b e a sked : A re em o t io n s ever t o b e regu la t ed ? In t h e p a st t wo d eca d es, a n ew resea rch d o m a in h a s em erged t h a t is co n cern ed with ju st t h is q u est io n . T h e co re co n st ru ct in t h is d o m a in Ð em o t io n regu la tio n Ð ® r st ca m e in t o u se in t h e d evelo p m en t a l lit era tu re in t h e ea r ly 1980s (C a m p o s, B a rret t , L a m b, G o ld sm ith , & St en b erg, 19 83; G a en sb a u er, 1982 ). Sin ce t h is t im e, em o t io n regu la t o ry p ro cesses h ave en joyed in crea sin g a t t en t io n in b o t h d evelo p m en t a l (C a m p o s, C a m p o s, & Ba r ret t , 1989 ) a n d a d u lt (G ro ss, 1998b ) lit er a tu res, a s resea rch ers fro m a va riet y o f t r a d itio n s h ave exa m in ed h ow in d ivid u a ls in ¯ u en ce wh ich em o t io n s t h ey h ave, wh en t h ey h ave t h em , a n d h o w t h ey exp er ien ce a n d exp ress t h ese em o t io n s. In t h is a rt icle, I ® rst d escrib e t wo m a jo r p recu rso rs t o t h e stu dy o f em o t io n regu la tio n : T h e p sych o a n a lyt ic t r a d it io n a n d t h e st ress a n d co p in g t ra d it io n . I t h en u se a p ro cess m o d el o f em o t io n gen era t io n t o p rov id e a fra m ewo rk fo r stu d yin g em o t io n regu la t io n , a n d co n sid er severa l b o u n d a ry issu es. To illu st ra te co n t em p o r a ry resea rch in t h is a rea , I review p ro m isin g wo rk o n b a sic p ro cesses a n d in d ivid u a l d ifferen ces in a d u lt em o t io n regu lat io n . I co n clu d e b y co n sid erin g sever a l t h eo ret ica l ch a llen ges a nd d irectio n s fo r fu t u re resea rch .

HISTORICAL ANTECEDENTS
R esea rch sp eci® ca lly co n cern ed with em o t io n regu lat io n is a rela t ively recen t in n ova t io n , b u t a n in t erest in h ow em o t ion s ca n a n d sh o u ld b e regu la t ed is a nyt h in g bu t n ew (Averill, 1982). P h ilo so p h ers fro m So cra tes o n h ave gra p p led w it h t he ro le em o t io n sh o u ld p lay in ever yd ay a ffa irs, a n d t o t h is d ay o n e o f t h e co re t h em es in West er n p h ilo so p hy is t h e co n t est b etween rea so n a n d t h e p a ssio n s (So lo m o n , 1976). In t h e p a st cen t u ry, t h is lo n g-st a n d in g in t erest in em o t io n regu la t io n h a s b een p layed o u t in t wo p rin cip a l a ren a s. To get h er, t h ese h ave set t h e sta ge fo r co n t em p o r a ry resea rch o n em o t io n regu lat io n .

The Psychoanalytic Tradition
O n e im p o rt a n t p recu r so r t o t h e co n t em p o ra r y st u d y o f em o t io n regu la t io n is t h e p sych o a n a lyt ic t ra d itio n . T h is t ra d itio n em p h a sises t h e co n ¯ ict b etween b io lo gica lly b a sed im p u lses a n d in t ern a l a n d ext er n a l rest ra in in g fa cto rs. H owever, t h e a sso cia t io n b et ween p sych o a n a lyt ic ap p ro a ch es a n d em o t io n regu la t io n is m o re in t im a t e t h a n a sh a red co n cern w it h im p u lse regu la t io n . I n d eed , b y t h e en d o f F reu d ’s ca reer, p sych o a n a lyt ic t h eo risin g relied h eavily o n t h e n o t io n o f a n xiet y regu la t io n (F reu d , 1926/1959).

a n d t h at rea list ic. O f co u r se. a n d t h e su p erego . t h is h a s n o t p reven t ed a nu m b er o f at t em p t s a t d evisin g su ch a p sych o a n a lyt ic t h eo r y o f a ffect (e. 193). Va illa n t . 19 77. F reu d b elieved t h a t a n xiet y resu lt ed wh en lib id in a l im p u lses were d en ied exp ressio n (F reu d . a n d m o r a l a n xiet y d erived fro m t h e ego ’s relat io n s with rea lit y. ch ild ren lea r n t o sh ield t h em selves fro m in t o ler ab le a n xiet y a n d p ro t ect t h eir vit a l lin k s wit h ca regiver s (H o fer.EMOTION REGULATION 553 F reu d u sed a n xiet y a s a ca t ch -a ll t er m fo r n ega t ive em o t io n s (E rd elyi. H e saw a n xiet y a s ep ip h en o m en a l. 1976 . a n xiet y regu la t io n t o o k t h e fo r m o f cu rt a ilin g im p u lses t h at were ju d ged likely t o crea t e fu t u re a n xiet y. 1953. F reu d d evelo p ed a very d ifferen t co n cep t io n o f a n xiet y (F reu d . a n d lea rn t o regu la te t h is a n xiet y t h ro u gh id io syn cra t ic a n d p ro b lem at ic fo r m s o f a n xiet y regu la t io n (Sch wa r t z. Sp ezza n o. a s o n e co m m en t at o r p u t it . 1987). a s in a go ra p h o b ia . F o r exa m p le. Ba sch . R ea lit y-b a sed a n xiet y wa s t h o u gh t t o resu lt wh en t h e ego wa s over wh elm ed b y sit u a t io n a l d em a n d s. . Bren n er. If t h e ego ’s im a gin a l ru n t h ro u gh led t o h igh levels o f a n xiet y. 1915/1976). F reu d (1933/1964) a rgu ed t h at t h e ego a lo n e ca n p ro d u ce a n d exp erien ce a n xiet y. T h is is p a r t icu la r ly t r u e in t h e st ru ctu ra l m o d el. 1900/1950. 1993). G iven t h e cu r ren t la ck o f a gr eem en t . U n fo rt u n a t ely. like st ea m escap in g fro m a st u ck t u rb in e. By co n t r a st . wh ere ego d efen ces m ay b e seen a s p ro cesses t h a t regu la t e a n xiet y (F reu d . 1993). I n t h is ca se. T h ese p ro cesses t yp ica lly a re n o t co n scio u sÐ b u t t h ey m ay b eÐ a n d t h ey invo lve d ifferin g levels o f rea lit y d ist o r t io n . 1926 /1959). p.a n d su p erego -b a sed a n xiet y resu lted wh en im p u lses p ressed fo r a ctio n a n d t h e ego a n t icip at ed h o w it wo u ld feel if su ch im p u lses were exp ressed . resp ect ively. b eh avio u ra l im p a ir m en t . t h e id . M a la d a p t ive d efen ces a re t h o u gh t t o d evelo p a s ch ild ren a sso ciat e sit u at io n s o r im p u lses with h igh levels o f a n xiet y. 1977. Sch wa r t z. a n d a d iscu ssio n o f h is views o n a n xiet y regu lat io n id ea lly wo u ld b e co u ch ed in a gen era l p sych o a n a lyt ic t h eo ry o f a ffect. a n xiet y regu la t io n t o o k t h e fo r m o f avo id in g su ch sit u a tio n s in t h e fu t u re. 19 87. 1945. n eu ro t ic. en ergy co n su m p t io n . t h ey m ay d evelo p avo id a n t st ra t egies t h a t h ave lifelo n g ra m i® cat io n s fo r so cia l a d ju st m en t . I fo cu s o n a n xiet y. In t h is ca se. 1926/19 59).g. 19 26/19 59). In itia lly. 1994). if n o t im p o ssib le’ ’ d u e t o t h e co m p lex a n d co n ¯ ict in g d iscu ssio n s o f a ffect in F reu d ’s wr it in gs (R a p a p o rt . a n xiet y regula t io n p lays a cen t ra l ro le in p sych o a n a lyt ic t h eo r isin g. even if t h is m ea n t severe cu rt a ilm en t o f b eh avio u r. a ny at t em p t a t fo r m u la tin g su ch a co m p reh en sive p sych o a n a lyt ic t h eo r y is ``ill-a dvised . A . Tr ea tm en t co n sist s o f lea rn in g n ew ways t o regu lat e a n xiet y. 1982. W ith t h e d evelo p m en t o f t h e st r u ct u r a l m o d el o f p erso n a lit y. H a a n . 1946. su f® cien t u n p lea su re wa s gen er at ed t o su p p ress t h e im p u lse (F reu d . a n d u n n ecessa r y n o n gra t i® ca t io n o f im p u lses (F en ich el. K ryst a l. F reu d . In so d o in g. 1977). in t h e fa ce o f wild ly in co n sist en t p a ren t in g. A s t h is su m m a r y su ggest s. F reu d h eld t h a t id .

G r in ker & Sp iegel. 1976). o r d efo r m a t io n o f t h e st ru ct u re d u e t o t h e st ress (H in k le. a lth o u gh it wa s Selye wh o p o p u la rised t h e n o t io n t h a t o rga n ism s p ro du ce sim ila r ``st ress’ ’ resp o n ses t o d iver se ch a llen ges (Selye. A lth o u gh ea r ly stress resea rch fo cu sed o n resp o n ses t o physical ch a llen ges su ch a s crowd in g a n d co ld . C a t a n za ro. C o n t em p o ra r y em o t io n regu la t io n resea rch rem a in s co n cer n ed with red u cin g n egat ive em o t io n exp er ien ce t h ro u gh b eh avio u r a l o r m en t a l co n t ro l. wh o se p ro ® le va ries a cco rd in g t o wh eth er t h e st resso r is o f sh o rt d u r a tio n (a la r m ). a n d co n t inu ed t o ga in m o m en t u m a ft er t h e wa r a s a t t en t io n sh ift ed t o t h e st resses o f p ea cetim e. 1995 ). The Stress and Coping Tradition T h e seco n d im p o rt a n t p recu rso r t o co n t em p o r a r y em o t io n regu la t io n resea rch is t h e stress a n d co p in g t ra d itio n . T h is view d raws u p o n a n a n a lo gy t o p hysica l lo a d s t h at exer t a fo rce o n n a tu ra l o r m a n -m a d e st ru ct u res. .g. 1974). 19 96). o r lo n g d u ra t io n (exh a u st io n ). 1945). m o d era t e d u ra t io n (resist a n ce). Selye a rgu ed t h a t st resso rs im p in ge u p o n t h e o rga n ism . T h is t ra d itio n o r igin a t ed in t h e wo rk o f C a n n o n (1914). a s resea rch ers exp lo red t h e co n seq u en ces o f wa r o n ® gh t in g m en (e. G ro ss & M u n o z. T h e stu dy o f p sych o logica l st ress led t o a n em p h a sis o n t h e cogn itive p ro cesses req u ired t o t r a n sfo r m a n ext ern a l even t in t o so m et h in g with a d a p t ive sign i® ca n ce fo r t h e in d ivid u a l (L a za r u s. 1974). h owever. t o in clu d e t h e wa ys in wh ich in d ivid u a ls in crea se a n d d ecrea se t h e exp erien ce a n d exp ressio n o f a r a n ge o f n ega t ive a n d p o sit ive em o t io n s (P a rro t t .g. Continuities and Discontinuities. resu ltin g in a st ra in . 19 95). b u t t h ere n ow is grea t er in t erest in d irectly a ssessin g t h e fu ll r a n ge o f n o r m a l fu n ct ion in g a s well (e.554 GROSS in p a rt t h ro u gh a ``co rrect ive em o t io n a l exp erien ce’ ’ (A lexa n d er. T h is led t o d ist in ctio n s a m o n g: (a ) h ow t h e sit u a t io n wa s eva lu a t ed (p r im a r y a p p ra isa l). 1993). is co n t em p o r a r y resea rch ers’ relia n ce o n co rrelat io n a l a n d exp er im en t a l m et h o d s r at h er t h a n clin ica l rep o r t s. E m o t io n regu lat o ry styles still a re seen a s cen t r a l t o p sych o p a t h o lo gy (C icch et t i. I m p o r t in g t h ese n o t io n s t o t h e b io logica l rea lm . 1966). In t erest in st ress resea rch gr ew d u rin g Wo r ld Wa r II . resea rch ers so o n b ega n t o exp lo re resp o n ses t o psychological stresso r s a s well. T h ere a lso is a grow in g awa ren ess o f t h e d ifferen ces b etween co n scio u s a n d n o n co n scio u s em o t io n regu la t o r y p ro cesses (M ayer & Sa lovey. wh ich resp o n d s by p ro d u cin g a st ereo t yp ed st ress resp o n se. A cker m a n . T h e ® eld o f st u d y h a s b ro a d en ed . P erh a p s t h e m o st str ik ing d isco n t inu ity. & Iza rd . 1995 . 1950 ) in wh ich d rea d ed co n seq u en ces o f im p u lse exp ressio n fa il t o m at eria lise (B a sch . h o wever. 19 56.

p. wh ich wa s a im ed at ® xin g t h e p ro b lem . a n d d own wa rd so cia l co m p a r iso n (A sp in wa ll & Ta ylo r. resea rch er s b ega n t o d ist in gu ish a m o n g st resso rs. 1992) a p p ro a ch es. In itia lly.EMOTION REGULATION 555 (b ) h ow t h e o rga n ism viewed it s o wn ca p a cities t o resp o n d (seco n d a ry a p p ra isa l). I t wa s t h is la st co n st ru ct . 1992 . & C a r ver. co m m o n a lties were em p h a sised a cro ss sit u at io n s r a n gin g fro m t h e o rd in a r y. t h a t la id t h e gro u n dwo rk fo r t h e st u d y o f em o t io n regu la tio n . L ikewise. L ikew ise. a n d co p in g wa s d e® n ed a s ``co gn itive a n d b eh avio r a l effo r t s t o m a n a ge (m a st er. 1993). 19 93). su ch a s b ein g t ra p p ed in a co a l m in e (L u ca s. O n t h e co p in g sid e. Wein b t r a u b . L a za r u s (1966 ) d e® n ed har m a s a fo r m o f st ress a sso cia t ed w ith d a m a ge t h at h a s b een d o n e.g. So m er® eld . D ist in ct io n s a lso were m a d e a m o n g co p in g resp o n ses. threat a s a fo r m o f st ress a sso cia t ed with fu t u re h a r m . R esea rch er s lo n g h ave b em o a n ed t h e co n cep t u a l co n fu sio n a sso cia t ed with t h e t er m st ress (e. W ith t im e. Selye (1974) d ist in gu ish ed b etween eustressÐ a fo r m o f st ress a sso cia t io n with go o d feelin gs. H a a n . 3). 152). T h e p ro b lem is t h a t ``st ress’ ’ cover s su ch a n ext r a o rd in a ry r a n ge o f p h en o m en a t h at m a ny h ave co n clu d ed t h a t ``t h e t er m is m ea n in gless’ ’ (L evin e & U rsin . 1998 a ). O f t h e t wo t er m sÐ co p in g a n d em o t io n regu la t io n Ð co p in g is t h e b ro a d er cat ego r y. t o o. 1985. 19 91. in p a rt icu la r. St ress wa s d e® n ed a s ``a rela t io n sh ip b et ween t h e p er so n a n d t h e enviro n m en t t h a t is ap p ra ised b y t h e p erso n a s releva n t t o h is o r h er well-b ein g a n d in wh ich t h e p er so n ’s reso u rces a re t a xed o r exceed ed ’ ’ . o r t o lera t e) a t ro u b led p er so n -enviro n m en t relat io n sh ip ’ ’ (F o lk m a n & L a za ru s. which wa s a im ed a t lessen in g n ega t ive em o t io n exp erien ce. co p in g n o w seem s t o in clu d e t h e fu ll r a n ge o f b eh avio u r em itt ed b y a n in d ivid u a l in t a xin g circu m sta n ces (C o st a . E m o t io n regu la t ion resea rch er s h ave so u gh t ® n er-gra in ed d ist in ct io n s a m o n g enviro n m en t o rga n ism in t er a ct io n s t h a n a re p o ssible u n d er t h e b ro a d ru b ric o f st ress. & M cC ra e. a n d distressÐ a fo rm o f stress a sso cia t ed with b a d feelin gs. 1996). a n d em otion-focused coping. 1993. su ch a s bu yin g a m a p in o rd er t o n avigat e a n ew city. 1962 ) t o t h e ext r a o rd in a r y. su p p ressio n (G ro ss. C o p in g a lso d iffer s . su ch a s t a k in g a n exa m (M ech a n ic. 1969). em o t io n regu la t ion resea rch er s a re fo cu sin g in crea sin gly o n sp eci® c em o t io n regu la t o ry p ro cesses su ch a s r u m in a t io n (N o len -H o ek sem a . Continuities and D iscontinuities. u sin g eith er d im en sio n a l (D avid so n . 1995) o r d iscrete (E k m a n . 1989). H o b fo ll. a s it in clu d es n o n em o t io n a l a ct io n s t a ken t o a ch ieve n o n em o t io n a l go a ls (Sch eier. a n d challenge a s a fo r m o f st ress a sso cia ted with p o sit ive resp on d in g. L a n g. p. su ch a s L a za ru s a n d co llea gu es’ d ist in ctio n b et ween problem-focused coping. a n d (c) h o w t h e o rga n ism a t t em p t ed t o m a n a ge t h e t ro u bled o rga n ism -enviro n m en t rela t io n t h a t o cca sio n ed t h e st ress (co p in g). 1986). red u ce.

. 1980). Ta ke fea r. su ch a s regu la t in g exp ressive o r p hysio logica l a sp ect s o f em o t io n . exp ressive b eh avio u r. o u r m u scles a re p rim ed t o m ove u s q u ick ly o u t o f h a r m ’s way. d ays. o r in ¯ u en cin g p o sitively va len ced em o t io n s. 1995). a n d invo lve ch a nges in su b jective exp erien ce. Ber n t so n . em o t io n s a re t h o u gh t t o h ave a risen b eca u se t h ey ef® cien t ly co -o rd in at e d iver se resp o n se syst em s. a n d (c) mood s su ch a s d ep ressio n a n d eu p h o r ia . em o t io n regu la t io n resea rch h a s em erged a s a rela t ively d ist in ct d o m a in over t h e p a st t wo d eca d es (G ro ss. (b ) em otion episodes su ch a s a b a r-ro o m b rawl a n d d eliverin g b a d n ews t o a clo se fr ien d. 1994 . em o t io n s a re p a r t o f t h e la rger a ffect ive fa m ily t h a t a lso in clu d es: (a ) stress responses t o t a xin g circu m st a n ces. In p a rt icu la r. a n d d elin ea t in g in d ivid u a ls’ em o t io n regu la t o r y go a ls a n d str a tegies. & H at ® eld . P lu t ch ik . E k m a n . 1998b ). R u ssell. o r co p in g with t h e lo ss o f o n e’s sp o u se.556 GROSS fro m em o t io n regu la tio n in t h a t t h e u n it o f a n a lysis is t yp ica lly lo n ger Ð ext en d ed per io d s o f h o u rs. o r m o n t h s r at h er t h a n seco n d s o r m inu t es. F rijd a . fo r exa m p le. P a r a m ou n t co n cern s in clu d e d e® n in g em o t io n a n d em o t io n regu la t io n . If ``a ffect ’ ’ is u sed t o refer t o va len ced (``go o d -b a d ’ ’ ) rea ct io n s t o st im u li o r situ a t io n s t ha t a re m ea n in gfu l t o t h e in d ivid u a l (Sch erer. 1977. W h en we a re a fra id . L even so n . a n d o u r ca rd io va scu la r syst em is t u n ed t o p rovid e in crea sed o xygen a n d en ergy t o la rge m u scle gro u p s t h a t will b e ca lled u p o n wh en we ¯ ee. H owever. Z a jo n c & M cI n t o sh . 1992. 1986. CONTEMPORARY CONCERNS W it h p sych o a n a lyt ic a n d st ress a n d co p in g t r a d it io n s a s a b a ck d ro p. 1994). fo r exa m p le. T h ese em o t io n a l rea ct io n s t yp ica lly a re sh o rt -lived . K lein . co p in g d o es n o t en t irely su b su m e em o t io n regu la t io n : E m o t io n regu la t io n in clu d es p ro cesses n o t t yp ica lly co n sid ered in t h e co p in g lit er a t u re. I za rd . a lt h o u gh t h ere is cu rren t ly lively d eb a t e ab o u t t h e ext en t t o wh ich ea ch em o t io n ca lls fo r t h d ist in gu ish ab le. 1993. a n d cen t ra l. t h ereb y h elp in g u s resp o n d t o im p o r t a n t ch a llen ges o r o p p o r t u n it ies (L even so n . 19 92) a n d b eh avio u r a l (E k m a n . 1994) resp o n ses. 1990). D ifferen t em o t io n s a re t h o u gh t t o a d d ress d ifferen t a d a p t ive p ro b lem s (e. o u r sen ses a re sh a r p en ed . T h u s. cro sssit u at io n a lly co n sist en t p hysio lo gica l (C a cio p p o. 19 92. a u t o n o m ic a n d en d o cr in e resp o n se syst em s (L a n g. em o t io n sÐ lik e m a ny o f o u r p hysica l a t t r ib u t es a n d p sych o logica l p ro cessesÐ rep resent t im e-tested so lu t io n s t o a d a p t ive p ro b lem s (To o b y & C o sm id es. 1984). o n e m igh t sp ea k o f co p in g with a d ju st m en t t o fresh m a n yea r o f co llege.g. De® ning Emotion F ro m a n evolu t io n a ry p ersp ect ive.

P ro t o t yp ic exa m p les o f em o t io n regu lat io n a re co n scio u s. I n t h e fo llo win g. T h is u sa ge is p a rt icu la rly co m m o n in t h e d evelo p m en t a l lit er at u re (e. 1993). A seco n d im p o rt a n t d ist in ct io n is su ggested b y resea rch ers’ u se o f em o t io n regu la t io n t o refer b o t h t o h o w in d ivid u a ls in ¯ u en ce t h eir ow n em o t io n s a n d t o h o w t h ey in ¯ u en ce o t h er p eo p le’s em o t io n s. em o t io n is o ft en u sed in t erch a n geab ly with t h e su b ject ive exp er ien ce o f em o t io n . H o wever. su ch a s d ecid in g t o ch a n ge a n u p set t in g t o p ic. o r sq u elch in g la u gh t er a t a ch ild’s in ap p ro p riat e a n t ics. t h e ® rst sen se o f em o t io n regu lat io n is la rgely red u n d a n t with em o t io n . Bo t h k in d s o f em o t ion regu la tio n m u st b e exa m in ed . Sa lovey. go a ls. A t h ird d ist in ct io n co n cer n s wh et h er em o t io n regu la t io n is co n scio u s o r n o n co n scio u s (M a st er s. 1991. t h ere is gen er a l co n sen su s a m o n g em o t io n resea rch er s t h a t em o t io n s a re m u ltico m p o n en t ia lÐ sp a n n in g exp er ien t ia l. 1993. 19 91. bu t it is a lso evid en t in t h e a d u lt lit era t u re (G ro ss & L even so n . a s it m igh t refer eq u a lly well t o h o w em o t io n s regu la t e so m et h in g elseÐ su ch a s t h o u gh t s o r b eh avio u r Ð o r t o h ow em ot io n s a re t h em selves regu la t ed (D o d ge & G a r b er. 19 83).g. B eca u se virt u a lly a ll go a l-d irect ed b eh avio u r ca n b e co n st ru ed a s m a xim isin g p lea su re o r m in im isin g p a in Ð a n d t h u s a ffect regu lat o ry in so m e b ro a d sen seÐ it is im p o rt a n t t o p reven t over-in clu sivit y b y n a rro win g t h e fo cu s t o p ro cesses wh o se p roxim a l fu n ctio n is t o regu la t e em o t io n . a n d em o t io n regu lat io n t h u s m igh t b e t h o u gh t t o n ecessa r ily invo lve ch a n ges in su b jective exp er ien ce. T h is p ra ct ice lea d s t o d iscu ssio n s in wh ich st i¯ in g o n e’s o wn t ea rs a n d t ellin g so m eo n e else t o st o p a ct in g like a cryb ab y a re b o t h co n sid ered in sta n ces o f em o t ion regu la tio n . su ch a s wh en well-p r a ct ised ro u t in es b eco m e a u t o m at ised . 1994).. & M ayer. 1991). in wh ich em o t io n regu la t io n refer s t o t h e h et erogen eo u s set o f p ro cesses b y wh ich em o t io n s a re t h em selves regu la t ed . a s it m ixes t wo p o t en t ia lly q u it e d ifferen t set s o f m o t ives. a n d p hysio lo gica l d o m a in s. t h e t wo sh o u ld b e clea rly d ist in gu ish ed . 1995). M ayer & Sa lovey. a n d h o w t h ey exp erien ce a n d exp ress t h ese em o t io n s. b u t in d o in g so . H o wever. F o r t h is rea so n . In co llo q u ia l u sage.EMOTION REGULATION 557 De® ning Emotion Regulation T h e p h ra se ``em o t io n regu lat io n ’ ’ is a m b igu o u s. I n o w b elieve t h is d o u b le u sa ge is u n fo rt u n a t e. E m o t io n regu la t io n t h u s invo lves ch a n ges in o n e o r m o re o f t h ese resp o n ses syst em s a n d n eed n o t (bu t cer t a in ly ca n ) invo lve a t t em p t s t o ch a n ge t h e su b jective exp er ien ce o f em o t io n . if a p rim a ry fu n ct io n o f em o t io n is t o co -o rd in a t e d iverse resp o n se syst em s (C a m p o s et a l. wh en t h ey h ave t h em . h owever. b eh avio u ra l. I b elieve t h a t t h e seco n d u sa ge is p referab le. E xa m p les in clu d e h id in g o n e’s d isa p p o in t m en t a t a n u n a t t ra ct ive . I fo cu s o n em o t io n regu la t io n in t h e self. H see. T h o m p so n . O n e m igh t im a gin e. em o t io n regu lat o ry a ct ivit y o ccu rr in g wit h o u t co n scio u s awa ren ess. a n d st ra t egies. M a sters. b y wh ich I m ea n t h e ways in d ivid u a ls in ¯ u en ce wh ich em o t io n s t h ey h ave.

effo rt less. In d eed . C la rity ab o u t t h e n a t u re o f p ro cesses u n d er invest iga t io n is essen t ia l b eca u se t h ere m ay b e im p o rt a n t d ifferen ces in t h e a n t eced en t s a n d co n seq u en ces o f em o t io n regu lat o ry p ro cesses ch a r a ct er ised b y d ifferin g levels o f co n scio u sn ess (Wegn er & Ba rgh . wh et h er t h ro u gh im p u lsive agg ressive a ct io n . 19 98). a n d u n co n scio u s. su ch a s m ist a k in g a st ick fo r a sn a ke. H owever rea l t h e m a ny b en e® t s o f em o t io n . M a sters. ligh t in g a ciga rett e wh en a n xio u s (Bra n d o n . o r d eceit fu l sexu a l lia iso n s. P revio u s d iscu ssio n s h ave favo u red a ca tego rica l d ist in ct io n b et ween co n scio u s a n d u n co n scio u s p ro cesses. P a r t icu la rly wh en em o t io n s a re viewed a s a risin g a t m o m en t s o f ch a llen ge o r o p p o rt u n ity. effo r t fu l. su ch a s savin g o n e’s sk in by ¯ eein g a ® gh t ver su s savin g fa ce b y st a n d in g o n e’s gr o u n d .558 GROSS p resen t (C o le. 1998). P hysica l a n d so cia l enviro n m en t s h ave ch a n ged o u t o f a ll recogn it io n fro m t h o se t h a t sh a p ed o u r em o t io n s. t h a t em o t io n resp o n se t en d en cies a re a lwaysÐ o r even u su a llyÐ a p p ro p r iat e t o t h e sit u a t io n s we n ow fa ce. su ch a s p hysica lly a tt a ck in g a n irr it at in g su b o rd in at e. We k n ow relat ively lit t le ab o u t in d ivid u a ls’ em o t io n regu la t o ry go a ls. b u t it seem s in crea sin gly clea r t h a t em o t io n regu la t io n in vo lves b o t h d ecrea sin g a n d in crea sin g n egat ive a n d p o sitive em o t io n s (L a n gst o n . E m o t io n regu la t io n t h at in vo lves initiating or increasing em o t io n s m ay o ccu r . a n d co n scio u s ver su s a u t o m a t ic. T h is in n o wa y im p les. a n d t ech n o logica l a d va n ces h ave d ra m a tica lly m a gn i® ed t h e co n seq u en ces t h at o u r em o t io n a l resp o n ses m ay h ave fo r o u r selves a n d o t h ers. bu t it p ro b ably is m o re u sefu l t o t h in k o f a co n t inu u m o f p ro cesses t h a t va r y in t h e d egr ee t o wh ich t h ey a re co n t ro lled . (b ) em o t io n s a r ise fro m a n overly sim p le a p p r a isa l o f t h e sit u at io n . 1986). 1994). o r (c) em o t io n resp o n se t en d en cies co n ¯ ict with o t h er im p o rt a n t go a ls. h a st y b u sin ess d ecisio n s. 1995). P a rro t t . it is im p o rt a n t n o t t o overst a te t h e a dva n t a ges o f a ct in g in a cco rd w it h u n t ra m m eled em o t io n a l im p u lses (P a rro t t . 19 94. o r even cra ck in g a jo ke t o relieve t en sio n (F red r ick so n & L even so n . o n e is str u ck b y t h e d egr ee t o wh ich em o t io n s lea d u s t o d o t h in gs t h at ca u se su ffer in g t o o u rselves a n d t h o se a ro u n d u s. A n irritab le sw ip e t h a t o n ce sca rcely ra ised a welt. t h e im p o rt a n ce o f p ro p er regu la t io n is u n m ist a k able. h owever. t h en . wh en o n e su rveys t h e ca u ses o f h u m a n d ysfu n ct io n a n d su ffer in g. Emotion Regulatory Goals A n evo lu t io n a ry p er sp ect ive h o ld s t h a t em o t io n s en co d e sit u a t io n -resp o n se d ep en d en cies t h a t h ave p roven va lu ab le over t h e sweep o f m illen n ia (To o by & C o sm id es. 1991. 19 90). E m o t io n regu la t io n t h a t invo lves decreasing em o t io n s m ay o ccu r wh en : (a ) em o t io n s p rom p t b eh avio u r a l resp o n ses t h at a re n o lo n ger u sefu l. is n o w t r a n slat ed w it h t h e grea t est ea se in t o a fa t a l ca r a ccid en t o r gu n -rela t ed h o m icid e. 1993).

a n d it is t h is m o d u la tio n t h a t gives ® n a l sh ap e t o m a n ifest em o t io n a l resp o n ses. em o t io n b egin s with a n eva lu a t io n o f ext er n a l o r in t ern a l em o t io n cu es. Emotion Regulatory Processes W h a t in d ivid u a ls wa n t t o a ch ieve a s t h ey in ¯ u en ce t h eir em o t io n sÐ t h eir em o t io n regu la t o ry go a lsÐ m ust b e d ist in gu ish ed fro m t h e p ro cesses t h ey in vo ke in o rd er t o a ch ieve t h ese go a ls. a n d p hy sio logica l em o t io n resp o n se t en d en cies. b u t o n e wish es t o m u st er a n a p p ro p ria t ely en t h u sia st ic resp o n se t o a n o t h er ’s go o d n ew s. a n d o n e wa n t s t o su m m o n a m o re p o sitive em o t io n a l st a te b efo re ca llin g o n frien d s. P lu t ch ik . Situ at io n select io n a n d sit u a t io n m o d i® ca t io n h elp sh ap e t h e in d ivid u a l’s sit u a t io n . 19 86. T h is refers t o m o d ifyin g t h e lo ca l enviro n m en t so a s t o a lter it s em o t io n a l im p a ct . regu la to ry str at egies m ay a ct o n t h e sit u a t io n it self. situation modification is st ill p o ssib le. exp erien t ia l. To m k in s. Sit u a t io n s h ave m a ny a sp ect s. 1998b ). T h is m o d el is a d ist illa t io n o f m a jo r p oin t s o f co nvergen ce a m o n g em o t io n resea rch ers wh o em p h a sise b io lo gica l b a ses o f em o t io n (m a jo r co n t r ibu t o r s t o t h is t r a d it io n in clu d e: A r n o ld . F irst . L a za ru s. T h is refer s t o a p p ro a ch in g o r avo id in g cert a in p eo p le o r sit u a t io n s o n t h e b a sis o f t h eir likely em o t io n a l im p a ct . 1985. keep in g in m in d t h at em o t io n regu lat o r y go a ls m ay b e n o n co n scio u s. o r sh ift s a t t en t io n away fro m t h e im m ed ia t e sit u at io n a lt o get h er (D er ryb erry & R o t h b a rt . T h ese resp o n se t en d en cies m ay b e m o d u la t ed . O n e way t o o rga n ise t h ese em o t io n regu la to ry p ro cesses is b y d r awin g o n a co n sen su a l p ro cess m o d el o f em o t io n gen era t io n . Sca r r a n d M cC a rt n ey (1983) h ave ca lled t h is n ich e p ick in g. 1980. E k m a n . 1972. o r (b ) o n e d esires t o rep la ce o n e em o t io n with a n o t h er. 1988) t o . 1962). F r ijd a . & T h err ia u lt . A cco rd in g t o t h is m o d el. O n ce o n e is in a n em o t io n -elicitin g sit u a t io n . 19 77. Sch erer. wh ich fo cu ses o n n o n em o t io n -releva n t a sp ects o f t h e sit u at io n .EMOTION REGULATION 559 wh en : (a ) em o t io n resp o n se t en d en cies a re la ck in g b eca u se o n e’s m in d is elsewh ere. 1960. em o t io n regu la t o r y p ro cesses m ay b e seen a s t a rget in g o n e o r m o re o f ® ve p o in t s in t h e em o t io n -gen er at ive p ro cess (G ro ss. su ch a s wh en o n e is feelin g d ow n . O n e resea rch p r io rity is t o d evelo p a b et t er u n d er st a n d in g o f wh at in d ivid u a ls a re t r yin g t o a cco m p lish wh en t h ey regu la t e t h eir em o t io n s. a n d attentional deploym ent refer s t o h ow in d ivid u a ls d irect t h eir a t t en t io n w it h in a given sit u a t io n in o rd er t o in ¯ u en ce t h eir em o t io n s. it a lso is p o ssib le t o regu la t e em o t io n s with o u t a ct u a lly ch a n gin g t h e enviro n m en t . H owever. Bu ck . 1991. U sin g t h is sch em e. Wegn er. 1996). a n d t h a t t h ey a re likely t o b e h igh ly co n t ext -sen sit iveÐ su ch a s m a t ch in g t h e em o t io n a l sta t e o f a n a n t icip a t ed in t er a ct io n p a rt n er (E r b er. 19 84. C er t a in eva lu a t io n s t rigger a co -o rd in at ed set o f b eh avio u r a l. T h e m o st fo r wa rd -lo o k in g a p p ro a ch m igh t b e ca lled situation selection. Iza rd . T h is in clu d es a tt en t io n a l st ra t egies ra n gin g fro m d ist ra ctio n .

a n d select ively a t t en d ed t o. Cognitive change refers t o eva lu at in g t h e sit u a t io n o n e is in so a s t o a lt er its em o t io n a l signi® ca n ce. a s wh en o n e im a gin es t h a t gr ap h ic n ews fo o t a ge h a s b een fa ked . E ven a fter a sit u a t io n h a s b een selected . E ver yd ay exp er ien ce is rep let e with effo r t s t o m a n ip u la t e em o t io n -exp ressive b eh avio u r. Response m odulation refer s t o in ¯ u en cin g em o t io n resp o n se t en d en cies o n ce t h ey a rise. 19 90. O n e p o wer fu l m ea n s o f em o t io n regu la t io n . wh ich fo cu ses a tt en t io n o n t h e sit u a t io n a n d its em o t io n a l im p lica t io n s (N o len -H o ek sem a . 19 77). h elp in g o t h er s (Sch a ller & C ia ld in i. I illu st ra t e cu r ren t em o t io n regu la t ion resea rch b y d escr ib in g p ro m isin g resea rch o n b a sic p ro cesses a n d in d ivid u a l d ifferen ces in a d u lt em o t io n regu la t io n (fo r a review o f t h e lit era t u re o n em o t io n regu la t io n in ch ild ren . m y fo cu s is o n t h e regu la t io n o f n egat ive em o t io n s. o r in crea se em o t io n a l resp o n d in g. 1995). a n d p h a r m a co logic m ea n s a ll m ay b e u sed t o m o d ify em o t io n exp er ien ce in d irect ly. R e¯ ect in g t h e b ia s in co n t em p o ra r y resea rch . a lth o u gh cogn it ive.560 GROSS r u m in a tio n . seek in g so cia l su p p o rt (R ip p ere. 19 94). CONTEMPORARY RESEARCH A growin g sen se o f sh a red p u r p o se in t h e d o m a in o f em o t io n regu la t io n h a s led t o gr ea ter co n t a ct b et ween p revio u sly d isp a ra t e resea rch p ro gr a m s. a n d m a k in g so cia l co m p a riso n s (Taylo r & L o b el. I n t h e fo llo win g sect io n s. u sin g d r u gs (M o rris & R eilley. m o d i® ed . Reappraisal. it is t h e in d ivid u a l’s eva lu at io n o f t h a t situ a tio n t h a t is em o t io n -gen era t ive. a s well a s p hysio lo gica l resp o n d in g. Sm ith & P et t y. R ea p p ra isa l . b eh avio u r a l. 1998b ). 1989). it still is p o ssible t o a lt er its em o t io n a l im p a ct . I t is w id ely agr eed t h a t a sit u a t io n t yp ica lly d o es n o t in a n d o f itself gen era t e em o t io n . t h erefo re. N ewm a n & M cC la in . is t o m o d ify t h e way a sit u a t io n is eva lu at ed . exercisin g (T h ayer. 1990). In t h e fo llowin g. R a t h er. su ch a s slowin g o n e’s b rea t h in g ra t e. 1993 ). 19 87). su ch a s h id in g a n ger a t a n o ffen sive rem a rk . It is less cer t a in wh eth er em o t io n exp erien ce ca n b e m o d i® ed d irect ly. in clu d in g: R eca llin g m o o d -in co n gr u en t m em o r ies (P a rro t t & Sa b in i. Su ch rea p p ra isa ls m ay d ecrea se em o t io n a l resp o n d in g. 1990). see T h o m p so n . Basic Processes A va riet y o f em o t io n regu la t o r y p ro cesses h ave a t t r a ct ed a tt en t io n . eit her by ch a n gin g h ow o n e t h in k s ab o u t t h e sit u a t io n o r ab o u t o n e’s ca p a city t o m a n a ge t h e d em a n d s it p o ses. a s wh en o n e rein t erp ret s a jo k e a s a t h in ly veiled in su lt. I fo cu s o n t wo b a sic p ro cessesÐ rea p p ra isa l a n d su p p ressio n Ð t h at rep resen t t wo m a jo r p o in t s in t h e em o t io n gen er a t ive p ro cess a t wh ich em o t io n s ca n b e regu la t ed (G ro ss.

1993.g. O n Ja m es’ (1884) view. 1998a . rea p p r a isa l m igh t b e exp ect ed t o b e m o re effect ive in co m p lex so cia l sit u a t io n s. p rid e. If so. M o st st u d ies d esign ed t o t est t h is hyp o t h esis co n cen t ra t ed o n t h e em o t io n gen era tio n a sp ect o f t h e hyp o t h esis. L a za ru s & A lfer t . 1984. K a t z & E p st ein . 1998a . H owever. L a n zet t a . a n d in d eed .g.g. d isgu st. p a in . 1986). C o n t em p o ra r y in t erest in t h e effect s o f in h ib itin g em o t io n -exp ressive b eh avio u r ca n b e t r a ced t o W illia m Ja m es.g. L a za ru s. 1998a . 1977. . H owever.g. 1964). 19 80). W hy m igh t t h is b e? O n e p o ssib ilit y is t h at co gn itive ap p ra isa ls p lay a lim ited ro le in t h e gen er at io n o f p hysio lo gica l resp o n se t en d en cies in t h e co n t ext o f gr a p h ic su rgery ® lm s (L eD o u x. W h at is k n o wn su ggest s t h a t in h ib itin g exp ressive b eh avio u r d ecrea ses self-rep o r t ed exp er ien ce o f so m e em o t io n s (e. resu lts t o d a t e d o n o t su p p o rt t h e view t h a t su p p ressio n is t h e sim p le o p p o sit e o f exa ggera t io n . Sup pression. sa d n ess) (fo r a review. L ea d in g su b ject s t o rea p p ra ise n ega t ive em o t io n -elicitin g ® lm s h a s b een sh ow n t o d ecrea se n egat ive em o t io n exp erien ce (C a n t o r & W ilso n . & K leck . L a n zet t a . St em m ler (1997 ) h a s sh o wn t h at reap p ra isa l in st r u ct io n s led t o d ecrea sed p hysio lo gica l resp o n d in g fo r su b ject s wh o a n exp er im en t er ver b a lly h a r a ssed . em o t io n -exp ressive b eh avio u r wa s so im p o r t a n t t o em o t io n t h a t go in g t h ro u gh t h e o u t wa rd m o t io n s o f a n em o t io n a l st a te co u ld give rise t o t h a t feelin g. P hysio logica lly. G ro ss & L even so n . see G ro ss & L even so n . 1997). G ro ss. M eich en b a u m . C a r t wr igh t -Sm it h . d esp ite its wid e cu r ren cy. b u t n o t o t h ers (e. 1997). 1987 ). 19 76). In d eed . F ewer st u d ies h ave t est ed p red ict io n s rega rd in g t h e su p p ressio n o f o n go in g em o t io n a l b eh avio u r. O n e va ria n t o f t h is hyp o t h esis ca m e t o b e k n own a s t h e ``fa cia l feed b a ck hyp o t h esis’ ’ (Bu ck . in h ib itin g exp ressive b eh avio u r wh ile wa itin g fo r a p a in fu l sh o ck lea d s t o d ecrea sed sk in co n d u ct a n ce rea ct ivit y (C o lb y. U n fo rt u n a t ely. even t h e hyp o t h esis t h a t co gn itive str a tegies m ay b e u sed t o d ecrea se n ega t ive em o t io n Ð wh ich is wh at we k n o w m o st ab o u t Ð h a s a su r p r isin gly m o d est em p ir ica l fo u n d a t io n . 1991) a n d st ress red u ct io n (e. G ro ss. 1993).EMOTION REGULATION 561 p lays a key ro le in t h eo r ies o f em o t io n (e. co n co m ita n t d ecrea ses in p hysio logica l resp o n d in g a re o ft en n o t o b served (e. bu t t h e effect s o f in h ib itin g em o t io n a l resp o n ses t o o t h er n egat ive st im u li h ave in clu d ed sign s o f in crea sed sym p at h etic a ct ivat io n (G ro ss. 19 89). a n d lim it in g exp ressive b eh avio u r co u ld d ecrea se t h e a sso ciat ed feelin gs. St ep t o e & Vo gele. a s it wa s a ssu m ed t h a t in h ib it in g o n go in g em o t io n exp ressive b eh avio u r wo u ld sim p ly h ave t h e o p p o sit e effect s fro m vo lu n t a rily p ro d u cin g em o t io n -exp ressive b eh avio u r (G ro ss & L even so n . 1990. & K leck . 1991. D a n d o y & G o ld st ein . O n e im p o rt a n t d irect io n fo r fu t u re resea rch is t o u se rea p p ra isa l a s a p ro b e t o cla r ify t h e n at u re o f cogn it ive p ro cessin g in em o t io n gen era t io n a n d regu la tio n . in it ia t in g em o t io n -exp ressive b eh avio u r seem s t o in crea se t h e feelin g o f t h at em o t io n sligh t ly (M a t su m o t o. 1985). a n d a m u sem en t ).

1989). 1979). sen sat io n seek in g (Z u cker m a n . 1997). Individual Differences E m ot io n regu la t io n a lways t a kes p la ce in t h e co n t ext o f a p a r ticu la r in d ivid u a l. a n d co n scio u s. R elat ed co n str u ct s in clu d e: m o n ito rin g/b lu n t in g (M iller. R u m in at io n is effo rt fu l. C o n st ru ct s m o st clo sely relat ed t o em o t io n regu lat io n in clu d e: E m o t io n a l co n tro l (Ro ger & N a ja ria n . T h is refer s t o ``b eh avio u rs a n d t h o u gh t s t h a t fo cu s o n e’s a t t en t io n o n o n e’s d ep ressive sym p t o m s’ ’ (N o len -H o ek sem a . 1985). in p ress). co n t ro lled . 1991 ). a ny sep a r at io n b et ween t h e st u dy o f b a sic em o t io n regu lat o ry p rocesses a n d ind ivid u a l d ifferen ces in su ch p ro cesses m u st b e rega rd ed a s a t em p o r a ry co nven ien ce rat h er t h a n a lo n g-ter m st ra t egy (see G ro ss. Bagb y. Beca u se in d ivid u a ls d iffer b o t h in th e em o t io n s t h ey exp erien ce a n d in t h e way t h ey regu lat e t h ese em o t io n s. b eh avio u r a l inh ib itio n (K aga n. 1980). d isp o sit io n a l r u m in a tio n h a s m o d era t e st ab ilit y over p er io d s a s lo n g a s o n e yea r (Ju st & A lloy. & P arker. 1997). 19 89). co n stra in t (Tellegen . R ezn ick . 1989). Sch eier. co n str u ctive t h in k in g (E p stein & M eier. R at h er t h a n at t em p t in g a co m p reh en sive review. 1991. a n d ru m in at io n /d ist ra ctio n (N o len -H o ek sem a . 1990). 1989). W h en a ssessed b y N o len -H o ek sem a ’s R esp o n se St yles Q u estio n n a ire (N o len -H o ek sem a & M o rro w. a lexit hym ia (Taylo r. p. 1993). 1996). co p in g style (C a r ver. su ch a s em o t io n a l exp er ien ce. & Wein t ra u b. 1990). a lt h o u gh its a ct u a l effect is u su a lly t h e o p p o sit e. & G ibb o n s.562 GROSS F u t u re resea rch sh o u ld exp lo re t h e ext en t t o wh ich t h e in h ib it io n o f exp ressive b eh avio u r h a s co n sist en t effect s a cro ss em o t io n s. im p u lsivit y (E ysen ck & E ysen ck. ego co n tro l (Blo ck & Blo ck . a n d wo rr yin g ab o u t h avin g yet a n o t h er sleep less n igh t . 1990). a n d em o t io n a l in t elligen ce (Sa lo vey & M ayer. Rumination. 569). a n d seem s t o b e a im ed a t red u cin g d ep ressive feelin gs. fo cu sin g o n feelin gs o f t ired n ess o r b o d ily p a in s. a m b iva len ce over em o t io n a l exp ressivit y (K in g & E m m o n s. 1987). d elay o f gr at i® cat ion (M isch el. a n d t est wh et h er t h ese effect s a re sim ila r t o t h o se o f a t t em p t in g t o in h ib it o t h er a sp ect s o f t h e em o t io n a l resp o n se. o n e m a jo r im p ed im en t t o t a k in g a process-o r ien t ed ap p ro a ch t o p er so n a lit y is t h a t in d ivid u a l d ifferen ces in em o t io n regu lat io n h ave b een stu d ied u n d er a d isco n cert in gly la rge nu m b er o f ru b rics. 19 74). H igh er levels o f d isp o sit io n a l ru m in a t io n . rep ressio n (Wein b erger. n ega t ive m oo d regu lat ion (C a ta n za ro. H owever. E xa m p les in clu d e dw ellin g o n p ro b lem s o n e is h avin g at wo rk . 1969). I illu strat e recen t resea rch o n ind ivid u a l d ifferen ces in em o t io n regu lat io n b y fo cu sin g on t wo well-st u d ied in d ivid u a l d ifferen cesÐ ru m in a tion a nd rep ressio n Ð t h at were selected t o rep resen t con scio u s a n d n o n co n scio u s em o t io n regu lat o r y p ro cesses t h a t va ry d ia m et rica lly in t h eir u se o f at t en t io n.

a n d lo n ger d ep ressive ep iso d es (N o len -H o ek sem a . R ep resso r s rep o r t feelin g low levels o f a n xiet y (b y d e® n it io n ). 1980). Beh avio u r a lly.. fro m a b ro a d er em o t io n regu la t o r y p ersp ect ive. p. N o len -H o ek sem a .. o n e m igh t exp ect t h at ru m in a t io n in t h e co n t ext o f o t h er em o t io n a l st at es su ch a s a n ger. 19 97). N o len -H o ek sem a . N o len -H o ek sem a . a s sh o wn b y gr ea ter fro n t a lis regio n elect ro m yo gr ap h ic (E M G ) a ct ivit y (Wein b erger et a l. Repression . Sch wa r t z. 1983). o r a n xiet y wo u ld h ave co m p a rable co n seq u en ces in t er m s o f p ro d u cin g m o re in t en se a n d lo n ger-la st in g ep iso d es o f ea ch o f t h ese em o t io n s. 1997. & M essin a . 1979). 30 8) h a s a rgu ed t h a t ``it is m o re ef® cien t a n d p o t en t ia lly u sefu l t o fo cu s o n p eo p le’s styles o f resp o n d in g t o t h e sp eci® c m o o d st a t es t h a n t o u t ilize m o re glo b a l co n st r u ct s’ ’ . 1997. rep resso rs sh ow d ecrea sed exp ressive b eh avio u r (L even so n . M cBr id e. H o wever. in crea sed co r t iso l levels (Bro wn et a l. M o rro w. A sen d o rp f & Sch erer. rep ressio n a pp ea rs t o b e a n a u t o m a t ic a t t en t io n a l d efen ce aga in st u n p lea sa n t st im uli (B o n a n n o & Sin ger. & F red r ick so n . E xp lo rin g in d ivid u a l d ifferen ces in ru m in a t io n with o t h er em o t io n a l sta t es is a clea r resea rch p r io rity in t h is a rea . m o re severe d ep ressive sym p t o m s (Ju st & A lloy. p o ssib ly invo lvin g in crea sed a t t en t io n t o p lea sa n t t h o u gh t s (Bo d en & Ba u m eist er. M aym a n . N o len -H o ek sem a & M o rro w. 1997. I n t h e co n t ext o f a n a n a lysis o f sex d ifferen ces in d ep ressio n . a lt h o u gh t h ey d o la ck t h e seco n d a r y em o t io n s t h a t u su a lly a cco m p a ny a n em o t io n exp er ien ce (D avis. L even so n et a l. P a rker. I n co n t ra st t o t h e co n t ro lled a tt en t io n t o d ep ressive feelin gs t h a t ch a ra ct erises ru m in a t io n . 1987. M a d es.EMOTION REGULATION 563 a re a sso cia t ed with gr eat er likelih o o d o f d evelo p in g d ep ressive sym p t o m s (Ju st & A lloy. a n d in crea sed sym p a t h et ic a ct iva tio n (e. In t erest in gly. E glo ff & K ro h n e. N o len -H o ek sem a (1993. rep resso rs’ capac ity fo r n ega t ive em o t io n exp erien ce a p p ea rs u n d im in ish ed . bu t see M cF a rla n d & Bu eh ler. h u n d red s o f stu d ies h ave exa m in ed t h e rep ressive co p in g st yle. 1997). 1996). 1993). 19 96. & M eek . a lth o u gh t h is in h ib itio n o f exp ressive b eh avio u r m ay n o t b e evid en t when su b ject s do n o t k n ow t h ey a re b ein g o b served (e. rep resso rs t en d t o b e m o re a ro u sed p hysio lo gica lly t h a n o t h er su b jects wh o rep o rt lo w a n xiet y. 1993). Sin ce t h e 1950s. K o h lm a n n . 1993 . R epr essive t en d en cies a re t yp ica lly o p era t io n a lised a s lo w sco res o n a t ra it a n xiet y m ea su re in co m b in a t io n with h igh sco res o n a so cia l d esir ab ilit y m ea su res t h at t ap s d efen siven ess (Wein b erger. . H a n sen & H a n sen . 1994).. 1988). 1996). & L a rso n . 1991. Weid n er. 1979). C lin icia n ju d gem en t s o f d efen siven ess a lso h ave b een u sed (Sh ed ler.g. P hysio logica lly. 1990) a n d a cco m p a nyin g a ffect ive a ro u sa l (K ro h n e. & L a r so n . gu ilt . 19 96).g. a n d t h ese rep o rt s m ay re¯ ect less freq u en t n ega tive em o t io n exp er ien ce. 1996. a n d t h ere recen t ly h a s b een a ren a issa n ce o f in t erest in t h is co n str u ct (E glo ff & K ro h n e. & D avid so n . & M a n is.

exp er ien t ia l. What Is Regulated in Emotion Regulation? T h o m p so n (1994) ra ises t h e im p o rt a n t q u estio n a s t o wh at is regu la t ed in em o t io n regu la tio n . em o t io n regu la t io n m ay b e in fer red wh en a n em o t io n a l resp o n se wo u ld h ave p ro ceed ed in . h elp in g t o sh a rp en q u est io n s ab o u t p o in t s o f co nvergen ce a n d d ivergen ce a m o n g p ro cesses.564 GROSS 19 80. em o t io n resp o n se co m p o n en t s a re n o t o r io u sly lo o sely in t erk n it (L a n g. we n eed a m o re co m p let e u n d er sta n d in g o f t h e relat io n s a m o n g em o t io n resp o n se co m p o n en t s b o t h wh en in d ivid u a ls regu la t e a n d wh en t h ey d o n o t regu la t e t h eir em o t io n s. d u r a t io n . & St ern b a ch . THEORETICAL CHALLENGES AND FUTURE DIRECTIONS T h is selective review o f recen t resea rch d em o nst ra tes t h e in t egr a t ive p ower o f t h e co n st ru ct o f em o t io n regu la t io n . I d iscu ss ® ve o f t h e m o st p ressin g o f t h ese ch a llen ges. H o wever. I h ave su ggest ed t h at em o t io n regu la t io n invo lves ch a nges in b eh avio u ra l. r ise t im e. o r t h e la t en cy. To m eet t h is ch a llen ge. R ice. 1992. N ewt o n & C o n t ra d a . a n d t o a ssess m o re p recisely wh ere in t h e em o t io n gen era t ive p ro cess rep resso rs regu la t e em o t io n . t h ese ch a n ges in vo lve a ltera t io n s in ``em o t io n d yn a m ics’ ’ (T h o m p so n . A p p a ren t ly d isp a ra t e co n cern s a re b ro u gh t u n d er o n e ro o f. F u t u re resea rch w ill b e need ed t o cla rify rep resso rs’ t yp ica l p at t er n s o f em o t io n a l exp er ien ce a n d exp ressio n . How Can One Tell When Emotion Is Regulated? D e® n in g em o t io n regu la t io n in t er m s o f ch a n ges in em o t io n resp o n ses b egs t h e q u est io n : C h a n ges co m p a red w ith wh a t ? P resu m ab ly. Wein b erger. su ch a s wh en la rge in crea ses in p hysio logica l resp o n d in g o ccu r in t h e ab sen ce o f overt b eh avio u r. E m o t io n regu la t io n a lso m ay invo lve ch a n ges in h o w resp o n se co m p o n en t s a re in t er rela ted a s t h e em o t io n u n fo ld s over t im e. Beca u se em o t io n s u n fo ld o ver t im e. t h e n o t io n o f em o t io n regu la t io n a lso p o ses a nu m b er o f serio u s t h eo ret ica l ch a llen ges. a n d /o r p hysio lo gica l resp o n ses. I n t h e fo llow in g sect io n s. Sp ecifyin g p recisely wha t is regu la ted Ð a n d wh et h er em o t io n regu lat io n h a s t a ken pla ce at a llÐ is o n e o f t h e m o st ser io u s ch a llen ges t h is a rea fa ces. H owever. 1990). a n d in feren ces ab o u t em o t io n regu la t io n b a sed o n d iscrep a n cies a cro ss resp o n se ch a n n els m u st b e m a d e w it h ca u t io n . a n d su ggest a nu m b er o f d irect io n s fo r fu t u re resea rch . 1972). 1990). m a gn it u d e. a n d o ffset o f resp o n ses in o n e o r m o re d o m a in s.

em o t io n a l resp o n ses va r y a s a fu n ct io n o f su b t le enviro n m en t a l cu es (G ro ss & L even so n . 19 84). in wh ich ca se t wo h idd en p ro cessesÐ em o t io n a n d em o t io n regu la t io n Ð a re invo k ed t o exp la in t o a n o n resp o n se (F r ijd a . a s a tt em p t s at elicit in g em o t io n in t h e lab o r at o r y h ave a m p ly d em o n str a t ed . 1996). let a lo n e t h e effect s o f d isp o sitio n a l va riab les. a n d it n o w a p p ea r s t h a t cla ssica lly co n d it io n ed resp o n ses a re n o t era sed wh en t h ey a re ext in gu ish ed . m u ch m o re w ill n eed t o b e lea rn ed ab o u t b a sic em o t io n a l resp o n ses. . E m o t io n regu la tio n t h u s req u ires a fo rm id ab le level o f cert a in t y ab o u t em o t io n in it s u n regu lat ed st at e. 1986). d iscu ssio n s o f em o t io n regu la t io n b eco m e p o std ict io n s t h a t ca n exp la in a ny p a t t er n o f ® n d in gs (K a p p a s. & L eD o u x. 1986). A co n cep t io n o f rela t ive regu la tio n seem s m o re a p p ro p r iat e. G iven t h e wid e ra n ge o f n eu ra l p ro cesses im p licat ed in em o t io n . a d u lt em o t io n is a lm o st a lways regu la t ed in o n e way o r a n o t h er (To m k in s. I n d eed . 1986). h o wever. su ch a s n eu ro t icism (G ro ss. A lso . su ch a s sex (K r in g & G o rd o n . d o esn’t t h e t er m em o t io n regu la t io n lo se it s va lu e? I wo u ld a rgu e t h a t t h e q u est io n ``I s em o t io n ever not regula t ed ?’ ’ is m islea d in g. W it h o u t t h is. L itt le is k n own ab o u t t h e co m p lexit ies o f n o rm a t ive em o t io n a l resp o n d in g. Su t t o n . T h is is p a rt icu la r ly t ru e when em o t io n regu lat io n is invo ked t o exp la in a la ck o f em o t io n wh ere em o t io n m igh t b e exp ected . p ro b ab ilist ic sta t em en t s ca n b e m a d e ab o u t em o t io n regu lat io n in a ny given ca se. A n exp ressio n less fa ce in so m eo n e wh o t yp ica lly gesticu lat es wild ly a t t h e sligh t est excu se m ay b e r ich with m ea n in g.EMOTION REGULATION 565 o n e fa sh io n . A ft er a ll. so m e t h eo rist s h ave resp o n d ed t o t h is in t erd igit a t io n o f em o t io n -regu la t o ry a n d em o t io n -gen era t ive p ro cesses b y a rgu in g t h a t em o t io n regu la t io n is p a rt a n d p a rcel o f em o t io n (F rijd a . Is Emotion Ever Not Regulated? P ro cesses su b servin g em o t io n regu la t io n a re t igh t ly in t ert w in ed w it h t h o se in vo lved in em o t io n gen era t io n . 1998). To sp ecify wh en Ð a n d wh et h er Ð em o t io n regu lat io n h a s o ccur red . 19 95). If em o t io n cen t res in t h e lim b ic syst em a re t o n ica lly rest ra in ed b y o t h er b ra in regio n s su ch a s t h e p erfro n t a l co rt ex (St u ss & Ben so n . b u t in st ea d p ro ceed s in a n o t h er. in t h a t it su gg est s a n a ll-o rn o n e a ffa ir. it will b e a ch a llen ge t o d r aw a clea r lin e b et ween em o t io n a n d em o t io n regu la tio n . In feren ces su ch a s t h ese a re fr a u gh t with d a n ger. R o m a sk i. T h is m ea n s t h at a t b est . a n d gro u p d ifferen ces. b u t ra t h er su p p ressed (M o rga n . 1998). b u t t h a t sa m e la ck o f exp ressio n in so m eo n e wh o ra rely sh ow s a ny sign o f em o t io n is m u ch less stro n gly su ggest ive o f em o t io n regu la tio n . T h is m ea n s t h a t em o t io n regu la t io n ca n n o t b e in ferred u n less t h e sit u a t io n a s p erceived b y t h e in d ivid u a l sh o u ld h ave elicited a d ifferen t em o t io n resp o n se p ro ® le t h a n t h e o n e t h a t wa s sh o wn . 1993). & K etela a r.

E m m o n s. O n e im p o r t a n t d irect io n fo r fu t u re resea rch is t o ch a r t t h e im m ed iat e a n d lo n ger-t er m co n seq u en ces o f d ifferen t fo r m s o f em o t io n regu la t io n in t h e co n t ext o f d ifferen t em o t io n a l st a t es. 1984 ) a n d a d u lts (K in g. su ch a s m o o d regu la t io n (C a rver & Sch eier. G iven t h e em ergin g co nsen su s t h at d iscrete a n d d im en sio n a l levels o f a n a lysis are co m p at ib le rat h er th an in com p etitio n with o n e a n o t h er. a n d t h o se t h at regu la t e t h o u gh t s (e.g. in o n e em o t io n a l co n t ext . a ggressio n . 19 97). & Ta n n o ck . th irst. wh erea s su p p ressin g n ega t ive em o t io n -exp ressive b eh avio u r d o es n o t h ave co m p a r ab le effect s. 1992). It seem s rea so n able. & R o t h b a rt . G ro ss & L even so n . m o d els o f em o t io n regu la t io n a n d m o o d regu la tion even tu ally m ay t a ke t h eir p la ce in su p ero rd in at e m o d els o f a ffect regulat io n . 1998a . 1990. t o m a in t a in d ist in ctio n s b etween p ro cesses t h at regu la te em o t io n . T h ese issu es seem cert a in t o at tr a ct co n t inu ed in terest. 1998 ) o r well-lea rn t o pera n t resp o n ses (e. b u t o n e im p o rt a n t d ifferen ce h a s em erged . 1993 ).g. P ien . a s research ers fro m a va riet y o f h o m e d om a in s (e. Wegn er & Ba rgh . 1996 . 19 93. t h o u gh t co n t ro l (Wegn er. How Does Emotion Regulation Relate to Other Forms of Impulse Regulation? E m o t io n a l im p u lses are by n o m ea n s t h e o n ly im p u lses with wh ich we m u st co nt en d . su bst an ce abu se. M a n uscr ip t r eceived 2 M a r ch 1999 . u sin g a fo cu sed set o f resp o n se m ea su res (e. d ecrea ses a m u sem en t exp er ien ce. 1996) b egin t o fash io n stro n ger em p irica l lin k s a cross d iverse fo r m s o f self-regu lat io n . 1996). O t h er s h ave exa m in ed em o t io n regu la tio n in fa r m o re gen er a l t er m s u sin g a b ro a d a rr ay o f resp o n se m ea su res (E isen b erg et a l.g. I n m y ow n m u ltim eth o d wo rk o n em o t io n su p p ressio n (G ro ss.g. R eed . in t h a t su p p ressin g p o sit ive em o t io n -exp ressive b eh avio u r su ch a s a m u sem en t .566 GROSS What Level of Analysis Should Be Used? So m e resea rch ers h ave a ssessed t h e co n seq u en ces o f o n e o r t wo sp eci® c fo rm s o f em o t io n regu la t io n . & Wo o d ley. N o len -H o ek sem a . It is less o bvio u s wh et h er p ro cesses t h at regu late em ot io n a l im p u lses sh ou ld b e d ist ingu ish ed fro m t h o se th at regu la te im p u lses a sso ciat ed with h u n ger. em o t io n regu lat io n : see Ba u m eist er & H eat h ert on . T h ayer. 1994). In it ia l evid en ce su ggest s m o d est co rrelat io n s a m on g m ea su res o f im p u lse regu lat io n in ch ild ren (K o p p. 1982 .. 1997) o n t h e o t h er. a n d still o t h er for m s o f im p ulse regu lat io n (Ba u m eist er & H ea th ert o n . O n e p ressin g q u est io n is ho w em o tio n regulat io n relat es t o o t h er fo rm s o f regu la tio n . 1995). 1985). Blo ck & Blo ck . I h ave b een m o re im p ressed with sim ila rities t h a n d ifferen ces in t h e effect s o f em o t io n su p p ressio n a cro ss em o t io n s. Sch a cha r. 1980). L o ga n . an d sexu a l a ro u sa l (Bu ck . weigh t loss. aggressio n . h owever. o n th e o n e h a n d .

psychopathology. E . 92.R . The mind in con¯ ict. I L : U n iver sity o f C h icago P r ess.).J. 256±28 2. D . 783±915). and social relations: The M innesota symposia on child psychology (Vo l. . H illsda le. T h e ro le o f ego-con tro l an d ego -r esiliency in th e o r gan ization of beh avior. C . J. affect. Ba sch. T h e in ter r elat io n s o f em o t io ns a s su gg est ed by r ecen t p hysio lo gica l resea r ches. & W ilso n . K . C. G o l d s m i t h . b -A d r en ergic a ctiva t io n a n d m em or y fo r em o t ion a l even ts. & D avid so n . J.. T h e p sych o p hysio lo gy o f em o tio n . Nature. . (1994). So cio em o tion a l d evelo pm ent . I n M . 305±339). & Blo ck. In W.B. and health (p p. C a n n o n . F. 38. K a lin . M onographs of the Journal of the Am erican Psychoanalytic Associa tion. 708±722 . 45. 45±62. O r t h .H . N ew Yo rk : C o lu m bia U n iver sit y P r ess. Bu ck . Br o w n . K . J. R . T. C a nt or. P. T h e d iscr epa n t r ep r esso r : D iffer en tia tio n b etween low a n xiety. 109±142). Development of cognition. .. 702±704.F.. 389±413. D . (1976). & Ba r ret t. 435± 470).. H and book of child psychology (Vo l.J. C a m p o s (E d s. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. (1980). 39±51). Br a n do n . (1996). Handbook of emotions (p p. 3.G . R ep ressive p erso n ality st yle: T h eo r et ica l a n d m eth o d ologica l im p licat io n s fo r h ea lt h a n d p a th o lo gy. M o d ifyin g fea r r esp o n se s to m a ss m ed ia in pr esch oo l a n d elem en ta r y sch o o l ch ild ren . (198 5). & Sch erer. (1993). J. I n J.G . (1984). C T: I n tern at ion a l U niver sit ies P r ess. N ew Yo rk : G u ilfo r d P r ess. L . H a it h & J. R . A r no ld . L .A .C . T.J. (1990).. J. Bo na n n o. B. h igh an xiet y. Curren t Directions in Psychological Science.J. I n R . 33±37. (191 4). 394±402. R ep r essive co p in g: D ist r a ct io n u sin g p lea sa n t th ou gh t s a n d m em o r ies. H avila n d (E d s. (1983). J. P r im e th eor y: A n in tegr at ed view o f m o tiva tio n a nd em o tion . A . N ew Yo r k : W iley. Re pressio n and dissociation: Im plications for personality theory. E ffects o f so cia l co m p a riso n direction . a nd exp ected su ccess. (1989). N .. J. .L .. Web er. Developm ental Psychology.. 13. A merican Journ al of Psychology. To m a r ke n .L . (1996). (1980 ).L .F. P r in s. Psychological Review. B. C a m p o s. C a h ill.G . I n M . Jou rn al of Broadcasting. (1982).A . (1980).H . & H eat h erto n . G . . a n d self-est eem on a ffect. Co llin s (E d. Journa l of Personality an d Social Psychology. Bo d en .M . 811±824. L . & Sin ger. 371. N o nver ba l b ehavio r a nd t he t heo r y of em ot ion : T h e fa cia l feedb a ck hyp o th esis.. 73. (1960). 2. & H at® eld . Psychosomatic medicine: Its principles a nd applications.).H . 362±37 1. p p. Bern t so n .). Bu ck . t h r eat. p p. N ew Yo rk : Sp ringer. H .F. A send or p f.N . 28.EMOTION REGULATION 567 REFERENCES A lexa n d er. Sin ger (E d . and experience (p p. .J.. Psychological Inquiry. K lein . N egative a ffect as m o tiva tio n t o sm oke. C a m p o s. 7. an d rep ressio n of an xiety by au to n om ic-facia l-verb a l p at ter ns o f beh avio r. 24. M . Emotion: Theory. . (1950). J. I n d ivid u a l differ en ces in r epr essive-defen siven ess p r edict ba sa l sa liva r y co r t iso l levels. 1±15. Blo ck . L . E . N J: E r lb au m . 70. . Aver ill. 64. M .. E m ergen t t h em es in t h e st u d y o f em o tio n a l d evelo p m en t a n d em o t io n r egulation . & Taylo r. S. L o o se n . Aver ill. O r la n do. B a r r e t t . R . C a cio pp o. (1983). (1994). Emotion and personality.M . Ba u m eist er. .. (1997).). J. T h e co n cep t of a ffect: A r e-exam in a tio n. Anger and aggressi on : An essay on emotion.. Jou rn al of Personality an d Social Psychology. N ew Yo r k : N o r to n . W. R . C h icago . 759±777 .R . M . R . G .R . A con st r u ctivist view of em ot io n . .A . Br enn er. P lu tchik & H . R .. M . A sp in wa ll. J. C a m p o s . 1334±1346. (1982). (1993). K eller m an (E ds.. & M cG a u gh .E . self-eva lu a tio n . K . 25. F L : A ca d em ic P r ess. research .F. 25. C . J. & S t e n b e r g . T. 431±433 .). H .J. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. J. L a m b . J. & Ba u m eist er. L ewis & J.T. Self-r egu la tio n fa ilu r e: A n over view. M a d iso n.

T he u se o f co gn it ive a pp r a isa l to r ed uce st ress r eact io ns: A rep licat io n. R epr ession : T h e m ech a n ism a nd t he d efense. 207±283). 95 8±966. S.J. R . A ssessin g cop in g st r a tegies: A t heo retica lly b a sed ap p ro a ch . N . P.H . Psychological Review. B. E isenb erg. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality. A cker m a n . O xfo r d . E glo ff. Psychological Bulletin. D avid so n (E d s. 22. & G o ld st ein . & T her r ia u lt .R . E km a n. (19 69). Child Development. M .. P.G .A . 97. 169 ±200. C o le (E d . D er r yb err y. Cognition and Emotion. S. R ep r ession a n d th e in a ccessib ilit y of a ffective m em o r ies. E r b er. St ro ng evid en ce fo r u n iver sa ls in facia l exp r ession s: A r ep ly to Ru ssell’s m ista k en crit iq u e.E ..). (1992).K ..S. (1996). C. 10 3±111). Wegn er. U K : C a m b r idge U n iver sity P ress.G . 19±35. I n J. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin. H andbook of m enta l control (p p. (1996).. C h ild r en’s sp o n ta n eo u s con tro l of fa cial expr essio n.W. R . (1972).M . Development and Psychop athology. P. H .. A ... applications (p p.A . 70. & M cC r a e.. M . (1995). G a r b er & K . (1991). C a ta nza ro . C icch ett i. B. & K leck. J. 56 .. P.P.S. (1989).M . R . Journal of Personality and Socia l Psychology. G . C a r ver. D . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. N ew Yo r k: P ergam o n. I n D . C A : K n ap p.A . E km a n. & E llswo r t h. 44±61). E n glewo o d C liffs. .F.). U K : O xfor d U n iver sity P r ess. E rd elyi. Psychophysiology. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. & K a r bo n. The nature of emotion: Fundamental questions (p p. Sch eier. E nd ler (E ds. D od ge (E ds. L anzetta. N J: P r ent ice-H a ll. & Sch eier. D avid so n. S. M a szk . I n M . 6.. P erso n a lity a n d co p in g: A r econ cep tu a lizat io n . P ro lego m eno n to th e st r uctu r e o f em ot io n: G lean ings fro m neu ro p sych o logy.F. F r iesen . em o tio n a l dist r ess.V. O r igin s a n d fu nction s of p ositive a nd n ega tive a ffect: A con tro l-pr ocess view. 53. E ffects o f the expressio n of pa in on au to no m ic a nd p ain to ler an ce r espo nses to su b ject-con tro lled p ain . M .. 115. R ep ressive em o tio n al discret en ess a fter fa ilu r e.C . In P. a n d exa m ina tio n p erfo r m a n ce. C o nst r u ctive t hin k in g: A b ro ad co pin g va r iab le wit h sp eci® c com p on ent s. Emotion in the huma n face: Gu idelines for research and an integration of ® ndings. E km a n & R . & Wein tr a u b.. J.C . 66. Sa n D iego . & K ro hn e. (1994)...J. & M eier. M . Wegn er & J. research. P. (1992).Z . 245 ±268.. P. 6. Child Development.. C o st a. 14. & R ot hb ar t. (1990). D an d oy. (1993).). 1023±1029. The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation (p p. 57. N egative m oo d r egu la tio n exp ecta n cies.R . E km a n. D . (198 8). 275±285.M . I n J. Z eid n er & N . D . A ro u sa l.J.E . 267 ±283. M . 1318±1326. (1995). N . 7. P. T h e ro le o f em o tio n a lit y a n d r egulat io n in ch ild r en’s so cia l fu n ctio nin g: A lo ngit ud in a l st udy.S.. F ab es. D avis. C. 757±76 6. (1989). So m er® eld . P.568 GROSS C a r ver. 126±14 8). (1972). R . 57.B. J. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.J. O n b ein g co o l a n d co llect ed : M o o d r egu la tio n in a n ticip a tio n o f so cia l in tera ctio n . a nd at tent io n as com p o n en ts o f tem pera m en t .T.T. W hy em o tio ns ar e felt. E m o tio ns a nd em ot io n r egu latio n in d evelop m en ta l psycho p ath ology. C olby. P. 55. C. (1986).. P en n eb a ker (E d s.. C lor e. N ew Yo r k: W iley. L in coln . M u r p hy. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.J. D o m a in s o f em o tion r egu latio n.K . a ffect. & I zar d . 537±540.). M . (1994). (1987). A n ar gu m ent fo r b a sic em o tion s. (1977).. (1990). A . B.. E pst ein. & E ysen ck. P. N E : U n iver sit y o f N eb r a sk a P ress. M . (1996).. 1±10 . 6. K . 268±287.W. Personality structure and measurem ent. D o dge. Cognition and Emotion.). R . E km a n. 585±593.. 1360±1384. E ysenck . . 1309±13 21. 5. H . C o le. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. U n iver sa ls a n d cu ltu r a l d iffer ences in fa cia l expr ession o f em ot io n. Nebraska sym posium on motivation (p p. (1996). 332 ±350. Handbook of coping: Theory. C am b r id ge. Sm ith . & G a r b er. C. 3±11 ). W.

811±818.).K . & Sp iegel.W. R . pp. Review of General Psychology. Sa n D iego. (1964). exp r ession . S.).J. U K : C a m br idge U niver sit y P r ess. & M u n o z. J.J.).P. Su t to n.. Po sitive em o t io n s sp eed r ecover y fr o m t he car d iovascu la r sequ ela e o f n ega tive em ot io ns. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 106. M en under stress. G r oss. T he a ssessm ent o f co ping. (O r igin a l wo r k pu blish ed 190 0) F r eud . The emotions. The ego and the mechanisms of defense.W.S. E m o tio n an d em o tio n r egu la tio n . The psychoanalytic theory of neurosis. E m o tio n r egu la tio n a n d m ent a l h ea lth . St r a chey. N .J. The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigm und Freud (Vo l. & L even so n . N . Personality an d Social Psychology Bulletin. (1998). & K et elaa r. Coping an d defending.). self-rep or t. T he co n cep t o f ``str ess’ ’ in th e bio logica l a n d so cia l scien ces.J. (1950). E m o tion elicit atio n u sin g ® lm s. (1946).. (1993).P.. (1998a).J. 2. A . Journal of Abnormal Psychology.. G r oss.... (1988). R . a nd J. P ervin & O. (1995). G a en sb a u er. . R . F r ijda . E m o tio n a l su p p r ession : P hysiology. C A : A ca dem ic P r ess...). (1993). S. G r oss.J. R epr essio n o f em o t io na lly ta gged m em o r ies: T he ar ch itectu r e o f less com p lex em o t io ns. 224±237. (1945). (1997).R . a n d physio lo gy. N ew Yo r k : I n tern at ion a l U n iver sities P r ess. .V. The interpretation of dreams (A . S.A . A n teceden t. 335±357.. Journal of the Am erican Academy of Child Psychiatry. (19 76). a n d expr essive b ehavio r. & L evenso n . (in pr ess). (1974). Clinical Psychology: Science and Practice. H a a n . C . (199 4). J.W. S. St r a ch ey (E d . G r oss. J. (1985). Handboo k of stress : Theoretical an d clinical aspects (2nd ed . Handboo k of personality: Theory and research (2n d ed . New introductory lectures on psychoanalysis (J. 279 ±288. symptoms. N . R ela tio n s bet ween a ffect a n d p er so n a lit y: Su pp o r t fo r th e a ffect-level a n d a ffective-r ea ctivity views. & H a n sen . 48. (1959). 95±103 . I n L . 24 .J. I n L . International Journal of Psychiatry in M edicine. a n d st r ess. N ew Yo r k : M cG r aw-H ill. E d. G o ld b erger (E d . 74. (1998b). G r oss. N ew Yo r k : F r ee P r ess.EMOTION REGULATION 569 F en ichel. 5. J. & L even so n .H . T h e em ergin g ® eld o f em ot io n r egu la tio n : A n in tegr ative r eview. Tr a n s. B. 64 .L . R .E . (1977). (1995). R . J r. N ew Yo r k : A ca d em ic P r ess. a nd Tra n s. 9.W. 14). J.. N ew Yo r k : N o r to n . R . 150±170. 970 ±986. N ew Yo r k : R a n d om H o use. S. (1945). N ew Yo rk : N o r to n. G r inker. E d . 191±2 20.F. 2. H a a n . R egu lat io n of em ot io na l exp ressio n in in fa n ts fr om t wo con tr a st in g ca r eta k ing enviro n m ent s. 151±16 4. & L even so n.J. (1982). A . R ep r essio n. O. T. d efen se. Cognition and Emotion. (O r igina l wo r k p u blished 1933) F r eud . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Cognition and Emotion. Human facial expression. F r eud . F r ed r ick so n .). L . T. Inhibitions. J. (O rigin a l wo r k pu blish ed 1915) F r id lu n d. 21. N ew Yo r k : N o r to n . H in k le. H a n sen . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Br ill. 55. R . Jo hn (E ds. Tra n s. J. (1998). R . J. N ew Yo r k: G u ilfor d P r ess.H . G r oss. & L a za r u s. anxiety (A . F olkm a n . G r oss. 163±170. St r a chey. 87±1 08.a n d resp o nse-focu sed em o tio n r egu la tio n : D iver gen t con seq uences fo r exp er ien ce. (1986). F r eu d. 271±29 9. C a m b r id ge. 12. J. H id in g feelin gs: T h e a cut e effect s o f inh ib it in g p osit ive an d n egat ive em ot ion s. I n J. 258±273). St r a ch ey.). Jou rnal of Personality and Social Psychology. S. G r oss. a nd Tra ns.A .D . L on d on : H o ga r t h. If it cha n ges it m u st be a p ro cess: St u dy o f em o tio n a n d cop ing du r in g t hr ee st ages o f a college exa m in atio n .J. (O r igina l wo r k p u blished 1926) F r eud .

C o n ser vation of reso u rces: A n ew at tem p t at con cep tu a lizing st ress. & G ibb on s. a n d lo ss. H andbook of psychophysiology (p p. R eznick . 41. (19 94).. ISR E 19 96: Proceedings of the IX th Co nference of the International Society for Research on Emotions (p p.W.M . L a za r u s. R . E m m o n s.A . A . H id d en r egu lat or s in att a ch m en t. (1994). 195 ±205. Human emotions.A .W. (1996 ). Psychology an d H ealth. 69. E nd ler (E d s.J. 85±102. Psychological stress and the coping process.H ..A . E . R . 26. & A lfer t. S. C o gn it ive-em o tion a l int era ctio n s in th e b r a in . K r in g. Bu lletin of the M enninger Clinic. experien ce. L an g. 116 ±120). 623±64 3).S. a nd p hysio logy.E . (1992). 1112±1125. (1996). A n t eced ent s o f self-r egulatio n : A d evelo pm ent a l p ersp ective. (1989). Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 199±214. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.J. R . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. P. I n divid u a l differen ces in co pin g. The development of emotion regulation: Biological and behavioral considerations (M onographs of the Society for Research in Child Development). (1991). J. C ap ita lizin g o n a n d co p in g with da ily-life even t s: E xp r essive r esp on ses to p o sitive even ts. (1991). I n P. C o n st r u ctive t hink in g an d cop in g wit h lab or a to r y-in d uced st r ess.A . 61. G . L aza r u s. 372±385 . K ro hn e. 3.570 GROSS H o bfo ll. (1977). 44 . (1990). R .).A . C a r twr ight -Sm ith .E . 33. (1996).). R ice. .R . St ern ba ch (E d s. (1977). Psychological Science. 23±27.. (1995). K op p. U K : O xfo r d U n iver sit y P r ess. K r ysta l. R in eha r t .B.). E k m a n & R . (1976).H .A . N ew Yo rk : W iley. T h e st r uctu r e of in hib it io n. (1989). research . Journal of Ab normal Psychology. & Wo o d ley.A . W... H . Developmental Psychology. J u st . 50. 192±207 . Emotion and adaptation. Sex differ en ces in em o tion : E xp r essio n. J. (1989). 3. R . 74. 9. 267±289. Sh o r t -cir cu it in g o f th r ea t b y exp erim en t a lly a lt ering cogn it ive ap p r a isa l. S. Ja m es. K in g.W. 11. L eD o ux.. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. H .). 67.S. F rijd a (E d . & A llo y. C.. & E m m o n s.. 864 ±877. N . T h e r esp o n se st yles t h eo r y o f d ep r essio n : Tests a n d a n ext ensio n o f th e th eor y. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. K in g. R . (1992). sep a r at io n. P. E ffect s of n o nverb a l d issim ula tio n o n em ot io na l exp erien ce an d a u to n o m ic a ro usa l. Fundamental questions about the nature of emotion (p p. & W inst o n .. 789±800 . & E p st ein . G reen ® eld . 838±845. Avo id an t co pin g st yle a n d ver b a lca rd iova scu la r r esp o n se d isso ciatio n . (1972). L a n gst o n.. R . 60. & K leck . N ew Yo r k: H o lt . 106. 221±229. 59.. A sp ect s o f a ffect t heor y. N ew Yo rk : M cG r aw H ill. 381±409). C . To ro n to . C . (1964). H o fer. C. T h e p sych o physio logy o f em o tion . N ew Yo rk : P len um . 371±384. L aza r u s.S.E . H andbook of coping: Theory..S. Journal of Research in Personality. M . 513 ±524. N ew Yo r k: O xfo r d U niver sity P r ess. D avid so n (E d s. Am erican Psycholog ist. O xfo r d . Z eid ner & N .. Co gn ition and Emotion. S. 1±26. Journal of Ab normal and Social Psychology. I n N . applications (p p. C o n ¯ ict o ver em ot io na l expr essio n : P sycho logica l a n d p hy sica l cor r ela tes. Child Development. L an zett a . L an g.-W. W h at is an em o t io n? M ind. I n M . F ox (E d . K oh lm a n n . R . I n N . L even so n. C.A . R . T h e em o tio n p ro b e: St u d ies o f m ot ivat io n a n d atten tio n . J. K agan . (1 994). K app a s. & M essina . 188±205 .. K atz. Au ton o m ic ner vo u s syst em differ ences a m o ng em o tio n s. I n h ib ited a nd u nin h ib it ed typ es o f ch ild r en.A .). C a n a da : I nt ern a tio na l So ciety fo r R esea r ch o n E m ot io ns. L .B. 123±126). (1982). (1966). (188 4). (1997).E .T. (1998). 18. L . L . L even so n. & St ern b ach . S. I za r d. 354±370. 58. J. 686±703. H um a n em o tio n : A fu n ct io n a l view. Am erican Psychologist.J. Weid n er. & R . T h e so cia lity o f ap p ra isa ls: Im p act o f so cia l sit ua tio ns on th e evalua tio n o f em o tion a n tecedent even ts a nd p hysio logical a n d exp r essive r eactio ns.G . A . D . J. & G o r d o n .J. A .. L . I n N .

S. 61. G a r ber & K . 20±2 8. P. N ew Yo r k: P erga m o n . D . 345±353. M cBr id e.). N o len -H o ek sem a . U K : Ca m b r id ge U n iver sit y P r ess. W h at is st r ess? I n M .L . Applied and Preventive Psychology. Journal of Person ality and Social Psychology.E .A . 60 ±64. 182±207). (1993).. 8. Ber ko wit z (E d . H an dbook of mental control (p p. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. D .. J. J. J. I m p u lsivit y a n d in h ib ito r y co nt ro l.A . (1991). (1991). (19 93).. & Sa lovey. 52. (1980). (1974).). N o len -H o ek sem a . D . P ar ker. N ew Yo r k : M a r cel D ek ker. 73. 10 9±113. L u ca s. (1997). M o n it or ing a n d blu n tin g: Va lid a tion o f a q u est io n na ire to a ssess st yles of in fo r m a tio n seek in g u n d er th reat . (1995).). The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation (p p. The low anxious/repressor distinction: Physiological.. Journal of Person ality and Social Psychology. C a m br idge. & L ar so n . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. & R eilly. L .S. 67.L . N ew Yo r k : Ba sic Boo k s. 200±214. S. R . 62. (1993). J.N . M otivation and Emotion. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology.A . Advances in experimental so cial psychology (Vo l. P ro cesses in delay o f gr ati® cat io n. 4.M .G .D . R espo n ses to d ep r ession a n d t heir effects o n th e du r at io n o f t he dep ressive episo d e. 3±21). E n glewo o d C liffs.C . 52.M . R um in ation an d p sycho logical distr ess am o n g b ereaved p a r t n ers.. Psychological Science. K . I n D . 569±582. 7. P en n eba k er (E d s. R esp o n se st yles a n d t h e du r at io n o f ep isod es o f d ep r essed m o od . Neuroscience Letters. N egative a ffective st at es an d th e m ot iva ted r etr ieva l o f po sit ive life even ts: T h e ro le o f a ffect a ckn owledgem ent . Stress: Neurobiology and neuroen docrinology (p p. N J: P r ent ice-H a ll.M .. (1992)..F.J. (1991). U n pu blished m a nu scr ip t. P a r ro t t. R ep r essive cop in g a n d ver b a l-a u t on om ic resp o nse dissociatio n: T h e in ¯ u en ce o f so cia l co nt ext.E .. S. & L eD o ux. 92±104. L oga n .. M . Ru m in ative co p ing with dep r essed m o od fo llo wing lo ss. M echa n ic.J. M isch el. & Bu ehler. Sch a ch a r. J.. T h e r o le o f fa cia l r esp o n se in th e exp er ien ce o f em o t io n : M o r e m et ho do logica l p ro b lem s a n d a m eta -an a lysis. Beyo n d h ed on ism : M o tives fo r in h ib it in g go o d m o o ds a nd fo r m a in ta in in g b a d m oo d s. Wegn er & J.W. N . M o rr is. S. M o r ro w. R . 102. Handbook of mental control (p p. Journal of Abnormal Psychology. Me n in crisis. (1987). A p ro sp ective st u d y of d epr essio n a n d d istr ess fo llowing a n atu r a l d isa st er: T h e 1989 L o m a P r ieta ea r th q u a k e. (1987). Bro wn . S. N ew Yo r k : M a cm illa n . (1987). M a d es.M . Cognition and Emotion. Ro m ask i. . & U r sin .W.L . To wa r ds a cogn itive theo r y o f em o t io ns. I n L . N J: P ren tice-H a ll.. 76 9±774.N . N o len -H o ek sem a . E xtinct ion of em o tio n al lea r n in g: C on tr ibut io n o f m ed ial pr efr on ta l co r tex. L .W.. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. K o ob . E m o tio n al int elligen ce a nd t h e co n st r u ctio n a nd regu lation of feelin gs.R . Sex differ en ces in co nt ro l o f d epr essio n . facial and self-report differences in response to stress. R . 11. R ivier (E ds. 278±308). E n glewo o d C liffs. (1997)... p p. P en neba ker (E d s. S. L evin e. M a tsu m o to . Stud ents under stress.).A . (1997).). H . (1985). A . Journal of Abnormal Psychology. T.D . W. 163. 197±208 . 855±862. M eich en b a um . Stress inoculation training. M a st er s. (1991). (1993). & Jo h nso n -L a ird . & F r ed r ick so n . S. 215±249. N ewto n . & Ta n n o ck . . 1. G . (1987 ). 72. O a tley. W. 249±291). S. & C. Wegn er & J. (1962). 30 6±324). M ayer. P. St r a tegies a n d m ech a n ism s fo r t h e p er so n a l a n d so cia l co n t ro l o f em o tio n . N o len -H o ek sem a . D o d ge (E d s. & M o r ro w. & M eek . G .EMOTION REGULATION 571 L even so n . N o len -H o ek sem a . N o len -H o ek sem a . J.. M cF a r lan d . & C on tr ad a . 105±121 . L .P. Towa r d th e self-regu lation o f m o od : T h eo r y a nd r ese a rch . I n D . & L a r so n. P. 100. 29±50. W.. N ew Yo r k: A cad em ic P r ess. I n J. 159 ±167. J. M iller. R . (1969 ).. R . C . (1994). R . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. B. M o rgan ..

M . Scheier. (1987). E m o tio n a l in telligence an d self-r egulation o f a ffect. Selective a ctivation of tr a it s: Bo un d a r y co nd it io n s fo r th e a ct iva tio n o f a nger. P enn eb a ker (E ds. H se e. & C a r ver. H ap pin ess. (1993). Bu t em ot ion s are so m etim es irr ation a l. 243±255. 51. 10. 845±853. R . E nglewo o d C liffs. N ew Yo r k: G u ilfor d P ress. N ew Yo r k : M cG r aw-H ill. Schwa r tz. So cia l co m p a r iso n a ctivit y u nd er th r ea t: D own wa r d eva lu a tion a n d u p wa r d co nt act s. R oger. T h e illu sion o f m ent a l h ea lth .J. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Child Development. H . B. W. (1953). M . Personality and Individual Differences.G .. O n th e p sych o -a n a lytic t h eo r y o f a ffect s. Imagination. & Vo gele. R . PA : L ip p in co tt . 102±14 1. So lom on .. T h e co n st r u ct io n a n d va lid at io n o f a n ew sca le fo r m ea su r in g em o tion con tro l. 213±233. J. St em m ler. 265±296). (1977). M o o d an d m em o r y u nd er n atu r a l co nd it io ns: E vid en ce fo r m oo d inco n gr u en t r eca ll. S.W.K . Scherer. (1986). Psychological Bulletin.T. H .. Taylo r.).D . Psychological Inquiry. The passions.G . C . (1974). 48. & N a ja r ia n . The stres s of life. In ternationa l Journ al of Psychoanalysis. & C ialdini. 2. R u ssell. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. (1 98 9). Sch erer & P. 18 5±191... Sa lovey.K . D . 35. (1990). 467±506. D . . (1993). G . Scar r. Co p in g with st r ess: D ivergen t st ra tegies o f o p tim ist s a nd p essim ist s. & M cC a r t n ey. M aym a n . P. H iggin s & R . Selye. 77. & Benso n . 293±317). Ba gb y. 230±232.. 321 ±336. N J: P ren tice-H a ll.. & P et ty. St u ss.A . J. Selye.M . P hila d elph ia . 34.. I n h ibit o r y self-co n tr o l in p r esch o o l child ren . Behavior Research and Therapy. A . So r r en t in o (E ds. 15. 115. Cognition and Personality. S. Personality and Individual Differences. 424±435.K . Taylo r. 131±147.D .. K . (1994). (1986).S. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. U K : C a m b r id ge U n iver sit y P r ess. 59. R ip pere. N ew Yo rk : R aven. 258± 277). D . p p. C . O n t h e n atu re a n d fu n ction o f em o tio n : A com po n ent pro cess ap pro a ch. & M a n is. a nd h elp in g: A m o t ivat io na l in tegr a t io n .. E km a n (E ds. H o w p eop le m a ke th eir own environ m ents: A t heo r y o f geno typ e-envir on m en t effects. N J: A n a lytic P r ess.M . Approaches to emotion (p p.. (1997). (1 984). The frontal lobes. G . J. H andbook of mental control (p p. R . Disorders of affect regulation: Alexithymia in medical and psychiatric illness. (1990).. A r e st r ess r esp on ses in ¯ uen ced by cogn itive ap pr a isal? A n exp erim en t a l co m p a r iso n o f co pin g st r at egies. D . 30.E ..R . V. M . C. b ehavio rÐ a n d lea r n in g: A p p ro a ch es t o a pyscho b io logy o f em o tio n a n d t o a n in tegr at io n of p sycho a n alytic a n d neu ro biologic th o ugh t. N ew Yo r k : H a rp er & Ro w. (1995). C. (1983). A merican Psychologist. Wein tr a u b. Affect in psychoanalysis.F. J. 6. 1257± 1264 .572 GROSS P ar ro tt.E . & P a rk er.). A .L . (1997). J. affect s. (1989). H illsd a le. P a r ro tt . M . (198 4). 569±57 5. H illsd a le. P ien . Stress without distress. Journal of the Am erican Psychoanalytic Association. R . M . D . P. R . 54 . N J: E rlba u m . M .C . M . K .. I n D .. S..A .D . D r ives. Sa lovey. (1990). 177±198. (1956). & Ro t h b a r t. & L o b el. 185±211. C a m br idge. W. 1117±1131. M errill-Palmer Quarterly. I n E .A .). (1993).. (1980). Sm it h . Weg ner & J. P erso na lity m o derat or s of m o o d co n gr u ency effect s o n cogn it io n : T he ro le o f self-est eem a nd n egative m o o d r egu lation . R a p a p or t . 22. Sp ezza no . & M ayer. J. & Sa bin i. R eed . M . 96. 1092±1107. ’ ’ W h at ’s th e t hin g to do wh en yo u’re feelin g dep r essed ?’ ’ Ð a p ilo t st udy. N ew Yo r k: A n ch or /D ou b led ay. St ept oe. Psychological Review. Sh ed ler.B. sa d n ess. 9.M . P lut chik . (1976). Emotion: A psychoevolutionary synthesis. (1986). British Journal of Psychology.C . Scha ller.. (1995). H andbook of m otivation an d cognition: Foundations of social behavior (Vo l. E m o t io na l in telligen ce. I s t h ere u n iver sa l r ecogn it io n o f em o tio n fr om fa cia l expr essio n ? A r eview o f t h e cro ss-cu ltu r a l st ud ies. & M ayer.. I n K . 68. J.E .

(1943).M . . U K : C a m br idge U n iversity P ress. (1994). 369±380. In A . 375±424. (19 94). with a n em p h a sis o n self-r epo r t . N ew Yo r k : M cG raw-H ill. M . Self-regu lation of m oo d: St r ategies fo r ch an gin g a b a d m oo d . psychopathology. The origin of everyday moo ds: M anaging energy. T. (1990 ).A . To m k in s. E m o tio n r egula tio n : A t hem e in sea rch of d e® n it io n . I n D . 69 ±88). L in d zey (E ds. Socioemotional development. Nebrask a sympo sium on motivation (Vo l. E m ot io n a n d self-r egu latio n. I ro n ic p ro cesses o f m ent al con tro l.. Yo un g. S. A ffect t h eor y.A . Repression and dissociation: Im plications for persona lity theory. R . Emotion in man and animal: Its na ture and relation to attitude and motive. St r uct u res o f m o o d a n d person a lity a n d t h eir releva nce to assessin g an xiet y.B. 910±925 . T h ayer. Ethology and Sociobiology. R . Adaptation to life. a nd red u cin g ten sio n. I n P... Emotion in the human face (2n d ed . Wein berger. P. Tu m a & J. (1990).. C h icago. I n N . & G . (1998). & M cC la in . 681±706).. D . C a m b r id ge. N J: E r lba u m . Wein berger.A .). C o n tro l an d au to m aticit y in so cia l life.A .. L inco ln . J.M .). (1990). S. A .A . D . 1).A . & C o sm id es.). (1 991). N J: E rlba um .).A . 101. G . imagery. G . Anxiety and the anxiety disorders (p p. To m k in s. (1962).N . D . T ho m p so n (E d. (1979).E . r a isin g energy. F o x (E d. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. T. p p. Wegn er. I n fa nt so cia l r efer en cin g. Jou rn al of Abnormal Psychology. 367±467). consciousness: The positive affects (Vol. C a m b r id ge.). (1996). Vo l. N ew Yo r k : Sp r in ger. 3. F iske.E . (1992). T h e pa st exp la in s t he p r esen t: E m ot io n a l a da p ta tion s a n d th e st r u ctu re o f a n cest r a l enviro nm en ts.). (1977). I n J.T.R .W. D o d ge (E d s. I n R . J. L . M onographs of the Society for Research in Child Development. 353±395). T h e co nst ru ct validity of t he r ep ressive cop in g st yle. 11. Wa ld en .S. N ewm a n . (p p. G ilber t. & D avid so n. Va illa n t.T. Z a jonc. (1984).M . R .EMOTION REGULATION 573 Tellegen . tension. N E : U n iversity o f N eb r a sk a P r ess.. R . S. E m o tio n s r esea r ch: So m e pr o m isin g qu estio n s a n d so m e qu estion ab le p ro m ises. R .A . (1985). Affect. Psychological Science. 36. G a r b er & K .S. 70±74. and stress. E k m an (E d . a n d rep ressive co pin g st yles: P sycho m et r ic p at tern s a n d beh avio r a l a nd p hysio logica l resp o nses to st r ess. T h ayer. T h om p so n . J.A . (1979). N ew Yo rk : O xfo r d U n iver sity P r ess.L . Singer (E d . T h om p so n . N ew Yo r k : W iley. The development of emotion regulation: Biological and behavioral considerations. 88. & Ba rgh. I n J. Handbook of social psychology (4th ed . H illsda le. 33 7±386). Z u ckerm a n. Sensa tion seeking: Beyond the optimal level of arousal. R . 1. pp.J.). h igh -a nxiou s. & M cIn t o sh . D .). (1994). Schwa r t z. D . 59. To ob y. M a ser (E ds. 25±52 . Wegn er. 34 ±52. and health (p p.E . Psychological Review.D . I L : U n iver sit y of C h icago P r ess. M A : H a rva r d U n iver sit y P r ess.. L o w-a nxio u s. 67. The development of emotion regulation and dysregulation (p p. H illsd a le. N ew Yo rk : C a m b r id ge U n iver sity P r ess.H . 446± 496).