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Lesson 4-1 : Type of Bonds Atom tend to gain, lose, or share electrons in order to complete their valence shells

and obtain the configurations of a noble gas. Anion (negative ion) may attach to one or more cations (positive ions) forming one or more ionic bonds. In other situations, the neutral oxygen atom may share electrons with one or more other atom, in order to act as thought it has a complete valence shell part of the time. These shared electrons represent covalent bonds and result in the formation of molecular compounds. The type of bond, and therefore the type of compound, that an atom will form in a given situation depends upon the relative electronegativities of the elements involved. The electronegativity of an element is a relative measure of its attraction for bonding electrons. When atoms with very different electronegativities combine, they tend to form bonds with a high degree of ionic character, which means that the sharing of electrons is so unequal that the electrons can effectively be thought to be in the possession of one atom. This stealing of electrons results in one atom having extra electrons and a net negative charge, and another atom, which is missing electrons, having a net positive charge. Each pair of such ions are held together by the electrostatic force of attraction between unlike charges, which is called an ionic bond. If the difference in electronegativity between the bonding atoms is very low, then a non-polar covalent bond is formed, which means that the atoms share the electrons essentially equally. If the electronegativity difference between the bonding atom is moderate, then a polar covalent bond is formed. A bond that is formed between two atoms that have an electronegativity difference bonding elements is 0.4-1.7, we will consider the bond formed to be a polar covalent bond. When electronegativity difference between the two elements is greater than 1.7, we will call the formed bond an ionic bond. Major Types of Bonds Between Atoms Ionic bond Covalent bond Non-polar covalent bond Polar covalent A bond formed between a negative ion (anion) and a positive ion (cation). A bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons. A bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons relatively equally. A bond formed when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons but one

bond atom attracts the electrons more strongly, resulting in unequal sharing. Lesson 4-2 : Ionic vs. Molecular Compound

Ionic compounds are formed from ion, which, in turn are formed by gaining or losing electrons. To form Ionic compound must be a relatively high difference between the electronegativities of the element involved. The elements with very low electronegativities are the metals found in the first two columns on the left hand side of the periodic table, in the alkali metal and alkaline earth metal group. The elements with the very highest electronegativities are found toward the upper-right portion of the periodic table. Properties of Ionic Compounds
1. Their bonds are very strong (it takes a relatively high amount of energy to break them)

2. They tend to be dull, hard brittle solids at standard temperature and pressure 3. They usually dont conduct electricity in the solid state, but they are good conductors in molten or aqueous (solution) form 4. They tend to have high melting and freezing points 5. The structure of the crystals that they form depends on both the size and ratio of the ions that make them up Molecular compound are formed form covalent bonds between atoms. The atoms within a particular molecule share bonds that they do not share with atoms from other molecules. The major difference between molecular and ionic compounds is that in molecular compounds. Properties of Molecular Compounds 1. The strength of the bonds that make them up can vary a great deal 2. They tend to be liquids or gases at standard temperature and pressure 3. They are poor conductors in any state. They are good insulators of both heat and electricity 4. They tend to have low melting and boiling points 5. They tend to have weak forces of attraction between molecules Molecular compound have forces of attraction between particles called intermolecular forces. They vary from substance to substance and are responsible for some of the varying properties between molecular compounds. Polyatomic ions are simply ions that are made up of more than one atom.

Lesson 4-3 : Lewis Dot Diagram for Compounds. These diagram start by constructing the Lewis dot diagram for the molecular compound known as water, H2O. The oxygen atom has two pairs of electron and two electron that are unpaired. When oxygen reacts with hydrogen to form water, each oxygen atom makes two single bonds with two different hydrogen atoms. Each hydrogen atom has only a single unpaired electron and its considered complete if it obtains the valance configuration of helium, which only has two electrons in its valance shell. Sometimes a hydrogen atom steals an electron to become the hydride (H-) ion, but in the reaction to form water with oxygen, hydrogen atom will form one single bond with oxygen atom. For next sample, chlorine and carbon react to form the molecular compound called tetrachloride. Chlorine atom has 7 valance electrons and to complete its octet, each chlorine atom need one more electron. However, the carbon with only two lone electrons, indicating that it can only make two single covalets bonds. To form the compound called carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), with shows that carbon will react with chlorine in a 1:4 ration. Bacause configuration for carbon is 1s2 2s2 2p2, so carbon atom to make four single covalent bonds, two double covalent bonds and one single covalent bond. And finally, Lewis dot diagram can be used to represent ionic compounds. For example, Lewis dot diagram for sodium chlorida. Sodium chloride is a compound formed by ionic bonds. In this case, excess sodium has a +1 electrons in the outer shell and to release electrons to form a stable octet configuration (8 valence electrons). By releasing electrons, the sodium will turn into a positive ion. Electrons released by sodium, will be received by the chloride atom. Chloride atom has 7 valence electrons, has a high inclination to capture one electron to form a stable valence electron configuration as a noble gas. With an additional 1 electron, the atom chloride will turn into negative ions.

Lesson 4-5 : Geometry of Molecules In addition to bonding, another important factor that influences the properties of a molecular substance is the shape or geometry of its particles. When atoms are share electrons, they are held together by covalent bonds. Depending on the types and numbers of atoms involved, the molecules can form many different shapes. The valence shell electron pair repulsion (VSEPR) theory suggests that the shape a molecule forms is based on the valence electrons surrounding the central atom. When you are dealing with a molecule that is made up only two atoms, it is easy to see that the nuclei of the atoms must fall along a straight line we call such a molecular shape linear. Examples are HCl and HBr. When predicting the shape of a molecule made up of three atoms, we can start by comparing the Lewis dot diagrams of each of these atoms. The sulfur atom has only two unpaired electrons and can complete its valence shell by forming two single bonds. The carbon, on the other hand, only has four valence electrons, so making two single bonds wont satisfy the octet rule. To become stable when combining with two oxygen atoms, carbon dioxide must make two double bonds, sharing a total of eight valence electrons. Notice that the sulfur has two pairs of unshared electrons, which, as do all electrons, repel other electrons, of like charge. These unshared electrons are thought to effectively occupy more three-dimensional space than shared pairs of electrons, which forces the molecule to bend as the electrons repel each other. There are many ways that five atoms can combine to form a molecule, and thus several different shapes are possible. When four atoms of one type surround one atom of another type, as in the example of CH4, a tetrahedral molecule is formed. To understand the reason for this, you must think in three dimensions again. Each of the four shared pairs of electrons (covalent bonds) repel each other. In order to maximize the distance between electrons, the molecule forms a tetrahedral shape. One again, the Lewis dot diagram fails to indicate this, but it is clear in a three-dimensional model for the molecule. Lesson 4-6 : Polarity Of Molecules The molecule has positive and negative poles, like a bar magnet. A polar molecule that is, one with a positive and negative side must contain one or more polar covalent bonds and it must have asymmetrical molecular geometry. A non polar molecule either has symmetrical molecular geometry, or it only has non-polar covalent bonds, or both.

Now, we need to explain the idea of symmetry. If you draw a line straight down from the center of your head, your two halves look the same. If you can draw a line across a molecule and divide it into unequal looking halves, then it is asymmetrical. If the halves of the molecule look the same, along both the horizontal axis and the vertical axis, then the molecule is said to be symmetrical. Look at the picture.

Water (H2O) are asymmetrical and therefore might be polar molecules, you must check their electronegativities to be sure that they have polar covalent bonds, is the classic of a polar molecule. All tetrahedral molecules, because of their symmetrical shape, must be non polar. All of the diatomic molecules, such as O2 and H2 must be non polar because the electronegativity difference between the elements involved will be zero. The polarity of molecular compounds is an important influence on the properties of the substance. The polarity of a substance will also affect the intermolecular forces between particles.