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AGV

CHAPTER 01

INTRODUCTION
An automated guided vehicle or automatic guided vehicle (AGV) is a mobile robot that follows markers or wires in the floor, or uses vision or lasers. They are most often used in industrial applications to move materials around a manufacturing facility or a warehouse. Application of the automatic guided vehicle has broadened during the late 20th century and they are no longer restricted to industrial environments. AGV can carry loads or tow objects behind them in trailers to which they can autonomously attach. The trailers can be used to move raw materials or finished product. The AGV can also store objects on a bed. The objects can be placed on a set of motorized rollers (conveyor) and then pushed off by reversing them. Some AGV use forklifts to lift objects for storage. AGV are employed in nearly every industry, including, pulp, paper, metals, newspaper, and general manufacturing. Transporting materials such as food, linen or medicine in hospitals is also done. AGV is one of the most commonly used transportation vehicles in automatic systems. The vehicle, together with AS/RS or production line, is used to carry material, parts, subassemblies, and products from one workstation to another one. It differs from coon vehicles in the guidance system as it is autonomously guided though the senescing and control system. An AGV consists of hardware and software. The former includes the mechanical structure of the vehicle and the power transmission system as well as electronic hardware for sensing and control.

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AGV

OUR PROJECT PROTOTYPE

Our prototype is a unit load carrier having payload capacity 1 kg under safe conditions.it is having very good blend of mechanical enggineering and electronics engineering i.e., very good opportunity to study and apply mechatronics function.

FIGURE 1 Project Model

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1.1. TYPES 1.1.1. Automated guided train 1.1.2. AGV pallet truck 1.1.3. Unit load carrier 1.1.1. Automated guided train were the first type introduced and is still a very popular type today. Towing vehicles can pull a multitude of trailer types and have capacities ranging from 8,000 pounds to 60,000 pounds.

FIGURE 2 Automated Guided Train

1.1.2. AGV pallet trucks are designed to transport palletized loads to and from floor level; eliminating the need for fixed load stands.

FIGURE 3 AGV Pallet Truck

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1.1.3. AGVS unit load vehicles are equipped with decks, which permit unit load transportation and often automatic load transfer. The decks can either be lift and lower type, powered or non-powered roller, chain or belt decks or custom decks with multiple compartments.

FIGURE 4 Unit Load Carrier

AGVS fork truck has the ability to service loads both at floor level and on stands. In some cases these vehicles can also stack loads in rack.

Light load AGVS are vehicles which have capacities in the neighborhood of 500 pounds or less and are used to transport small parts, baskets, or other light loads though a light manufacturing environment. They are designed to operate in areas with limited space.

AGVS assembly line vehicles are an adaptation of the light load AGVS for applications involving serial assembly processes.

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AGV

1.2.Vehicle guidance systems 1.2.1. Pathways using embedded guide wires 1.2.2. Guide tape 1.2.1. Pathways using embedded guide wiresThe wired sensor is placed on the bottom of the robot and is placed facing the ground. A slot is cut in the ground and a wire is placed approximately 1/2inch deep and 1/8 inch wide below the ground. The sensor detects the radio frequency being transmitted from the wire and follows it.

FIGURE 5 Pathways Using Embedded Guide Wires

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The AGC is fitted with the appropriate guide sensor to follow the path of the tape. Guide tapeMany light duty AGVS (some known as automated guided carts or AGCS) use tape for the guide path. it is considered a "passive" system since it does not require the guide medium to be energized as wire does. One major advantage of tape over wired guidance is that it can be easily removed and relocated if the course needs to change.2. It also does not involve the expense of cutting the factory or warehouse floor for the entire travel route. A flexible magnetic bar can also be embedded in the floor likewise but works under the same provision as magnetic tape and so remains unpowered or passive.AGV 1. The tapes can be one of two styles: magnetic or colored.2. FIGURE 6 Guide Tape 6 . Additionally. Colored tape is initially less expensive. but lacks the advantage of being embedded in high traffic areas where the tape may become damaged or dirty.

Students combined their knowledge in mechanical design. Design and prototyping an AGV There are several related technologies involved in the design and fabrication of an AGV because it is an integrated system. The paper then gets into more detail of the design and prototyping process of the AGV followed by the conclusion and discussions. an unmanned vehicle commonly used in manufacturing and office automation. It is one of the projects developed in the class ―design and prototyping of automated systems‖ (DPAS) in the ―mechanical design and prototyping projects‖ mdpp program. the most important. 7 . Implementation and progress of the AGV project is then reported. We start with the introduction of the MDPP program and its philosophy. machine shop.Jhy-Cherng Tsai and Guo-jen Wang In this paper describes a mechatronics project completed by undergraduate juniors major in mechanical engineering. information technology. sensing and control. electronics.1. Course design of the dpas is then introduced as the project-oriented class is conducted in a different way from regular class. their creativities to complete a prototype of an autonomous guided vehicle (AGV). and.AGV CHAPTER 02 LITERATURE REVIEW 2. analysis.

wireless. In this AGV. when it 8 . metal band. are arranged in a distance slightly smaller than the width of the metal band.AGV TABLE 1 Design Review Technology Driving system Motion control Options Three. constant power Positioning method Guidance method Control system Communication method Power supply Safety mechanism Control scheme Mechanism-based or sensor-based Optical. As mentioned that the AGV is guided by a metal band with photo sensors to detect the path. spare. located in the front of the AGV frame. electro-magnetic. (contact and non-contact) with bumper Analog or digital Assembly of sensing and control systems and system integration The sensing and control systems are designed and assembled at after the design and assembly of the mechanical structure. pc-based Wired. laser-sensing. Offset of the AGV. stand-alone Dc with automatic. constant torque. hybrid. or fixed charge Sensor-based.or multi-wheel. wireless Distributed. there are two subsystems for sensing and control: the guidance system and the positioning system. Two photo sensors. networked. Motion control constant -speed.

2. A new step ahead would be to determine each path dynamically.AGV moves. Mark B. With the introduction of more powerful onboard computers and advanced sensor technology. The three limit switches are positioned on the AGV while each station is equipped with a unique configuration so that position can be easily detected when the AGV moves. This would use the free ranging capacities of AGVS to its full potential. although virtual. Positioning for the five-station is made possible by three limit switches as they can be encoded in 8 different combinations. Duinkerken & Jaap A. The flexibility of these systems is limited and often the infrastructure is not optimally used. 9 . Direction correction is made by controlling the stepping motor which turns the front wheel to correct the offset. not representing the shortest path.2. In this paper. a simulation model on the strategic level is presented that compares several common fixed layouts with the shortest connection approach. Ottjes In this paper we got that in automated transport systems. the benefits of the dynamic free ranging approach are investigated. However the routes. the origin-destination combinations are normally connected through a fixed layout. It is concluded that dynamic free ranging has high potential in terms of transport capacity of the resulting system. can be easily detected as soon as either sensor sends no signal. are still fixed. the avoidance of collisions plays a central role. the positioning and navigating possibilities of AGVS increased. Naturally.

industrial environment. the development and utilization of such sophisticated systems are not always cost effective. However. M. Haq In this paper we got that with the advancements of robotic technologies.AGV 2. Z. An imaginary industrial environment was prepared in the laboratory and the robots went through several successful test runs that validated the effectiveness of the prototypes. Jamil and M. for the 10 . An initiative was taken to design and fabricate a group of low cost automated guided vehicles to perform logistics in a quasi . S. These robots were microcontroller operated and were reprogrammable to accommodate the possible changes those in real industrial environment. One of these aspects is the use of automated guided vehicle (AGV) which is gaining importance in industrial logistics and transportation systems. Hossain . the industrial environments are adopting more and more aspects of automation to enhance product quality and accuracy and to reduce product cost. h. Test runs were performed by programming these for maneuvering through both linear and curved trajectories. M. The research highlights the possibility of logistics purposes at reasonable cost using appropriate technology. Yakut Ali . The group consisted of two robotic vehicles that were capable of carrying certain work pieces and supplying these to a predefined unloading location.3. in case of developing countries like bangladesh. G.

FIGURE 7 Construction 11 .AGV CHAPTER 03 CONSTRUCTION & WORKING OF MODEL As stated in introduction the prototype is constructed using different aids which can be explained in following figure.

12 . On this chassis the whole equipment are placed with certain arrangements on this chassis and they are connected to each other via connections.1.NO. materials and equipments.AGV From previous figure it can be understand that construction actually consist of two phases i.e.Materials we used are as follows TABLE 2 Materials SR. The chassis is also contain the fixed angles which are used to hold the top cover with the help of bolts and on that top frame a loading and unloading mechanism is fixed. MATERIAL Aluminium Angle Frame Plywood Base Nuts And Bolts Fiber Plate For Top Cover CD Diskette Plastic Wheels QUANTITY 2 1 28 1 1 2 SIZE (MM) 365×60×30 365×200 VARIOUS SIZES 293×200 170×130×45 Ø90 A plywood base is made of required size and then it is fixed with the aluminium frame for obtaining chassis. 3. 1 2 3 4 5 6. The chassis is also supporting the two motors which are coupled on it with the wheels which are keyed on it..

2.AGV 3.Equipments used are TABLE 3 Equipment Logic board all elocronic ckt 5 TCRT digital sensor module with op-am Tsop based obstacle avoiding module DC geared motors works from 12v 60 rpm Maintenance free sealed lead acid recharchablr battery 12v 12v DC plastic gear motor 60 rpm 13 .

AGV MODEL 175mm 47mm 65mm 200mm FIGURE 8 Front View 360mm 125mm 90mm Ф85mm 180mm FIGURE 9 Left Hand Side View 40mm 14 .

AGV Working• START & END • LOAD/ UNLOAD LOADING STATION 1 STATION 3 STATION 2 • LOAD/ UNLOAD • LOAD /UNLOAD FIGURE 10 Working FIGURE 11 Layout 15 .

AGV • LOAD AT LOADING STATION 1 • START FROM FIRST STATION • STOP AT NEXT STATION 2 • UNLOAD THE OBJECT AT STATION • LOAD THE OBJECT 3 • START AGAIN AND REPEAT THE STEPS UNTIL PROGRM ENDS 4 FIGURE 12 Working Flow Diagram 16 .

AGV CHAPTER 04 LOGIC BOARD FIGURE 13 Logic Board 17 .

Features     80c51 central processing unit v operating voltages from 0 to 40 MHz 64 kb of on-chip flash program memory with isp (in-system programming) and Iap (in-application programming) 18 . allowing the flash program memory to be reconfigured even while the application is running. The p89v51rd2 is also in-application programmable (iap). 01 — 01 March 2004 product data 4.AGV 4. The design engineer can choose to run the application with the conventional 80c51 clock rate (12 clocks per machine cycle) or select the x2 mode (6 clocks per machine cycle) to achieve twice the throughput at the same clock frequency.1. thus dramatically reducing the emi. The capability to field/update the application firmware makes a wide range of applications possible.1.1 PHILIPS P89V51RD2 ΜC ON BOARD 8-BIT 80C51 5 V low power 64 kb flash microcontroller with 1 kb ram Rev. In-system programming (isp) parallel programming mode offers gangprogramming at high speed. Isp allows a device to be reprogrammed in the end product under software control. A key feature of the p89v51rd2 is its x2 mode option. 4. Another way to benefit from this feature is to keep the same performance by reducing the clock frequency by half.1 General description The p89v51rd2 is an 80c51 microcontroller with 64 kb flash and 1024 bytes of data ram.2. reducing programming costs and time to market. The flash program memory supports both parallel programming and in serial.

AGV              Supports 12-clock (default) or 6-clock mode selection via software or ISP Spi (serial peripheral interface) and enhanced uart Pca (programmable counter array) with pwm and capture/compare functions Four 8-bit i/o ports with three high-current port 1 pins (16 ma each) Three 16-bit timers/counters Programmable watchdog timer (wdt) Eight interrupt sources with four priority levels Second dptr register Low emi mode (ale inhibit) Ttl.and cmos-compatible logic levels Brown-out detection Low power modes Power-down mode with external interrupt wake-up FIGURE 14 P89V51RD2 Block Diagram 19 .

AGV FIGURE 15 PLCC44 Pin Configuration 20 .

AGV FIGURE 16 PDIP40 Pin Configuration 21 .

2.5 v (High noise iunity) Internal clamp diodes 4. A separate supply input is provided for the logic. 22 . dc and stepping motors) and switching power transistors.1 Features          600ma output current capability Per channel 1.2 L293D Motor Driver For Driving 2 Motors 4. high current four channel driver designed to accept standard dtl or ttl logic levels and drive inductive loads (such as relays solenoids. This device is suitable for use in switching applications at frequencies up to 5 khz. The l293d is assembled in a 16 lead plastic package which has 4 center pins connected together and used for heat sinking The l293dd Is Assembled In A 20 Lead Surface Mount Which Has 8 Center Pins Connected Together And Used For Heat Sinking.AGV 4.2 Description The device is a monolithic integrated high voltage.2a peak output current (non repetitive) Per channel Enable facility Over temperature protection Logical "0" input voltage up to 1. allowing operation at a lower voltage and internal clamp diodes are included.2. To simplify use as two bridges each pair of channels is equipped with an enable input.

8 (Vcc = 1. 8192 X 8 • 2-Wire Serial Interface • Schmitt Trigger.AGV FIGURE 17 Block Diagram L293D 4. Filtered Inputs For Noise Suppression • Bidirectional Data Transfer Protocol 23 .5v) • Low-Power Devices (Isb = 2 Μa at 5.8v to 5.5v) Available • Internally Organized 4096 X 8.7v to 5.3 ON BOARD ATMEL24C64 .EEPROM 4.5v) – 1.7 (Vcc = 2.3.1 Features • Low-Voltage and Standard-Voltage Operation – 2.

7v (2. 8-pin JEDEC SOIC. In addition. 8-pin EIAJ SOIC.536 bits of serial electrically erasable and programmable read only memory (EEPROM) organized as 4096/8192 words of 8 bits each.8v (1. 8-pin JEDEC SOIC.5v) and .AGV • 100 KHz (1. 2. The at24c32/64 is available in space saving 8-pin JEDEC PDIP.8v. The device is optimized for use in many industrial and coercible applications where low power and low voltage operation are essential. and 8-pin TSSOP packages 4.768/65. 24 . the entire family is available in 2. and 8-pin TSSOP (at24c64) packages and is accessed via a 2-wire serial interface.2 Description The at24c32/64 provides 32. 8-pin EIAJ SOIC. 2. The device‘s cascade feature allows up to 8 devices to share a coon 2.8v to 5.7v) And 400 KHz (5v) Clock Rate • Write protect pin for hardware data protection • 32-byte page write mode (partial page writes allowed) • Self-timed write cycle (10 ms max) • High reliability – Endurance: 1 million write cycles – Data retention: 100 years • Automotive grade and extended temperature devices available • 8-pin JEDEC PDIP.3.5v.5v) versions.wire bus.7v to 5.

AGV FIGURE 18 Block Diagram EEPROM 25 .

AGV CHAPTER 05 SENSING MODULE & POWER UNIT 5.1. 26 . and position controlled by an array of three photo sensors with digital encoding. 5 TCRT Digital Sensor Module FIGURE 19 Sensor Module It is guided by two photo sensors use to steer the vehicle.

AGV FIGURE 20 TCRT Line Sensors Module Board TABLE 4 Symbols FIGURE 21 FRC Connector 27 .

AGV FIGURE 22 TSOP Obstacle Detection Module TABLE 5 Symbols 28 .

   Good torque 6 mm shaft approximately 100 grams.) Dc ideal for robotics and other applications  Hole on shaft to firmly FIGURE 23 Motor connecting it to wheel.2. Power unit    Maintenance free sealed lead acid rechargeable battery 12v 1.3.2amp FIGURE 24 Battery 29 . Motors  Dc geared motors works from 6v – 15v   60 rpm (rated on 12v.AGV 5. All metal gear 5.

The most commonly used battery charging technologies are battery swap.AGV 5. and automatic battery swap. 5.1 Battery swap FIGURE 25 Battery Swap "Battery swap technology" requires an operator to manually remove the discharged battery from the AGV and place a fully charged battery in its place approximately 8 . 5 .12 hours (about one shift) of AGVS operation.10 minutes is required to perform this with each AGV in the fleet. 30 . automatic/opportunity charging.4.4 Battery Charging AGVS utilize a number of battery charging options. Each option is dependent on the users preference.

If opportunity is being utilized the AGV will receive a charge whenever the opportunity arises. 5. When a battery pack gets to a predetermined level the AGV will finish the current job that it has been assigned before it goes to the charging station.3 Automatic battery swap FIGURE 27 Automatic Swap 31 .4.AGV 5.4.2 Automatic / opportunity charging FIGURE 26 Opportunity Swap "Automatic and opportunity battery charging" allows for continuous operation. On average an AGV charges for 12 minutes every hour for automatic charging and no manual intervention is required.

recent developments in battery charging technology allow batteries to be charged more quickly and efficiently potentially eliminating the need to swap batteries. Battery can be removed and then can be place on charging and it is very safe method of charging and 5 hrs are sufficient to charge the battery fully. 32 .It is provided with plug socket. an automatic battery changer. The automatic battery changer then places the removed batteries into a charging slot for automatic recharging.AGV "Automatic battery swap" is an alternative to manual battery swap. a charger we made using a step down transformer and a full wave rectifier using 4 diodes. The automatic battery charger keeps track of the batteries in the system and pulls them only when they are fully charged.5. which first convert a 240 v ac to 12 v ac and then to 12v dc . As our system is working on 12v dc . While a battery swap system reduces the manpower required to swap batteries. About our project In our project we have not provided an alternate battery but we have the facility of charging it whenever it is in standby mode a charger we have provided. It requires an additional piece of automation machinery. 5. AGVS will pull up to the battery swap station and have their batteries automatically replaced with fully charged batteries. to the overall AGV system.

21. Inc 2000-2006 Version 3.179 Arm driver version 1.60 v2.2. 1995 . 6.1.exe bl51.6 v3.AGV `CHAPTER 06 PROGRAM This program is written in ‗c‘ language and being executed via two software‘s. IDE-VERSION: µVISION3 V3.50 33 .dll dp51.exe a51.26.24 v2.42.2008 Tool version numbers: Toolchain: Toolchain path: C compiler: Assembler: Linker/locator: Librarian: Hex converter: Cpu dll: Dialog dll: 6.exe oh51.179 Drivers used 8051/xa driver version 2.01 v6.exe lib51. Flash magic Embedded systems academy.exe s8051.179 pk51 prof.dll v8.12 v8. Develpers kit version: 8.60 Copyright (c) keil elektronik gmbh / keil software.12 c:\keil\c51\bin\ c51.11 v4. inc.

SBIT S2 = P2^4. SBIT LED2 = P0^4.H> #INCLUDE<STDIO. SBIT LED4 = P0^6. SBIT S4 = P2^6. 34 . SBIT LED3 = P0^5. SBIT S5 = P2^7.H> #DEFINE DELAYFWD 2000 //#DEFINE DELAYTURN 4 #DEFINE NOSTATIONS 4 SBIT S1 = P2^3. SBIT KEY3 = P0^2.AGV Program in ‘c’ with information #INCLUDE<REG51F. SBIT KEY1 = P0^0. SBIT LED1 = P0^3. SBIT KEY2 = P0^1. SBIT S3 = P2^5.

SBIT LENA = P1^3. VOID DRIVE_MOTOR(UNSIGNED CHAR LEFT. SBIT LENB = P1^2.UNSIGNED CHAR RGHT). SBIT RGHT_EN = P1^5. SBIT OBS = P3^4. SBIT RENB = P1^1. VOID GO ().UNSIGNED CHAR RGHT) { IF(RGHT==0)//IF RIGHT == 0 THEN RIGHT MOTOR WILL STOP { RENA=1. VOID DRIVE_MOTOR(UNSIGNED CHAR LEFT. 35 . VOID DELAY(INT VALUE). SBIT LEFT_EN = P1^4.AGV SBIT RENA = P1^0.

} IF(RGHT==2)//IF RIGHT == 2 THEN RIGHT MOTOR WILL GO FORWARD { RENA=0. RENB=0. } IF(RGHT==1)//IF RIGHT == 1 THEN RIGHT MOTOR WILL GO BACKWARD { RENA=1. RENB=1. LENB=1.AGV RENB=1. } IF(LEFT==1)//IF LEFT == 1 THEN LEFT MOTOR WILL GO BACKWARD 36 . } IF(LEFT==0)//IF LEFT == 0 THEN LEFT MOTOR WILL STOP { LENA=1.

E. } IF(LEFT==2)//IF LEFT == 2 THEN RIGHT MOTOR WILL GO FORWARD { LENA=0. LENB=1. LENB=0.2). } ELSE 37 .AGV { LENA=1. WHEN ALL SENSORS ARE 1 WHILE CONDITION FAILS WHILE(!(S5 && S4 && S3 && S2 && S1)) { IF(S4 && S3 && S2) { DRIVE_MOTOR(2. } } VOID GO() { //WHILE LOOP WILL RUN TILL INTERSECTION IS NOT SENSED I.

2).2).2).0). } } DRIVE_MOTOR(2.0). 38 . } ELSE IF(S4 && !S3 && !S2) { DRIVE_MOTOR(0. } ELSE IF(!S4 && !S3 && S2) { DRIVE_MOTOR(2.AGV IF(!S4 && S3 && S2) { DRIVE_MOTOR(2. } ELSE IF(S4 && S3 && !S2) { DRIVE_MOTOR(0.

} VOID MAIN() { INT J.AGV DELAY(DELAYFWD). DRIVE_MOTOR(0.0).I<VALUE. LEFT_EN=0. FOR(I=0. RGHT_EN=0. } VOID DELAY(INT VALUE){ INT I.I++). WHILE(1) { IF(!KEY1) { 39 .

DELAY(60000).J++) { GO(). DELAY(60000). WHILE(!OBS). WHILE(OBS).J<NOSTATIONS.AGV FOR(J=0. } } } } 40 . DELAY(60000).

) 3500 41 . COMPONENT 01 Microcontroller & Sensor Module 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 Battery Frame Motors Diskette Electrical Equip.AGV CHAPTER 07 COST ESTIMATION TABLE 6 Cost Estimation SR NO. Battery Charger Buzzer And Led Miscellaneous Total 01 01 02 01 01 3 430 1500 800 100 300 230 200 2000 9060 QTY 01 COST (RS.

rolls. and includes the repetitive movement of materials throughout the manufacturing process. 42 . 8. steel. carts.1 Raw material handling AGVS are commonly used to transport raw materials such as paper. Work-in-process movement Work-in-process movement is one of the first applications where automated guided vehicles were used. rubber. and delivering materials directly to production lines. racks.2. metal. and containers.AGV CHAPTER 08 COMMON AGV APPLICATIONS Automated guided vehicles can be used in a wide variety of applications to transport many different types of material including pallets. AGVS excel in applications with the following characteristics:       Repetitive movement of materials over a distance Regular delivery of stable loads Medium throughput/volume When on-time delivery is critical and late deliveries are causing inefficiency Operations with at least two shifts Processes where tracking material is important 8. AGVS can be used to move material from the warehouse to production/processing lines or from one process to another. and plastic. This includes transporting materials from receiving to the warehouse.

or staging lanes and deliver them into the trailer in the specified loading pattern. Pallet handling Pallet handling is an extremely popular application for AGVS as repetitive movement of pallets is very common in manufacturing and distribution facilities. 43 . AGVS can move pallets from the palletized to stretch wrapping to the warehouse/storage and/or to the outbound shipping docks. 8.4.AGV 8. AGVS are used to transport and load pallets of finished goods directly into standard. Finished product handling Moving finished goods from manufacturing to storage or shipping is the final movement of materials before they are delivered to customers. 8. Trailer loading Automatic loading of trailers is a relatively new application for automated guided vehicle and becoming increasingly popular. over-the-road trailers without any special dock equipment. These movements often require the gentlest material handling because the products are complete and subject to damage from rough handling. racking.3.5. Because AGVS operate with precisely controlled navigation and acceleration and deceleration this minimizes the potential for damage making them an excellent choice for this type of application. AGVS can pick up pallets from conveyors.

converters. Roll handling AGVS are used to transport rolls in many types of plants including paper mills. newspapers. in racking.6. Because automatic guided vehicles (AGVS) can delivery efficient. printers. Primary application industries Efficient. Industry‘s currently utilizing AGVS include (but are not limited to): Figure 28 Fork truck vehicle 44 . and plastics manufacturers.AGV 8. cost effective movement of materials.7. 8. AGVS can store and stack rolls on the floor. and can even automatically load printing presses with rolls of paper. AGVS can be applied to various industries in standard or customized designs to best suit an industry‘s requirements. steel producers. cost effective movement of materials is an important. and common element in improving operations in many manufacturing plants and warehouses.

Because an AGV system tracks all movement provided by the AGVS. 45 . 8. Chemical AGVS deliver raw materials. and provide transportation to other processing cells and stations.8. plastics. it supports process validation and CGMP (current good manufacturing practice). and specialty chemicals. Pharmaceutical AGVS are a preferred method of moving materials in the pharmaceutical industry. move materials to curing storage warehouses.AGV Figure 29 Delivering plates 8.7. Common industries include rubber.

power train (engine and transmission) plants. transporting work-in process. moving finished goods. removing scrap materials.9. Automotive AGV installations are found in stamping plants. 8. and supplying packaging materials. AGVS can typically be found delivering raw materials. Manufacturing AGVS are often used in general manufacturing of products. Figure 30 A tugger AGV pulling wheeled carts Figure 31 for assembly on cars 46 . AGVS are also used to supply specialized tooling which must be changed. and moving finished goods.10.AGV 8. and assembly plants delivering raw materials. transporting work-in process.

AGVS can also store and retrieve pallets in the warehouse. 8. trash dumpers. etc. stretch wrapper. AGVS are utilized in the most modern warehouses and distribution centers to maximize use of the available space with narrow aisles and high racking. patient meals. newspaper printing and corrugating.13.11. and the warehouse.14.‖ linking the palletizer. soiled food trays. 47 . cart washers. regulated medical waste.AGV 8. Warehousing In this way. AGVS typically move linens. converting. trash.12. and surgical case carts. or block stacking to store items. elevators/lifts. Paper and print AGVS can move paper rolls. 8. and plastic film. over-the-road trailers with finished goods. applicable to nearly every business. Food and beverage AGVS can be applied to move materials in food processing (such as the loading of food and/or trays into sterilizers) and at the ―end of line. Hospital AGVS are becoming increasingly popular in the healthcare industry for efficient transport. AGVS can load standard. pallets. and waste bins to provide all routine material movement in the production and warehousing (storage/retrieval) of paper. and unload trailers to supply raw materials or packaging materials to the plant. and are programmed to be fully integrated to automatically operate doors. 8.

o Ease of removal and relocation. o Integration with other type of automations. 9. o System adaptability and flexibility.1 Advantages of AGV o Reduction in labor force. o Improvement in housekeeping. o Improved productivity and quality. o Reduction in space requirement o Reduction in product damage. o Performance is affected if guide path bed is not stable 48 .2 Disadvantages of AGV o Expensive o Requirement of specially designed floor space. o Job enrichment and worker satisfaction.AGV CHAPTER 09 ADVANTAGES AND DISADVANTAGES 9.

slow speed. 49 . A frustrating situation occurs when one or more key components for a design are not locally available. The AGV prototype was performed with the available resources but in case of mass production of such systems. it is worthwhile to mention that the possibility of AGVS development has a bright future in WORLD and the industries should come forward instead of becoming too much dependent on expected technology. From the test runs. In this case.AGV CHAPTER 10 CONCLUSIONS In the perspective of a developing country working with sophisticated technologies is a challenge. it can be recommended that the usage of this vehicle must be definite in safe conditions. the cost of the components could be minimized by purchasing them in a large number. These could be modified and improved easily to meet the industry demands. The AGV developed in this project were lightweight and in some cases. Finally. Searching for components from outside may be limitation to local industries.

g.g. e. On board controller is becoming more sophisticated and at same time they are becoming smaller and less expensive the vehicle controllers are exhibiting such features as expanding diagnostics. We plan to extend the model in several directions. Although it is difficult to predict the future with absolute certainty. it can be concluded from the trends that seem to indicate future status of AGV systems. etc. Controller sophistication will also allow the vehicle to operator more intelligently in complex handling situation and will increase the system integrity in the event of host computer failure. 50 .. Guidance: The research is being accomplished to expand capability and even to eliminate the need for guidance using guide path on board controller. including stoppages caused by malfunctioning equipment. 11.. Although vehicle cannot repair themselves. Which affects the productivity at a real ct)? Another topic worth studying is different dispatching strategies for allocating containers to AGVS and cassettes.1. including the unloading/loading taking place at the stacks. etc.AGV CHAPTER 11 FUTURE SCOPE OF WORK For future work we would study other models for container handling time by the QC and the cycle time for AGVS (e. they can at least indicate their problems to maintenance and repair person. more detailed modeling of the AGV movements.

the vehicle identification. Vehicle: Vehicle will become more standard requiring less engineering to adapt the vehicle to a particulate task.4. Vehicle communication: The trend is towards continuous as opposed to discrete communication so that vehicle will be able to communicate and receive updated instruction at any time. thus lowering the coast of vehicle to a great extent this will make them easier to justify for many users. 11. every vehicle location.2.AGV 11. 11.3. thus lowering the coast of vehicle to a particular task.5. They will be able to follow and control material flow to support just in time concepts. 11. Improved graphical display: There will be probability the increased use of color graphical display showing entire guide path. The system controller will also be able to be integrated with network allowing it to communicate with any other facility controller. the vehicle status and vehicle load. 51 . System controller: System will be designed to have capability to track material and store this information.

6.AGV 11. Safety: New safety sensors for proximity detection will be developed and coupled with computing power of on board controller to produce on even vehicle that readily negotiate pedestrian clogged aisle Figure 32 Future 52 .

.edu. 6th ED.nchu. USA.164-173. University of South Carolina.H. pp..tw  M. 53 .282-288. 2009  Atherton D. pp.P.nchu. Fax: (+886)4-2877170. S.edu  Groover M. SC 29208. PHI Learning private limited. YAKUT ALI*. 1990.sc.edu. HAQ ―DEVELOPMENT OF AGV FOR INDUSTRIAL LOGISTICS APPLICATIONS‖ Department of Mechanical Engineering. HOSSAIN*. ―AUTOMATION." MEASUREMENT AND CONTROL.. JAMIL AND M. National Chung-Hsing University. Taichung.AGV CHAPTER 12 REFERENCES  Jhy-Cherng Tsai and Guo-Jen Wang ―PROTOTYPING AN AUTONOMOUS GUIDED VEHICLE IN UNDERGRADUATE MECHANICAL DESIGN‖ Department of Mechanical Engineering. "ENGINEERING EDUCATION AND FUTURE INDUSTRIAL NEEDS. Columbia. Taiwan.tw and gjwang@dragon. M. PRODUCTION SYSTEMS. AND COMPUTER INTEGRATED MANUFACTURING‖ 3RD ED. Z. jctsai@mail. G. ROC Tel: (+886)4 -2840433 ext 412. E-mail: alim@engr.

COM/DOC/39581571/SEMINAR-ON-AGV     11/01/2011 HTTP://EN.HTML 10/07/2010  HTTP://WWW.MOBILEROBOTS.HTML 18/10/2011 HTTP://WWW.COM/?AUTOMATED-GUIDED-VEHICLE 14/01/2011 HTTP://WWW.COM/MRINSIDESPECS.SCRIBD.ORG/WIKI/AUTOMATED_GUIDED_VEHICLE 11/01/2011 HTTP://EZINEARTICLES.WIKIPEDIA.AGV Websites ACCESSED ON  HTTP://WWW.COM/AGV_INTELLIGENTCARRY/IC_FAQ.ANSWERS.COM/TOPIC/AUTOMATED-GUIDED-VEHICLE 20/02/2011 54 .HITACHI-PT.