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Study Book

Version 4.0, 2005-December

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Preface
The Eurocadcrete project started 3 years ago. The goal of the project was to set an international accepted system for students to test their knowledge about concrete structures. Part of the studybook was to develop worked out examples for students. Students to learn about working with the Eurocode 2 can use these examples. Secondly the text can be used for the dynamic assists in the Eurocadcrete programme. So in the end Eurocadcrete it is not only a test system, but also a learning tool. The German Concrete Society executed this Studybook. In co-operation with the other partners the book reflects an international approach of the implementation of the Eurocode 2. The book will play an important role in the project. Therefore I am very grateful about the work done by our German Contractpartner, Deutscher Betonverein. Especially the work of Dr.-Ing. H.-U. Litzner, Dr.-Ing. F. Fingerloos and Dipl.-Ing. M. Rapic must be mentioned, they did a wonderful task. Next to that the input of the partners from Glasgow, Prague, Brno and Ostrava, Turin, Rome, Delft, Vilnius and Tampere was very appreciated. I hope this book will help to harmonise European Concrete practice in the near future. Ir. Dick Stoelhorst, Director of the Netherlands Concrete Society, Promoter of Eurocadcrete The Netherlands. December 2005

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Table of content
I I.1 II Introduction General considerations of concrete structures Exercises II.1 II.2 II.3 II.4 II.5 Single span beam – precast structures Slab – one way Beam, T-section Column Frame

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I

Introduction

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Table of content of introduction
I.1 I.1.1 I.1.2 General considerations of concrete structures Additional information specific to EN 1992-1-1 National annex for EN 1992-1-1 I.1-1 I.1-1 I.1-1

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I.1

General considerations of concrete structures

The examples in this Study Book are basing on the Eurocode 2: Design of concrete structures – Part 1-1: General rules and rules for buildings (December 2004) They can be realised with the EuroCADCrete-software completely and should demonstrate the use of Eurocode 2 in simple variations.

I.1.1

Additional information specific to EN 1992-1-1

EN 1992-1-1 describes the principles and requirements for safety, serviceability and durability of concrete structures, together with specific provisions for buildings. It is based on the limit state concept used in conjunction with a partial factor method. For the design of new structures, EN 1992-1-1 is intended to be used, for direct application, together with other parts of EN 1992, Eurocodes EN 1990,1991, 1997 and 1998. EN 1992-1-1 also serves as a reference document for other CEN TCs concerning structural matters. EN 1992-1-1 is intended for use by: – committees drafting other standards for structural design and related product, testing and execution standards; – clients (e.g. for the formulation of their specific requirements on reliability levels and durability); – designers and constructors ; – relevant authorities. Numerical values for partial factors and other reliability parameters are recommended as basic values that provide an acceptable level of reliability. They have been selected assuming that an appropriate level of workmanship and of quality management applies. When EN 1992-1-1 is used as a base document by other CEN/TCs the same values need to be taken.

I.1.2

National annex for EN 1992-1-1

This standard gives values with notes indicating where national choices may have to be made. Therefore the National Standard implementing EN 1992-1-1 should have a National annex containing all Nationally Determined Parameters to be used for the design of buildings and civil engineering works to be constructed in the relevant country.

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II

Exercises

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Table of content of exercises
II.1 Single span beam – precast structures Exercise simple beam Assumptions Conditions of support Decisive sections of bending moment Determination of required longitudinal reinforcement Bar combination Crack control Design value of acting shear force Determination of required shear reinforcement Selection of stirrups Stress limitation Deflection control Additional tensile force or “shift rule” Envelope of acting tensile force Bar positioning Bar positioning top Bar positioning bottom II.1-1 II.1-2 II.1-3 II.1-5 II.1-5 II.1-6 II.1-7 II.1-9 II.1-10 II.1-11 II.1-13 II.1-14 II.1-16 II.1-17 II.1-18 II.1-19 II.1-19 II.1-19 II.1-22 II.2-1 II.2-2 II.2-3 II.2-6 II.2-7 II.2-8 II.2-8 II.2-9 II.2-9 II.2-10 II.2-11 II.2-12 II.2-13 II.2-14 II.2-14 II.2-15 II.2-16 II.1.1 II.1.2 II.1.3 II.1.4 II.1.5 II.1.6 II.1.7 II.1.8 II.1.9 II.1.10 II.1.11 II.1.12 II.1.13 II.1.14 II.1.15

II.1.15.1 II.1.15.2 II.1.16 II.2

Stirrups positioning

Slab – one way Exercise one way slab Assumptions Conditions of support Decisive sections of bending moment Determination of required longitudinal reinforcement Determination of required longitudinal reinforcement at intermediate support Determination of required longitudinal reinforcement in field 1 (F1) Determination of required longitudinal reinforcement in field 2 (F2) Bar combination at intermediate support (top reinforcement) Bar combination in field 1 (bottom reinforcement) Bar combination in field 2 (bottom reinforcement) Crack control at intermediate support without direct calculation Crack control in field 1 without direct calculation Crack control in field 2 without direct calculation

II.2.1 II.2.2 II.2.3 II.2.4 II.2.5

II.2.5.1 II.2.5.2 II.2.5.3 II.2.6 II.2.6.1 II.2.6.2 II.2.6.3 II.2.7 II.2.7.1 II.2.7.2 II.2.7.3

Bar combination

Crack control

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II.2.8 II.2.9 II.2.10 II.2.11

Design value of acting shear force Determination of required shear reinforcement Stress limitation Deflection control Deflection control in field 1 without explicit calculation Deflection control in field 2 without explicit calculation

II.2-17 II.2-18 II.2-19 II.2-21 II.2-21 II.2-22 II.2-23 II.2-25 II.2-26 II.2-26 II.2-28 II.3-1 II.3-2 II.3-4 II.3-7 II.3-8 II.3-9 II.3-9 II.3-10 II.3-12 II.3-12 II.3-13 II.3-14 II.3-14 II.3-15 II.3-17 II.3-18 II.3-21 II.3-22 II.3-24 II.3-25 II.3-27 II.3-28 II.3-28 II.3-30 II.4-1 II.4-2

II.2.11.1 II.2.11.2 II.2.12 II.2.13 II.2.14

Additional tensile force or “shift rule” Envelope of acting tensile force Bar positioning Bar positioning top Bar positioning bottom

II.2.14.1 II.2.14.2 II.3

Beam, T-section Exercise beam with T-section Assumptions Conditions of support Decisive sections of bending moment Determination of required longitudinal reinforcement Determination of required longitudinal reinforcement at intermediate support Determination of required longitudinal reinforcement in the field Bar combination at intermediate support (top reinforcement) Bar combination in the span (bottom reinforcement) Crack control at intermediate support without direct calculation Crack control in the field without direct calculation

II.3.1 II.3.2 II.3.3 II.3.4 II.3.5

II.3.5.1 II.3.5.2 II.3.6 II.3.6.1 II.3.6.2 II.3.7 II.3.7.1 II.3.7.2 II.3.8 II.3.9 II.3.10 II.3.11 II.3.12 II.3.13 II.3.14 II.3.15

Bar combination

Crack control

Design value of acting shear force Determination of required shear reinforcement Selection of stirrups Stress limitation Deflection control Additional tensile force or “shift rule” Envelope of acting tensile force Bar positioning Bar positioning top Bar positioning bottom

II.3.15.1 II.3.15.2 II.4 Column

II.4.1

Exercise column

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II.4.2 II.4.3 II.4.4

Assumptions Conditions of support Determination of required longitudinal reinforcement Check slenderness criterion Calculate effective creep ratio φef Second order effects with method based on nominal curvature Determination of required reinforcement with diagram of interaction

II.4-3 II.4-6 II.4-6 II.4-7 II.4-9 II.4-10 II.4-12 II.4-13 II.4-14 II.5-1 II.5-2 II.5-3 II.5-6 II.5-7 II.5-7 II.5-9 II.5-10 II.5-11 II.5-12 II.5-14 II.5-14 II.5-16 II.5-17 II.5-18 II.5-19 II.5-21 II.5-23 II.5-23 II.5-24 II.5-25 II.5-26 II.5-27 II.5-28 II.5-29 II.5-31 II.5-31 II.5-32 II.5-33

II.4.4.1 II.4.4.2 II.4.4.3 II.4.4.4 II.4.5 II.4.6 II.5

Bar combination Selection of stirrups

Frame Exercise frame Assumptions Conditions of support Design of left column Check slenderness criterion Design value of bending moment Determination of required reinforcement with diagram of interaction Bar combination for left column Selection of stirrups for left column Check slenderness criterion Design value of bending moment Determination of required reinforcement with diagram of interaction Bar combination for right column Selection of stirrups for right column

II.5.1 II.5.2 II.5.3 II.5.4

II.5.4.1 II.5.4.2 II.5.4.3 II.5.4.4 II.5.4.5 II.5.5 II.5.5.1 II.5.5.2 II.5.5.3 II.5.5.4 II.5.5.5 II.5.6 II.5.7

Design of right column

Frame corners Design of beam of frame Decisive sections of bending moment Determination of required reinforcement at left corner (top side) Determination of required reinforcement at right corner (top side) Determination of required reinforcement at left corner (bottom side) Determination of required reinforcement at right corner (bottom side) Determination of required reinforcement in field (bottom side) Bar combination for beam of frame Crack control Crack control at left corner without direct calculation Crack control at right corner without direct calculation Crack control in the field without direct calculation

II.5.7.1 II.5.7.2 II.5.7.3 II.5.7.4 II.5.7.5 II.5.7.6 II.5.7.7 II.5.7.8 II.5.7.9 II.5.7.10 II.5.7.11

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II.5.7.12 II.5.7.13 II.5.7.14 II.5.7.15 II.5.7.16 II.5.7.17 II.5.7.18 II.5.7.19 II.5.7.20 II.5.7.21 II.5.7.22

Design value of acting shear force Determination of required shear reinforcement Selection of stirrups for beam Stress limitation Deflection control Additional tensile force or “shift rule” Envelope of acting tensile force Bar positioning for beam Bar positioning top Bar positioning bottom Stirrups positioning for beam

II.5-34 II.5-35 II.5-37 II.5-38 II.5-40 II.5-41 II.5-42 II.5-43 II.5-43 II.5-44 II.5-45

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Table of figures of exercises
figure II.1-1: Assumptive cross section figure II.1-2: Bar combination figure II.1-3: Acting tensile force figure II.1-4: Envelope of acting tensile force figure II.1-5: Side view of bar positioning figure II.1-6: Vertical view of bar positioning figure II.1-7: Stirrups positioning figure II.2-1: Assumptive field section figure II.2-2: Assumptive section at intermediate support figure II.2-3: Bar combination at intermediate support figure II.2-4: Bar combination in field 1 figure II.2-5: Bar combination in field 2 figure II.2-6: Design value of shear force figure II.2-7: Bending moments figure II.2-8: Tensile force figure II.2-9: Acting tensile force figure II.2-10: Envelope of acting tensile force figure II.2-11: Side view of bar positioning figure II.2-12: Vertical view of bar positioning top figure II.2-13: Vertical view of bar positioning bottom figure II.3-1: Assumptive field section (T beam) figure II.3-2: Assumptive section at intermediate support (T beam) figure II.3-3: Definition of l0, for calculation of effective flange width (see EC2 Figure 5.2) figure II.3-4: Effective flange width parameters (see EC2 Figure 5.3) figure II.3-5: Bar combination at intermediate support (T-beam) figure II.3-6: Bar combination in the field (T-beam) figure II.3-7: Bending moments(T beam) figure II.3-8: Tensile force (T beam) figure II.3-9: Acting tensile force (T beam) figure II.3-10: Envelope of acting tensile force (T beam) figure II.3-11: Side view of bar positioning top figure II.3-12: Side view of bar positioning bottom figure II.4-1: Assumptive column cross section figure II.4-2: Effective length (see EC2 figure 5.7) figure II.4-3: Bar combination figure II.4-4: Stirrups positioning column figure II.5-1: Assumptive cross section II.1-4 II.1-8 II.1-17 II.1-18 II.1-21 II.1-21 II.1-22 II.2-5 II.2-5 II.2-11 II.2-12 II.2-13 II.2-17 II.2-23 II.2-23 II.2-24 II.2-25 II.2-27 II.2-27 II.2-30 II.3-6 II.3-6 II.3-10 II.3-10 II.3-12 II.3-13 II.3-25 II.3-25 II.3-26 II.3-27 II.3-29 II.3-31 II.4-5 II.4-8 II.4-13 II.4-15 II.5-5

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figure II.5-2: Bar combination left column figure II.5-3: Bar combination right column figure II.5-4: Detailing for closing moment figure II.5-5: Detailing for opening moment figure II.5-6: Acting tensile force in frame beam figure II.5-7: Envelope of acting tensile force figure II.5-8: Frame detailing

II.5-11 II.5-18 II.5-21 II.5-21 II.5-41 II.5-42 II.5-46

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II.1 Single span beam – precast structures

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II.1.1

Exercise simple beam

Design the following (factory-made) single span beam with the support conditions as depicted below. The beam is part of a roof construction of an open storage building with predominantly static actions. Materials: • • Actions: • • • • self-weight of the beam self-weight of the roof construction imposed load snow load gk1 = 2,4 kN/m gk2 = 12 kN/m qk1 = 3,75 kN/m qk2 = 3,3 kN/m concrete reinforcement steel C35/45 Class A bars, with fyk = 500 N/mm², εuk = 2,5 %

4

A

gk + qk

5

A

longitudinal section

D

ln = 9,45 m distance of column axis = 10,00 m 300 150
detail D

section A - A

600 elastomer support ai = 100 260
30

ai = 100 260

550

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II.1.2

Assumptions

The design of concrete structures has an iterative character. The initial assumptions of steel type, diameter of longitudinal and shear reinforcement, maximum aggregate size, deviation of concrete cover, structure and exposure class are made at the beginning of the design. Exposure class: • Background: A durable structure shall meet the requirements of serviceability, strength and stability throughout its design working life, without significant loss of utility or excessive unforeseen maintenance. • • Reference: The required measure of protection is based on the identification of the relevant exposure classes according to chapter 4.2 of EC2 Work out: For corrosion induced by carbonation the exposure class XC3, and for freeze –thaw attack the exposure class XF1 should be identified (the beam is part of an open storage building). Indicative strength class: • Background: The choice of adequately durable concrete for corrosion protection of reinforcement and protection of concrete attack, requires consideration of the composition of concrete. This may result in a higher compressive strength of the concrete than is required for structural design. • Reference: To accomplish the required protection measure for corrosion and concrete attack the identified exposure classes can be related to the necessary compressive strength corresponding to annex E of EC2. • Work out: Table E.1N indicates the relation of concrete strength class C30/37 to exposure class XC3 and the relation of concrete strength class C30/37 to exposure class XF1. The choosen strength class C35/45 satisfies the required strength class. Nominal concrete cover cnom: • Background: The concrete cover is the distance between the surface of the reinforcement closest to the nearest concrete surface (including links and stirrups and surface reinforcement where relevant) and the nearest concrete surface. • • Reference: The nominal concrete cover should be determined according to chapter 4.4.1.1. Work out: The nominal cover cnom is defined as a minimum cover cmin plus an allowance in design for deviation ∆cdev.

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Minimum concrete cover cmin: • • • Background: The minimum concrete cover shall be provided to ensure safe transmission of bond forces, protection of the steel against corrosion and an adequate fire resistance. Reference: To calculate the nominal concrete cover the minimum cover is needed, which can be find out according to chapter 4.4.1.2 respectively equation (4.2). Work out: The initial structural class is S4. According to table 4.3N the recommended structural classification has to be modified. Because of the selected higher concrete strength class C35/45 and the special quality control for precast structures the structural class has to be reduced to S2 what implies for cmin,dur the value of 15 mm. For all types of ∆cdur the value is 0 mm.

cmin

cmin,b ⎧ ⎪ = max ⎨cmin,dur + ∆cdur,γ − ∆cdur,st − ∆cdur,add ⎪ 10 mm ⎩

The required minimum concrete cover to satisfy bond conditions is defined in Table 4.2. For separate arranged bars c min,b is equal to the diameter of bar. With the assumption for the bar diameter to be less or equal 20 mm and the shear reinforcement diameter to be less or equal 10 mm, the value for cmin is 15 mm. Allowance in design for deviation ∆cdev: • Background: To calculate the nominal cover, cnom, an addition to the minimum cover shall be made in design to allow for the deviation (∆cdev). The required minimum cover shall be increased by the absolute value of the accepted negative deviation. • Reference: The allowance in design for deviation should be selected according to chapter 4.4.1.3. • Work out: The initial recommended value for ∆cdev is 10 mm. In consideration of quality control the allowed deviation may be reduced to 0 mm because devices very are accurate used for measurement
Asl 15 10 20 Asw

15 10

250 300

15 10

monitoring and non conforming members are rejected. The nominal cover cnom is the sum of c min and ∆cdev. The result is cnom = 15 mm.

figure II.1-1: Assumptive cross section

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II.1.3

Conditions of support

The different kinds of support have an influence on the design of concrete structures. Members resisting loads that act vertical to the member axis (e.g. beams and slabs) can be placed on columns, beams or walls. These opportunities are idealized as integrated, round pile, square pile or free linear. The integrated support represents a monolithic connection between the member that is being designed and its support. A free linear support represents a wall as support. Conditions of support: • Background: When a member is being designed, the assumptions made whithin the model of the structure for the analysis of internal forces have to be considered. Therefore the conditions of support have to be specified. • • Reference: For beams EC2 specifies in chapter 5.3.2.2 and 9.2.1.2 rules for the design of the section at support. Work out: In this example a precasted beam is being designed with an elastomer support and no further member over it at the supports. This results in an exclusion of any partial fixity.

II.1.4
member.

Decisive sections of bending moment

The design of concrete structures is done for several decisive cuts and not for every single point of the

Decisive cross sections: • Background: The longitudinal reinforcement together with the compressed area of concrete resist the acting bending moment. In most cases the acting bending moment has different values along the member axis. This is the reason why the decisive locations of bending moment for the bottom and top reinforcement has to be determined. • • Reference: Usually the decisive sections are at the maximum bending moment and at intermediate supports. Work out: For a simple beam the maximum bending moment is in the middle of the span. For this example it is at: x = 4,825 m.

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II.1.5

Determination of required longitudinal reinforcement

The design of concrete structures depend on the centroid of the longitudinal reinforcement. Effective depth d: • • Background: For all further calculations the effecitve depth of the cross section is needed. Reference: The effective depth of a cross section is the depth from the top of the cross section, respectively from the bottom of the cross section, to the centroid of the longitudinal reinforcement corresponding to the direction of bending. Keep in mind the rules of detailing. • Work out: Generally the reinforcement requires a control of the bar spacing according to chapter 8.2. That chapter considers the bar diameter and the maximum size of aggregate dg.

⎧k1 ⋅ bar diameter ⎪ clear distance ≥ max ⎨ d g + k 2 mm ⎪ 20 mm ⎩

k1 = 1; k 2 = 5 mm and assume d g = 16 mm
⎧ 1⋅ 20 mm = 20 mm ⎪ clear distance ≥ max ⎨16 mm + 5 mm = 21 mm ⎪ 20 mm ⎩

clear distance ≥ 21 mm
d = 600 mm − 15 mm − 10 mm − 1 ⋅ 20 mm = 565 mm 2

Required area of reinforcement As, req: • Background: From the equilibrium between acting moment with or without axial force and the resisting inner moment of the section the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be determined. • • Reference: Chapter 6.1 of EC2 specifies the strain limits. Within these limits the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be iterated. Work out:
292 ⋅ 10−3 MNm
2

µE ds =

0,3 ⋅ (0,565) ⋅ 23,33

= 0,131 ≈ 0,13 ⇒ ω = 0,1401

As,req = ω ⋅

b⋅d 300 ⋅ 565 = 0,1401⋅ = 1274 mm 2 f yd f cd 435 23,33

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II.1.6

Bar combination

The required area of longitudinal reinforcement satisfies the equilibrium between actions and member resistance at the decisive section. Furthermore the member has to satisfy the criterion of ductility and detailing rules at all sections along the member axis. Usually the amount of reinforcement depending on detailing rules is less than the amount of reinforcement required at the decisive section. Therefore the reinforcement is divided into a basic and an additional reinforcement. The basic reinforcement should satisfy all detailing rules at all sections and the additional reinforcement is placed at the decisive section. Minimum and maximum reinforcement areas: • • • Background: The longitudinal reinforcement should consider the limit for maximum and minimum reinforcement. Reference: Chapter 9.2.1.1 specifies the equations for the limits of longitudinal reinforcement. Work out:
As,min = 0,26 ⋅
As,min = 0,26 ⋅

f ctm ⋅ bt ⋅ d ≥ 0,0013 ⋅ bt ⋅ d f yk
3,2 ⋅ 300 ⋅ 565 ≥ 0,0013 ⋅ 300 ⋅ 565 500

As,min = 282 mm 2 ≥ 220 mm 2
As,max = 0,04 ⋅ Ac = 0,04 ⋅ 300 ⋅ 600 = 7200 mm 2

Selected total reinforcement: 5 Ø 20 ⇒ As = 1570 mm2 > 1274 mm2 = As,req

As = 1570 mm2 > 282 mm2 = As,min As = 1570 mm2 < 7137 mm2 = As,max
Anchorage of bottom reinforcement at an end support: • • • Background: A minimum area of tensile reinforcement should be anchored at members end supports. Reference: Chapter 9.2.1.4 specifies the amount of reinforcement to be anchored. Work out: At least 25% of the area provided in the span should be anchored. Choose 2 Ø 20 ⇒ 628 mm2 For basic reinforcement choose 2 Ø 20, and for additional reinforcement choose 3 Ø 20.

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Spacing of bars: • • • Background: The spacing of bars shall be such that the concrete can be placed and compacted satisfactorily for the development of adequate bond. Reference: All necessary rules for bar spacing are explained within chapter 8.2. Work out: The clear distance (horizontal and vertical) between individual parallel bars or horizontal layers of parallel bars:
⎧k1 ⋅ bar diameter ⎪ clear distance ≥ max ⎨ d g + k 2 mm ⎪ 20 mm ⎩

k1 = 1; k 2 = 5 mm and assume d g = 16 mm
⎧ 1⋅ 20 mm = 20 mm ⎪ clear distance ≥ max ⎨16 mm + 5 mm = 21 mm ⎪ 20 mm ⎩

clear distance ≥ 21 mm

565

20 15 10

20

20

20

20 15

37

38 300

38

10 37

figure II.1-2: Bar combination

15 10 20

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II.1.7

Crack control

Cracking is normal in reinforced concrete structures subject to bending, shear, torsion or tension resulting from either direct loading or restraint or imposed deformations. Maximum crack width: • • • Background: Cracking shall be limited to an extent that will not impair the proper functioning or durability of the structure or cause its appearance to be unacceptable. Reference: Table 7.1N specifies the recommended values for wmax. Work out: Limiting calculated crack width: w max = 0 ,3 mm

Minimum reinforcement area and crack control without direct calculation: • • • Background: If crack control is required, a minimum amount of bonded reinforcement is required to control cracking in areas where tension is expected. Reference: Chapter 7.3.2 specifies the minimum reinforcement areas and chapter 7.3.3 specifies the verification of crack width without direct calculation. Work out: According to 7.3.2(2), the minimum amount of reinforcement area computes to: As,min = k c ⋅ k ⋅ fct, eff ⋅ Ac t

σs
N mm 2

Ac t = 0,30 ⋅ 0,30 = 0,09 m 2 ; f c t,eff ≤ f c t,m = 3,2
⎛ σc k c = 0,4 ⋅ ⎜1 − ⎜ k h h* ⋅ f 1 c t,eff ⎝

; k = 0,79

(

)

⎞ ⎟ ; σ = NE d = 0 ⇒ k = 0,4 ≤ 1,0 c c ⎟ b ⋅d ⎠

The maximum bar diameter Ø* can be verified by transformation of equation 7.6N. s
⎛ fct, eff Øs = Ø* ⋅ ⎜ s ⎜ ⎝ 2,9
Ø* = s
Ø* = s

⎞ k c ⋅ hcr ⎟⋅ ⎟ 2 ⋅ (h-d ) ⎠

Øs ⋅ 2 ⋅ (h-d ) ⋅ 2,9 kc ⋅ hcr ⋅ fct, eff
20 mm ⋅ 2 ⋅ (600 − 565) ⋅ 2,9 = 10,57 mm 0,4 ⋅ 0,5 ⋅ 600 ⋅ 3,2

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The following table is an extraction of Table 7.2N from EC2. Steel stress [MPa] 280 320 Maximum bar size [mm] (wk = 0,3 mm) 12 10

With linear interpolation the steel stress depending on wk and Ø* computes to: s

σ s = 320
As,min =

MN m
2

− (10,57 mm − 10 mm ) ⋅

320

MN
2

m m2 = 308,6 MN 12 mm − 10 mm m2

− 280

MN

0,4 ⋅ 0,79 ⋅ 3,2 ⋅ 0,09 = 2,95 ⋅ 10 − 4 m 2 = 295 mm 2 308,6

As = 1570 mm2 > 295 mm2 = As,min
Because either the bar diameter or the bar spacing has to be satisfied, the criterions of crack control without direct calculation and the minimum amount of reinforcement area are satisfied.

II.1.8

Design value of acting shear force

The verification of shear force resistance shall be done for the maximum shear force. That value should consider different circumstances, like the type of loading (e.g. predominantly uniformly distributed loading). Reduction of acting shear force: • • • Background: The maximum shear force is not always required for the design of shear reinforcement. Reference: The permission rule can be found at chapter 6.2.1.

⎛1 ⎞ Work out: VEd,red = 121 − ⎜ ⋅ 0,1 + 0,565 ⎟ ⋅ 25,07 = 105,6 kN ⎝2 ⎠

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II.1.9

Determination of required shear reinforcement

Shear resistance is verified either with pure concrete resistance or a truss model. Requirement of shear reinforcement: • • Background: Check concrete shear resistance to decide whether shear reinforcement is required or not. Reference: Chapter 6.2.2 specifies the way how to detect, whether shear reinforcement has to be used or not. • Work out: VR d,c = ⎡CR d,c ⋅ k ⋅ (100 ⋅ ρl ⋅ fck ) ⎢ ⎣
1 3

+ k1 ⋅ σ cp ⎤ ⋅ bw ⋅ d ≥ v min + k1 ⋅ σ cp ⋅ bw ⋅ d ⎥ ⎦

(

)

with:

k = 1+

200 200 ≤ 2,0; k = 1 + = 1,6 ≤ 2,0 d 565

ρl =
ρl =

Asl ≤ 0,02 , only 2 of 5 bars of longitudinal reinforcement in this cut! bw ⋅ d
628 = 0,0037 ≤ 0,02 300 ⋅ 565

σ c p = 0 , k1 = 0,15
CR d,c = 0,18

γc

= 0,12
3 2

vmin = 0,035 ⋅ k

⋅ 35

1 2

= 0,42
1 3

VR d,c = ⎡0,12 ⋅ 1,6 ⋅ (100 ⋅ 0,0037 ⋅ 35) ⎢ ⎣ VR d,c = 0,076 MN ≥ 0,071MN

+ 0⎤ ⋅ 0,3 ⋅ 0,565 ≥ 0,42 ⋅ 0,3 ⋅ 0,565 ⎥ ⎦

VR d,c = 76 kN ≤ 105,6 kN = VE d,red ⇒ Shear reinforcement is required.

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Calculate shear resistance: • • • Background: The shear resistance is the smaller value of concrete compression strut resistance and the shear reinforcement. Reference: The rules of design are specified within chapter 6.2.3 Work out: Because the angle α is selected to α = 90o the resistance of shear forces follows from:

A ⎧ ⎪ VR d,s = sw ⋅ z ⋅ f y w d ⋅ cotθ VR d = min⎨ s ⎪VR d,max = α cw ⋅ bw ⋅ z ⋅ν 1 ⋅ f c d (cotθ + tanθ ) ⎩ with:

α c w = 1; b w = 300 mm; ν 1 = 0,6
fy w d = 0,8 ⋅ f y w k = 400 N mm 2

z = 0,9 ⋅ d = 0,9 ⋅ 565 mm = 508,5 mm

1 ≤ cot θ ≤ 2,5 , choose cot θ = 1 ⇒ θ = 45o
VR d,max = 1⋅ 0,3 ⋅ 0,5085 ⋅ 0,6 ⋅ 35 (1 + 1) = 1,068 MN 1,5

VR d,s ⇒
As w, req s

As w, req s
= VE d, red z ⋅ f y w d ⋅ cot θ = 0,1056 m2 mm 2 = 5,19 ⋅ 10 − 4 = 519 0,5085 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 1 m m

Support condition:
VR d,max = 1,068 MN ≥ 0,121 MN = VE d

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Check detailing rules for shear reinforcement: • • • Background: The shear reinforcement should consider the limit for maximum and minimum reinforcement. Reference: The rules of shear detailing are specified within chapter 9.2.2 and 6.2.3. Work out:
As w, min s = ρ w, min ⋅ b w ⋅ sin α = 0,08 ⋅ 35 = 9,466 ⋅ 10 − 4 = 0,095% 500

with: ρ w, min =

0,08 ⋅ f c k f yk

As w, min s
As w, max s

= 9,5 ⋅ 10 − 4

m2 m2

⋅ 0,3 m ⋅ 1 = 2,85 ⋅ 10 − 4

m2 mm2 = 284 m m

35 fc d m2 mm 2 1 1 1,5 ≤ ⋅ α c w ⋅ b w ⋅ν 1 ⋅ = ⋅ 1⋅ 0,3 ⋅ 0,6 ⋅ = 5,25 ⋅ 10 −3 = 5250 fy wd 2 400 m m 2

Asw, req s

= 519

mm 2 As w, min mm 2 > 284 = m s m

II.1.10

Selection of stirrups

Background: The selection of stirrups has to consider the amount of reinforcement that resists the acting shear force at the decisive section and the detailing rules at all sections. Therefore it can be divided into basic and main shear reinforcement.

• •

Reference: The rules of shear detailing are specified within chapter 9.2.2 and 6.2.3. Work out: Selected shear reinforcement: Stirrups, Ø 6/100.
Asw, max s mm 2 Asw, req mm 2 mm 2 Asw , > = 565 > 519 = s m s m m

= 5250

The resistance computes to:

VR d,s = 5,65 ⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ 0,5085 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 10 = 0,115 MN ,
VR d = VR d,s = 0 ,115 MN ≥ 0 ,1056 MN = VE d,red

Rules for shear reinforcement are satisfied.

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II.1.11

Stress limitation

Within the serviceability limit states the concrete and reinforcement stress have to be verified Concrete stresses: • • • Background: To avoid longitudinal cracks, micro-cracks or high level of creep the compressive stress in the concrete shall be limited. Reference: Chapter 7.1(2) and 7.2(2)-(3) specify the limits and conditions of verification. Work out: Check whether the sections are cracked.
M cr = fctm ⋅ I 3 ,2 ⋅ 0 ,3 ⋅ 0 ,6 3 = = 57 ,6 ⋅ 10 −3 MNm = 57 ,6 kNm 0 ,5 ⋅ 0 ,6 ⋅ 12 z dead load 1,0 1,0 1,0 MEd, SLS [kNm] 211,3 175,3 167,6 live load 1,0 0,2 0,0

Following load combination factors have been used for this exercise: combination of load rare frequent quasi-permanent combination of load rare frequent quasi-permanent

⇒ Sections have to be assumed as cracked.
Because the beam is related to the exposure class XF1, the concrete stresses have to be verified under characteristic combination of loads to avoid reduction of durability. The limit of concrete stresses computes to:
k 1 ⋅ f ck = 0,6 ⋅ 35 = 27 MN m2

The compressive concrete stress computes under characteristic combination of loads to: 2 ⋅ M Ed,rare b⋅x⋅z
2 ⋅ 0,2113 0,3 ⋅ 0,3 ⋅ 0,9 ⋅ 0,565
2

σ c,rare =
σ c,rare =

= 16,34

MN m
2

< 27

MN m2

⇒ No danger of reduction of durability.

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The stress limit to avoid non-linear creep computes to:
k 2 ⋅ f ck = 0,45 ⋅ 35 = 15,75 MN m2

The compressive concrete stress computes under quasi-permanent combination of loads to:
2 ⋅ M Ed,perm b⋅x⋅z 2 ⋅ 0,1676 0,3 ⋅ 0,3 ⋅ 0,9 ⋅ 0,565
2

σ c,perm = σ c,perm =

= 12,96

MN m
2

< 15,75

MN m2

⇒ Linear creep may be assumed.
Reinforcement stresses • • • Background: To avoid inelastic strain, unacceptable cracking or deformation the tensile stresses in the reinforcement shall be limited. Reference: Chapter 7.1(2) and 7.2(5) specify the limits and conditions of verification. Work out: The stress limit to avoid inelastic strain etc. computes to:
k3 ⋅ fyk = 0,8 ⋅ 500 = 400 MN m2

The tensile stress under characteristic combination of loads computes to:

σ s,rare =
σ s,rare =

M Ed,rare As ⋅ z
211,3 ⋅ 10 −3 15,7 ⋅ 10
−4

⋅ 0,9 ⋅ 0,565

= 264,67

MN m
2

≤ 400

MN m2

⇒ Inelastic strain etc. avoided.

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II.1.12

Deflection control

The general considerations of EC2 give an introduction about deflection control. The deformation shall be limited in a way, that it doesn’t affect on the proper functioning or appearance of the member or structure. Deflection control without explicit calculation: • Background: Generally, it is not necessary to calculate the deflections explicitly as simple rules, for example limits to span/depth ratio may be formulated, which will be adequate for avoiding deflection problems in normal circumstances. • • Reference: The detailed explanation for limiting the span to depth ratio may be found in chapter 7.4.2. Work out: The provided reinforcement ratio computes to:
Asl 1570 mm 2 = = 8,72 ‰ Ac 300 mm ⋅ 600 mm

ρl =

The reference reinforcement ratio computes to:

ρ 0 = f ck ⋅ 10 −3 = 5,916 ‰
Because ρ l > ρ 0 , the relevant equation for the span/depth ratio-limit is
⎡ ρ0 l 1 ρ' ⎤ = K ⋅ ⎢11 + 1,5 ⋅ f ck ⋅ + ⋅ f ck ⋅ ⎥ d ρ l − ρ' 12 ρ0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦
⎡ 35 ⋅ 10 −3 1 = 1,0 ⋅ ⎢11 + 1,5 ⋅ 35 ⋅ + ⋅ 35 ⋅ −3 d 8 ,72 ⋅ 10 − 0 12 ⎢ ⎣

(7.16b)
0 35 ⋅ 10
−3

l

⎤ ⎥ = 17 ,02 ⎥ ⎦

The provided span/depth ratio computes to:
prov

l
d

=

9 ,65 m = 17 ,08 > 17 ,02 0,565 m

The limit of the span/depth ratio can be modified with

310

σs

σ s,perm =
⇒ limit

167,6 ⋅ 10 −3 15,7 ⋅ 10
=
−4

⋅ 0,9 ⋅ 0,565

= 209,9

MN m2

l
d

l 310 ⋅ 17 ,02 = 25 ,13 > 17 ,08 = prov d 209 ,9

⇒ The deflection control is satisfied with the span/depth ratio.

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II.1.13

Additional tensile force or “shift rule”

In the ultimate limit state the required longitudinal reinforcement is computed and a bar combination is chosen that satisfies the requirements. These calculations are based on the coordinate of the section with the maximum bending moment, therefore it is obvious that in other sections less reinforcement is needed. To determine the reinforcement in other sections, the truss model for shear forces has to be included. • • • Background: The truss model for shear force behaviour results in compression strut and tension flange. This additional tensile force has to be covered by the reinforcement. Reference: The additional tensile force ∆Ftd can be calculated according to chapter 6.2.3(7) or alternative the shift rule according to chapter 9.2.1.3(2) can be used. Work out: Additional tensile force ∆Ftd :

∆Ft d = 0,5 ⋅ VE d ( x ) ⋅ (cot θ − cot α )

leff ⎧ ⎪ 121 kN - x ⋅ qd ; if x ≤ 4 ,825 m = 2 VE d (x ) = ⎨ l ⎪ x ⋅ qd − 121 kN ; if x > 4 ,825 m = eff 2 ⎩
or shift rule al :
a l = z ⋅ (cot θ − cot α ) / 2

z = 0,9 ⋅ d = 0,9 ⋅ 565 mm = 508,5 mm
a l = 508,5 mm ⋅ (1 − 0) / 2 = 254,3 mm

figure II.1-3: Acting tensile force
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II.1.14
Curtailment: • • •

Envelope of acting tensile force

Background: Sufficient reinforcement should be provided at all sections to resist the envelope of the acting tensile force, including the effect of inclined cracks in webs and flanges. Reference: Chapter 9.2.1.3 describes how to perform the curtailment of longitudinal tension reinforcement. Work out: The point from which a bar is not any longer required can be computed from the equilibrium between the resistance of the remaining bars and the acting tensile force Fs. acting tensile force Fs:
Fs = M Eds ( x ) z + ∆Ft d and ME ds ( x ) = −

q d 2 qd ⋅ leff ⋅x + ⋅x 2 2

resistance:

FR s = As ⋅ fy d
MN m2 m2

5 bars ⇒ FR s,4 = 15,7 ⋅ 10 − 4 m 2 ⋅ 435

= 683 kN = 546,4 kN

4 bars ⇒ FR s,4 = 12,56 ⋅ 10 − 4 m 2 ⋅ 435 3 bars ⇒ FR s,3 = 9,42 ⋅ 10 − 4 m 2 ⋅ 435 2 bars ⇒ FR s,2 = 6,28 ⋅ 10 − 4 m 2 ⋅ 435

MN

MN m2 MN m2

= 409,8 kN = 273,2 kN

figure II.1-4: Envelope of acting tensile force

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II.1.15

Bar positioning

The final determination of the amount and length of reinforcement depend on the chosen curtailment and the requirements of the anchorage of the bars or wires respectively.

II.1.15.1 Bar positioning top
This example requires only an erection reinforcement, e.g. choose 2 Ø 10.

II.1.15.2 Bar positioning bottom
Anchorage: • • • Background: Reinforcing bars, wires or welded mesh fabrics shall be so anchored that the bond forces are safely transmitted to the concrete avoiding longitudinal cracking or spalling. Reference: Chapter 8.4 describes how to verify the anchorage of longitudinal reinforcement. Work out: Design value of the ultimate bond stress: fb d = 2,25 ⋅ η1 ⋅ η 2 ⋅ f c t d with:

fc t d = α c t ⋅

f c t k,0,05

γc

= 1,0 ⋅

2,2 MN = 1,47 2 1,5 m

η1 = 1,0 for good bond conditions and η1 = 0,7 for all other cases.

η2 = 1,0
fb d = 2,25 ⋅ 10 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,47 = 3,3 , MN m2
Ø σ sd ⋅ 4 fb d

Basic anchorage length: lb,rqd =

From the point, where the envelope of the acting tensile force changes from one level to the next one, the provided stress in the bar that has to be anchored can be calculated. Start of reinforcement at level of two bars: Force to be anchored:
FE = VEd ⋅ al 254,3 mm + N Ed = 121 kN ⋅ = 60,5 kN z 0,9 ⋅ 565 mm

σ s d,2 =

0,0605 MN 6,28 ⋅ 10 m
−4 2

⋅ = 96,34

MN m
2

⇒ lb,rqd, 2 =

20 96 ,34 ⋅ = 146 mm 4 3 ,3

Change of level from two bars up on three bars:

σ s d,2−3 =

0,2732 MN 9,42 ⋅ 10 m
−4 2

⋅ = 290

MN m
2

⇒ lb,rqd, 2−3 =

20 290 ⋅ = 439 ,4 mm 4 3 ,3

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Change of level from three bars up on four bars:

σ s d,3- 4 =

0,4098 MN 12,57 ⋅ 10 m
−4 2

⋅ = 326,11

MN m
2

⇒ lb,rqd, 3 − 4 =

20 326 ,11 ⋅ = 494 ,1 mm 4 3 ,3

Change of level from four bars up on five bars:

σ s d, 4-5 =

0,5464 MN 15,7 ⋅ 10 m
−4 2

⋅ = 348

MN m
2

⇒ lb,rqd, 4 − 5 =

20 348 ⋅ = 527 ,3 mm 4 3 ,3

Design anchorage length: lb d = α1 ⋅ α 2 ⋅ α 3 ⋅ α 4 ⋅ α 5 ⋅ lb,rqd ≥ lb,min
⎧ ⎧ 146 = 43 ,8 mm ⎪ ⎪ 439 ,4 = 131,8 mm ⎪ ⎪0,3 ⋅ l = 0,3 ⋅ ⎨ b,erf ⎪ ⎪ 494 ,1 = 148,2 mm ⎪ ⎪527,3 = 158,2 mm ⎩ ⎪ ⎪ = max ⎨ 10 ⋅ Ø = 10 ⋅ 20 = 200 mm ⎪ 100 mm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

lb,min

, In all cases c d = 20 mm ; α i = 10;

with i = { , 2, 3, 4 5} 1

lb d, 2 = 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 146 = 146 mm < 200 mm = lb,min ⇒ lb d, 2 = lb,min = 200 mm lb d, 2 − 3 = 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 439 ,4 = 439 ,4 mm ≥ 200 mm = lb,min
lb d, 3 - 4 = 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 494 ,1 = 494 ,1 mm ≥ 200 mm = lb,min

lb d, 4 - 5 = 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 527 ,3 = 527 ,3 mm ≥ 200 mm = lb,min

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The final result for the bottom reinforcement computes to: Starting point [m] Basic reinforcement Additional 1 bar Additional 2 bar Additional 3 bar
rd nd st

End point [m] 9,75 9,01 6,65 8,14

Total length [m] 9,85 8,37 5,17 5,17

-0,1

0,64 1,48 2,97

9,65 m

figure II.1-5: Side view of bar positioning

9,97 m 9,65 m 9,85 m 1,64 1,64 3,16 8,37 m 5,17 m 5,17 m 3,16 1,64 1,64

figure II.1-6: Vertical view of bar positioning

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II.1.16
• •

Stirrups positioning

Curtailment of shear reinforcement: Background: The shear resistance is verified at the decisive section and should be curtailed along the member axis. Reference: The aim is to ensure an economic usage of steel. The coordinates of curtailment can be calculated from the equilibrium between the acting shear force and the resistance of each level of curtailment. Keep in mind the rules of detailing, e.g. max. distance between shear assemblies. • Work out: The equilibrium between the acting shear force and the resistance of the provided curtailment leads to the following coordinates. Resistance: Acting shear force:
VR d,s = Asw ⋅ z ⋅ f y w d ⋅ cotθ s

VE d (x ) = 121 kN - x ⋅ qd

Provided curtailment from Ø 6/100 down to Ø 6/150:
VR d,s = 3,77 ⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ 0,5085 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 1⋅ 10 3 = 76,68 kN

⎧ 0 + 1,768 m = 1,768 m ⎪ ⇒ x150 = ⎨ ⎪9,65 - 1,768 m = 7,882 m ⎩

Provided curtailment from Ø 6/150 down to Ø 6/190:
VR d,s = 2,98 ⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ 0,5085 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 1⋅ 10 3 = 60,61 kN ⎧ 0 + 2,409 m = 2,409 m ⎪ ⇒ x190 = ⎨ ⎪9,65 - 2,409 m = 7,241 m ⎩

sl,max = 0,7 ⋅ d ⋅ (1 + cot α ) = 0,7 ⋅ 565 mm = 395,5 mm > 190 mm > 150 mm > 100 mm
The detailing rule for maximum distance of shear assemblies is satisfied.
Ø 6/150 Ø 6/150

Ø 6/100

Ø 6/190

Ø 6/100

1,77

0,75

4,61 9,65 m

0,75

1,77

figure II.1-7: Stirrups positioning

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II.2 Slab – one way

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II.2.1

Exercise one way slab

Design the following slab in an assembly building. The slab is one-way spanning and continuos over two fields. The slab can be assumed as simply supported and has no horizontal stiffening function. Conditions of surrounding: Dry interior. Predominantly static actions

Materials: • • Actions: • • self-weight imposed load gk = 5,6 kN/m² qk = 5 kN/m² concrete reinforcement steel C20/25 Class A bars, with fyk = 500 N/mm², εuk = 2,5 % Class A wire fabrics, with fyk = 500 N/mm², εuk = 2,5 %

slab thickness h = 180 mm intermediate support field 1 field 2

0,18

ln = 4,82 m

0,24

ln = 3,82 m

0,18

leff = 5,00 m

leff = 4,00 m

A

B

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II.2.2

Assumptions

The design of concrete structures has an iterative character. The initial assumptions of steel type, diameter of longitudinal and shear reinforcement, maximum aggregate size, deviation of concrete cover, structure and exposure class are made at the beginning of the design. Exposure class: • Background: A durable structure shall meet the requirements of serviceability, strength and stability throughout its design working life, without significant loss of utility or excessive unforeseen maintenance. • • Reference: The required measure of protection is based on the identification of the relevant exposure classes according to chapter 4.2 of EC2 Work out: For corrosion induced by carbonation the exposure class XC1 should be identified.

Indicative strength class: • Background: The choice of adequately durable concrete for corrosion protection of reinforcement and protection of concrete attack, requires consideration of the composition of concrete. This may result in a higher compressive strength of the concrete than is required for structural design. • Reference: To accomplish the required protection measure for corrosion and concrete attack the identified exposure classes can be related to the necessary compressive strength corresponding to annex E of EC2. • Work out: Table E.1N indicates the relation of concrete strength class C20/25 to exposure class XC1. The chosen strength class C20/25 satisfies the required strength class. Nominal concrete cover cnom: • Background: The concrete cover is the distance between the surface of the reinforcement closest to the nearest concrete surface (including links and stirrups and surface reinforcement where relevant) and the nearest concrete surface. • • Reference: The nominal concrete cover should be determined according to chapter 4.4.1.1. Work out: The nominal cover cnom is defined as a minimum cover cmin plus an allowance in design for deviation ∆cdev.

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Minimum concrete cover cmin: • • • Background: The minimum concrete cover shall be provided to ensure safe transmission of bond forces, protection of the steel against corrosion and an adequate fire resistance. Reference: To calculate the nominal concrete cover the minimum cover is needed, which can be find out according to chapter 4.4.1.2 respectively equation (4.2). Work out: The initial structural class is S4. According to table 4.3N the recommended structural classification has to be modified. Table 4.3N indicates the structural class of members with slab geometry can be reduced by one. Therefore the structural class is S3. Table 4.4N requires for the combination S3 and XC1 c min,dur = 10 mm . For all types of ∆cdur the value is 0 mm. cmin cmin,b ⎧ ⎪ = max ⎨cmin,dur + ∆cdur,γ − ∆cdur,st − ∆cdur,add ⎪ 10 mm ⎩

The required minimum concrete cover to satisfy bond conditions is defined in Table 4.2. For separate arranged bars c min,b is equal to the diameter of bar. With the assumption for the bar diameter to be less or equal 10 mm and that no shear reinforcement will be required, the value for c min is 10 mm. Allowance in design for deviation ∆cdev: • Background: To calculate the nominal cover, cnom, an addition to the minimum cover shall be made in design to allow for the deviation (∆cdev). The required minimum cover shall be increased by the absolute value of the accepted negative deviation. • • Reference: The allowance in design for deviation should be selected according to chapter 4.4.1.3. Work out: The recommended value for ∆cdev is 10 mm. The nominal cover cnom is the sum of
c min and ∆cdev. The result is cnom = 20 mm.

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1m strip of slab

10

20

figure II.2-1: Assumptive field section

20

10

Asl = 10 mm

Asl = 10 mm

1m strip of slab

figure II.2-2: Assumptive section at intermediate support

180 mm

150

180 mm

150

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II.2.3

Conditions of support

The different kinds of support have an influence on the design of concrete structures. Members resisting loads that act vertical to the member axis (e.g. beams and slabs) can be placed on columns, beams or walls. These opportunities are idealized as integrated, round pile, square pile or free linear. The integrated support represents a monolithic connection between the member that is being designed and its support. A free linear support represents a wall as support. Conditions of support: • Background: When a member is being designed, the assumptions made within the model of the structure for the analysis of internal forces have to be considered. Therefore the conditions of support have to be specified. • • Reference: For slabs EC2 specifies in chapter 5.3.2.2 and 9.3.1.2 rules for the design of the section at support. Work out: In this example a continuous slab is being designed with end supports that provide no rotational restraint but at the intermediate support the slab is connected monolithic with its support. According to chapter 5.3.2.2(3) the critical design moment at the support should be taken as that at the face of the support. Therefore the design value of bending moment at intermediate support computes to:
mEd = 34,14 kNm m

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II.2.4
member.

Decisive sections of bending moment

The design of concrete structures is done for several decisive cuts and not for every single point of the

Decisive cross sections: • Background: The longitudinal reinforcement in combination with the compressed area of the concrete structure resist the acting bending moment. In most cases the bending moment has different values along the member axis. Because of that reason, the decisive locations of bending moment for the bottom and top reinforcement has to be determined. • • Reference: Usually the decisive sections are at the maximum bending moment and at intermediate supports. Work out: The maximum of bending moment can be determined with the condition VEd = 0 or by investigating the results of the structural analysis of Matrix. Under the persistent load combination and the load case for maximum field moment in field 1 the x-coordinate is 2,064 m. Under the persistent load combination and the load case for maximum field moment in field 2 the x-coordinate is 7,44 m. These are the relevant coordinates for the bottom reinforcement. The relevant section for top reinforcement is at the intermediate support.

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II.2.5

Determination of required longitudinal reinforcement

The design of concrete structures depend on the centroid of the longitudinal reinforcement. Effective depth d: • • Background: For all further calculations the effective depth of the cross section is needed. Reference: The effective depth of a cross section is the depth from the top of the cross section, respectively from the bottom of the cross section, to the centroid of the longitudinal reinforcement corresponding to the direction of bending. Keep in mind the rules of detailing. • Work out: Generally the reinforcement requires a control of the bar spacing according to chapter 8.2. That chapter considers the bar diameter and the maximum size of aggregate dg.

⎧k1 ⋅ bar diameter ⎪ clear distance ≥ max ⎨ d g + k 2 mm ; k1 = 1; k 2 = 5 mm and assume d g = 16 mm ⎪ 20 mm ⎩ ⎧ 1⋅ 10 mm = 10 mm ⎪ clear distance ≥ max ⎨16 mm + 5 mm = 21 mm ⇒ clear distance ≥ 21 mm ⎪ 20 mm ⎩
d = h − c nom − 1 ⋅Ø 2
1 ⋅ 10 mm = 155 mm 2

d = 180 mm − 20 mm −

II.2.5.1 support

Determination of required longitudinal reinforcement at intermediate

Required area of reinforcement as, req, B: • Background: From the equilibrium between acting moment with or without axial force and the resisting inner moment of the section the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be determined. • • Reference: Chapter 6.1 of EC2 specifies the strain limits. Within these limits the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be iterated. Work out:

µ E ds =

− 34,14 ⋅ 10 −3 MNm 1⋅ (0,155) ⋅
2

20 1,5

= 0,107 ≈ 0,11 ⇒ ω = 0,1170

as,req,B = ω ⋅

mm 2 b⋅d 1000 ⋅ 155 20 = 0,117 ⋅ ⋅ = 556 m f yd f cd 500 1,15 1,5

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II.2.5.2

Determination of required longitudinal reinforcement in field 1 (F1)

Required area of reinforcement as, req, F1: Background: From the equilibrium between acting moment with or without axial force and the resisting inner moment of the section the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be determined. • • Reference: Chapter 6.1 of EC2 specifies the strain limits. Within these limits the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be iterated. Work out:
32,06 ⋅ 10 −3 MNm = 0,10 ⇒ ω = 0,1057 2 20 1⋅ (0,155 ) ⋅ 1,5

µ Eds =

as,req,F1 = ω ⋅

1000 ⋅ 155 20 mm 2 b ⋅d = 0,1057 ⋅ ⋅ = 502 500 1,15 1,5 m f yd f cd

II.2.5.3

Determination of required longitudinal reinforcement in field 2 (F2)

Required area of reinforcement as, req, F2: Background: From the equilibrium between acting moment with or without axial force and the resisting inner moment of the section the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be determined. • • Reference: Chapter 6.1 of EC2 specifies the strain limits. Within these limits the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be iterated. Work out:
18,32 ⋅ 10 −3 MNm = 0,06 ⇒ ω = 0,0621 2 20 1⋅ (0,155) ⋅ 1,5

µ E ds =

as,req,F2 = ω ⋅

mm 2 1000 ⋅ 155 20 b ⋅d = 0,0621⋅ ⋅ = 295 500 1,15 1,5 m f yd f cd

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II.2.6

Bar combination

The required area of longitudinal reinforcement satisfies the equilibrium between actions and member resistance at the decisive section. Furthermore the member has to satisfy the criterion of ductility and detailing rules at all sections along the member axis. For usual members the amount of reinforcement depending on detailing rules is less than the amount of reinforcement required at the decisive section. Therefore the reinforcement is divided into a basic and an additional reinforcement. The basic reinforcement should satisfy all detailing rules at all sections and the additional reinforcement is placed at the decisive section. Minimum and maximum reinforcement areas: • • • Background: The longitudinal reinforcement should consider the limit for maximum and minimum reinforcement. Reference: Chapter 9.2.1.1 specifies the equations for the limits of longitudinal reinforcement. Work out: As,min = 0,26 ⋅
as,min = 0,26 ⋅
as,min = 177

f ctm ⋅ bt ⋅ d ≥ 0,0013 ⋅ bt ⋅ d f yk
2,2 ⋅ 1000 mm ⋅ 155 mm ≥ 0,0013 ⋅ 1000 mm ⋅ 155 mm 500

mm 2 mm 2 mm 2 ≤ 202 ⇒ as,min = 202 m m m

As,max = 0,04 ⋅ Ac as,max = 0,04 ⋅ 1000 mm ⋅ 180 mm = 7200 mm 2 m

Anchorage of bottom reinforcement at the support: • • • Background: A minimum area of tensile reinforcement should be anchored at members end supports. Reference: Chapter 9.3.1.2 specifies the amount of reinforcement to be anchored. Work out: At least 50% of the calculated span reinforcement should continue up to the support and be anchored therein. Field 1:
as,req,F1 = 502 as,req,F2 = 295

mm 2 mm 2 ⇒ as,anchor, F1 = 251 m m mm 2 mm 2 ⇒ as,anchor,F2 = 148 m m

Field 2:

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II.2.6.1

Bar combination at intermediate support (top reinforcement)

Background: When selecting an adequate reinforcement the rules for detailing of members have to be considered. These rules cover for example the spacing of bars and the secondary transverse reinforcement.

• •

Reference: EC2 specifies within chapter 9.3.1.1 the detailing rules for slabs. Work out: Selected reinforcement: Ø 10/125 ⇒ as,prov,B = 628

mm2 mm2 > 556 = as,req,B m m

In areas near supports transverse reinforcement to principal top bars is not necessary where there is no transverse bending moment. The spacing of bars should not exceed smax, slabs (see 9.3.1.1(3)):
smax,slabs, principal = 3 ⋅ h ≤ 400 mm

⇒ smax,slabs, principal = 3 ⋅ 180 mm = 540 mm > 400 mm
⇒ smax,slabs, principal = 400 mm > 125 mm = sB,principal,provided

The total selected principal reinforcement Ø 10/125 is depicted in figure II.2-3. For basic reinforcement choose Ø 10/375 ⇒ as, B,basic = 209
mm 2 mm 2 > as, min = 202 m m

10

20

basic reinforcement

62,5

125

125

125

125

125

125

125

62,5

1 m strip of slab

figure II.2-3: Bar combination at intermediate support

150

180

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II.2.6.2

Bar combination in field 1 (bottom reinforcement)

Background: When selecting an adequate reinforcement the rules for detailing of members have to be considered. These rules cover for example the spacing of bars and the secondary transverse reinforcement.

• •

Reference: EC2 specifies within chapter 9.3.1.1 the detailing rules for slabs. Work out: Selected reinforcement: Ø 10/125 ⇒ as,prov,F1 = 628

mm2 mm2 > 502 = as,req,F1 m m

Secondary transverse reinforcement of not less than 20% of the principal reinforcement should be provided in one way slabs.
as,req,secondary = 0,2 ⋅ 502 mm 2 mm 2 = 100 m m

Selected reinforcement: Ø 6/200

⇒ as,prov,F1,secondary = 141

mm2 mm2 > 100 = as,req,F1,secondary m m

The spacing of bars should not exceed smax, slabs (see 9.3.1.1(3)): smax,slabs, principal = 3 ⋅ h ≤ 400 mm

⇒ smax,slabs, principal = 3 ⋅ 180 mm = 540 mm > 400 mm ⇒ smax,slabs, principal = 400 mm > 125 mm = sF1,principal,provided
s max, slabs, secondary = 3,5 ⋅ h ≤ 450 mm

⇒ smax,slabs, secondary = 3,5 ⋅ 180 mm = 630 mm > 450 mm ⇒ smax,slabs, secondary = 450 mm > 125 mm = sF1, secondary,provided

The total selected principal reinforcement Ø 10/125 is depicted in figure II.2-4. For basic reinforcement choose Ø 10/250 ⇒ as, F1,basic = 314
mm 2 mm 2 > as,anchor, F1 = 251 m m

150 125 125 125 62,5 20 10

62,5

125

125

125

125

1 m strip of slab

figure II.2-4: Bar combination in field 1

180

basic reinforcement

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II.2.6.3

Bar combination in field 2 (bottom reinforcement)

Background: When selecting an adequate reinforcement the rules for detailing of members have to be considered. These rules cover for example the spacing of bars and the secondary transverse reinforcement.

• •

Reference: EC2 specifies within chapter 9.3.1.1 the detailing rules for slabs. Work out: Selected reinforcement: Ø 10/200 ⇒ as,prov,F2 = 392

mm2 mm2 > 295 = as,req,F2 m m

Secondary transverse reinforcement of not less than 20% of the principal reinforcement should be provided in one way slabs.
as,req,secondary = 0,2 ⋅ 295 mm 2 mm 2 = 59 m m

Selected reinforcement: Ø 6/350

⇒ as,prov,F 2,secondary = 81

mm2 mm2 > 59 = as,req,F2,secondary m m

The spacing of bars should not exceed smax, slabs (see 9.3.1.1(3)):

smax,slabs, principal = 3 ⋅ 180 mm = 540 mm > 400 mm ⇒ smax,slabs, principal = 400 mm > 200 mm = sF2,principal,provided smax,slabs, secondary = 3,5 ⋅ 180 mm = 630 mm > 450 mm ⇒ smax,slabs, secondary = 450 mm ≥ 350 mm = sF2, secondary,provided

The total selected principal reinforcement Ø 10/200 is depicted in figure II.2-5. For basic reinforcement choose Ø 10/400 ⇒ as, F2,basic = 196
mm 2 mm 2 > as,anchor, F2 = 148 m m

150

100

200

200

200

200

100

1 m strip of slab

figure II.2-5: Bar combination in field 2 The detailing rules for minimum and maximum reinforcement area, for transverse reinforcement and for bar spacing are satisfied.

20

10

180

basic reinforcement

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II.2.7

Crack control

Cracking is normal in reinforced concrete structures subject to bending, shear, torsion or tension resulting from either direct loading or restraint or imposed deformations. Maximum crack width: • • • Background: Cracking shall be limited to an extent that will not impair the proper functioning or durability of the structure or cause its appearance to be unacceptable. Reference: Table 7.1N specifies the recommended values for wmax. Work out: Limiting calculated crack width: wmax = 0,4 mm

II.2.7.1
• • •

Crack control at intermediate support without direct calculation

Minimum reinforcement area and crack control without direct calculation: Background: If crack control is required, a minimum amount of bonded reinforcement is required to control cracking in areas where tension is expected. Reference: Chapter 7.3.2 specifies the minimum reinforcement areas. and chapter 7.3.3 specifies the verification of crack width without direct calculation. Work out: According to 7.3.2(2), the minimum amount of reinforcement area computes to: As,min = k c ⋅ k ⋅ fct, eff ⋅ Ac t

σs
N mm2

Ac t = 1000 ⋅ 180 ⋅ 0,5 = 90000 mm2 ; fc t,eff ≤ fc t,m = 2,2
⎛ σc k c = 0,4 ⋅ ⎜1 − ⎜ k h h* ⋅ f 1 c t,eff ⎝

; k =1

(

)

⎞ ⎟ ; σ = NE d = 0 ⇒ k = 0,4 ≤ 1,0 c c ⎟ b ⋅d ⎠

The maximum bar diameter Ø* can be verified by transformation of equation 7.6N. s
⎛ fct, eff Øs = Ø* ⋅ ⎜ s ⎜ ⎝ 2,9 ⎞ k c ⋅ hcr ⎟⋅ ⎟ 2 ⋅ (h-d ) ⎠

Ø* = s
Ø* = s

Ø s ⋅ 2 ⋅ (h-d ) ⋅ 2,9 k c ⋅ hcr ⋅ f ct,eff
10 mm ⋅ 2 ⋅ (180 − 155) ⋅ 2,9 = 18,31 mm 0,4 ⋅ 0,5 ⋅ 180 ⋅ 2,2

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The following table is an extraction of Table 7.2N from EC2. Steel stress [MPa] 240 280 Maximum bar size [mm] (wk = 0,4 mm) 20 16

With linear interpolation the steel stress depending on wk and Ø* computes to: s
MN − 240 2 m2 m = 256,9 MN σ s = 280 2 − (18,31 mm − 16 mm) ⋅ 20 mm − 16 mm m2 m MN 280 MN

⇒ as,min =

0,4 ⋅ 1⋅ 2,2 ⋅ 90000 mm 2 mm 2 mm 2 = 308 < 628 = as,prov,B 256,9 m m

Because either the bar diameter or the bar spacing has to be satisfied for crack control, the minimum area of reinforcement as an alternative can be designed with usage of Table 7.3N. The following table is an extraction of Table 7.3N. Steel stress [MPa] 320 360 Maximum bar spacing [mm] (wk = 0,4 mm) 150 100

At the intermediate support the reinforcement has been selected to Ø 10/125, therefore the steel stress may be assumed as 340 MPa. ⇒ as,min = 0,4 ⋅ 1⋅ 2,2 ⋅ 90000 mm 2 mm 2 mm 2 = 233 < 628 = as,prov,B 340 m m

II.2.7.2
• • •

Crack control in field 1 without direct calculation

Minimum reinforcement area and crack control without direct calculation: Background: If crack control is required, a minimum amount of bonded reinforcement is required to control cracking in areas where tension is expected. Reference: Chapter 7.3.2 specifies the minimum reinforcement areas. and chapter 7.3.3 specifies the verification of crack width without direct calculation. Work out: According to 7.3.2(2), the minimum amount of reinforcement area computes to:

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As,min =

k c ⋅ k ⋅ fct, eff ⋅ Ac t

σs
N mm2

Ac t = 1000 ⋅ 180 ⋅ 0,5 = 90000 mm 2 ; fc t,eff ≤ fc t,m = 2,2
⎛ σc k c = 0,4 ⋅ ⎜1 − ⎜ k h h* ⋅ f 1 c t,eff ⎝

; k =1

(

)

⎞ ⎟ ; σ = NE d = 0 ⇒ k = 0,4 ≤ 1,0 c c ⎟ b ⋅d ⎠

The maximum bar diameter Ø* can be verified by transformation of equation 7.6N. s
⎛ fct, eff Øs = Ø* ⋅ ⎜ s ⎜ ⎝ 2,9 ⎞ k c ⋅ hcr ⎟⋅ ⎟ 2 ⋅ (h-d ) ⎠

Ø* = s Ø* = s

Øs ⋅ 2 ⋅ (h-d ) ⋅ 2,9 kc ⋅ hcr ⋅ fct, eff 10 mm ⋅ 2 ⋅ (180 − 155) ⋅ 2,9 = 18,31 mm 0,4 ⋅ 0,5 ⋅ 180 ⋅ 2,2 MN m
2

σ s = 280

− (18,31 mm − 16 mm) ⋅

280

MN
2

m m 2 = 256,9 MN 20 mm − 16 mm m2

− 240

MN

⇒ as,min =

0,4 ⋅ 1⋅ 2,2 ⋅ 90000 mm 2 mm 2 mm 2 = 308 < 628 = as,prov,F1 256,9 m m

II.2.7.3
• • •

Crack control in field 2 without direct calculation

Minimum reinforcement area and crack control without direct calculation: Background: If crack control is required, a minimum amount of bonded reinforcement is required to control cracking in areas where tension is expected. Reference: Chapter 7.3.2 specifies the minimum reinforcement areas. and chapter 7.3.3 specifies the verification of crack width without direct calculation. Work out: Analogous to the crack control of field 1 the required minimum area of reinforcement computes to:
⇒ as,min =

0,4 ⋅ 1⋅ 2,2 ⋅ 90000 mm 2 mm 2 mm 2 = 308 < 628 = as,prov,F1 256,9 m m

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II.2.8

Design value of acting shear force

The verification of shear force resistance shall be done for the maximum shear force. That value should consider different circumstances, like the type of loading (e.g. predominantly uniformly distributed loading). Reduction of acting shear force: • • • Background: The maximum shear force is not always required for the design of shear reinforcement. Reference: The permission rule can be found at chapter 6.2.1. Work out: The maximum of shear force is in this example at intermediate support. It doesn’t need to be checked in a distance less than d from the face of the support (see EC2 6.2.1(8)).
v E d,red = − 45,56

kN kN kN − (0,155 + 0,12) ⋅ 15,06 = 41,42 m m⋅m m

VEd d 120 120

figure II.2-6: Design value of shear force

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II.2.9

Determination of required shear reinforcement

Shear resistance is verified either with pure concrete resistance or a truss model. Requirement of shear reinforcement: • • Background: Check concrete shear resistance to decide whether shear reinforcement is required or not. Reference: Chapter 6.2.2 specifies the way how to detect, whether shear reinforcement has to be used or not. • Work out: VR d,c = ⎡CR d,c ⋅ k ⋅ (100 ⋅ ρ l ⋅ f ck ) ⎢ ⎣ with:
1 3

+ k 1 ⋅ σ cp ⎤ ⋅ bw ⋅ d ≥ v min + k1 ⋅ σ cp ⋅ bw ⋅ d ⎥ ⎦

(

)

k = 1+

200 200 ≤ 2,0; k = 1 + = 2,14 > 2,0 ⇒ k = 2,0 d 155

ρl =
ρl =

Asl ≤ 0,02 bw ⋅ d
628 = 0,00405 ≤ 0,02 1000 ⋅ 155

σ c p = 0 , k1 = 0,15
CR d,c = 0,18

γc

= 0,12
3 2

vmin = 0,035 ⋅ 2,0

⋅ 20

1 2

= 0,4427

1 VR d,c = ⎡0,12 ⋅ 2,0 ⋅ (100 ⋅ 0,00405 ⋅ 20) 3 + 0⎤ ⋅ 1⋅ 0,155 ≥ 0,4427 ⋅ 1⋅ 0,155 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

VR d,c = 0,0747 MN ≥ 0,0686 MN ⇒ VR d,c = 74,7 kN

v R d,c = 74,7

kN kN ≥ 4142 , = v Ed,red ⇒ Shear reinforcement is not required. m m

According to 6.2.1(4) of EC2 the minimum amount of shear reinforcement may be omitted. No stirrups need to be selected.

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II.2.10

Stress limitation

Within the serviceability limit states the concrete and reinforcement stress have to be verified Concrete stresses: • • • Background: To avoid longitudinal cracks, micro-cracks or high level of creep the compressive stress in the concrete shall be limited. Reference: Chapter 7.1(2) and 7.2(2)-(3) specify the limits and conditions of verification. Work out: Check whether the sections are cracked. M cr = fctm ⋅ I 2,2 ⋅ 1⋅ 0 ,18 3 = = 11,88 ⋅ 10 −3 MNm = 11,88 kNm 0 ,5 ⋅ 0 ,18 ⋅ 12 z dead load 1,0 1,0 1,0 gd + qd in both fields combination of load rare frequent quasi-permanent mB [kNm/m] -27,82 -23,88 -22,57 gd in both fields and qd in field 1 mF1 [kNm/m] 22,53 19,05 17,9 live load 1,0 0,7 0,6 gd in both fields and qd in field 2 mF2 [kNm/m] 12,94 10,58 9,79

Following load combination factors have been used for this exercise: combination of load rare frequent quasi-permanent

⇒ Sections have to be assumed as cracked.
No need for checking concrete stresses under characteristic combination (rare) of loads in all three decisive cuts, because the exposure class for the member has been identified as XC1. The stress limit to avoid non-linear creep computes to:
k 2 ⋅ fck = 0,45 ⋅ 20 = 9

MN m2

The compressive concrete stress computes under quasi-permanent combination of loads to: In field 1: 2 ⋅ m Ed,perm,F1 b⋅x⋅z II.2-19 German Society for Concrete and Construction Technology

σ c, F1 =

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σ c, F1 =

2 ⋅ 17,9 ⋅ 10 −3 1⋅ 0,3 ⋅ 0,9 ⋅ 0,155
2

= 5,52

MN m
2

≤9

MN m2

⇒ Linear creep may be assumed.
In field 2:
2 ⋅ 9,79 ⋅ 10 −3 1⋅ 0,3 ⋅ 0,9 ⋅ 0,155
2

σ c, F2 =

= 3,02

MN m
2

≤9

MN m2

⇒ Linear creep may be assumed.
At intermediate support:

σ c, B =

2 ⋅ − 22,57 ⋅ 10 −3 1⋅ 0,3 ⋅ 0,9 ⋅ 0,155
2

= 6,96

MN m
2

<9

MN m2

⇒ Linear creep may be assumed.
Reinforcement stresses • • • Background: To avoid inelastic strain, unacceptable cracking or deformation the tensile stresses in the reinforcement shall be limited. Reference: Chapter 7.1(2) and 7.2(5) specify the limits and conditions of verification. Work out: The stress limit to avoid inelastic strain etc. computes to:
k3 ⋅ fyk = 0,8 ⋅ 500 = 400

MN m2

The tensile stress under characteristic combination of loads computes to: • In field 1:

σ s, F1 =
22,53 ⋅ 10 −3

m Ed,rare, F1 As ⋅ z

σ s, F1 =

6,28 ⋅ 10 − 4 ⋅ 0,9 ⋅ 0,155

= 257,2

MN m2

≤ 400

MN m2

⇒ Inelastic strain etc. avoided.
• In field 2:

σ s, F2 =

12,94 ⋅ 10 −3 3,92 ⋅ 10
−4

⋅ 0,9 ⋅ 0,155

= 236,6

MN m
2

≤ 400

MN m2

⇒ Inelastic strain etc. avoided.
• At intermediate support

σ s, B =

− 27,82 ⋅ 10 −3 6,28 ⋅ 10
−4

⋅ 0,9 ⋅ 0,155

= 317,6

MN m
2

≤ 400

MN m2

⇒ Inelastic strain etc. avoided.
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II.2.11

Deflection control

The general considerations of EC2 give an introduction about deflection control. The deformation shall be limited in a way, that it doesn’t affect on the proper functioning or appearance of the member or structure.

II.2.11.1 Deflection control in field 1 without explicit calculation
• Background: Generally, it is not necessary to calculate the deflections explicitly as simple rules, for example limits to span/depth ratio may be formulated, which will be adequate for avoiding deflection problems in normal circumstances. • • Reference: The detailed explanation for limiting the span to depth ratio may be found in chapter 7.4.2. Work out: The provided reinforcement ratio computes to:

ρ l,F1 =

Asl 628 mm 2 = = 3,49 ‰ Ac 1000 mm ⋅ 180 mm

The reference reinforcement ratio computes to:

ρ 0 = f ck ⋅ 10 −3 = 4,472 ‰
Because ρl, F1 < ρ0 , the relevant equation for the span/depth ratio-limit is
⎡ ρ ⎢ = K ⋅ ⎢11 + 1,5 ⋅ fck ⋅ 0 + 3 ,2 ⋅ fck ρl d ⎢ ⎣

l

3⎤ ⎛ ρ0 ⎞2 ⎥ ⋅⎜ ⎜ ρ − 1⎟ ⎥ ⎟ ⎝ l ⎠ ⎥ ⎦

(7.16a)

3⎤ ⎡ ⎞2 ⎥ ⎛ 20 ⋅ 10 −3 ⎢ 20 ⋅ 10 −3 = 1,3 ⋅ ⎢11 + 1,5 ⋅ 20 ⋅ + 3 ,2 ⋅ 20 ⋅ ⎜ − 1⎟ ⎥ = 28 ,25 ⎟ ⎜ 3 ,49 ⋅ 10 −3 d 3 ,49 ⋅ 10 −3 ⎠ ⎥ ⎝ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦

l

The provided span/depth ratio computes to:
prov

l
d

=

5 ,0 m = 32,26 0,155 m 310

The limit of the span/depth ratio can be modified with

σs

σ s,perm,F1 =
⇒ limit

17,9 ⋅ 10 −3 6,28 ⋅ 10
−4

⋅ 0,9 ⋅ 0,155

= 204,3

MN m2

l
d

=

l 310 ⋅ 28 ,25 = 42,87 > 32,26 = prov 204 ,3 d

⇒ The deflection control is satisfied with the span/depth ratio.

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II.2.11.2 Deflection control in field 2 without explicit calculation
• Background: Generally, it is not necessary to calculate the deflections explicitly as simple rules, for example limits to span/depth ratio may be formulated, which will be adequate for avoiding deflection problems in normal circumstances. • • Reference: The detailed explanation for limiting the span to depth ratio may be found in chapter 7.4.2. Work out: The provided reinforcement ratio computes to:
Asl 392 mm 2 = = 2,18 ‰ Ac 1000 mm ⋅ 180 mm

ρ l,F2 =

The reference reinforcement ratio computes to:

ρ 0 = f ck ⋅ 10 −3 = 4,472 ‰
Because ρ l,F2 < ρ 0 , the relevant equation for the span/depth ratio-limit is
⎡ ρ ⎢ = K ⋅ ⎢11 + 1,5 ⋅ fck ⋅ 0 + 3 ,2 ⋅ fck d ρl ⎢ ⎣

l

3⎤ ⎞2 ⎥ ⎛ ρ0 ⋅⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ρ − 1⎟ ⎥ ⎠ ⎥ ⎝ l ⎦

(7.16a)

3⎤ ⎡ ⎛ 20 ⋅ 10 −3 ⎞2 ⎥ ⎢ 20 ⋅ 10 −3 = 1,3 ⋅ ⎢11 + 1,5 ⋅ 20 ⋅ + 3 ,2 ⋅ 20 ⋅ ⎜ − 1⎟ ⎥ = 52,25 ⎜ 2,18 ⋅ 10 −3 ⎟ d 2,18 ⋅ 10 −3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎣ ⎦

l

The provided span/depth ratio computes to:
prov

l
d

=

4 ,0 m = 25 ,81 < 52,25 0,155 m

It isn’t necessary to modify the limit of the span/depth ratio.

⇒ The deflection control is satisfied.

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II.2.12

Additional tensile force or “shift rule”

In the ultimate limit state the required longitudinal reinforcement is computed and a bar combination is chosen that satisfies the requirements. These calculations are based on the coordinate of the section with the maximum bending moment, therefore it is obvious that in other sections less reinforcement is needed. To determine the reinforcement in other sections, the truss model for shear forces has to be included. • • • Background: The truss model for shear force behaviour results in compression strut and tension flange. This additional tensile force has to be covered by the reinforcement. Reference: The additional tensile force ∆Ftd can be calculated according to chapter 6.2.3(7) or alternative the shift rule according to chapter 9.2.1.3(2) can be used. Work out: Additional tensile force ∆Ftd :

∆Ft d = 0,5 ⋅ VE d ( x ) ⋅ (cot θ − cot α )
or shift rule al : al = d The following figures demonstrate the way to the acting tensile force. Starting with the relevant lines of bending moment (see figure II.2-7) we get the outer limits of moment. The division of the outer limits of bending moment with the inner lever arm leads to the tensile force in the reinforcement (see figure II.2-8).

figure II.2-7: Bending moments

figure II.2-8: Tensile force

Finally the tensile force out of the truss model has to be added by adding the tensile force ∆Ftd or by using the shift rule. The result in figure II.2-9 depicts the usage of the shift rule.

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figure II.2-9: Acting tensile force

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II.2.13
Curtailment: • • •

Envelope of acting tensile force

Background: Sufficient reinforcement should be provided at all sections to resist the envelope of the acting tensile force, including the effect of inclined cracks in webs and flanges. Reference: Chapter 9.2.1.3 describes how to perform the curtailment of longitudinal tension reinforcement. Work out: The point from which a bar is not any longer required can be computed from the equilibrium between the resistance of the remaining bars and the acting tensile force Fs. acting tensile force Fs: Fs = M Eds ( x ) z + ∆Ft d

figure II.2-10: Envelope of acting tensile force

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II.2.14

Bar positioning

The final determination of the amount and length of reinforcement depend on the choosen curtailment and the requirements of the anchorage of the bars or wires respectively.

II.2.14.1 Bar positioning top
Anchorage: • • • Background: Reinforcing bars, wires or welded mesh fabrics shall be so anchored that the bond forces are safely transmitted to the concrete avoiding longitudinal cracking or spalling. Reference: Chapter 8.4 describes how to verify the anchorage of longitudinal reinforcement. Work out: Design value of the ultimate bond stress: fb d = 2,25 ⋅ η1 ⋅ η 2 ⋅ f c t d with:

fc t d = α c t ⋅

f c t k,0,05

γc

= 1,0 ⋅

1,5 MN = 1,0 2 1,5 m

(3.16)

η1 = 1,0 for good bond conditions and η1 = 0,7 for all other cases. η 2 = 1,0
fb d = 2,25 ⋅ 0,7 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 = 1,575 MN m2
Ø σ sd ⋅ 4 fb d

Basic anchorage length: l b,rqd =

From the point, where the envelope of the acting tensile force changes from one level to the next one, the provided stress in the bar that has to be anchored can be calculated. Start of reinforcement at level of Ø 10/375: Force to be anchored:
FE = 0 ⇒ lb,rqd, s tart = 0 mm

Change of level from Ø 10/375 up on Ø 10/125:

σ s d,375−125 =

0,091 MN 6,28 ⋅ 10 m
−4
2

⋅ = 144,9

MN m
2

⇒ lb,rqd, 375 −125 =

10 144 ,9 ⋅ = 230 mm 4 2 ,25

Design anchorage length: lb d = α1 ⋅ α 2 ⋅ α 3 ⋅ α 4 ⋅ α 5 ⋅ lb,rqd ≥ lb,min
⎧ ⎧ 0 = 0 mm ⎪0,3 ⋅ lb,erf = 0,3 ⋅ ⎨ ⎩230 = 69 mm ⎪ ⎪ = max ⎨ 10 ⋅ Ø = 10 ⋅ 10 = 100 mm ⎪ 100 mm ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

lb,min

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, In all cases c d = 20 mm ; α i = 10;

with i = { , 2, 3, 4 5} 1

lb d, start = 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 0 = 0 mm < 100 mm = lb,min ⇒ lb d , start = lb,min = 100 mm

lb d, 375 −125 = 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 230 = 230 mm ≥ 100 mm = lb,min
The final result for the top reinforcement computes to: Starting point [m] Basic reinforcement Additional 3,34 3,95 End point [m] 7,43 6,43 Total length [m] 4,09 2,48

4,82 m 0,18 0,24

3,82 m 0,18

figure II.2-11: Side view of bar positioning
0,12 0,12

5,0 m

4,0 m

1,0 m strip of slab 3,46 m 4,07 m 4,09 m 2,48 m 1,69 m 2,69 m

figure II.2-12: Vertical view of bar positioning top

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II.2.14.2 Bar positioning bottom
Anchorage: • • • Background: Reinforcing bars, wires or welded mesh fabrics shall be so anchored that the bond forces are safely transmitted to the concrete avoiding longitudinal cracking or spalling. Reference: Chapter 8.4 describes how to verify the anchorage of longitudinal reinforcement. Work out: Design value of the ultimate bond stress: fb d = 2,25 ⋅ η1 ⋅ η 2 ⋅ f c t d with:

fc t d = α c t ⋅

f c t k,0,05

γc

= 1,0 ⋅

1,5 MN = 1,0 2 1,5 m

(3.16)

η1 = 1,0 for good bond conditions and η1 = 0,7 for all other cases. η 2 = 1,0
fb d = 2,25 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 = 2,25 MN m2
Ø σ sd ⋅ 4 fb d

Basic anchorage length: lb,rqd =

From the point, where the envelope of the acting tensile force changes from one level to the next one, the provided stress in the bar that has to be anchored can be calculated. • Field 1:
al 155 mm + N Ed = 31,08 kN ⋅ = 34,53 kN z 0,9 ⋅ 155 mm

Start of reinforcement at level of Ø 10/250: Force to be anchored:
FE = VEd ⋅

σ s d,250,s tart =

0,0345 MN 3,14 ⋅ 10 m
−4
2

⋅ = 109,87

MN m
2

⇒ lb,rqd, 250 , s tart =

10 109 ,87 ⋅ = 122 mm 4 2 ,25

Change of level from Ø 10/250 up on Ø 10/125:

σ s d,250−125 =

0,1365 MN 6,28 ⋅ 10 m
−4
2

⋅ = 217,4

MN m
2

⇒ lb,rqd, 250 −125 =

10 217 ,4 ⋅ = 242 mm 4 2 ,25

End of reinforcement at level of Ø 10/250: Force to be anchored:
FE = VEd ⋅ al 155 mm + N Ed = 45,56 kN ⋅ = 50,6 kN z 0,9 ⋅ 155 mm

σ s d,250,end =

0,0506 MN 3,14 ⋅ 10 m
−4
2

⋅ = 16146 ,

MN m
2

⇒ lb,rqd, 250 , end =

10 161,46 ⋅ = 179 ,4 mm 4 2 ,25

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Design anchorage length: lb d = α 1 ⋅ α 2 ⋅ α 3 ⋅ α 4 ⋅ α 5 ⋅ lb,rqd ≥ lb,min
⎧ ⎧ 122 = 36 ,6 mm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0,3 ⋅ lb,erf = 0,3 ⋅ ⎨ 242 = 72,6 mm ⎪179,4 = 53,8 mm ⎪ ⎩ ⎪ = max ⎨ 10 ⋅ Ø = 10 ⋅ 10 = 100 mm ⎪ 100 mm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

lb,min

, In all cases c d = 20 mm ; α i = 10;

with i = { , 2, 3, 4 5} 1

lb d, 250 , start = 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 122 = 122 mm ≥ 100 mm = lb,min
lb d, 250 −125 = 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 242 = 242 mm ≥ 100 mm = lb,min

lb d, 250, end = 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 179 ,4 = 179 ,4 mm ≥ 100 mm = lb,min
The final result for the bottom reinforcement computes to: Starting point [m] Basic reinforcement Additional • Field 2:
al 155 mm + N Ed = 40 kN ⋅ = 44,44 kN z 0,9 ⋅ 155 mm

End point [m] 5,18 3,78

Total length [m] 5,3 3,43

-0,12 0,35

Start of reinforcement at level of Ø 10/400 in field 2: Force to be anchored:
FE = VEd ⋅

σ s d, 400,s tart =

0,0444 MN 1,96 ⋅ 10 m
−4
2

⋅ = 226,5

MN m
2

⇒ lb,rqd, 400 , s tart =

10 226 ,5 ⋅ = 252 mm 4 2 ,25

Change of level from Ø 10/400 up on Ø 10/200:

σ s d, 400−200 =

0,0852 MN 3,92 ⋅ 10 m
−4
2

⋅ = 217,3

MN m
2

⇒ lb,rqd, 400 − 200 =

10 217 ,3 ⋅ = 241 mm 4 2 ,25

End of reinforcement at level of Ø 10/400 in field 2: Force to be anchored:
FE = VEd ⋅ al 155 mm + NEd = 23,49 kN ⋅ = 26,1 kN z 0,9 ⋅ 155 mm

σ s d, 400,end =

0,0261MN 1,96 ⋅ 10 m
−4
2

⋅ = 133,16

MN m
2

⇒ lb,rqd, 400 , end =

10 133 ,16 ⋅ = 148 mm 4 2 ,25

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Design anchorage length: lb d = α 1 ⋅ α 2 ⋅ α 3 ⋅ α 4 ⋅ α 5 ⋅ lb,rqd ≥ lb,min
⎧ ⎧252 = 75,6 mm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪0,3 ⋅ lb,rqd = 0,3 ⋅ ⎨ 241 = 72,3 mm ⎪148 = 44,4 mm ⎪ ⎩ ⎪ = max ⎨ 10 ⋅ Ø = 10 ⋅ 10 = 100 mm ⎪ 100 mm ⎪ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

lb,min

, In all cases c d = 20 mm ; α i = 10;

with i = { , 2, 3, 4 5} 1

lb d, 400 , start = 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 252 = 252 mm ≥ 100 mm = lb,min
lb d, 400 − 200 = 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 241 = 241 mm ≥ 100 mm = lb,min

lb d, 400 , end = 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 148 = 148 mm ≥ 100 mm = lb,min
The final result for the bottom reinforcement computes to: Starting point [m] Basic reinforcement Additional 4,86 6,12 End point [m] 9,09 8,76 Total length [m] 4,23 2,64

0,12

5,0 m

4,0 m

0,12

1,0 m strip of 0,08 5,3 m 0,41 3,43 m 1,09 0,74 2,64 m 4,23 m 0,08 0,48

figure II.2-13: Vertical view of bar positioning bottom

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II.3 Beam, T-section

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II.3.1

Exercise beam with T-section
Top side: Bottom side: low air humidity moderate or high humidity

Design the following beam with a T-section in a building with the following environmental conditions:

The beam is continuous over two fields. The beam is connected monolithic with the supports and has no horizontal stiffening function. Predominantly static actions Materials: • • Actions: • • self-weight imposed load gk = 40 kN/m qk = 25 kN/m A
0,12 0,24 0,24 4,76 0,12 0,24 5,2 10,42 0,3 0,24 4,2 0,12 0,12 0,24 4,76 10,48

concrete reinforcement steel

C30/37 Class A bars, with fyk = 500 N/mm², εuk = 2,5 %

A

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Section A-A
B

B 0,12 0,24 4,76 10,48 0,24 4,76 0,24 0,12

5,0

5,0

Section B-B
0,2 0,3 0,5

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II.3.2

Assumptions

The design of concrete structures has an iterative character. The initial assumptions of steel type, diameter of longitudinal and shear reinforcement, maximum aggregate size, deviation of concrete cover, structure and exposure class are made at the beginning of the design. Exposure class: • Background: A durable structure shall meet the requirements of serviceability, strength and stability throughout its design working life, without significant loss of utility or excessive unforeseen maintenance. • • Reference: The required measure of protection is based on the identification of the relevant exposure classes according to chapter 4.2 of EC2 Work out: For corrosion induced by carbonation the exposure class XC1 for the top side and XC3 for the bottom side should be identified. Indicative strength class: • Background: The choice of adequately durable concrete for corrosion protection of reinforcement and protection of concrete attack, requires consideration of the composition of concrete. This may result in a higher compressive strength of the concrete than is required for structural design. • Reference: To accomplish the required protection measure for corrosion and concrete attack the identified exposure classes can be related to the necessary compressive strength corresponding to annex E of EC2. • Work out: Table E.1N indicates the relation of concrete strength class C20/25 to exposure class XC1 and C30/37 to exposure class XC3. The choosen strength class C30/37 satisfies the required strength class. Nominal concrete cover cnom: • Background: The concrete cover is the distance between the surface of the reinforcement closest to the nearest concrete surface (including links and stirrups and surface reinforcement where relevant) and the nearest concrete surface. • • Reference: The nominal concrete cover should be determined according to chapter 4.4.1.1. Work out: The nominal cover cnom is defined as a minimum cover cmin plus an allowance in design for deviation ∆cdev.

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Minimum concrete cover cmin: • • • Background: The minimum concrete cover shall be provided to ensure safe transmission of bond forces, protection of the steel against corrosion and an adequate fire resistance. Reference: To calculate the nominal concrete cover the minimum cover is needed, which can be find out according to chapter 4.4.1.2 respectively equation (4.2). Work out: The initial structural class is S4. According to table 4.3N the recommended structural classification has to be modified. Table 4.3N indicates that the structural class of members with exposure class XC1 and a concrete strength class higher or equal C30/37 can be reduced by one. Therefore the structural class for the top side is S3. The initial structural class for the bottom side remains unchanged. Table 4.4N requires for the combination Top side: Bottom side: S3 and XC1 c min,dur = 10 mm S4 and XC3 c min,dur = 25 mm .

For all types of ∆cdur the value is 0 mm. cmin cmin,b ⎧ ⎪ = max ⎨cmin,dur + ∆cdur,γ − ∆cdur,st − ∆cdur,add ⎪ 10 mm ⎩

The required minimum concrete cover to satisfy bond conditions is defined in Table 4.2. For separate arranged bars c min,b is equal to the diameter of bar. Assumptive bar diameters: Top side: Bottom side: Stirrups: Øsl, top = 20 mm Øsl, bottom = 16 mm Øsw = 10 mm

⇒ c min,l, top = 20 mm ⇒ c min,l,bottom = 25 mm

⇒ c min, w, top = 10 mm
⇒ c min, w, bottom = 25 mm

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Allowance in design for deviation ∆cdev: • Background: To calculate the nominal cover, cnom, an addition to the minimum cover shall be made in design to allow for the deviation (∆cdev). The required minimum cover shall be increased by the absolute value of the accepted negative deviation. • • Reference: The allowance in design for deviation should be selected according to chapter 4.4.1.3. Work out: The recommended value for ∆cdev is 10 mm. The nominal cover cnom is the sum of
c min and ∆cdev. The result computes to: c nom,l, top = 30 mm and c nom, w, top = 20 mm

c nom,l,bottom = 35 mm and c nom,w, bottom = 35 mm The decisive nominal concrete covers for bottom and top side are:
⇒ c nom, top = 20 mm

⇒ c nom,bottom = 35 mm

200 16 300

figure II.3-1: Assumptive field section (T beam)
20

35

10

20

10

200 500

300

figure II.3-2: Assumptive section at intermediate support (T beam)

500

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II.3.3

Conditions of support

The different kinds of support have an influence on the design of concrete structures. Members resisting loads that act vertical to the member axis (e.g. beams and slabs) can be placed on columns, beams or walls. These opportunities are idealized as integrated, round pile, square pile or free linear. The integrated support represents a monolithic connection between the member that is being designed and its support. A free linear support represents a wall as support. Conditions of support: • Background: When a member is being designed, the assumptions made within the model of the structure for the analysis of internal forces have to be considered. Therefore the conditions of support have to be specified. • • Reference: For beams EC2 specifies in chapter 5.3.2.2 and 9.2.1.2 rules for the design of the section at support. Work out: In this example a continuous beam is being designed with end supports that provide no rotational restraint but at the intermediate support the beam is connected monolithic with its support. According to chapter 5.3.2.2(3) the critical design moment at the support should be taken as that at the face of the support. Therefore the design value of bending moment at intermediate support computes to: Design value for intermediate support: M Ed = −252,28 kNm

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II.3.4
member.

Decisive sections of bending moment

The design of concrete structures is done for several decisive cuts and not for every single point of the

Decisive cross sections: • Background: The longitudinal reinforcement in combination with the compressed area of the concrete structure resist the acting bending moment. In most cases the bending moment has different values along the member axis. Because of that reason, the decisive locations of bending moment for the bottom and top reinforcement has to be determined. • • Reference: Usually the decisive sections are at the maximum bending moment and at intermediate supports. Work out: The maximum of bending moment can be determined with the condition VEd = 0 or by investigating the results of the structural analysis of Matrix. Under the persistent load combination and the load case for maximum field moment the decisive x-coordinate is 2,003 m respectively 7,997 m. The relevant section for top reinforcement is at the intermediate support.

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II.3.5

Determination of required longitudinal reinforcement

The design of concrete structures depend on the centroid of the longitudinal reinforcement and the effective width of section.

II.3.5.1 support

Determination of required longitudinal reinforcement at intermediate

Effective depth d: • • Background: For all further calculations the effective depth of the cross section is needed. Reference: The effective depth of a cross section is the depth from the top of the cross section, respectively from the bottom of the cross section, to the centroid of the longitudinal reinforcement corresponding to the direction of bending. Keep in mind the rules of detailing. • Work out: Generally the reinforcement requires a control of the bar spacing according to chapter 8.2. That chapter considers the bar diameter and the maximum size of aggregate dg.

⎧k1 ⋅ bar diameter ⎪ clear distance ≥ max ⎨ d g + k 2 mm ⎪ 20 mm ⎩
k1 = 1; k 2 = 5 mm and assume d g = 16 mm

⎧ 1⋅ 20 mm = 20 mm ⎪ clear distance ≥ max ⎨16 mm + 5 mm = 21 mm ⇒ clear distance ≥ 21 mm ⎪ 20 mm ⎩
d top = h − c nom,top − Ø sw − 1 1 ⋅ Ø = 500 mm − 20 mm − 10 mm − ⋅ 20 mm = 460 mm 2 2

Required area of reinforcement As, req, B: • Background: From the equilibrium between acting moment with or without axial force and the resisting inner moment of the section the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be determined. • • Reference: Chapter 6.1 of EC2 specifies the strain limits. Within these limits the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be iterated. Work out:
− 0,2523 MNm 0,3 ⋅ (0,46 )
2

µ Eds =

30 ⋅ 1,5

= 0,1987 ≈ 0,2 ⇒ ω = 0,2263

As,req,B = ω ⋅

b⋅d 300 ⋅ 460 30 = 0,2263 ⋅ ⋅ = 1436 mm 2 f yd f cd 500 1,15 1,5

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II.3.5.2

Determination of required longitudinal reinforcement in the field

Effective width beff of section: Background: In T beams the effective flange width, over which uniform conditions of stress can be assumed, depend on the web and flange dimensions, the type of loading, the span, the support conditions and the transverse reinforcement. • • Reference: Chapter 5.3.2.1 of EC2 specifies the equations for the calculation of the effective flange width. Work out:
beff =

∑ beff,i + bw ≤ b

(5.7) (5.7a) (5.7b)

beff,i = 0 ,2 ⋅ bi + 0 ,1⋅ l0 ≤ 0 ,2 ⋅ l0 beff,i ≤ bi

figure II.3-3: Definition of l0, for calculation of effective flange width (see EC2 Figure 5.2)

figure II.3-4: Effective flange width parameters (see EC2 Figure 5.3)

l 0 = 0,85 ⋅ 5,0 m = 4,25 m
b1 = 0,5 ⋅ 5,2 m = 2,6 m and b2 = 0,5 ⋅ 4,2 m = 2,1 m beff,1 = 0,2 ⋅ 2,6 + 0,1⋅ 4,25 = 0,945 ≥ 0,85 = 0,2 ⋅ l0 ⇒ beff,1 = 0 ,85 m ≤ 2,6 m = b1 beff, 2 = 0,2 ⋅ 2,1+ 0,1⋅ 4,25 = 0,845 ≤ 0,85 = 0,2 ⋅ l0 ⇒ beff, 2 = 0 ,845 m ≤ 2,1 m = b2 beff = 0,85 + 0,845 + 0,3 = 1,995 ≤ 4,7 = 2,6 + 2,1 = b ⇒ beff = 1,995 m

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Effective depth d: • • Background: For all further calculations the effective depth of the cross section is needed. Reference: The effective depth of a cross section is the depth from the top of the cross section, respectively from the bottom of the cross section, to the centroid of the longitudinal reinforcement corresponding to the direction of bending. Keep in mind the rules of detailing. • Work out: Generally the reinforcement requires a control of the bar spacing according to chapter 8.2. That chapter considers the bar diameter and the maximum size of aggregate dg.

⎧k1 ⋅ bar diameter ⎪ clear distance ≥ max ⎨ d g + k 2 mm ⎪ 20 mm ⎩
k1 = 1; k 2 = 5 mm and assume d g = 16 mm

⎧ 1⋅ 16 mm = 16 mm ⎪ clear distance ≥ max ⎨16 mm + 5 mm = 21 mm ⇒ clear distance ≥ 21 mm ⎪ 20 mm ⎩
d bottom = h − c nom,bottom − Ø sw − 1 1 ⋅ Ø = 500 mm − 35 mm − 10 mm − ⋅ 16 mm = 447 mm 2 2

Required area of reinforcement As, req, field: • Background: From the equilibrium between acting moment with or without axial force and the resisting inner moment of the section the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be determined. • • Reference: Chapter 6.1 of EC2 specifies the strain limits. Within these limits the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be iterated. Work out:

µ Eds =

0,1845 MNm 1,995 ⋅ (0,447 ) ⋅
2

30 1,5

= 0,023 ⇒ ω = 0,0234

As,req,field = ω ⋅

b ⋅d 1995 ⋅ 447 30 = 0,0234 ⋅ ⋅ = 960 mm 2 f yd f cd 500 1,15 1,5

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II.3.6

Bar combination

The required area of longitudinal reinforcement satisfies the equilibrium between actions and member resistance at the decisive section. Furthermore the member has to satisfy the criterion of ductility and detailing rules at all sections along the member axis. For usual members the amount of reinforcement depending on detailing rules is less than the amount of reinforcement required at the decisive section. Therefore the reinforcement is divided into a basic and an additional reinforcement. The basic reinforcement should satisfy all detailing rules at all sections and the additional reinforcement is placed at the decisive section.

II.3.6.1
• • •

Bar combination at intermediate support (top reinforcement)

Minimum and maximum reinforcement areas: Background: The longitudinal reinforcement should consider the limit for maximum and minimum reinforcement. Reference: Chapter 9.2.1.1 specifies the equations for the limits of longitudinal reinforcement. Work out: As,min = 0,26 ⋅ f ctm ⋅ bt ⋅ d ≥ 0,0013 ⋅ bt ⋅ d f yk
2,9 ⋅ 300 mm ⋅ 460 mm ≥ 0,0013 ⋅ 300 mm ⋅ 460 mm 500

As,min,B = 0,26 ⋅

As,min,B = 208 mm 2 ≥ 179,4 mm 2 ⇒ As,min,B = 208 mm 2
As,max = 0,04 ⋅ Ac

As,max = 0,04 ⋅ 300 mm ⋅ 500 mm = 6000 mm 2

Select basic reinforcement: Additional reinforcement: Total amount:

2 Ø 20 ⇒ As, basic = 628 mm² 3 Ø 20 ⇒ As, add = 942 mm² 5 Ø 20 ⇒ As, total = 1570 mm²
20

20

10

200 500

300

figure II.3-5: Bar combination at intermediate support (T-beam)

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II.3.6.2
• • •

Bar combination in the span (bottom reinforcement)

Minimum and maximum reinforcement areas: Background: The longitudinal reinforcement should consider the limit for maximum and minimum reinforcement. Reference: Chapter 9.2.1.1 specifies the equations for the limits of longitudinal reinforcement. Work out: As,min = 0,26 ⋅ f ctm ⋅ bt ⋅ d ≥ 0,0013 ⋅ bt ⋅ d f yk
2,9 ⋅ 300 mm ⋅ 447 mm ≥ 0,0013 ⋅ 300 mm ⋅ 447 mm 500

As,min, field = 0,26 ⋅

As,min, field = 202 mm 2 ≥ 174 mm 2 ⇒ As,min, field = 202 mm 2 As,max = 0,04 ⋅ Ac As,max = 0,04 ⋅ 300 mm ⋅ 500 mm = 6000 mm 2

Anchorage of bottom reinforcement at the supports: • • • Background: A minimum area of tensile reinforcement should be anchored at members end and intermediate supports. Reference: Chapter 9.2.1.4 and 9.2.1.5 specifies the amount of reinforcement to be anchored. Work out: At least 25% of the area provided in the span should be anchored.. As,req,field = 960 mm 2 ⇒ As,anchor, field ≥ 240 mm 2 Select basic reinforcement: Additional reinforcement: Total amount: 2 Ø 16 ⇒ As, basic = 402 mm² 3 Ø 16 ⇒ As, add = 603 mm² 5 Ø 16 ⇒ As, total = 1005 mm²

200 16 300

figure II.3-6: Bar combination in the field (T-beam)

35

10

500

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II.3.7

Crack control

Cracking is normal in reinforced concrete structures subject to bending, shear, torsion or tension resulting from either direct loading or restraint or imposed deformations. Maximum crack width: • • • Background: Cracking shall be limited to an extent that will not impair the proper functioning or durability of the structure or cause its appearance to be unacceptable. Reference: Table 7.1N specifies the recommended values for wmax. Work out: Limiting calculated crack width: XC1 ⇒ wmax = 0,4 mm XC3 ⇒ w max = 0,3 mm

II.3.7.1
• • •

Crack control at intermediate support without direct calculation

Minimum reinforcement area and crack control without direct calculation: Background: If crack control is required, a minimum amount of bonded reinforcement is required to control cracking in areas where tension is expected. Reference: Chapter 7.3.2 specifies the minimum reinforcement areas. and chapter 7.3.3 specifies the verification of crack width without direct calculation. Work out: According to 7.3.2(2), the minimum amount of reinforcement area computes to: As,min = k c ⋅ k ⋅ fct, eff ⋅ Ac t

σs
N mm 2

Ac t = 300 ⋅ 250 = 75000 mm2 ; f c t,eff ≤ f c t,m = 2,9
⎛ σc k c = 0,4 ⋅ ⎜1 − ⎜ k h h* ⋅ f 1 c t,eff ⎝

; k = 0,86

(

)

⎞ ⎟ ; σ = NE d = 0 ⇒ k = 0,4 ≤ 1,0 c c ⎟ b ⋅d ⎠

The maximum bar diameter Ø* can be verified by transformation of equation 7.6N. s
⎛ fct, eff Øs = Ø* ⋅ ⎜ s ⎜ ⎝ 2,9 ⎞ k c ⋅ hcr ⎟⋅ ⎟ 2 ⋅ (h-d ) ⎠

Ø* = s
Ø* = s

Ø s ⋅ 2 ⋅ (h-d ) ⋅ 2,9 k c ⋅ hcr ⋅ f ct,eff
20 mm ⋅ 2 ⋅ (500 − 460) ⋅ 2,9 = 16 mm 0,4 ⋅ 0,5 ⋅ 500 ⋅ 2,2

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The following table is an extraction of Table 7.2N from EC2. Steel stress [MPa] 280 Maximum bar size [mm] (wk = 0,4 mm) 16

⇒ As,min =

0,4 ⋅ 0,86 ⋅ 2,9 ⋅ 75000 mm 2 = 267 mm 2 < 1570 mm 2 = As,prov,B 280

II.3.7.2
• • •

Crack control in the field without direct calculation

Minimum reinforcement area and crack control without direct calculation: Background: If crack control is required, a minimum amount of bonded reinforcement is required to control cracking in areas where tension is expected. Reference: Chapter 7.3.2 specifies the minimum reinforcement areas. and chapter 7.3.3 specifies the verification of crack width without direct calculation. Work out: According to 7.3.2(2), the minimum amount of reinforcement area computes to: As,min = k c ⋅ k ⋅ fct, eff ⋅ Ac t

σs
N mm 2

Ac t = 300 ⋅ 250 = 75000 mm2 ; f c t,eff ≤ f c t,m = 2,9
⎛ σc k c = 0,4 ⋅ ⎜1 − ⎜ k h h* ⋅ f 1 c t,eff ⎝

; k = 0,86

(

)

⎞ ⎟ ; σ = NE d = 0 ⇒ k = 0,4 ≤ 1,0 c c ⎟ b ⋅d ⎠

The maximum bar diameter Ø* can be verified by transformation of equation 7.6N. s
⎛ fct, eff Øs = Ø* ⋅ ⎜ s ⎜ ⎝ 2,9 ⎞ k c ⋅ hcr ⎟⋅ ⎟ 2 ⋅ (h-d ) ⎠

Ø* = s Ø* = s

Øs ⋅ 2 ⋅ (h-d ) ⋅ 2,9 kc ⋅ hcr ⋅ fct, eff 16 mm ⋅ 2 ⋅ (500 − 447) ⋅ 2,9 = 16,96 mm 0,4 ⋅ 0,5 ⋅ 500 ⋅ 2,2

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The following table is an extraction of Table 7.2N from EC2. Steel stress [MPa] 200 240 Maximum bar size [mm] (wk = 0,3 mm) 25 16

With linear interpolation the steel stress depending on wk and Ø* computes to: s
MN − 200 2 m2 m = 235,7 MN σ s = 240 2 − (16,96 mm − 16 mm) ⋅ 25 mm − 16 mm m m2 MN 240 MN

⇒ As,min =

0,4 ⋅ 0,86 ⋅ 2,9 ⋅ 75000 mm 2 mm 2 mm 2 = 317 < 1005 = As,prov,field 235,7 m m

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II.3.8

Design value of acting shear force

The verification of shear force resistance shall be done for the maximum shear force. That value should consider different circumstances, like the type of loading (e.g. predominantly uniformly distributed loading). Reduction of acting shear force: • • • Background: The maximum shear force is not always required for the design of shear reinforcement. Reference: The permission rule can be found at chapter 6.2.1. Work out: The maximum of shear force is in this example at intermediate support. It doesn’t need to be checked in a distance less than d from the face of the support (see EC2 6.2.1(8)).
VE d,red = − 285,94 kN − (0,46 + 0,12) ⋅ 91,5 kN = 232,8 kN = 0,233 MN m

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II.3.9

Determination of required shear reinforcement

Shear resistance is verified either with pure concrete resistance or a truss model. Requirement of shear reinforcement: • • Background: Check concrete shear resistance to decide whether shear reinforcement is required or not. Reference: Chapter 6.2.2 specifies the way how to detect, whether shear reinforcement has to be used or not. • Work out: VR d,c = ⎡CR d,c ⋅ k ⋅ (100 ⋅ ρ l ⋅ f ck ) ⎢ ⎣ with:
1 3

+ k1 ⋅ σ cp ⎤ ⋅ bw ⋅ d ≥ v min + k1 ⋅ σ cp ⋅ bw ⋅ d ⎥ ⎦

(

)

k = 1+

200 200 ≤ 2,0; k = 1 + = 1,66 ≤ 2,0 d 460

ρl =
ρl =

Asl ≤ 0,02 bw ⋅ d
1570 = 0,011 ≤ 0,02 300 ⋅ 460

σ c p = 0 , k1 = 0,15
CR d,c = 0,18

γc

= 0,12
3 2

v min = 0,035 ⋅ k

⋅ 30

1 2

= 0,41

1 VR d,c = ⎡0,12 ⋅ 1,66 ⋅ (100 ⋅ 0,011⋅ 30) 3 + 0⎤ ⋅ 0,3 ⋅ 0,46 ≥ 0,41⋅ 0,3 ⋅ 0,46 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

VR d,c = 0,088 MN ≥ 0,057 MN

VR d,c = 88 kN ≤ 233 kN = VE d,red ⇒ Shear reinforcement is required.

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Calculate shear resistance: • • • Background: The shear resistance is the smaller value of concrete compression strut resistance and the shear reinforcement. Reference: The rules of design are specified within chapter 6.2.3 Work out: Because the angle α is selected to α = 90o the resistance of shear forces follows from: A ⎧ ⎪ VR d,s = sw ⋅ z ⋅ f y w d ⋅ cotθ VR d = min⎨ s ⎪VR d,max = α cw ⋅ bw ⋅ z ⋅ν 1 ⋅ f c d (cotθ + tanθ ) ⎩ with:

α c w = 1; b w = 300 mm; ν 1 = 0,6
fy w d = 0,8 ⋅ f y w k = 400 N mm2

z = 0,9 ⋅ d = 0,9 ⋅ 460 mm = 414 mm

1 ≤ cot θ ≤ 2,5 , choose cot θ = 1 ⇒ θ = 45o
VR d,max = 1⋅ 0,3 ⋅ 0,414 ⋅ 0,6 ⋅ 30 (1 + 1) = 0,745 MN 1,5

VR d,s ⇒
As w, req s

As w, req s
=

VE d, red z ⋅ f y w d ⋅ cot θ

=

0,233 m2 mm 2 = 1,407 ⋅ 10 −3 = 1407 0,414 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 1 m m

Support condition:
VR d,max = 0,745 MN ≥ 0,233 MN = VE d

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Check detailing rules for shear reinforcement: • • • Background: The shear reinforcement should consider the limit for maximum and minimum reinforcement. Reference: The rules of shear detailing are specified within chapter 9.2.2 and 6.2.3. Work out:
As w, min s = ρ w, min ⋅ b w ⋅ sin α = 0,08 ⋅ 30 = 8,7636 ⋅ 10 − 4 = 0,087% 500

with: ρ w, min =

0,08 ⋅ f c k f yk

As w, min s
As w, max s

= 8,76 ⋅ 10 − 4 ⋅ 0,3 ⋅ 1 = 2,63 ⋅ 10 − 4

m2 mm2 = 263 m m

30 fc d 1 1 m2 mm 2 1,5 ≤ ⋅ α c w ⋅ b w ⋅ν 1 ⋅ = ⋅ 1⋅ 0,3 ⋅ 0,6 ⋅ = 4,5 ⋅ 10 −3 = 4500 2 fy wd 2 400 m m

Asw, req s Asw, req s

= 1407 = 1407

mm 2 mm 2 As w, min > 263 = m m s mm 2 mm 2 As w, max < 4500 = m m s

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II.3.10

Selection of stirrups

Background: The selection of stirrups has to consider the amount of reinforcement that resists the acting shear force at the decisive section and the detailing rules at all sections. Therefore it can be divided into basic and main shear reinforcement.

• •

Reference: The rules of shear detailing are specified within chapter 9.2.2 and 6.2.3. Work out: Selected shear reinforcement: Stirrups, Ø 10/100.
Asw,max s
mm 2 Asw mm 2 mm 2 Asw, req , > = 1570 > 1407 = m s m m s

= 4500

The resistance computes to:

VR d,s = 157 ⋅ 10 −3 ⋅ 0,414 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 1,0 = 0,26 MN ,
VR d = VR d,s = 0 ,26 MN ≥ 0 ,233 MN = VE d,red

Rules for shear reinforcement are satisfied. For basic shear reinforcement choose Stirrups, Ø 10/250.

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II.3.11

Stress limitation

Within the serviceability limit states the concrete and reinforcement stress have to be verified Concrete stresses: • • • Background: To avoid longitudinal cracks, micro-cracks or high level of creep the compressive stress in the concrete shall be limited. Reference: Chapter 7.1(2) and 7.2(2)-(3) specify the limits and conditions of verification. Work out: Check whether the sections are cracked. Intermediate support: M cr =
M cr =

fctm ⋅ I 2,9 ⋅ 0 ,3 ⋅ 0 ,5 3 = = 36 ,25 ⋅ 10 −3 MNm = 36 ,25 kNm 0 ,5 ⋅ 0 ,5 ⋅ 12 z
fctm ⋅ I 2,9 ⋅ 1,995 ⋅ 0 ,53 = = 0 ,241 MNm = 241 kNm 0 ,5 ⋅ 0 ,5 ⋅ 12 z

Field:

Following load combination factors have been used for this exercise: combination of load rare frequent quasi-permanent dead load 1,0 1,0 1,0 live load 1,0 0,7 0,6 gd in both fields and qd in field 1 Mfield [kNm] 130 112 106

gd + qd in both fields combination of load rare frequent quasi-permanent MB [kNm] -203,125 -179,69 -171,875

⇒ Section at intermediate support have to be assumed as cracked but the section in
the field may be assumed as uncracked. No need for checking concrete stresses under characteristic combination (rare) of loads in all three decisive cuts, because the exposure class for the member hasn’t been identified as XD, XF or XS.

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The stress limit to avoid non-linear creep computes to:
k 2 ⋅ f ck = 0,45 ⋅ 30 = 13,5 MN m2

The compressive concrete stress computes under quasi-permanent combination of loads to: In the field:
2 ⋅ M Ed,perm, field b⋅x⋅z 2 ⋅ 0,106 1,995 ⋅ 0,3 ⋅ 0,9 ⋅ 0,447 2 = 1,97 MN m2 ≤ 13,5 MN m2

σ c, field = σ c, field =

⇒ Linear creep may be assumed.
At intermediate support:
2 ⋅ − 0,172 0,3 ⋅ 0,3 ⋅ 0,9 ⋅ 0,46 2

σ c,B =

= 20,07

MN m2

> 13,5

MN m2

⇒ Non-linear creep has to be assumed.
Reinforcement stresses • • • Background: To avoid inelastic strain, unacceptable cracking or deformation the tensile stresses in the reinforcement shall be limited. Reference: Chapter 7.1(2) and 7.2(5) specify the limits and conditions of verification. Work out: The stress limit to avoid inelastic strain etc. computes to:
k3 ⋅ fyk = 0,8 ⋅ 500 = 400 MN m2

The tensile stress under characteristic combination of loads computes to: • In the field:
M Ed,rare, field As ⋅ z
0,130 1,005 ⋅ 10
−3

σ s, field =
σ s, field =

⋅ 0,9 ⋅ 0,447

= 312,53

MN m
2

≤ 400

MN m2

⇒ Inelastic strain etc. avoided.
• At intermediate support
− 0,203 1,57 ⋅ 10
−3

σ s,B =

⋅ 0,9 ⋅ 0,46

= 312,32

MN m
2

≤ 400

MN m2

⇒ Inelastic strain etc. avoided.

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II.3.12

Deflection control

The general considerations of EC2 give an introduction about deflection control. The deformation shall be limited in a way, that it doesn’t affect on the proper functioning or appearance of the member or structure. • Background: Generally, it is not necessary to calculate the deflections explicitly as simple rules, for example limits to span/depth ratio may be formulated, which will be adequate for avoiding deflection problems in normal circumstances. • • Reference: The detailed explanation for limiting the span to depth ratio may be found in chapter 7.4.2. Work out: The provided reinforcement ratio computes to:

ρ l, field =

Asl 1005 mm 2 = = 1‰ Ac 1995 mm ⋅ 500 mm

The reference reinforcement ratio computes to:

ρ 0 = f ck ⋅ 10 −3 = 5,477 ‰
Because ρ l, field < ρ 0 , the relevant equation for the span/depth ratio-limit is
⎡ ρ ⎢ = K ⋅ ⎢11 + 1,5 ⋅ fck ⋅ 0 + 3 ,2 ⋅ fck ρl d ⎢ ⎣

l

3⎤ ⎛ ρ0 ⎞2 ⎥ ⋅⎜ ⎜ ρ − 1⎟ ⎥ ⎟ ⎝ l ⎠ ⎥ ⎦

(7.16a)

3⎤ ⎡ ⎛ 30 ⋅ 10 −3 ⎞2 ⎥ ⎢ 30 ⋅ 10 −3 = 1,0 ⋅ ⎢11 + 1,5 ⋅ 30 ⋅ + 3 ,2 ⋅ 30 ⋅ ⎜ − 1⎟ ⎥ = 222 ⎜ 1⋅ 10 −3 ⎟ d 1⋅ 10 −3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣

l

The provided span/depth ratio computes to:
prov

l
d

=

5 ,0 m = 11,2 < 222 0,447 m

It isn’t necessary to modify the limit of the span/depth ratio.

⇒ The deflection control is satisfied.

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II.3.13

Additional tensile force or “shift rule”

In the ultimate limit state the required longitudinal reinforcement is computed and a bar combination is chosen that satisfies the requirements. These calculations are based on the coordinate of the section with the maximum bending moment, therefore it is obvious that in other sections less reinforcement is needed. To determine the reinforcement in other sections, the truss model for shear forces has to be included. • • • Background: The truss model for shear force behaviour results in compression strut and tension flange. This additional tensile force has to be covered by the reinforcement. Reference: The additional tensile force ∆Ftd can be calculated according to chapter 6.2.3(7) or alternative the shift rule according to chapter 9.2.1.3(2) can be used. Work out: Additional tensile force ∆Ftd :

∆Ft d = 0,5 ⋅ VE d ( x ) ⋅ (cot θ − cot α )
or shift rule al :
a
l

= z ⋅ (cot θ − cot α ) / 2

al, field = 0,9 ⋅ 447 ⋅ (1 − 0) / 2 = 20115 mm ,
al,B = 0,9 ⋅ 460 ⋅ (1 − 0 ) / 2 = 207 mm

The following figures demonstrate the way to the acting tensile force. Starting with the relevant lines of bending moment (see figure II.3-7) we get the outer limits of moment. The division of the outer limits of bending moment with the inner lever arm leads to the tensile force in the reinforcement (see figure II.3-8).

figure II.3-7: Bending moments(T beam)

figure II.3-8: Tensile force (T beam)

Finally the tensile force out of the truss model has to be added by adding the tensile force ∆Ftd or by using the shift rule. The result in figure II.3-9 depicts the usage of the shift rule.

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figure II.3-9: Acting tensile force (T beam)

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II.3.14
Curtailment: • • •

Envelope of acting tensile force

Background: Sufficient reinforcement should be provided at all sections to resist the envelope of the acting tensile force, including the effect of inclined cracks in webs and flanges. Reference: Chapter 9.2.1.3 describes how to perform the curtailment of longitudinal tension reinforcement. Work out: The point from which a bar is not any longer required can be computed from the equilibrium between the resistance of the remaining bars and the acting tensile force Fs. acting tensile force Fs: Fs = M Eds ( x ) z + ∆Ft d

figure II.3-10: Envelope of acting tensile force (T beam)

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II.3.15

Bar positioning

The final determination of the amount and length of reinforcement depend on the chosen curtailment and the requirements of the anchorage of the bars or wires respectively.

II.3.15.1 Bar positioning top
Anchorage: • • • Background: Reinforcing bars, wires or welded mesh fabrics shall be so anchored that the bond forces are safely transmitted to the concrete avoiding longitudinal cracking or spalling. Reference: Chapter 8.4 describes how to verify the anchorage of longitudinal reinforcement. Work out: Design value of the ultimate bond stress: fb d = 2,25 ⋅ η1 ⋅ η 2 ⋅ f c t d with:
fc t d = α c t ⋅ f c t k,0,05

γc

= 1,0 ⋅

2,0 MN = 1, 3 2 1,5 m

(3.16)

η1 = 1,0 for good bond conditions and η1 = 0,7 for all other cases. η 2 = 1,0
fb d = 2,25 ⋅ 0,7 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1, 3 = 2,1
MN m2
Ø σ sd ⋅ 4 fb d

Basic anchorage length: lb,rqd =

From the point, where the envelope of the acting tensile force changes from one level to the next one, the provided stress in the bar that has to be anchored can be calculated. Start of reinforcement at level of 2 Ø 20: Force to be anchored:
FE = 0 ⇒ lb,rqd, s tart = 0 mm

Change of level from 2 Ø 20 up on 5 Ø 20:

σ s d,2−5 =

0,273 MN 1,57 ⋅ 10 m
−3
2

⋅ = 173,9

MN m
2

⇒ lb,rqd, 2 − 5 =

20 173 ,9 ⋅ = 414 mm 4 2 ,1

Design anchorage length: lb d = α 1 ⋅ α 2 ⋅ α 3 ⋅ α 4 ⋅ α 5 ⋅ lb,rqd ≥ lb,min
⎧ ⎧ 0 = 0 mm ⎪0,3 ⋅ lb,rqd = 0,3 ⋅ ⎨ ⎩414 = 124 mm ⎪ ⎪ = max ⎨ 10 ⋅ Ø = 10 ⋅ 20 = 200 mm ⎪ 100 mm ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

lb,min

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, In all cases c d = 20 mm ; α i = 10;

with i = { , 2, 3, 4 5} 1

lb d, start = 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 0 = 0 mm < 200 mm = lb,min ⇒ lb d ,start = lb,min = 200 mm

lb d, 2 − 5 = 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 414 = 414 mm ≥ 200 mm = lb,min
The final result for the top reinforcement computes to: Starting point [m] Basic reinforcement Additional 2,91 3,67 End point [m] 7,09 6,33 Total length [m] 4,18 2,66

0,12

0,24 4,76

0,24 4,76 10,48

0,24

0,12

figure II.3-11: Side view of bar positioning top

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II.3.15.2 Bar positioning bottom
Anchorage: • • • Background: Reinforcing bars, wires or welded mesh fabrics shall be so anchored that the bond forces are safely transmitted to the concrete avoiding longitudinal cracking or spalling. Reference: Chapter 8.4 describes how to verify the anchorage of longitudinal reinforcement. Work out: Design value of the ultimate bond stress: fb d = 2,25 ⋅ η1 ⋅ η 2 ⋅ f c t d with:
fc t d = α c t ⋅ f c t k,0,05

γc

= 1,0 ⋅

2,0 MN = 1, 3 2 1,5 m

(3.16)

η1 = 1,0 for good bond conditions and η1 = 0,7 for all other cases. η 2 = 1,0
fb d = 2,25 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1, 3 = 3 MN m2
Ø σ sd ⋅ 4 fb d

Basic anchorage length: lb,rqd =

From the point, where the envelope of the acting tensile force changes from one level to the next one, the provided stress in the bar that has to be anchored can be calculated. Start of reinforcement at level of 2 Ø 16: Force to be anchored:
FE = VEd ⋅ al 201,15 mm + N Ed = 183,3 kN ⋅ = 84 kN z 0,984 ⋅ 447 mm
2

σ s d,s tart =

0,084 MN 4,02 ⋅ 10 m
−4
2

⋅ = 208,9

MN m

⇒ lb,rqd, s tart =

16 208 ,9 ⋅ = 278 ,5 mm 4 3

Change of level from 2 Ø 16 up on 5 Ø 16:

σ s d,2−5 =

0,1748 MN 1,005 ⋅ 10 m
−3
2

= 173,9

MN m
2

⇒ lb,rqd, 2−5 =

16 173 ,9 ⋅ = 232 mm 4 3

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Design anchorage length: lb d = α 1 ⋅ α 2 ⋅ α 3 ⋅ α 4 ⋅ α 5 ⋅ lb,rqd ≥ lb,min
⎧ ⎧278,5 = 83,55 mm ⎪0 ,3 ⋅ lb,rqd = 0 ,3 ⋅ ⎨ ⎩ 232 = 70 mm ⎪ ⎪ = max ⎨ 10 ⋅ Ø = 10 ⋅ 16 = 160 mm ⎪ 100 mm ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

lb,min

, In all cases c d = 20 mm ; α i = 10;

with i = { , 2, 3, 4 5} 1

lb d, start = 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 278 ,5 = 278 ,5 mm ≥ 160 mm = lb,min lb d, 2−5 = 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 232 = 232 mm ≥ 160 mm = lb,min

The basic reinforcement have to be bend up at the position –0,085 m and 10,205 m for at least 73,5 mm. The final result for the bottom reinforcement computes to: Starting point [m] Basic reinforcement Additional (field 1) Additional (field 2) -0,085 0,044 6,037 End point [m] 10,085 3,963 9,956 Total length [m] 10,317 3,919 3,919

0,12

0,24 4,76

0,24 4,76 10,48

0,24

0,12

figure II.3-12: Side view of bar positioning bottom

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II.4 Column

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II.4.1

Exercise column

Design the following column of the 1st floor. Conditions of surrounding: Dry interior. Predominantly static actions

Materials: • • concrete reinforcement steel C30/37, fck = 30 MPa Class A bars, with fyk = 500 Mpa, εuk = 2,5 %

slab thickness 140 mm

0,35 Dimension of section: Length in [m]: Height in [m]: Width in [m]: l = 4,20 h = 0,220 b = 0,220
slab thickness 160 mm

2nd floor

3,50

Concrete area in [m²]: Ac =0,0484 m² Internal forces: For ultimate limit state: NEd = 0,738 MN M0Ed = 0,0 MNm

0,40

1st floor
Column dimension: 0,22 m / 0,22 m

3,80

0,40

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II.4.2

Assumptions

The design of concrete structures has an iterative character. The initial assumptions of steel type, diameter of longitudinal and shear reinforcement, maximum aggregate size, deviation of concrete cover, structure and exposure class are made at the beginning of the design. Exposure class: • Background: A durable structure shall meet the requirements of serviceability, strength and stability throughout its design working life, without significant loss of utility or excessive unforeseen maintenance. • • Reference: The required measure of protection is based on the identification of the relevant exposure classes according to chapter 4.2 of EC2 Work out: For corrosion induced by carbonation the exposure class XC1 should be identified.

Indicative strength class: • Background: The choice of adequately durable concrete for corrosion protection of reinforcement and protection of concrete attack, requires consideration of the composition of concrete. This may result in a higher compressive strength of the concrete than is required for structural design. • Reference: To accomplish the required protection measure for corrosion and concrete attack the identified exposure classes can be related to the necessary compressive strength corresponding to annex E. • Work out: Table E.1N indicates the relation of concrete strength class C20/25 to exposure class XC1 < C30/37 = chosen strength class. Minimum concrete cover cmin: • Background: The concrete cover is the distance between the surface of the reinforcement closest to the nearest concrete surface (including links and stirrups and surface reinforcement where relevant) and the nearest concrete surface. The nominal cover cnom is defined as a minimum cover cmin plus an allowance in design for deviation ∆cdev. • • Reference: To calculate the nominal concrete cover the minimum cover is needed, which can be find out according to chapter 4.4.1.2 respectively equation (4.2). Work out: The minimum concrete cover has to be determined with regard to the conditions of bonding, durability and an absolute minimum. cmin cmin,b ⎧ ⎪ = max ⎨cmin,dur + ∆cdur,γ − ∆cdur,st − ∆cdur,add ⎪ 10 mm ⎩

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The required minimum concrete cover to satisfy bond conditions is defined in Table 4.2. For separate arranged bars c min,b is equal to the diameter of bar. The minimum concrete cover to satisfy the durability conditions depend on the structural class and the exposure class. The initial structural class is S4. According to table 4.3N the recommended structural classification has to be modified. Table 4.3N indicates the structural class of members can be reduced by one if the concrete compressive strength class is equal or higher than C30/37 for members with exposure class XC1 Assumptive diameter of longitudinal reinforcement: Minimum Øsl required = 8 mm assume Øsl = 20 mm

Assumptive diameter of transversal reinforcement: Minimum Øsw required = max {6 mm; 0,25 ⋅ Øsl, max } assume Øsw = 8 mm

Minimum concrete cover: cmin = max {cmin, b, cmin, dur, ∆cdur, γ, ∆cdur, st, ∆cdur, add, 10 mm} for longitudinal reinforcement all ∆c = 0 cmin, b = 20,0 mm cmin, dur = 10,0 mm or 10,0 mm cmin = 20,0 mm for transversal reinforcement all ∆c = 0 cmin, b = 8,0 mm cmin, dur = 10,0 mm or 10,0 mm cmin = 10,0 mm Allowance in design for deviation ∆cdev = 10,0 mm

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Nominal cover: for longitudinal reinforcement: cnom = 30,0 mm for transversal reinforcement: cnom = 20,0 mm Decisive nominal cover: cnom = 22,0 mm
22 20 120 mm 180 mm 8

22

8 160 mm 220 mm

8

22

figure II.4-1: Assumptive column cross section

22

20

8

220 mm

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II.4.3

Conditions of support
Background: When a member is being designed, the assumptions made within the model of the structure for the analysis of internal forces have to be considered. Therefore the conditions of support have to be specified.

Conditions of support:

Reference: For members resisting mainly axial loads it is important to know whether the supports provide rotational restraint or not. That would have an influence on the buckling length.

Work out: In this example a column is being designed. It is conservative to assume the column as simple supported.

II.4.4

Determination of required longitudinal reinforcement

The design of concrete structures depend on the centroid of the longitudinal reinforcement. Effective depth d: • • Background: For all further calculations the effective depth of the cross section is needed. Reference: The effective depth of a cross section is the depth from the top of the cross section, respectively from the bottom of the cross section, to the centroid of the longitudinal reinforcement corresponding to the direction of bending. Keep in mind the rules of detailing. • Work out: Generally the reinforcement requires a control of the bar spacing according to chapter 8.2. That chapter considers the bar diameter and the maximum size of aggregate dg.

⎧k1 ⋅ bar diameter ⎪ clear distance ≥ max ⎨ d g + k 2 mm ⎪ 20 mm ⎩
k1 = 1; k 2 = 5 mm and assume d g = 16 mm

⎧ 1⋅ 14 mm = 14 mm ⎪ clear distance ≥ max ⎨16 mm + 5 mm = 21 mm ⎪ 20 mm ⎩

clear distance ≥ 21 mm
Effective depth of section d: d = h – cnom – Øsw – 0,5 ⋅ Øsl d = 180,0 mm

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II.4.4.1

Check slenderness criterion

The design of members that are exposed to predominantly axial loads e.g. columns or walls should consider the significant influence of second order effects on the structural behaviour. EC2 offers a simplified criteria to investigate whether second order effects have to be considered or not. Slenderness criterion: • • • Background: The slenderness criterion is relevant for the decision whether the internal forces have to be calculated with second order effects. Reference: The verification of slenderness is specified by EC2 in chapter 5.8.3. Work out: Limit slenderness:
20 ⋅ A ⋅ B ⋅ C n

λlim =

(5.13)

If φef is not known, A = 0,7 may be used. If ω is not know; B = 1,1 may be used. If rm is not known; C = 0,7 may be used.
n= NE d Ac ⋅ fcd

n = 0,7624 λlim = 12,35 If the provided slenderness is less than the limit slenderness, the second order effects may be ignored.

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Provided slenderness:

λ=

l0
i

⇒ λy =

l0
iy

iy =

Ιy
A

, for rectangular section i y =

b ⋅ h3 h = 12 ⋅ b ⋅ h 12

iy = 0,0635 determine l0 according to figure II.4-2 ( case a) have to be taken ):

l0 = 4,2 m
λprov = 66,14

figure II.4-2: Effective length (see EC2 figure 5.7)

Because λlim < λprov, the second order effect must be considered.

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II.4.4.2

Calculate effective creep ratio φef

Effective creep ratio φef: Background: The effect of creep shall be taken into account in second order analysis, with due consideration of both the general conditions for creep (see 3.1.4) and the duration of different loads in the load combination considered. • • Reference: The consideration of the effects of creep may be, according to EC2 chapter 5.8.4, done by determination of an effective creep. Work out: It is conservative to assume ϕ ef = ϕ ( ∞, t0 ) .

ϕ (∞, t0 ) = ϕ 0 = ϕ RH ⋅ β (f cm ) ⋅ β (t 0 )
f cm = f ck + 8 = 38,00 MPa

(B.2)

ϕRH

RH 100 = 1+ 0,1⋅ 3 h0 1−
RH ⎡ ⎤ 1− ⎢ 100 ⋅ α ⎥ ⋅ α = ⎢1 + 1⎥ 2 ⎢ 0,1⋅ 3 h0 ⎥ ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

for f cm ≤ 35 MPa

ϕ RH

for f cm > 35 MPa

Assumption: Dry rooms ⇒ RH = 50 %
h0 = 2 ⋅ Ac = 110,00 mm u

ϕ RH = 1,9528 β (f cm ) =
16,8 f cm = 2,7253

Assumption t0 = 28 days:

β (t 0 ) =

(0,1 + t ) = 0,4884
0,2 0

1

ϕ ef = ϕ (∞, t0 ) = ϕ 0 = 2,5992

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II.4.4.3
• • •

Second order effects with method based on nominal curvature

Nominal second order moment: Background: This method gives a nominal second order moment based on a deflection, which in turn is based on the effective length and an estimated maximum curvature. Reference: The required equations for this method are specified in EC2 chapter 5.8.8. Work out: The design value of bending moment is:
M Ed = M 0Ed + M 2

(5.31)

First order moment inclusive imperfection: According to EC2 chapter 5.2(5) imperfections may be represented by an inclination θi:

θi = θ 0 ⋅ αh ⋅ αm θ0 =
αh =
1 200 2

(5.1)

l

;

2 ≤ αh ≤ 1 3

α m = 0 ,5 ⋅ ⎜1 + αh = α m = 1,0 θ i = 0,00488

⎛ ⎝

1⎞ ⎟ m⎠

The inclination leads to an excentricity or transverse force. In that way the effects of imperfections are taken into account.
ei = θ i ⋅

l0
2

= 0,01025 m

The first order moment inclusive imperfection is the sum of design value of moment from internal analysis and M i = NEd ⋅ ei
M i = NEd ⋅ ei = 0,00756 MNm

The total design value of first order moment is:
M 0Ed,i = M 0Ed + M i = 0,00756 MNm

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Second order moment M2:
M 2 = NEd ⋅ e 2 e2 = 1 l0 ⋅ r c
2

(5.33)

1 1 = K r ⋅ Kϕ ⋅ r r0 f yd 1 = r0 E s ⋅ (0,45 ⋅ d ) Kr = nu − n ≤1 nu − nbal

(5.34)

(5.36) (5.37)
f ck λ − 200 150

K ϕ = 1 + β ⋅ ϕ ef ≥ 1

β = 0,35 +
β = 0,059 Kφ = 1,153

It is conservative to assume Kr = 1,0
1 = 0,027 E-3 1/mm r0 1 = 0,00003095 1/mm r

According to EC2 chapter 5.8.8.2(4): “For constant cross section, c = 10 (≈ π²) is normally used…”
e 2 = 54,60 mm M 2 = 0,0403 MNm = 40,3000 kNm

The total design value of bending moment is:
M Ed = M 0Ed,i + M 2 = 0,04786 MNm = 47,86000 kNm

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II.4.4.4

Determination of required reinforcement with diagram of interaction

Required area of reinforcement: Background: From the equilibrium between acting moment with or without axial force and the resisting inner moment of the section the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be determined. • • Reference: Chapter 6.1 of EC2 specifies the strain limits. Within these limits the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be iterated. Work out: Relative normal force: NE d Ac ⋅ fcd

ν Ed =

ν Ed = 0,7624
Relative moment:
M Ed b ⋅ h 2 ⋅ f cd

µ Ed =

µ Ed = 0,2247
Total mechanical reinforcement ratio: ωtot = 0,53 Required total amount of reinforcement:
As, tot = ω tot ⋅ b⋅h ⋅ f cd f yd

As, tot = 0,0011800 m² As, tot = 1180,0 mm² Choose reinforcement: 4 Ø 20 As, prov = 1256,64 mm²

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II.4.5
be checked.

Bar combination

The selected longitudinal reinforcement is illustrated in figure II.4-3. Further the detailing rules have to

Detailing rules: • • • Background: The longitudinal reinforcement should consider the limits for maximum and minimum reinforcement. Reference: Chapter 9.5.2 specifies the equations for the limits of longitudinal reinforcement. Work out: Minimum reinforcement area: As,min = 0,1⋅ NE d fy d ≥ 0,002 ⋅ Ac

As,min = 169,74 mm² Maximum reinforcement area: outside lap locations:
As,max = 0,04 ⋅ Ac

As,max = 1936,00 mm² at lap locations:
As,max = 0,08 ⋅ Ac

As,max,lap = 3872,00 mm² Limits of reinforcement area are satisfied.
22 20 120 mm 180 mm 8

22

8 160 mm 220 mm

8

22

figure II.4-3: Bar combination

22

20

8

220 mm

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II.4.6
• •

Selection of stirrups
Background: Members that are predominantly exposed to axial loads receive transversal reinforcement according to detailing rules. Reference: The detailing rules for the transverse reinforcement of columns are specified by EC2 in chapter 9.5.3. Additional the general detailing rules for links according to chapter 8.5 of EC2 have to be considered.

Detailing rules:

Work out: Minimum diameter of transversal reinforcement: Minimum Øsw required = max {6 mm; 0,25 ⋅ Øsl, max } Øsw, min = 6,00 mm choose Øsw = 8 mm Anchorage with a bend: Anchorage length = max {10 Øsw, 70 mm} Anchorage length = 80 mm Anchorage with a hook: Anchorage length = max {5 Øsw, 50 mm} Anchorage length = 50 mm Spacing of transverse reinforcement: Spacing of the transverse reinforcement should not exceed scl,t,max.
s cl, t,max 20 ⋅ Ø sl,min ⎧ ⎪ = min⎨lesser dimension of column ⎪ 400 mm ⎩

scl,t,max = 220,0 mm Reduction of scl,t,max above and over beams or slabs and near lapped joints:
s cl, t,red = s cl, t,max ⋅ 0,6

scl,t,red = 132,0 mm

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Choose (all anchored with a bend): In between column: Above and below beam or slab: Ø 8 / 100 Near lapped joints: Ø 8 / 100 The chosen transverse reinforcement with its
0,24 0,16 3,8

Ø 8 / 200
Ø 8 / 100 0,7

different spacing is depicted in figure II.4-4.

Ø 8 / 200

Ø 8 / 100

figure II.4-4: Stirrups positioning column

0,3

3,2

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II.5 Frame

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II.5.1

Exercise frame

Design the following frame. It is part of a storage building for chemicals and a chemical laboratory. Environmental conditions: • • out side: inner side: low air humidity low air humidity, slightly aggressive chemical environment

Predominantly static actions Materials: • • Actions: • • self-weight imposed load gk = 8 kN/m qk = 7 kN/m, Hk = 50 kN, Vk = 70 kN (This group of loads act always concrete reinforcement steel C40/50 Class A bars, with fyk = 500 N/mm², εuk = 2,5 %

together, but Hk is meant with changeable direction!)

Vk

Vk qk gk

Hk 700 400 400 700 column and beam dimension in mm 400 700

Hk

elastomer support

monolithic support

10,0 m

German Society for Concrete and Construction Technology

5,0 m

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EuroCADCrete – Study book – Version 4.0

II.5.2

Assumptions

The design of concrete structures has an iterative character. The initial assumptions of steel type, diameter of longitudinal and shear reinforcement, maximum aggregate size, deviation of concrete cover, structure and exposure class are made at the beginning of the design. Exposure class: • Background: A durable structure shall meet the requirements of serviceability, strength and stability throughout its design working life, without significant loss of utility or excessive unforeseen maintenance. • • Reference: The required measure of protection is based on the identification of the relevant exposure classes according to chapter 4.2 of EC2 Work out: For corrosion induced by carbonation exposure class XC1, and for chemical attack exposure class XA1 should be identified. Indicative strength class: • Background: The choice of adequately durable concrete for corrosion protection of reinforcement and protection of concrete attack, requires consideration of the composition of concrete. This may result in a higher compressive strength of the concrete than is required for structural design. • Reference: To accomplish the required protection measure for corrosion and concrete attack the identified exposure classes can be related to the necessary compressive strength corresponding to annex E of EC2. • Work out: Table E.1N indicates the relation of concrete strength class C20/25 to exposure class XC1 and the relation of concrete strength class C30/37 to exposure class XA1. The chosen strength class C35/45 satisfies the required strength class. Nominal concrete cover cnom: • Background: The concrete cover is the distance between the surface of the reinforcement closest to the nearest concrete surface (including links and stirrups and surface reinforcement where relevant) and the nearest concrete surface. • • Reference: The nominal concrete cover should be determined according to chapter 4.4.1.1. Work out: The nominal cover cnom is defined as a minimum cover cmin plus an allowance in design for deviation ∆cdev.

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Minimum concrete cover cmin: • • • Background: The minimum concrete cover shall be provided to ensure safe transmission of bond forces, protection of the steel against corrosion and an adequate fire resistance. Reference: To calculate the nominal concrete cover the minimum cover is needed, which can be find out according to chapter 4.4.1.2 respectively equation (4.2). Work out: The initial structural class is S4. According to table 4.3N the recommended structural classification has to be modified. Because of the selected higher concrete strength class C40/50 the structural class has to be reduced to S3 what implies for cmin,dur the value of 10 mm. For all types of ∆cdur the value is 0 mm.
cmin cmin,b ⎧ ⎪ = max ⎨cmin,dur + ∆cdur,γ − ∆cdur,st − ∆cdur,add ⎪ 10 mm ⎩

The required minimum concrete cover to satisfy bond conditions is defined in Table 4.2. For separate arranged bars cmin,b is equal to the diameter of bar. With the assumption for the bar diameter to be less or equal 25 mm and the shear reinforcement diameter to be less or equal 10 mm, the value for cmin is 15 mm. Allowance in design for deviation ∆cdev: • Background: To calculate the nominal cover, cnom, an addition to the minimum cover shall be made in design to allow for the deviation (∆cdev). The required minimum cover shall be increased by the absolute value of the accepted negative deviation. • • Reference: The allowance in design for deviation should be selected according to chapter 4.4.1.3. Work out: The recommended value for ∆cdev is 10 mm. The nominal cover cnom is the sum of
c min and ∆cdev. The result is cnom = 25 mm for top and bottom side of the beam respectively

the inner and outer side of the columns.

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Asl

Asl 25 10 25 Asw

25 10

330 400

25 10

figure II.5-1: Assumptive cross section

25 10 25

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II.5.3

Conditions of support

The different kinds of support have an influence on the design of concrete structures. Members resisting loads that act vertical to the member axis (e.g. beams and slabs) can be placed on columns, beams or walls. These opportunities are idealized as integrated, round pile, square pile or free linear. The integrated support represents a monolithic connection between the member that is being designed and its support. A free linear support represents a wall as support. Conditions of support: • Background: When a member is being designed, the assumptions made whithin the model of the structure for the analysis of internal forces have to be considered. Therefore the conditions of support have to be specified. • • Reference: EC2 specifies in chapter 5.3.2.2 and 9.2.1.2 rules for the design of the section at support. Work out: In this example a frame is being designed with an elastomer support under the left column and an integrated support has to be designed for the right column. Therefore the beam of the frame should be designed as integrated at both ends, also the right column has to be designed as integrated at both ends. The left column has to be designed as integrated at the upper end and simply supported at the lower end.

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II.5.4
Materials: • •

Design of left column
concrete reinforcement steel Length in [m]: Height in [m]: Width in [m]: C40/50, fck = 40 MPa Class A bars, with fyk = 500 Mpa, εuk = 2,5 %

Dimension of section:

l = 5,00
h = 0,70 b = 0,40

Concrete area in [m²]: Ac =0,2800 m² Internal forces: For ultimate limit state: NEd = 0,251 MN M0Ed = 0,31 MNm d = 652,5 mm

II.5.4.1

Check slenderness criterion

The design of members that are exposed to predominantly axial loads e.g. columns or walls should consider the significant influence of second order effects on the structural behaviour. EC2 offers a simplified criteria to investigate whether second order effects have to be considered or not. Slenderness criterion: • • • Background: The slenderness criterion is relevant for the decision whether the internal forces have to be calculated with second order effects. Reference: The verification of slenderness is specified by EC2 in chapter 5.8.3. Work out: Limit slenderness:
20 ⋅ A ⋅ B ⋅ C n

λlim =

(5.13)

If φef is not known, A = 0,7 may be used. If ω is not know; B = 1,1 may be used. If rm is not known; C = 0,7 may be used.

n=

NE d Ac ⋅ fcd

n = 0,0336 λlim = 58,81

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If the provided slenderness is less than the limit slenderness, the effects of second order may be ignored. Provided slenderness:

λ=

l0 l ⇒ λy = 0 i iy
iy =

Ιy
A

, for rectangular section i y =

b ⋅ h3 = 12 ⋅ b ⋅ h

h 12

iy = 0,2021 determine l0 according to equation 5.16 of EC2.:

l0 = l ⋅ max ⎨ 1 + 10 ⋅

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

k1 ⋅ k 2 k1 + k 2

⎛ k1 ⎞ ⎛ k 2 ⎞⎫ ⎪ ; ⎜1 + ⎟⎪ ⎜ 1 + k ⎟ ⋅ ⎜1 + 1 + k ⎟⎬ ⎟ ⎜ 1⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎭ ⎝

⎛ θ ⎞ ⎛EI ⎞ k = ⎜ ⎟⋅⎜ ⎟ ⎝M ⎠ ⎝ l ⎠
⎛ 1,936 ⋅ 10 −3 k1 = ⎜ ⎜ 10 − 24 ⎝ ⎛ 0,002 ⋅ 10 −3 k2 = ⎜ ⎜ − 0,31 ⎝ ⎞ ⎛ 400,167 ⎞ 22 ⎟⋅⎜ ⎟ = 1,55 ⋅ 10 ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎠ ⎞ ⎛ 400,167 ⎞ −4 ⎟⋅⎜ ⎟ = −5,16 ⋅ 10 ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎠

⎧ 1,55 ⋅ 10 22 ⋅ − 5 ,16 ⋅ 10 − 4 ⎪ = 0 ,997 1 + 10 ⋅ ⎪ 1,55 ⋅ 10 22 − 5 ,16 ⋅ 10 − 4 l 0 = l ⋅ max ⎨ 22 ⎞ ⎛ − 5 ,16 ⋅ 10 − 4 ⎞ ⎪⎛ 1 + 1,55 ⋅ 10 ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ 1 + 1,55 ⋅ 10 22 ⎟ ⋅ ⎜ 1 + 1 − 5 ,16 ⋅ 10 − 4 ⎟ = 1,999 ⎪ ⎠ ⎝ ⎠ ⎩⎝

(

)

l0 = 10,0 m
λprov = 49,48 Because λlim > λprov, the second order effect may be ignored.

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II.5.4.2

Design value of bending moment

Background: The unfavourable effects of possible deviations in the geometry of the structure and the position of loads shall be taken into account in the analysis of members and structures.

• •

Reference: Chapter 5.2 specifies the way of determination Work out: According to EC2 chapter 5.2(5) imperfections may be represented by an inclination θi:
θi = θ0 ⋅αh ⋅αm

(5.1)

θ0 =

1 200

αh =

2 l

;

2 ≤ αh ≤ 1 3

αm = 0,5 ⋅ ⎜1+
αh = α m = 1,0 θ i = 0,00447

⎛ ⎝

1⎞ ⎟ m⎠

The inclination leads to an excentricity or transverse force. In that way the effects of imperfections are taken into account.
ei = θi ⋅

l0
2

= 0,02235 m

The first order moment inclusive imperfection is the sum of design value of moment from internal analysis and M i = N Ed ⋅ e i
M i = N Ed ⋅ e i = 0,00561 MNm

The total design value of first order moment is:
M 0Ed, i = M 0Ed + M i = 0,31561 MNm

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II.5.4.3

Determination of required reinforcement with diagram of interaction

Required area of reinforcement: Background: From the equilibrium between acting moment with or without axial force and the resisting inner moment of the section the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be determined. • • Reference: Chapter 6.1 of EC2 specifies the strain limits. Within these limits the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be iterated. Work out: Relative normal force:

ν Ed =

NE d Ac ⋅ fcd

ν Ed = 0,0336

Relative moment:

µEd =

M Ed b ⋅ h 2 ⋅ f cd

µ Ed = 0,0604

Total mechanical reinforcement ratio: ωtot = 0,1036 Required total amount of reinforcement:

As, tot = ω tot ⋅

b⋅h ⋅ f cd f yd

As, tot = 0,0017792 m² As, tot = 1779,2 mm² Choose reinforcement: 8 Ø 20 As, prov = 2513,3 mm²

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II.5.4.4
• • •

Bar combination for left column

Detailing rules: Background: The longitudinal reinforcement should consider the limits for maximum and minimum reinforcement. Reference: Chapter 9.5.2 specifies the equations for the limits of longitudinal reinforcement. Work out: Minimum reinforcement area:

As,min =

0,1⋅ NEd fy d

≥ 0,002 ⋅ Ac

As,min = 560,00 mm² Maximum reinforcement area: outside lap locations:
As,max = 0,04 ⋅ Ac

As,max = 11200,00 mm² at lap locations:
As,max = 0,08 ⋅ Ac

As,max,lap = 22400,00 mm² Limits of reinforcement area are satisfied.
25

20

20

20

20

83,3 10

25

20 590

20

25

10

10

figure II.5-2: Bar combination left column

25

83,3

83,3

10

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II.5.4.5
• •

Selection of stirrups for left column

Detailing rules: Background: Members that are predominantly exposed to axial loads receive transversal reinforcement according to detailing rules. Reference: The detailing rules for the transverse reinforcement of columns are specified by EC2 in chapter 9.5.3. Additional the general detailing rules for links according to chapter 8.5 of EC2 have to be considered. • Work out: Minimum diameter of transversal reinforcement: Minimum Øsw required = max {6 mm; 0,25 ⋅ Øsl, max } Øsw, min = 6,00 mm choose Øsw = 10 mm Anchorage with a bend: Anchorage length = max {10 Øsw, 70 mm} Anchorage length = 100 mm Anchorage with a hook: Anchorage length = max {5 Øsw, 50 mm} Anchorage length = 50 mm Spacing of transverse reinforcement: Spacing of the transverse reinforcement should not exceed scl,t,max.
s cl, t,max 20 ⋅ Ø sl,min ⎧ ⎪ = min⎨lesser dimension of column ⎪ 400 mm ⎩

scl,t,max = 400,0 mm Reduction of scl,t above and below beams or slabs and near lapped joints:
s cl, t,red = s cl, t ⋅ 0,6

scl,t,red = 240,0 mm

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Choose (all anchored with a bend): Inbetween column: Ø 10 / 400 Above and below beam or slab: Ø 10 / 200 Near lapped joints: Ø 10 / 200 The selected transverse reinforcement leads to a shear resistance of:
VR d,s = Asw ⋅ z ⋅ fy w d ⋅ cotθ s

Asw = 0,0003927 s

VRd, s = 0,09737 > 0,062 = VEd.

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II.5.5
Materials: • •

Design of right column
concrete reinforcement steel Length in [m]: Height in [m]: Width in [m]: C40/50, fck = 40 MPa Class A bars, with fyk = 500 Mpa, εuk = 2,5 %

Dimension of section:

l = 5,00
h = 0,70 b = 0,40

Concrete area in [m²]: Ac =0,2800 m² Internal forces: For ultimate limit state: NEd = 0,246 MN M0Ed = 0,406 MNm d = 652,5 mm

II.5.5.1

Check slenderness criterion

The design of members that are exposed to predominantly axial loads e.g. columns or walls should consider the significant influence of second order effects on the structural behaviour. EC2 offers a simplified criteria to investigate whether second order effects have to be considered or not. Slenderness criterion: • • • Background: The slenderness criterion is relevant for the decision whether the internal forces have to be calculated with second order effects. Reference: The verification of slenderness is specified by EC2 in chapter 5.8.3. Work out: Limit slenderness:
20 ⋅ A ⋅ B ⋅ C n

λlim =

(5.13)

If φef is not known, A = 0,7 may be used. If ω is not know; B = 1,1 may be used. If rm is not known; C = 0,7 may be used.

n=

NE d Ac ⋅ fcd

n = 0,0329 λlim = 59,43

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If the provided slenderness is less than the limit slenderness, the effects of second order may be ignored. Provided slenderness:

λ=

l0 l ⇒ λy = 0 i iy

iy =

Ιy
A

, for rectangular section i y =

b ⋅ h3 h = 12 ⋅ b ⋅ h 12

iy = 0,2021 determine l0 according to equation 5.16 of EC2:

l0 = l ⋅ max ⎨ 1 + 10 ⋅

⎧ ⎪ ⎪ ⎩

k1 ⋅ k 2 k1 + k 2

⎫ ⎛ k1 ⎞ ⎛ k 2 ⎞⎪ ; ⎜1 + ⎟⎪ ⎜ 1 + k ⎟ ⋅ ⎜1 + 1 + k ⎟⎬ ⎟ ⎜ 1⎠ ⎝ 2 ⎠⎭ ⎝

⎛ θ ⎞ ⎛EI ⎞ k = ⎜ ⎟⋅⎜ ⎟ ⎝M ⎠ ⎝ l ⎠
k1 = 0,1

⎛ − 0,477 ⋅ 10 −3 k2 = ⎜ ⎜ − 0,333 ⎝

⎞ ⎛ 400,167 ⎞ ⎟⋅⎜ ⎟ = 0,1146 ⎟ ⎝ 5 ⎠ ⎠

⎧ 0 ,1⋅ 0 ,1146 = 1,24 1 + 10 ⋅ ⎪ ⎪ 0 ,1 + 0 ,1146 l0 = l⋅ max ⎨ ⎪⎛1 + 0 ,1 ⎞ ⋅ ⎛1 + 0 ,1146 ⎞ = 1,203 ⎟ ⎟ ⎜ ⎜ ⎪⎝ 1 + 0 ,1⎠ ⎝ 1 + 0 ,1146 ⎠ ⎩

l0 = 6,2 m
λprov = 30,68 Because λlim > λprov, the second order effect may be ignored.

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II.5.5.2

Design value of bending moment

Background: The unfavourable effects of possible deviations in the geometry of the structure and the position of loads shall be taken into account in the analysis of members and structures.

• •

Reference: Chapter 5.2 specifies the way of determination Work out: According to EC2 chapter 5.2(5) imperfections may be represented by an inclination θi:
θi = θ0 ⋅αh ⋅αm

(5.1)

θ0 =
αh =

1 200

2

l

;

2 ≤ αh ≤ 1 3

1⎞ ⎛ αm = 0,5 ⋅ ⎜1 + ⎟ ⎝ m⎠
αh = α m = 1,0 θ i = 0,00447

The inclination leads to an excentricity or transverse force. In that way the effects of imperfections are taken into account.
ei = θi ⋅

l0
2

= 0,01386 m

First order moment inclusive imperfection is the sum of design value of moment from internal analysis and M i = N Ed ⋅ e i
M i = N Ed ⋅ e i = 0,00341 MNm

The total design value of first order moment is:
M 0Ed, i = M 0Ed + Mi = 0,40941 MNm

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II.5.5.3

Determination of required reinforcement with diagram of interaction

Required area of reinforcement: Background: From the equilibrium between acting moment with or without axial force and the resisting inner moment of the section the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be determined. • • Reference: Chapter 6.1 of EC2 specifies the strain limits. Within these limits the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be iterated. Work out: Relative normal force:

ν Ed =

NE d Ac ⋅ fcd

ν Ed = 0,0329

Relative moment:

µEd =

M Ed b ⋅ h 2 ⋅ f cd

µ Ed = 0,0783

Total mechanical reinforcement ratio: ωtot = 0,1836 Required total amount of reinforcement:

As, tot = ω tot ⋅

b⋅h ⋅ f cd f yd

As, tot = 0,0031530 m² As, tot = 3153,0 mm² Choose reinforcement: 8 Ø 25 As, prov = 3927 mm²

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II.5.5.4
• • •

Bar combination for right column

Detailing rules: Background: The longitudinal reinforcement should consider the limits for maximum and minimum reinforcement. Reference: Chapter 9.5.2 specifies the equations for the limits of longitudinal reinforcement. Work out: Minimum reinforcement area:

As,min =

0,1⋅ NEd

fy d

≥ 0,002 ⋅ Ac

As,min = 560,00 mm² Maximum reinforcement area: outside lap locations:
As,max = 0,04 ⋅ Ac

As,max = 11200,00 mm² at lap locations:
As,max = 0,08 ⋅ Ac

As,max,lap = 22400,00 mm² Limits of reinforcement area are satisfied.
25

25

25

25

25

76,7 10

25

25 580

25

25

10

10

figure II.5-3: Bar combination right column

25

76,7

76,7

10

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II.5.5.5
• •

Selection of stirrups for right column

Detailing rules: Background: Members that are predominantly exposed to axial loads receive transversal reinforcement according to detailing rules. Reference: The detailing rules for the transverse reinforcement of columns are specified by EC2 in chapter 9.5.3. Additional the general detailing rules for links according to chapter 8.5 of EC2 have to be considered. • Work out: Minimum diameter of transversal reinforcement: Minimum Øsw required = max {6 mm; 0,25 ⋅ Øsl, max } Øsw, min = 6,25 mm choose Øsw = 10 mm Anchorage with a bend: Anchorage length = max {10 Øsw, 70 mm} Anchorage length = 100 mm Anchorage with a hook: Anchorage length = max {5 Øsw, 50 mm} Anchorage length = 50 mm Spacing of transverse reinforcement: Spacing of the transverse reinforcement should not exceed scl,t,max.
s cl, t,max

20 ⋅ Ø sl,min ⎧ ⎪ = min⎨lesser dimension of column ⎪ 400 mm ⎩

scl,t,max = 400,0 mm Reduction of scl,t above and below beams or slabs and near lapped joints:
s cl, t,red = s cl, t ⋅ 0,6

scl,t,red = 240,0 mm

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Choose (all anchored with a bend): In between column: Ø 10 / 400 Above and below beam or slab: Ø 10 / 200 Near lapped joints: Ø 10 / 200 The selected transverse reinforcement leads to a shear resistance of:
VR d,s = Asw ⋅ z ⋅ fy w d ⋅ cotθ s

Asw = 0,0003927 s

VRd, s = 0,09737 < 0,147 = VEd. To resist the acting shear force in between the column, the transverse reinforcement have to be raised. Choose for in between column: Ø 10 / 250
Asw = 0,00062832 s

VRd, s = 0,15579194 > 0,147 = VEd

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II.5.6
• • •

Frame corners
Background: The corners of frames should be able to resist the effects of discontinuity. Reference: The annex J.2 of EC2 specifies, how frame corners should be detailed. Work out: Because the horizontal force changes the direction, both corners have to resist an opening and a closing moment. They are detailed according to annex J.2 figure J.2(a) for closing moments and figure J.3(b) for opening moment.

Detailing rules:

figure II.5-4: Detailing for closing moment

figure II.5-5: Detailing for opening moment

Left frame corner with closing moment: At the outer side of the left column 4 Ø 20 are provided. They will be bent around.
Øm = 630 mm 4 Ø 20

4 Ø 20

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Left frame corner with opening moment: At the inner side of the left column 4 Ø 20 are provided. They will be hook around.
Øm = 610 mm

4 Ø 20

4 Ø 20

Right frame corner with closing moment: At the outer side of the right column 4 Ø 25 are provided. They will be bent around.
Øm = 630 mm 4 Ø 25

4 Ø 25

Right frame corner with opening moment: At the inner side of the right column 4 Ø 25 are provided. They will be bent around.
4 Ø 25 Øm = 605 mm

4 Ø 25

Check for large opening moments:

1963 mm 2 As = 0,7 % ≤ 2 % ⇒ no diagonal bar is required. ≤ 2% ⇒ 400 mm ⋅ 700 mm b⋅h

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II.5.7
II.5.7.1
member.

Design of beam of frame
Decisive sections of bending moment

The design of concrete structures is done for several decisive cuts and not for every single point of the

Decisive cross sections: • Background: The longitudinal reinforcement in combination with the compressed area of the concrete structure resist the acting bending moment. In most cases the bending moment has different values along the member axis. This is the reason why the decisive locations of bending moment for the bottom and top reinforcement has to be determined. • • Reference: Usually the decisive sections are at the maximum bending moment and/or at intermediate supports. Work out: for beam of frame: top side: bottom side: x1 = 0,0 m and x2 = 10,0 m x = 6,864 m

The design of concrete structures depend on the centroid of the longitudinal reinforcement. Effective depth d: • • Background: For all further calculations the effective depth of the cross section is needed. Reference: The effective depth of a cross section is the depth from the top of the cross section, respectively from the bottom of the cross section, to the centroid of the longitudinal reinforcement corresponding to the direction of bending. Keep in mind the rules of detailing. • Work out: Generally the reinforcement requires a control of the bar spacing according to chapter 8.2. That chapter considers the bar diameter and the maximum size of aggregate dg.
⎧k1 ⋅ bar diameter ⎪ ; clear distance ≥ max ⎨ d g + k 2 mm k1 = 1 k 2 = 5 mm and assume d g = 16 mm ⎪ 20 mm ⎩ ⎧ 1⋅ 25 mm = 25 mm ⎪ clear distance ≥ max ⎨16 mm + 5 mm = 21 mm ⎪ 20 mm ⎩
d = 700 mm − 25 mm − 10 mm − 1 ⋅ 25 mm = 652,5 mm 2

⇒ clear distance ≥ 25 mm

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II.5.7.2

Determination of required reinforcement at left corner (top side)

Required area of reinforcement As, req, left, top: Background: From the equilibrium between acting moment with or without axial force and the resisting inner moment of the section the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be determined. • • Reference: Chapter 6.1 of EC2 specifies the strain limits. Within these limits the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be iterated. Work out:

M Ed = 309,62 ⋅ 10 −3 MNm

NEd = 13,08 ⋅ 10 −3 MN
M Eds = M Ed − N E d ⋅ z s1

0,7 m ⎞ ⎛ −3 M Eds = 309,62 ⋅ 10 −3 MNm - 0,0131MN ⋅ ⎜ 0,6525 m ⎟ = 305,66 ⋅ 10 MNm 2 ⎠ ⎝

µ E ds =

305,66 ⋅ 10 −3 MNm = 0,067 ⇒ ω = 0,07 2 40 0,4 ⋅ (0,6525) ⋅ 1,5

As,req,left, top = ω ⋅

N b ⋅d 40 ⋅ 1,15 0,0131⋅ 1,15 + Ed = 0,07 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 652,5 ⋅ + = 1151 mm 2 f yd f cd σ sd 500 ⋅ 1,5 500 ⋅ 10 −6

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II.5.7.3

Determination of required reinforcement at right corner (top side)

Required area of reinforcement As, req, right, top: Background: From the equilibrium between acting moment with or without axial force and the resisting inner moment of the section the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be determined. • • Reference: Chapter 6.1 of EC2 specifies the strain limits. Within these limits the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be iterated. Work out:

M Ed = 329,95 ⋅ 10 −3 MNm

NEd = −72,24 ⋅ 10 −3 MN
M Eds = M Ed − N E d ⋅ z s1

⎛ 0,7 m ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ −3 M Eds = 329,95 ⋅ 10 −3 MNm - ⎜ - 0,072 MN ⋅ ⎜ 0,6525 m ⎟ ⎟ = 351,73 ⋅ 10 MNm ⎜ 2 ⎠⎟ ⎝ ⎠ ⎝

µ E ds =

351,73 ⋅ 10 −3 MNm = 0,077 ⇒ ω = 0,08 2 40 0,4 ⋅ (0,6525 ) ⋅ 1,5

As,req,right,top = ω ⋅

N b ⋅d 40 ⋅ 1,15 − 0,072 ⋅ 1,15 + Ed = 0,08 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 652,5 ⋅ + = 1115 mm 2 f yd f cd σ sd 500 ⋅ 1,5 500 ⋅ 10 −6

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II.5.7.4

Determination of required reinforcement at left corner (bottom side)

Required area of reinforcement As, req, left, bottom: Background: From the equilibrium between acting moment with or without axial force and the resisting inner moment of the section the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be determined. • • Reference: Chapter 6.1 of EC2 specifies the strain limits. Within these limits the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be iterated. Work out:

M Ed = 13,81⋅ 10 −3 MNm

NEd = −72,24 ⋅ 10 −3 MN
M Eds = M Ed − N E d ⋅ z s1

⎛ 0,7 m ⎞ ⎞ ⎛ −3 M Eds = 13,81⋅ 10 −3 MNm - ⎜ - 72,24 ⋅ 10 −3 MN ⋅ ⎜ 0,6525 m ⎟ ⎟ = 35,7 ⋅ 10 MNm ⎜ 2 ⎠⎟ ⎝ ⎝ ⎠

µ E ds =

35,7 ⋅ 10 −3 MNm = 0,01 ⇒ ω = 0,0096 2 40 0,4 ⋅ (0,6525) ⋅ 1,5

As,req,left,bottom = ω ⋅

N b ⋅d + Ed f yd f cd σ sd
40 ⋅ 1,15 − 72,24 ⋅ 10 −3 ⋅ 1,15 + = 10 mm 2 500 ⋅ 1,5 500 ⋅ 10 −6

As,req,left,bottom = 0,0096 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 652,5 ⋅

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II.5.7.5

Determination of required reinforcement at right corner (bottom side)

Required area of reinforcement As, req, right, bottom: Background: From the equilibrium between acting moment with or without axial force and the resisting inner moment of the section the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be determined. • • Reference: Chapter 6.1 of EC2 specifies the strain limits. Within these limits the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be iterated. Work out:

M Ed = 87,34 ⋅ 10 −3 MNm

NEd = 13,08 ⋅ 10 −3 MN
M Eds = M Ed − N E d ⋅ z s1

0,7 m ⎞ ⎛ −3 M Eds = 87,34 ⋅ 10 −3 MNm - 13,08 ⋅ 10 −3 MN ⋅ ⎜ 0,6525 m ⎟ = 83,38 ⋅ 10 MNm 2 ⎠ ⎝

µ E ds =

83,38 ⋅ 10 −3 MNm = 0,02 ⇒ ω = 0,0194 2 40 0,4 ⋅ (0,6525) ⋅ 1,5
N b ⋅d 40 ⋅ 1,15 13,08 ⋅ 10 −3 ⋅ 1,15 + Ed = 0,0194 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 652,5 ⋅ + = 341 mm 2 f yd f cd σ sd 500 ⋅ 1,5 500 ⋅ 10 − 6

As,req,right,bottom = ω ⋅

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II.5.7.6

Determination of required reinforcement in field (bottom side)

Required area of reinforcement As, req, bottom: Background: From the equilibrium between acting moment with or without axial force and the resisting inner moment of the section the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be determined. • • Reference: Chapter 6.1 of EC2 specifies the strain limits. Within these limits the required area of longitudinal reinforcement can be iterated. Work out:

M Ed = 192,1⋅ 10 −3 MNm

NEd = 13,08 ⋅ 10 −3 MN
M Eds = M Ed − N E d ⋅ z s1

0,7 m ⎞ ⎛ −3 M Eds = 192,1⋅ 10 −3 MNm - 13,08 ⋅ 10 −3 MN ⋅ ⎜ 0,6525 m ⎟ = 188,14 ⋅ 10 MNm 2 ⎠ ⎝

µ E ds =

188,14 ⋅ 10 −3 MNm = 0,041 ⇒ ω = 0,0425 2 40 0,4 ⋅ (0,6525) ⋅ 1,5
N b⋅d 40 ⋅ 1,15 13,08 ⋅ 10 −3 ⋅ 1,15 + Ed = 0,0425 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 652,5 ⋅ + = 710 mm 2 −6 f yd f cd σ sd 500 ⋅ 1,5 500 ⋅ 10

As,req,bottom = ω ⋅

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II.5.7.7

Bar combination for beam of frame

The required area of longitudinal reinforcement satisfies the equilibrium between actions and member resistance at the decisive section. Furthermore the member has to satisfy the criterion of ductility and detailing rules at all sections along the member axis. Usually the amount of reinforcement depending on detailing rules is less than the amount of reinforcement required at the decisive section. Therefore the reinforcement is divided into a basic and an additional reinforcement. The basic reinforcement should satisfy all detailing rules at all sections and the additional reinforcement is placed at the decisive section. Minimum and maximum reinforcement areas: • • • Background: The longitudinal reinforcement should consider the limit for maximum and minimum reinforcement. Reference: Chapter 9.2.1.1 specifies the equations for the limits of longitudinal reinforcement. Work out:

As,min = 0,26 ⋅
As,min = 0,26 ⋅

f ctm ⋅ bt ⋅ d ≥ 0,0013 ⋅ bt ⋅ d f yk
3,5 2 2 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 652,5 ≥ 0,0013 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 652,5 ⇒ As,min = 475 mm ≥ 339 mm 500

As,max = 0,04 ⋅ Ac = 0,04 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 700 = 11200 mm 2

Selected total reinforcement: top side: right corner: left corner: bottom side: 4 Ø 25: As, top = 1963 mm2 > 1115 mm2 = As,req,right,top 4 Ø 20: As, top = 1256 mm2 > 1151mm2 = As,req,left,top

4 Ø 16 ⇒ As,bottom = 804 mm2 > 710 mm2 = As,req,bottom

As,top = 1963 mm2 > 1256 mm2 > As,bottom = 804 mm2 > 475 mm2 = As,min As,bottom = 804 mm2 < As,top = 1256 mm2 < 1963 mm2 < 11200 mm2 = As,max
Anchorage of bottom reinforcement at an end support: • • • Background: A minimum area of tensile reinforcement should be anchored at members end supports. Reference: Chapter 9.2.1.4 specifies the amount of reinforcement to be anchored. Work out: At least 25% of the area provided in the span should be anchored.

0,25 ⋅ 804 = 201mm2 < 475 mm2 = As,min
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Spacing of bars: • • • Background: The spacing of bars shall be such that the concrete can be placed and compacted satisfactorily for the development of adequate bond. Reference: All necessary rules for bar spacing are explained within chapter 8.2. Work out: The clear distance (horizontal and vertical) between individual parallel bars or horizontal layers of parallel bars:
⎧k1 ⋅ bar diameter ⎪ clear distance ≥ max ⎨ d g + k 2 mm ⎪ 20 mm ⎩

k1 = 1; k 2 = 5 mm and assume d g = 16 mm
⎧ 1⋅ 16 mm = 16 mm ⎪ clear distance ≥ max ⎨16 mm + 5 mm = 21 mm ⎪ 20 mm ⎩
clear distance ≥ 21 mm

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II.5.7.8

Crack control

Cracking is normal in reinforced concrete structures subject to bending, shear, torsion or tension resulting from either direct loading or restraint or imposed deformations. Maximum crack width: • • • Background: Cracking shall be limited to an extent that will not impair the proper functioning or durability of the structure or cause its appearance to be unacceptable. Reference: Table 7.1N specifies the recommended values for wmax. Work out: Limiting calculated crack width: w max = 0,4 mm

II.5.7.9
• • •

Crack control at left corner without direct calculation

Minimum reinforcement area and crack control without direct calculation: Background: If crack control is required, a minimum amount of bonded reinforcement is required to control cracking in areas where tension is expected. Reference: Chapter 7.3.2 specifies the minimum reinforcement areas. and chapter 7.3.3 specifies the verification of crack width without direct calculation. Work out: According to 7.3.2(2), the minimum amount of reinforcement area computes to:

As,min =

k c ⋅ k ⋅ fc t,eff ⋅ Ac t σs
N ; k = 0,72 mm 2

Ac t = 400 ⋅ 700 ⋅ 0,5 = 140000 mm2 ; fc t,eff ≤ fc t,m = 3 ,5
⎛ σc k c = 0,4 ⋅ ⎜1 − ⎜ k 1 h h * ⋅ f c t,eff ⎝

(

)

⎞ ⎟ < 1,0 ⎟ ⎠

σ c = 0 ⇒ kc = 0,4
The maximum bar diameter Ø* can be verified by transformation of equation 7.6N. s
⎛ fct, eff Øs = Ø* ⋅ ⎜ s ⎜ ⎝ 2,9 ⎞ k c ⋅ hcr ⎟⋅ ⎟ 2 ⋅ (h-d ) ⎠

Ø* = s
Ø* = s

Ø s ⋅ 2 ⋅ (h-d ) ⋅ 2,9 k c ⋅ hcr ⋅ f ct,eff
20 mm ⋅ 2 ⋅ (700 − 652,5 ) ⋅ 2,9 = 11,24 mm 0,4 ⋅ 0,5 ⋅ 700 ⋅ 3,5

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The following table is an extraction of Table 7.2N from EC2. Steel stress [MPa] 320 360 Maximum bar size [mm] (wk = 0,4 mm) 12 10

With linear interpolation the steel stress depending on wk and Ø* computes to: s

σ s = 360
As,min =

MN m2

− (1124 mm − 10 mm) ⋅ ,

360

MN
2

m m 2 = 335,2 MN 12 mm − 10 mm m2

− 320

MN

0,4 ⋅ 0,72 ⋅ 3,5 ⋅ 0,14 = 4,21 ⋅ 10 − 4 m 2 = 421 mm 2 335,2

As = 1256 mm2 > 421 mm2 = As,min

Because either the bar diameter or the bar spacing has to be satisfied, the criterions of crack control without direct calculation and the minimum amount of reinforcement area are satisfied.

II.5.7.10 Crack control at right corner without direct calculation
Analogous to the calculation of left corner the result for the right corner computes to:
Ø* = s 25 mm ⋅ 2 ⋅ (700 − 652,5 ) ⋅ 2,9 = 14,06 mm 0,4 ⋅ 0,5 ⋅ 700 ⋅ 3,5

σ s = 320
As,min =

MN m2

− (14,06 mm − 12 mm) ⋅

320

MN
2

m m 2 = 299,4 MN 16 mm − 12 mm m2

− 280

MN

0,4 ⋅ 0,72 ⋅ 3,5 ⋅ 0,14 = 4,71 ⋅ 10 − 4 m 2 = 471 mm 2 295,8

As = 1472 mm2 > 471 mm2 = As,min

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II.5.7.11 Crack control in the field without direct calculation
Minimum reinforcement area and crack control without direct calculation: • • • Background: If crack control is required, a minimum amount of bonded reinforcement is required to control cracking in areas where tension is expected. Reference: Chapter 7.3.2 specifies the minimum reinforcement areas. and chapter 7.3.3 specifies the verification of crack width without direct calculation. Work out: According to 7.3.2(2), the minimum amount of reinforcement area computes to:

As,min =

k c ⋅ k ⋅ fc t,eff ⋅ Ac t σs
N

; Ac t = 400 ⋅ 700 ⋅ 0,5 = 140000 mm2 ;
⎞ ⎟ < 1,0 ⎟ ⎠

f c t,eff ≤ f c t,m = 3,5

⎛ σc ; k = 0,72 ; k c = 0,4 ⋅ ⎜1 − 2 ⎜ k 1 h h * ⋅ f c t,eff mm ⎝

(

)

σ c = 0 ⇒ kc = 0,4
The maximum bar diameter Ø* can be verified by transformation of equation 7.6N. s
⎛ fct, eff Øs = Ø* ⋅ ⎜ s ⎜ ⎝ 2,9 ⎞ k c ⋅ hcr ⎟⋅ ⎟ 2 ⋅ (h-d ) ⎠

Ø* = s
Ø* = s

Ø s ⋅ 2 ⋅ (h-d ) ⋅ 2,9 k c ⋅ hcr ⋅ f ct,eff
16 mm ⋅ 2 ⋅ (700 − 652,5 ) ⋅ 2,9 = 9,0 mm 0,4 ⋅ 0,5 ⋅ 700 ⋅ 3,5

The following table is an extraction of Table 7.2N from EC2. Steel stress [MPa] 360 400 Maximum bar size [mm] (wk = 0,4 mm) 10 8

With linear interpolation the steel stress depending on wk and Ø* computes to: s

σ s = 380
As,min =

MN m2

0,4 ⋅ 0,72 ⋅ 3,5 ⋅ 0,14 = 3,76 ⋅ 10 − 4 m2 = 371 mm 2 380

As = 804 mm2 > 371mm2 = As,min
Because either the bar diameter or the bar spacing has to be satisfied, the criterions of crack control without direct calculation and the minimum amount of reinforcement area are satisfied.

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II.5.7.12 Design value of acting shear force
The verification of shear force resistance shall be done for the maximum shear force. That value should consider different circumstances, like the type of loading (e.g. predominantly uniformly distributed loading). Reduction of acting shear force: • • • Background: The maximum shear force is not always required for the design of shear reinforcement. Reference: The permission rule can be found at chapter 6.2.1.

⎞ ⎛1 Work out: VE d,red = 146,20 − ⎜ ⋅ 0,7 + 0,6525⎟ ⋅ 21,3 = 124,85 kN ⎠ ⎝2

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II.5.7.13 Determination of required shear reinforcement
Shear resistance is verified either with pure concrete resistance or a truss model. Requirement of shear reinforcement: • • Background: Check concrete shear resistance to decide whether shear reinforcement is required or not. Reference: Chapter 6.2.2 specifies the way how to detect, whether shear reinforcement has to be used or not. • Work out: VR d,c = ⎡CR d,c ⋅ k ⋅ (100 ⋅ ρ l ⋅ f ck ) ⎢ ⎣ with:
1 3

+ k 1 ⋅ σ cp ⎤ ⋅ b w ⋅ d ≥ v min + k 1 ⋅ σ cp ⋅ b w ⋅ d ⎥ ⎦

(

)

k = 1+
ρl =
ρl =

200 200 ≤ 2,0; k = 1 + = 1,55 ≤ 2,0 d 652,5

Asl ≤ 0 ,02 , only 2 of 4 Ø 16 bars of bottom reinforcement in this cut! bw ⋅ d
402 ,12 = 0 ,0015 ≤ 0 ,02 400 ⋅ 652 ,5

σ c p = 0 , k1 = 0,15
CR d,c = 0,18

γc

= 0,12
3 2

v min = 0,035 ⋅ 1,55

⋅ 40

1 2

= 0,43

1 VR d,c = ⎡0,12 ⋅ 1,55 ⋅ (100 ⋅ 0,0015 ⋅ 40 ) 3 + 0⎤ ⋅ 0,4 ⋅ 0,6525 ≥ 0,43 ⋅ 0,4 ⋅ 0,6525 ⎢ ⎥ ⎣ ⎦

VR d,c = 0,058 MN < 0,112 MN ⇒ VR d,c = 0,112 MN VR d,c = 112 kN ≤ 124,85 kN = VE d,red ⇒ Shear reinforcement is required.

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Calculate shear resistance: • • • Background: The shear resistance is the smaller value of concrete compression strut resistance and the shear reinforcement. Reference: The rules of design are specified within chapter 6.2.3 Work out: Because the angle α is selected to α = 90o the resistance of shear forces follows from:
A ⎧ ⎪ VR d,s = sw ⋅ z ⋅ f y w d ⋅ cotθ VR d = min ⎨ s ⎪VR d,max = α cw ⋅ b w ⋅ z ⋅ν 1 ⋅ f c d (cotθ + tanθ ) ⎩

with:

α c w = 1; b w = 400 mm; ν 1 = 0,6
fy w d = 0,8 ⋅ fy w k = 400
N mm2

z = 0,9 ⋅ d = 0,9 ⋅ 652,5 mm = 587 mm

1 ≤ cot θ ≤ 2,5 , choose cot θ = 1 ⇒ θ = 45o

VR d,max = 1⋅ 0,4 ⋅ 0,587 ⋅ 0,6 ⋅
VR d,s ⇒
As w, req s

40 (1 + 1) = 1,88 MN 1,5

As w, req s
= VE d, red z ⋅ f y w d ⋅ cot θ = 0,125 m2 mm 2 = 5,32 ⋅ 10 − 4 = 532 0,587 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 1 m m

Support condition:
VR d,max = 1,88 MN ≥ 0,1462 MN = VE d

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Check detailing rules for shear reinforcement: • • • Background: The shear reinforcement should consider the limit for maximum and minimum reinforcement. Reference: The rules of shear detailing are specified within chapter 9.2.2 and 6.2.3. Work out: As w, min s = ρ w, min ⋅ b w ⋅ sin α
= 0,08 ⋅ 40 = 1,01⋅ 10 −3 = 0,001% 500 m2 mm 2 = 405 m m

with: ρ w, min =
As w, min s
As w, max s
Asw, req s

0,08 ⋅ f c k f yk m2 m2

= 1,01⋅ 10 −3

⋅ 0,4 m ⋅ 1 = 4,05 ⋅ 10 − 4

40 fc d 1 1 m2 mm 2 1,5 ≤ ⋅ α c w ⋅ b w ⋅ν 1 ⋅ = ⋅ 1⋅ 0,4 ⋅ 0,6 ⋅ = 8 ⋅ 10 −3 = 8000 2 fy wd 2 400 m m
= 532

As w, min mm 2 mm 2 > 405 = m m s

II.5.7.14 Selection of stirrups for beam
• Background: The selection of stirrups has to consider the amount of reinforcement that resists the acting shear force at the decisive section and the detailing rules at all sections. Therefore it can be devided into basic and main shear reinforcement. • • Reference: The rules of shear detailing are specified within chapter 9.2.2 and 6.2.3. Work out: Selected shear reinforcement: Stirrups, Ø 10/250.
Asw, max s
mm 2 Asw mm 2 mm 2 Asw, req , > = 628 > 532 = m s m m s

= 8000

The resistance computes to:

VR d,s = 6,28 ⋅ 10−4 ⋅ 0,587 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 1,0 = 0,147 MN
VR d = VR d, s = 0 ,147 MN ≥ 0 ,125 MN = VE d,red

Rules for shear reinforcement are satisfied.

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II.5.7.15 Stress limitation
Within the serviceability limit states the concrete and reinforcement stress have to be verified Concrete stresses: • • • Background: To avoid longitudinal cracks, micro-cracks or high level of creep the compressive stress in the concrete shall be limited. Reference: Chapter 7.1(2) and 7.2(2)-(3) specify the limits and conditions of verification. Work out: Check whether the sections are cracked. It is conservative to check corners.

Mcr =

fctm ⋅ I 3 ,5 ⋅ 0 ,4 ⋅ 0 ,73 = 114 ,3 ⋅ 10 −3 MNm = 114 ,3 kNm = z 0,5 ⋅ 0 ,7 ⋅ 12
dead load 1,0 1,0 1,0 MEd, SLS [kNm] 224,52 170,83 152,94 live load 1,0 0,7 0,6 NEd, SLS [kN] -49,27 -37,82 -34,01

Following load combination factors have been used for this exercise: combination of load rare frequent quasi-permanent combination of load rare frequent quasi-permanent

⇒ Sections have to be assumed as cracked.

No need for checking concrete stresses under characteristic combination (rare) of loads in all cuts, because the exposure class for member has been identified as XC1. The stress limit to avoid non-linear creep computes to:
k 2 ⋅ f ck = 0,45 ⋅ 40 = 18 MN m2

The compressive concrete stress computes under quasi-permanent combination of loads to: 2 ⋅ M Ed,perm b⋅x⋅z NEd,perm b ⋅d
− −0,034 MN MN = 6,8 2 < 18 2 0,4 ⋅ 0,6525 m m

σ c,perm =
σ c,perm =

2 ⋅ 0,153 0,4 ⋅ 0,3 ⋅ 0,9 ⋅ 0,6525 2

⇒ Linear creep may be assumed.

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Reinforcement stresses • • • Background: To avoid inelastic strain, unacceptable cracking or deformation the tensile stresses in the reinforcement shall be limited. Reference: Chapter 7.1(2) and 7.2(5) specify the limits and conditions of verification. Work out: The stress limit to avoid inelastic strain etc. computes to:
k3 ⋅ fyk = 0,8 ⋅ 500 = 400 MN m2

The tensile stress under characteristic combination of loads computes to:

σ s,rare =
σ s,rare =

M Ed,rare As ⋅ z

+

NEd,rare Ac
⋅ 0,9 ⋅ 0,6525 + − 0,0493 MN MN = 194,6 2 ≤ 400 2 0,4 ⋅ 0,7 m m

224,52 ⋅ 10 −3 19,63 ⋅ 10
−4

⇒ Inelastic strain etc. avoided.

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II.5.7.16 Deflection control
The general considerations of EC2 give an introduction about deflection control. The deformation shall be limited in a way, that it doesn’t affect on the proper functioning or appearance of the member or structure. Deflection control without explicit calculation: • Background: Generally, it is not necessary to calculate the deflections explicitly as simple rules, for example limits to span/depth ratio may be formulated, which will be adequate for avoiding deflection problems in normal circumstances. • • Reference: The detailed explanation for limiting the span to depth ratio may be found in chapter 7.4.2. Work out: The provided reinforcement ratio computes to:

ρl =

Asl 804 mm2 = = 2,9 ‰ Ac 400 mm ⋅ 700 mm

The reference reinforcement ratio computes to:

ρ 0 = f ck ⋅ 10 −3 = 6,32 ‰
Because ρ l < ρ 0 , the relevant equation for the span/depth ratio-limit is
⎡ ρ ⎢ = K ⋅ ⎢11 + 1,5 ⋅ fck ⋅ 0 + 3 ,2 ⋅ fck d ρl ⎢ ⎣

l

3⎤ ⎛ ρ0 ⎞2 ⎥ ⋅⎜ ⎜ ρ − 1⎟ ⎥ ⎟ ⎝ l ⎠ ⎥ ⎦

(7.16a)

3⎤ ⎡ −3 ⎛ 40 ⋅ 10 −3 ⎞2 ⎥ ⎢ 40 ⋅ 10 = 1,5 ⋅ ⎢11 + 1,5 ⋅ 40 ⋅ + 3 ,2 ⋅ 40 ⋅ ⎜ − 1⎟ ⎥ = 86 ,5 ⎜ 2 ,9 ⋅ 10 −3 ⎟ d 2 ,9 ⋅ 10 −3 ⎝ ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎦ ⎣

l

The provided span/depth ratio computes to:
prov

l
d

=

10 m = 15 ,33 < 86 ,5 0,6525 m

It isn’t necessary to modify the limit of the span/depth ratio.
⇒ The deflection control is satisfied.

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II.5.7.17 Additional tensile force or “shift rule”
In the ultimate limit state the required longitudinal reinforcement is computed and a bar combination is chosen that satisfies the requirements. These calculations are based on the coordinate of the section with the maximum bending moment, therefore it is obvious that in other sections less reinforcement is needed. To determine the reinforcement in other sections, the truss model for shear forces has to be included. • • • Background: The truss model for shear force behaviour results in compression strut and tension flange. This additional tensile force has to be covered by the reinforcement. Reference: The additional tensile force ∆Ftd can be calculated according to chapter 6.2.3(7) or alternative the shift rule according to chapter 9.2.1.3(2) can be used. Work out: Additional tensile force ∆Ftd :
∆Ft d = 0,5 ⋅ VE d ( x ) ⋅ (cot θ − cot α )

or shift rule al :
a l = z ⋅ (cot θ − cot α ) / 2

z = 0,9 ⋅ d = 0,9 ⋅ 652,5 mm = 587 mm a l = 587 mm ⋅ (1 − 0 ) / 2 = 293,5 mm

figure II.5-6: Acting tensile force in frame beam

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EuroCADCrete – Study book – Version 4.0

II.5.7.18 Envelope of acting tensile force
Curtailment: • • • Background: Sufficient reinforcement should be provided at all sections to resist the envelope of the acting tensile force, including the effect of inclined cracks in webs and flanges. Reference: Chapter 9.2.1.3 describes how to perform the curtailment of longitudinal tension reinforcement. Work out: The point from which a bar is not any longer required can be computed from the equilibrium between the resistance of the remaining bars and the acting tensile force Fs. acting tensile force Fs: Fs = M E ds ( x ) z + ∆Ft d

figure II.5-7: Envelope of acting tensile force

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EuroCADCrete – Study book – Version 4.0

II.5.7.19 Bar positioning for beam
The final determination of the amount and length of reinforcement depend on the choosen curtailment and the requirements of the anchorage of the bars or wires respectively.

II.5.7.20 Bar positioning top
Anchorage: • • • Background: Reinforcing bars, wires or welded mesh fabrics shall be so anchored that the bond forces are safely transmitted to the concrete avoiding longitudinal cracking or spalling. Reference: Chapter 8.4 describes how to verify the anchorage of longitudinal reinforcement. Work out: Design value of the ultimate bond stress: fb d = 2,25 ⋅ η1 ⋅ η 2 ⋅ f c t d with:

fc t d = α c t ⋅

fc t k,0,05

γc

= 1,0 ⋅

2,5 MN = 1, 6 2 1,5 m

(3.16)

η1 = 1,0 for good bond conditions and η1 = 0,7 for all other cases.

η2 = 10 ,
fb d = 2,25 ⋅ 0,7 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1, 6 = 2,625

MN m2
Ø σsd ⋅ 4 fb d

Basic anchorage length: lb,rqd =

In the lapped bars the stress may be assumed as the design value of yield strength. The coordinate of first lap is x = 1,356 m and the coordinate of second lap is x = 8,211 m. basic required anchorage length:

lb,rqd =

16 500 ⋅ = 663 mm 4 1,15 ⋅ 2 ,625

design lap length:

l0 = α1 ⋅ α 2 ⋅ α 3 ⋅ α 4 ⋅ α 6 ⋅ lb, rqd > l0 , min , with α 1− 4 = 1
minimum lap length:
l0,min
⎧0 ,3 ⋅ α 6 ⋅ lb,rqd ⎪ > max ⎨ 15 ⋅ φ ⎪ 200 mm ⎩

= 0,3 ⋅ 1,5 ⋅ 663 = 298 mm = 15 ⋅ 16 = 240 mm 200 mm

l0 = 1,5 ⋅ 663 = 994 ,5 mm ≈ 1 m

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EuroCADCrete – Study book – Version 4.0

II.5.7.21 Bar positioning bottom
Anchorage: • • • Background: Reinforcing bars, wires or welded mesh fabrics shall be so anchored that the bond forces are safely transmitted to the concrete avoiding longitudinal cracking or spalling. Reference: Chapter 8.4 describes how to verify the anchorage of longitudinal reinforcement. Work out: Design value of the ultimate bond stress: fb d = 2,25 ⋅ η1 ⋅ η 2 ⋅ f c t d with:

fc t d = α c t ⋅

f c t k,0,05

γc

= 1,0 ⋅

2,5 MN = 1, 6 2 1,5 m

(3.16)

η1 = 1,0 for good bond conditions and η1 = 0,7 for all other cases. η2 = 10 ,
fb d = 2,25 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1,0 ⋅ 1, 6 = 3,75 MN m2
Ø σsd ⋅ 4 fb d

Basic anchorage length: lb,rqd =

In the lapped bars the stress may be assumed as the design value of yield strength. The coordinate of first lap is x = 0,0 m and the coordinate of second lap is x = 10,0 m. basic required anchorage length:
16 500 ⋅ = 464 mm 4 1,15 ⋅ 3 ,75

lb,rqd =

design lap length:

l0 = α1 ⋅ α 2 ⋅ α 3 ⋅ α 4 ⋅ α 6 ⋅ lb, rqd > l0 ,min , with α 1− 4 = 1
minimum lap length:
⎧0 ,3 ⋅ α 6 ⋅ lb, rqd ⎪ > max ⎨ 15 ⋅ φ ⎪ 200 mm ⎩

= 0,3 ⋅ 1,5⋅ = 209 mm = 15 ⋅ 16 = 240 mm 200 mm

l0 ,min

l0 = 1,5 ⋅ 464 = 696 mm ≈ 0,7 m

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EuroCADCrete – Study book – Version 4.0

II.5.7.22 Stirrups positioning for beam
Curtailment of shear reinforcement: • • Background: The shear resistance is verified at the decisive section and should be curtailed along the member axis. Reference: The aim is to ensure an economic usage of steel. The coordinates of curtailment can be calculated from the equilibrium between the acting shear force and the resistance of each level of curtailment. Keep in mind the rules of detailing, e.g. max. distance between shear assemblies. • Work out: The equilibrium between the acting shear force and the resistance of the provided curtailment leads to the following coordinates. Resistance: Acting shear force:
VR d,s = Asw ⋅ z ⋅ f y w d ⋅ cotθ s

VE d (x ) = 146 ,2 kN - x ⋅ q d

Provided curtailment from Ø 10/250 down to Ø 10/333:

VR d,s = 4,71⋅ 10 −4 ⋅ 0,95 ⋅ 0,6525 ⋅ 400 ⋅ 1⋅ 103 = 116,8 kN
⎧ 0 + 1,38 m = 1,38 m ⎪ ⇒ x 333 = ⎨ ⎪10,0 - 1,13 m = 8,87 m ⎩
s l,max = 0,75 ⋅ d ⋅ (1 + cot α ) = 0,75 ⋅ 652,5 mm = 489 mm > 333 mm > 250 mm

The detailing rule for maximum distance of shear assemblies is satisfied.

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Ø 10 / 200 0,8

Ø 10 / 275 3,05

8 Ø 25 Ø 10 / 250

1,25

Ø 16

Congratulation!
Ø 10 / 250

1,25

8 Ø 20

0,8 Ø 10 / 200

2,85 Ø 10 / 400

1,0 Ø 10 / 200

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figure II.5-8: Frame detailing

Ø 10 / 333

6,8