Rabies around the world, how many people know about this viral disease?

Rebeca Diana Chávez Ávila, Elizabeth Sauceda Arellano Universidad Politécnica del Estado de Morelos

Abstract. In the past the viral disease of rabies was so feared, that many people who suffered from the illness were put to death. It was until an Italian doctor Fracastoro and Pasteur who isolate the cause and given people ways to protect themselves and their pets.

Key Words: Rabies, Pathology, USA, World.

Introduction
Animal bites, are injuries that carry the risk of rabies transmission. Rabies is one of the most common diseases with a 100% mortality rate. In humans, dog bites are a public health problem worldwide; they caused 97% of the cases of human rabies; this is maybe because of the increasing of stray dog populations. Dogs are not the only animals that can transmit rabies to the humans, also de cats, hamsters, cows and foxes.

hospitalization and post exposure treatment for rabies.

What are the signs and symptoms of rabies?
The symptoms of rabies are very similar to other illnesses, like fever and headache, but when the infection got more stronger appear insomnia, anxiety, confusion, slight or partial paralysis, excitation, hallucinations, agitation, hyper salivation , difficulty swallowing, and the more weird of these symptoms, the hydrophobia (fear of water). Is very important that the people who had been bitten by a dog or other animal that
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There are so many consequences of dog bites to humans like physical injuries and post traumatic stress. Dog bites also results in a large monetary expense for treatment, emergency

transmit rabies to human, do a diagnose of the disease after 10 days of the bite, because if the infection is not treated immediately survival is very rare (less than 10 documented cases of human survival from clinical rabies have been reported)

Bite of wild animals can cause serious injuries, such as nerve or tendon laceration and local system infection. Wound cleansing is especially important, so the first thing you need to do is wash with soap and water immediately. This is one of the most effective ways to decrease the infection. Rabies Post exposure Vaccinations When an animal bits you, you’ll need to see your doctor for attention for any trauma, before considering the need for rabies vaccination. Your doctor, will decide if you need a rabies vaccination. The decision to start the treatment, knon as postexposure prophylaxis (PEP), depends on your type of exposure and the animal you were exposed to. People, who have never been vaccinated against rabies previously, should always include administration of both passive antibody and vaccine. People who have been previously vaccinated or are receiving PEP should receive only the vaccine. It is known that adverse reactions to rabies vaccine and immune globulin are not common. The PEP in the USA consists on one dose of immune globulin and four doses of rabies vaccine over a 14-day period. It’s important to get an additional doses on days 3,7 and 14 after the first vaccination, this intervals give a better result. This type of vaccine is relatively painless and is given in the arm. People can’t transmit this illness to other people unless thay themselves are sick with rabies.

How is rabies transmitted?
The most common of the transmission of rabies is by the bite of an infected animal, but there are also another routes like contamination of mucous membranes , aerosol transmission, contact with infect saliva and corneal and organ transplantations. .

How is rabies diagnosed?
In animals, rabies is diagnosed using the direct fluorescent antibody (DFA) test, which looks for the presence of rabies virus antigens in brain tissue. In humans is necessary to do more than one test because No single test is sufficient to diagnose rabies in humans. Rabies tests are performed on samples of saliva, serum (blood), spinal fluid, and skin biopsies of hair follicles at the nape of the neck.

When should attention?

I

seek

medical

The rabies virus is transmitted through saliva or brain/nervous system tissue. You can only get rabies by coming in contact with these specific body excretions and tissues. It’s important to remember that rabies is a medical urgency. So your decisions should not be delayed. Wound Care

Rabies in the USA
Over the last 100 years, rabies in the USA has changed dramatically. In 1960 the majority of cases reported were in domestic animals. Nowadays more than 90% of all animal cases reported annually to CDC now occur in
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wildlife. The principal rabies hosts today are wild carnivores and bats. The number of rabies-related human deaths in USA has declined from more than 100 annually. Modern day PEP has proven nearly 100% successful. Human fatalities associated with rabies occur in people who fail to seek medical attention.

Rabies around the World
It is difficult to estimate the global impact of rabies by using only human mortality data. Vaccines for prevent human rabies have been available for more than 100 years, most deaths from rabies occur in countries with inadequate public health resources and limited access to preventive treatment. These countries also have few diagnostic facilities and almost no rabies surveillance.

References
1. Polaski H. (2011) . Who discovered Rabies?.(Pp-1) 2. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.(2011).Rabies.

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