Lesson 4-1 : Type of Bonds Atom tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to complete their valence shells and

obtain the configurations of a noble gas. Anion (negative ion) may attach to one or more cations (positive ions) forming one or more ionic bonds. In other situations, the neutral oxygen atom may share electrons with one or more other atom, in order to “act” as thought it has a complete valence shell part of the time. These shared electrons represent covalent bonds and result in the formation of molecular compounds. The type of bond, and therefore the type of compound, that an atom will form in a given situation depends upon the relative electronegativities of the elements involved. The electronegativity of an element is a relative measure of its attraction for bonding electrons. When atoms with very different electronegativities combine, they tend to form bonds with a high degree of ionic character, which means that the sharing of electrons is so unequal that the electrons can effectively be thought to be in the possession of one atom. This “stealing” of electrons results in one atom having extra electrons and a net negative charge, and another atom, which is missing electrons, having a net positive charge. Each pair of such ions are held together by the electrostatic force of attraction between unlike charges, which is called an ionic bond. If the difference in electronegativity between the bonding atoms is very low, then a non-polar covalent bond is formed, which means that the atoms share the electrons essentially equally. If the electronegativity difference between the bonding atom is moderate, then a polar covalent bond is formed. A bond that is formed between two atoms that have an electronegativity difference bonding elements is 0.4-1.7, we will consider the bond formed to be a polar covalent bond. When electronegativity difference between the two elements is greater than 1.7, we will call the formed bond an ionic bond. Major Types of Bonds Between Atoms Ionic bond Covalent bond Non-polar covalent bond Polar covalent A bond formed between a negative ion (anion) and a positive ion (cation). A bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. A bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons relatively equally. A bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons but one

bond atom attracts the electrons more strongly, resulting in unequal sharing. Lesson 4-2 : Ionic vs. Molecular Compound

They tend to have weak forces of attraction between molecules Molecular compound have forces of attraction between particles called intermolecular forces. They usually don’t conduct electricity in the solid state. in turn are formed by gaining or losing electrons. They are good insulators of both heat and electricity 4. which. The atoms within a particular molecule share bonds that they do not share with atoms from other molecules. Polyatomic ions are simply ions that are made up of more than one atom. They tend to be liquids or gases at standard temperature and pressure 3. The elements with very low electronegativities are the metals found in the first two columns on the left hand side of the periodic table. They tend to be dull. but they are good conductors in molten or aqueous (solution) form 4. Their bonds are very strong (it takes a relatively high amount of energy to break them) 2. They tend to have low melting and boiling points 5. They vary from substance to substance and are responsible for some of the varying properties between molecular compounds. The structure of the crystals that they form depends on both the size and ratio of the ions that make them up Molecular compound are formed form covalent bonds between atoms. The strength of the bonds that make them up can vary a great deal 2. hard brittle solids at standard temperature and pressure 3. in the alkali metal and alkaline earth metal group. . They tend to have high melting and freezing points 5.Ionic compounds are formed from ion. Properties of Molecular Compounds 1. The elements with the very highest electronegativities are found toward the upper-right portion of the periodic table. To form Ionic compound must be a relatively high difference between the electronegativities of the element involved. Properties of Ionic Compounds 1. They are poor conductors in any state. The major difference between molecular and ionic compounds is that in molecular compounds.

For next sample. The oxygen atom has two pairs of electron and two electron that are unpaired. And finally. two double covalent bonds and one single covalent bond. H2O. Electrons released by sodium. Lewis dot diagram can be used to represent ionic compounds. hydrogen atom will form one single bond with oxygen atom. However. When oxygen reacts with hydrogen to form water. so carbon atom to make four single covalent bonds. excess sodium has a +1 electrons in the outer shell and to release electrons to form a stable octet configuration (8 valence electrons). Bacause configuration for carbon is 1s2 2s2 2p2. the atom chloride will turn into negative ions. Sometimes a hydrogen atom steals an electron to become the hydride (H-) ion. chlorine and carbon react to form the molecular compound called tetrachloride. the sodium will turn into a positive ion. has a high inclination to capture one electron to form a stable valence electron configuration as a noble gas. Sodium chloride is a compound formed by ionic bonds. Each hydrogen atom has only a single unpaired electron and its considered complete if it obtains the valance configuration of helium.Lesson 4-3 : Lewis Dot Diagram for Compounds. Lewis dot diagram for sodium chlorida. will be received by the chloride atom. Chloride atom has 7 valence electrons. which only has two electrons in its valance shell. with shows that carbon will react with chlorine in a 1:4 ration. These diagram start by constructing the Lewis dot diagram for the molecular compound known as water. indicating that it can only make two single covalets bonds. By releasing electrons. In this case. but in the reaction to form water with oxygen. Chlorine atom has 7 valance electrons and to complete its octet. the carbon with only two lone electrons. . To form the compound called carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). For example. each chlorine atom need one more electron. With an additional 1 electron. each oxygen atom makes two single bonds with two different hydrogen atoms.

When predicting the shape of a molecule made up of three atoms. Examples are HCl and HBr. we can start by comparing the Lewis dot diagrams of each of these atoms. one with a positive and negative side must contain one or more polar covalent bonds and it must have asymmetrical molecular geometry. There are many ways that five atoms can combine to form a molecule. as do all electrons. To become stable when combining with two oxygen atoms. which. but it is clear in a three-dimensional model for the molecule. on the other hand. In order to maximize the distance between electrons. Notice that the sulfur has two pairs of unshared electrons. sharing a total of eight valence electrons. A polar molecule that is. When atoms are share electrons. you must think in three dimensions again. of like charge. which forces the molecule to bend as the electrons repel each other. These unshared electrons are thought to effectively occupy more three-dimensional space than shared pairs of electrons. so making two single bonds won’t satisfy the octet rule. When four atoms of one type surround one atom of another type. The valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory suggests that the shape a molecule forms is based on the valence electrons surrounding the central atom. The carbon. like a bar magnet. repel other electrons. carbon dioxide must make two double bonds.Lesson 4-5 : Geometry of Molecules In addition to bonding. as in the example of CH4. or it only has non-polar covalent bonds. the Lewis dot diagram fails to indicate this. When you are dealing with a molecule that is made up only two atoms. Lesson 4-6 : Polarity Of Molecules The molecule has positive and negative poles. the molecule forms a tetrahedral shape. A non polar molecule either has symmetrical molecular geometry. The sulfur atom has only two unpaired electrons and can complete its valence shell by forming two single bonds. another important factor that influences the properties of a molecular substance is the shape or geometry of its particles. they are held together by covalent bonds. One again. it is easy to see that the nuclei of the atoms must fall along a straight line we call such a molecular shape linear. the molecules can form many different shapes. only has four valence electrons. or both. Each of the four shared pairs of electrons (covalent bonds) repel each other. and thus several different shapes are possible. Depending on the types and numbers of atoms involved. To understand the reason for this. a tetrahedral molecule is formed. .

Water (H2O) are asymmetrical and therefore might be polar molecules. All of the diatomic molecules. such as O2 and H2 must be non polar because the electronegativity difference between the elements involved will be zero.Now. then the molecule is said to be symmetrical. because of their symmetrical shape. The polarity of a substance will also affect the intermolecular forces between particles. Look at the picture. If you draw a line straight down from the center of your head. is the classic of a polar molecule. If the halves of the molecule look the same. If you can draw a line across a molecule and divide it into unequal looking halves. All tetrahedral molecules. must be non polar. then it is asymmetrical. you must check their electronegativities to be sure that they have polar covalent bonds. along both the horizontal axis and the vertical axis. The polarity of molecular compounds is an important influence on the properties of the substance. we need to explain the idea of symmetry. . your two “halves” look the same.

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