You are on page 1of 21

Ch1: What is Organizational Behavior? Q1: What is the importance of Interpersonal Skills? 1. Lower turnover of quality employees. 2.

Higher quality applications for recruitment. 3. Better financial performance. Q2: What do Managers do in terms of functions, roles, and skills? In terms of functions, managers do the following: Planning:  A process that includes defining goals, establishing strategy, and developing plans to coordinate activities.  As managers advance, they do this function more often. Organizing:  Determining what tasks are to be done, who is to do them, how the tasks are to be grouped, who reports to whom, and where decisions are to be made. Leading:  A function that includes motivating employees, directing others, selecting the most effective communication channels, and resolving conflicts. Controlling:  Monitoring performance, comparing actual performance with previously set goals, and correcting any deviation. In terms of roles, managers do the following: Interpersonal Roles: 1. Figurehead: symbolic head; requires to perform a number of routine duties of a legal or social nature. 2. Leader: responsible for the motivation and direction of employees. 3. Liaison: maintains a network of outside contacts who provide favors and information. Informational Roles: 1. Monitor: receives wide variety of information; serves as nerves center of internal and external information of the organization. 2. Disseminator: transmits information received from outsiders or from other employees to members of the organization. 3. Spokesperson: transmits information to outsiders on organizations plans, policies, actions, and results; serves as expert on organizations industry. Decisional Roles 1. Entrepreneur: searches organization and its environment for opportunities and initiates projects to bring about change. 2. Disturbance Handler: responsible for corrective action when organization faces important, unexpected disturbances. 3. Resource Allocator: makes or approves significant organizational decisions.

4. Negotiator: responsible for representing the organization at major negotiations.

In terms of skills, managers do the following: 1. Technical Skills: The ability to apply specialized knowledge or expertise. 2. Human Skills: The ability to work with, understand, and motivate other people, both individually and in groups. 3. Conceptual Skills: The mental ability to analyze and diagnose complex situations. Q3: What is Organizational Behavior (OB)? Organizational behavior: is a field of study that investigates the impact that individuals, groups, and structure have on behavior within organizations, for the purpose of applying such knowledge toward improving an organization’s effectiveness. Q4: Why is it importance to complementing Intuition with Systematic Study?. The importance of the Evidence Based Management is basing managerial decisions on the best available scientific evidence. And for the Intuition it's a gut feeling not necessarily supported by research. In addition that Manager Should Use All Three Approaches  The trick is to know when to go.  Intuition is often based on inaccurate information.  Systematic study can be time-consuming. Another answer: An Outgrowth of Systematic Study… Evidence Based Management: Must think like scientists:  Pose a managerial question  Search for best available evidence  Apply relevant information to case Q5: What are the major behavior science disciplines that Contribute to the OB Field? 1. Psychology: The science that seeks to measure, explain, and sometimes change the behavior of humans and other animals. Unit of Analysis: Individual 2. Social Psychology: An area within psychology that blends concepts from psychology and sociology and that focuses on the influence of people on one another. Unit of Analysis: Group 3. Sociology: The study of people in relation to their social environment or culture. Unit of Analysis: Organizational System &Group 4. Anthropology: The study of societies to learn about human beings and their activities. Unit of Analysis: Organizational System &Group. Q6: Why are there Few Absolutes in OB?

Q7: What are the challenges and opportunities for managers in using OB concepts? 1. Q1: What are the two types of ability? Types of Ability 1. the relationship may hold for one condition but not another. Organization System – Level Variables:  Organizational culture. leadership and trust. Coping with “Temporariness” 8. individual learning and individual decision making 2. Improving Customer Service 5. Physical Abilities: Q2: What is intellectual or cognitive ability.Creating a Positive Work Environment 11. Dimensions of Intellectual Ability 1.. 3. reasoning. and organizational structure and design. conflict. perception. values and attitudes. and problem solving. Stimulating Innovation and Change 7. Improving People Skills 6. Number Aptitude. Helping Employees Balance Work-Life Conflicts 10. human resource policies and practices. Responding to Globalization 2. and work teams.Because of situational factors that make the main relationship between two variables change … e. 3 . and is it relevant to OB? Intellectual Ability: the capacity to do mental activities such as. Working in Networked Organizations 9. group decision making. thinking. Intellectual Abilities: 2. ability.Improving Ethical Behavior Q8: What are the three levels of analysis in this books OB model? There are three main levels that included in the "Organizational Behavior Model". Group – Level Variables:  Communication. and they are as the following: 1. motivation. Improving Quality and Productivity 4.g. Ch2: Foundations of Individual Behavior. power and politics. Managing Workforce Diversity 3. Individual – Level Variables:  Biographical characteristics. group structure. personality and emotions.

Sexual orientation: Federal law does not protect against discrimination (but state or local laws may). Religion: Islam is especially problematic in the workplace in this post-9/11 world. 4 .  Some rewards are more effective than others. Age: Older workers bring experience. absent less frequently. Gender: Few differences between men and women that affect job performance. and why are they relevant to OB? Personal Characteristics: 1. Tenure: People with job tenure (seniority at a job) are more productive. Verbal Comprehension. 3. Q4: What is learning. Memory. but could be more culture-based than race-based. Perceptual Speed. judgment. Q5: What is shaping. Q3: What are the key biographical characteristics. Inductive Reasoning . 3. and what are the major theories of learning? Learning: a relatively permanent change in behavior that occurs as a result of experience. Race (the biological heritage used to identify oneself):  Contentious issue: differences exist. Domestic partner benefits are important considerations. a strong work ethic. 2. Ex: Attentional processes . have lower turnover. Major theories of learning: 1. Operant Conditioning: A type of conditioning in which desired voluntary behavior leads to a reward or prevents a punishment 3.Retention processes . 5. and commitment to quality.Reinforcement processes. 2. 2. Classical Conditioning: A type of conditioning in which an individual responds to some stimulus that would not ordinarily produce such a response. 6. Deductive Reasoning . and how can it be used as a management tool? Shaping Behavior: systematically reinforcing each successive step that moves an individual closer to the desired response. Gender identity: Relatively new issue – transgendered employees.2. and are more satisfied. 3. Spatial Visualization. Other Biographical Characteristics 1. 7.Motor reproduction processes . Social-Learning Theory: People can learn through observation and direct experience. 4. 4. Key Concepts  Reinforcement is required to change behavior.

2. Involves change 2. judgment. absent less frequently. but could be more culture-based than race-based. Learning: The culture can affect our understanding of learning as follows: 1. Sexual orientation: Federal law does not protect against discrimination 7. experience and his ability to solve problems. Gender: Few differences between men and women that affect job performance. Intermittent Reinforcement: A desired behavior is reinforced often enough to make the behavior worth repeating but not every time it is demonstrated  Fixed interval schedule: Rewards are spaced at uniform time intervals. biographical characteristics. Schedule of Reinforcement 1.  Memory: who have a good memory Biographical characteristics: The culture can affect our understanding of Biographical characteristics as follows: 1. a strong work ethic.  Variable interval schedule: Rewards are initiated after a fixed or constant number of responses  Fixed ratio schedule: Reward given at amounts of output  Variable ratio schedule: Reward given at a variable amounts of output. have lower turnover. Continuous Reinforcement: A desired behavior is reinforced each time it is demonstrated. Is relatively permanent 5 . Religion: Islam is especially problematic in the workplace in this post-9/11 world. Tenure: People with job tenure are more productive. skills. that depends on his environment. 6.  Deductive Reasoning: the people who analyze the situation and know the main reason for any phenomenon  Spatial Visualization: that depends on the thinking way of the person. Age: Older workers bring experience. 5. thinking. 4. Race: differences exist. Q6: How does culture affect our understanding of intellectual abilities. abilities. gender identity: Relatively new issue. and are more satisfied. and learning? Intellectual abilities Thinking of the people differ from person to another one. talent. 3. The culture can affect our understanding of intellectual abilities as follows:  Number Aptitude:  Verbal Comprehension: the people who have good communication skills  Perceptual Speed: the people who have a speed understanding of the situation  Inductive Reasoning: solve problems in their work many immediately and in good way. The timing of reinforcement affects learning speed and permanence. and commitment to quality. 2.

Is acquired through experience. 6 .3.

Q1: What are the main components of attitudes?. Q2: Does behavior always follow from attitudes?.  Affective Component : The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. 7 .  Attitudes based on personal experience are stronger predictors. Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes.  Consistency is achieved by changing the attitudes. Are these components related or unrelated?.  High social pressures reduce the relationship and may cause dissonance.  Cognitive Component : The opinion or belief segment of an attitude.  General attitudes predict general behavior. modifying the behaviors.Ch3: Attitudes and Job Satisfaction.  Behavioral Component : An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. Q3: What are the major job attitudes?. to reach stability and consistency.  Individuals seek to reduce this uncomfortable gap. The closer match between attitude and behavior. or dissonance. as influenced by moderating variables. Why or why not?. the stronger the relationship:  Specific attitudes predict specific behavior. Cognitive Component: helps to evaluate the work both in terms of positive or negative. Job Involvement: Degree of psychological identification with the job where perceived performance is important to self-worth. or through rationalization. 1. Attitudes predict behavior. They are related together. Discuss the factors that affect whether behavior follow from attitudes. Job Satisfaction: A positive feeling about the job resulting from an evaluation of its characteristics 2. It depends on the nature of the case and whether yes or no. What is unique about each?. In what ways are these attitudes alike?. Desire to reduce dissonance depends on:  Importance of elements  Degree of individual influence  Rewards involved in dissonance Predicting Behavior from Attitudes Important attitudes have a strong relationship to behavior. and this leads to support the affective Component and improve the behavioral Component toward the job.

Summation score (many questions/one average) – OK Another Types of tests are: 1.  People with positive core self evaluation (Bottom-line conclusions individuals have about their capabilities. but not necessarily job satisfaction. Q5: What causes job satisfaction? For most people. and autonomy. Q4: How do we measure job satisfaction? 1. Customer Satisfaction: Satisfied frontline employees increase customer satisfaction and loyalty. Organizational Commitment: Identifying with a particular organization and its goals. 3. is pay or the work itself more important? 1. Variables may be redundant (measuring the same thing under a different name).Best 2. Q6: What outcome does job satisfaction influence?. These attitudes alike: these attitudes are highly related. Job Performance: Satisfied workers are more productive & more productive workers are more satisfied!. Job Descriptive Index. The unique about each: there is some distinction. 3.).  Money may bring happiness. 6.  After about $40. 3. Single global rating (one question/one answer) . Rating scales and Questionnaires 2. Personality can influence job satisfaction. there is also a lot of overlap. S. 2. What implications does this have for management?. satisfaction with. 2. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors: Satisfaction influences OCB through perceptions of fairness. and enthusiasm for the job. Pay influences job satisfaction only to a point. competence. 1. and worth as a person). 5. competences. 8 . Minnesota Tests. job meaningfulness. there is no relationship between amount of pay and job satisfaction. Employee Engagement: The degree of involvement with.  Negative people are usually not satisfied with their jobs. Perceived Organizational Support (POS): Degree to which employees believe the organization values their contribution and cares about their wellbeing.Psychological Empowerment: Belief in the degree of influence over the job. 4. Pay influences job satisfaction only to a point. while wishing to maintain membership in the organization.000 a year (in the U.

be tardy. dissatisfaction job.  Recognition. steal. 9 . It is depends on: Attitudes influence toward administration.  Responsibility.  Improve job attitudes and productivity. Managers Often “Don’t Get It”: Despite the overwhelming evidence of the impact of job satisfaction on the bottom line. administrators must recognize and attend to both sets of characteristics satisfaction. based on the presence of one set of job characteristics.4.  Advancement. Does job satisfaction appear to way by country?. Workplace Deviance: Dissatisfied workers are more likely to unionize. Q7: Is job satisfaction a uniquely concept?. job satisfaction a uniquely concept. Turnover: Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. 5.  Achievement.  And the nature of the work itself. most managers are either unconcerned about or overestimate worker satisfaction. individuals are not content with the satisfaction of lower-order needs at work. Absenteeism: Satisfied employees are moderately less likely to miss work. The implications does this have for management. Many moderating variables in this relationship:  Economic environment and tenure.  Motivation. example. while another separate set of job characteristics lead to dissatisfaction at work. abuse substances.  Organizational actions taken to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers. 6. and withdraw. those associated with:  Minimum salary levels. or incentives lead to worker satisfaction at work.

such as ENTJ. c. What is the Myers-Briggs Type indicator (MBTI). Heredity b. Observer-ratings surveys: provide an independent assessment of personality – often better predictors Other ways to measuring personality  Self-report surveys  Observer-rating surveys  Projective measures – Rorschach Inkblot Test – Thematic Apperception Test Factors determine personality: a.5. Personality Tests: Helpful in hiring decisions b. 3. Measuring Personality: a.9 Organizational Behavior Ch4: personality and Values 1. Self-reporting surveys: Most common method. Personality Traits Other Factors determine personality c.All Ch4. How do we typically measure it?. Extroversion 2. What factors determine personality?. Feeling (F) d. 1. Situation 2. Introverted (I) b. and What does it measure?. What is personality?. Intuitive (N) c. Perceiving (P) Participants are classified on four axes to determine one of 16 possible personality types. Thinking (T) vs. Myers – Briggs Indicator measure: a. Judging (J) vs. Environment d. 10 . Big Five Personality Model: A personality assessment model that taps five basic dimensions. Most widely-used instrument in the world. Sensing (S) vs. 3. What are the Big Five personality traits?. 5. Personality: The dynamic organization within the individual of those psychophysical systems that determine his unique adjustments to his environment. Extroverted (E) vs. Agreeableness Conscientiousness Emotional Stability Openness to Experience. 4. Myers – Briggs Indicator (MBTI): A personality test that taps four characteristics and classifies people into 1 of 16 personality types using 100 questions.6.

High job & life satisfaction – Lower stress level 5.4.  Risk takers make faster decisions with less information. Agreeableness: The ability to get along with others (Good-natured. persistent. Higher performance – Lower levels of deviant behavior. depressed.  Work with minimal rules and regulations. 5. Training performance – Enhanced leadership – More adaptable to change. imaginative. Core Self-Evaluation:  The degree to which people like or dislike themselves. 11 . Machiavellianism:  A pragmatic. Openness to Experience: The capacity to entertain new ideas and to change as a result of new information (Curious. win more often.  Emotions distract others. and insecure under stress (negative). artistic. entitled. and trusting). Higher performance – Enhanced leadership – Higher job & life satisfaction. 4. Besides the Big Five. situational factors. 1. self-confident. what other personality traits are relevant to OB?. 2.  Positive self-evaluation leads to higher job performance. Higher performance – Enhanced leadership – Greater longevity.  High Machs are manipulative. Flourish when:  Have direct interaction. Type A vs. and persuade more than they are persuaded.  High monitors conform more and are more likely to become leaders.  May be best to align propensities with job requirements. secure under stress (positive). Self-Monitoring  The ability to adjust behavior to meet external. 3. Risk Taking  The willingness to take chances. 5. self-important person who needs excessive admiration. 6. How do the Big Five traits predict work behavior?. 4. Type B personality  Aggressively involved in a chronic. 1. and organized). 3. emotionally distant power-player who believes that ends justify the means. Conscientiousness: The number of goals on which a person focuses (Responsible.  Less effective in their jobs. Extroversion: The quality of being comfortable with relationships (Sociable. versus nervous. dependable. incessant struggle to achieve more in less time. cooperative. Emotional Stability: Less moodiness and insecurity (Calm. Narcissism  An arrogant. and assertive). 2. and sensitive). gregarious.

loyalty to the organization 2. Generations in the age of 40:60: They are Success. self-reliant but team-oriented. conservative. Type B people are the complete opposite. 12 . The difference between terminal and instrumental values: Terminal Values: Desirable end-states of existence. financial success. and behaviors 2.  Cannot cope with leisure time. What are Values.  Strive to think or do two or more things at once. Influence our perception of the world around us 3.  Obsessed with achievement numbers. 6. Generations in the age of 65+: They are do Hard working. 8. dislike of authority. Femininity  Uncertainty Avoidance  Long-term vs. why are they important. How so?. loyalty to relationships 4. shows initiative. the goals that a person would like to achieve during his or her lifetime. and eating rapidly. Values differ across cultures. Generations in the age of 20:40: They are Work/life balance. team-oriented. ambition. The dominant work values differ from generations. How so?. conforming. and perseveres to completion. loyalty to both self and relationships. How: Experience Hofstede’s Framework for assessing culture – five value dimensions:  Power distance  Individualism vs. Represent interpretations of “right” and “wrong” 4. Instrumental Values: Preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values. Creates positive change in the environment. Provide understanding of the attitudes.    Impatient: always moving. loyalty to career 3. Do values differ across generations?. They are important: 1. achievement. takes action. walking. How: Experience has shown that: 1.  7. Do values differ across cultures?. Yeas. but quality of the work is low. Short-term Orientation. Proactive Personality Identifies opportunities. motivation. dislike of rules. Collectivism  Masculinity vs. Generations in the age of 30: They are Confident. and what is the difference between terminal and instrumental values? Values: Basic convictions on how to conduct yourself or how to live your life that is personally or socially preferable to an opposite or converse mode of conduct or end state of existence. Imply that some behaviors or outcomes are preferred over other. 7.

3. Profiling: A form of stereotyping in which members of a group are singled out for intense scrutiny based on a single. 3. The three determinants of attribution: Observation à Interpretationà Attribution of Cause. experience. Formed in a single glance – 1/10 of a second! 13 . Observation of behavior à 2. 1. Factors in the target: Novelty – Motion – Sounds – Size – Background – Proximity – Similarity. 2. and attitudes. Factors in the perceiver: Attitudes – Motives –Interests – Experience – Expectations. Attribution of Cause -.  Internal causes are under that person’s control. What shortcuts do people use in making judgments about others?. b. Specific Shortcut Applications in Organizations 4. 1. Perceptual biases of raters affect the accuracy of interviewers’ judgments of applicants. Factors influence our perception. if not always accurate. Frequently Used Shortcuts in Judging Others: Selective Perception: People selectively interpret what they see on the basis of their interests. – Consensus: Response is the same as others to same situation. Factors in the situation: Time – Work setting – Social setting. What are its implications for explaining organizational behavior? Attribution Theory: An attempt to determine whether an individual’s behavior is internally or externally caused. Interpretationà – Distinctiveness: Shows different behaviors in different situations. Stereotyping: Judging someone on the basis of one’s perception of the group to which that person belongs – a prevalent and often useful. trait. background.Internal or External causes 3. generalization 3. – Consistency: Responds in the same way over time. Halo Effect: Drawing a general impression about an individual on the basis of a single characteristic 1. often racial. Perception: A process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.Ch5: Perception and Individual Decision Making 1. Employment Interviews: a. What is attribution theory? What are the three determinants of attribution?.  External causes are not – person forced to act in that way. 2. What is perception? And what factors influence our perception?. Contrast Effects: Evaluation of a person’s characteristics that are affected by comparisons with other people recently encountered who rank higher or lower on the same characteristics. 2.

all options known and maximum payoff. Develop the alternatives. How does one affect the other?. 2. 6. Overconfidence Bias: Believing too much in our own ability to make good decisions – especially when outside of own expertise. 4. Performance Expectations: Self-fulfilling prophecy (Pygmalion effect): The lower or higher performance of employees reflects preconceived leader expectations about employee capabilities. Define the problem 2. Allocate weights to the criteria. Intuition: A non-conscious process created from distilled experience those results in quick decisions. first received information as the basis for making subsequent judgments. How does one affect the other: Perception Linkage: 1. What is the link between perception and decision making?. 4. What are some of the common decision biases or errors that people make? Common Biases and Errors in Decision-Making: 1. 2. 3. 5. Identify the decision criteria. Rational Decision-Making is different from bounded rational and intuition: Bounded Reality: The “real world” model: seeks satisfactory and sufficient solutions from limited data and alternatives. Rational Decision-Making: The “perfect world” model: assumes complete information. Select the alternatives.  Affectively charged – engaging the emotions. 3. 5. b.5. What is the rational model of decision making? How is it different from bounded rational and intuition?. Six-step decision-making process: 1. All elements of problem identification and the decision making process are influenced by perception. 6. Problems must be recognized. Performance Evaluations: a. The Link Between Perception and Individual Decision Making: Problem: A perceived discrepancy between the current state of affairs and a desired state. 14 .  Relies on holistic associations. Evaluate the alternatives. Data must be selected and evaluated. 6. Critical impact on employees. Appraisals are often the subjective (judgmental) perceptions of appraisers of another employee’s job performance. Decision: Choices made from among alternatives developed from data. Anchoring Bias: Using early.

believing it could have been accurately predicted beforehand. Hindsight Bias: After an outcome is already known. Reward Systems: Managers will make the decision with the greatest personal payoff for them. Likelihood increases with the number of people in auction.  A problem is a discrepancy between some current state of affairs and some desired state. 9. Winner’s Curse: Highest bidder pays too much due to value overestimation. organizational constraints. Personality: Conscientiousness may effect escalation of commitment. What is creativity? And what is the three-component model of creativity?. and culture on decision making: 1. 7.  The decision maker is responsible for the ethics of a decision regardless of the work environment.  Dutiful people are less likely to have this bias. 2. the decision maker may be influenced by the work environment. 5. What are the influences of individual differences. Confirmation Bias: Selecting and using only facts that support our decision. 5. requiring consideration of alternative courses of action. 6. and culture on decision making? The influences of Individual Differences in Decision-Making: 1. Rights: Decisions consistent with fundamental liberties and privileges 3. Performance Evaluation: Managerial evaluation criteria influence actions. 7. Formal Regulations: Limit the alternative choices of decision makers. Utilitarianism: Decisions made based solely on the outcome 2. Escalation of Commitment: Increasing commitment to a decision in spite of evidence that it is wrong – especially if responsible for the decision!. 15 . Availability Bias: Emphasizing information that is most readily at hand. 4. System-imposed Time Constraints: Restrict ability to gather or evaluate information. Justice: Imposing and enforcing rules fairly and impartially.3.  Achievement strivers are likely to increase commitment. 3. Randomness Error: Creating meaning out of random events – superstitions. organizational constraints. 8. Gender  Women analyze decisions more than men – rumination. 2. Historical Precedents: Past decisions influence current decisions. 6. Are unethical decision more a function of an individual decision maker or decision maker's environment?. 7. Ethical Decision Criteria: 1. Explain.  Of course.  Women are twice as likely to develop depression. 4.  High self-esteem people are susceptible to self-serving bias.  Decision making occurs as a reaction to a problem or an opportunity.

The early theories of motivation: 1. B. 3. have an internal locus-of-control. What is cognitive evaluation theory?. direction. A. McClelland’s Theory of Needs. B. Expertise: This is the foundation 2. and consistent with. When the personal reasons for pursuing goals are consistent with personal interests and core values (intrinsic motivation). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory  Alderfer’s ERG (Existence. tolerant of ambiguity. Motivation: The processes that account for an individual’s intensity. A. and persistence of effort toward attaining a goal – specifically. Locke’s Goal-Setting Theory Basic Premise: 16 . an organizational goal. risk-taking. and who persevere in the face of frustration. 4. What are the key elements of motivation?. Persistence – how long a person can maintain effort. Define motivation?. but they do form the basis for contemporary theories and are still used by practicing managers. Direction – effort that is channeled toward. Ch6: motivation concepts 1. organizational goals. They been supported by research: Theories may not be valid. Cognitive Evaluation Theory: Providing an extrinsic reward for behavior that had been previously only intrinsically rewarding tends to decrease the overall level of motivation. Relatedness. Have these predictions been supported by research?. What are the early theories of motivation?. A.Creativity: The ability to produce novel and useful ideas. A. How well have they been supported by research?. Creative-Thinking Skills : The personality characteristics associated with creativity. Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory 4. Three key elements: 1. What are the major predictions of goal-setting theory?. Intrinsic Task Motivation: The desire to do the job because of its characteristics. independent. intelligent. The Three-Component Model of Creativity: 1. 2. 2. and Growth) 2. Creativity Potential: Those who score high in openness to experience. 3. 3. It assume about the effects of intrinsic rewards on behavior: It will offer Self-concordance to the personal. low need for structure. Intensity – how hard a person tries. people are happier and more successful. self-confident. What does it assume about the effects of intrinsic rewards on behavior?. B. McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y 3.

it is good predictor. C. Yes Goal-setting theory has supported reinforcement theory  Goal-setting theory focus of goal commitment. with self-generated feedback. concern. 7. B. tardiness.  Reinforcement Theory Powerful predictor in many work areas. 17 . 3. What is reinforcement theory?. It related to goal-setting theory: Reinforcement Theory are Similar to Goal-Setting Theory.That specific and difficult goals. Equity Theory: Employees compare their ratios of outcomes-to-inputs of relevant others and then respond to eliminate any inequities. B. A. and respect. task characteristics. Procedural Justice:  Fairness of outcome process. Why has it been supplanted by organization justice?. and national culture on goal-setting theory. self-efficacy. Reinforcement Theory: Behavior is a function of its consequences. How is it related to goal-setting theory?. lead to higher performance.  Culture.  Perceived fairness of the amount and allocation of rewards among individuals. What has research had to say about this theory?. A. 2. What are the key tenets of expectancy theory?.  Task characteristics. absenteeism.  Perceived fairness of the process used to determine the distribution of rewards.  The perceived degree to which an individual is treated with dignity. but reinforcement theory focused on a behavioral approach rather than a cognitive one. A. 5. What is equity theory?.  Relationship between goals and performance depends on:  Goal commitment. and accident rates. Vroom’s Expectancy Theory: The strength of a tendency to act in a certain way depends on the strength of an expectation that the act will be followed by a given outcome and on the attractiveness of the outcome to the individual. Has supported reinforcement theory?. Made up of: 1. It supplanted by organization justice: Organizational Justice: Overall perception of what is fair in the workplace. persistence of effort. Distributive Justice:  Fairness of outcome. Interactional Justice:  Being treated with dignity and respect. and usually a good predictor of quality and quantity of work. B. These predictions been supported by research:  While Goal-Setting Theory limited in scope. 6.

ability and the “purpose” or objectives of the current performance evaluation system in which they work. there are some cross-cultural consistencies. a.Performance Relationship  Performance – Reward Relationship  Rewards. Motivation theories are often culture-bound 1. McClelland’s Three Needs Theory: presupposes a willingness to accept risk and performance concerns – not universal traits 3. Do you think motivation theories are often culture bound?. How do the contemporary theories of work motivation complement one another?.B.  Organizational Rewards. Research had to say about this theory.Personal Goals Relationship 8. There is some evidence that the intrinsic factors of Herzberg’s Two-Factor Theory may be universal. Why: Note that most theories were developed in the US. Influenced by a variety of factors (needs. Contemporary theories of work motivation complement one another: A.  Personal Goals.  Individual Performance. b. equity). C. A. B. Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Theory: Order of needs is not universal 2. reinforcement. It focuses on three relationship:  Effort . Why or why not?. Desire for interesting work seems to be universal. Adams’ Equity Theory: A desire for equity is not universal. C. D. While there may be many differences across cultures. Link between individual effort – individual performance – organizational rewards and personal goals. 4. “Each according to his need” – socialist/former communists. B. key tenets of expectancy theory:  Individual Effort. Employees’ opportunity. There is integrating between contemporary theories of motivation. 9. 18 .

An Experiment: Zimbardo’s Prison Experiment. 3. 19 . Role Identity: Certain attitudes and behaviors consistent with a role 2. Five Stages of Group Development Model: 1. Performing Stage: The group is finally fully functional. who have come together to achieve particular objectives. 5. Different types of groups: 1. How does group norms influence an individual's behavior?. 5. Storming: Lots of conflict between members of the group. What are the five stages of group development?. 4. 2. how?. Forming: Members feel much uncertainty. If so. a. Norming Stage: Members have developed close relationships and cohesiveness. 2. 3. characterized by concern with wrapping up activities rather than performance. b. 2. 4. Friendship Groups: Those brought together because they share one or more common characteristics. 3. Define group?. Task Group: Those working together to complete a job or task in an organization but not limited by hierarchical boundaries. Role requirements change in different situations: Yes. Group: Two or more individuals interacting and interdependent. What are the different types of groups?. b. Role Perception: An individual’s view of how he or she is supposed to act in a given situation – received by external stimuli. Formal Group: Defined by the organization’s structure with designated work assignments establishing tasks. Role Conflict: A situation in which an individual is confronted by divergent role expectations. Classes of role: 1. Informal Group: Alliances that are neither formally structured nor organizationally determined. Role Expectations: How others believe a person should act in a given situation. How: Role: A set of expected behavior patterns attributed to someone occupying a given position in a social unit. 4. Interest Groups: Members work together to attain a specific objective with which each is concerned.Ch9: foundation of group behavior 1. Adjourning Stage: In temporary groups. Do role requirements change in different situations?. a. Command Group: A group composed of the individuals who report directly to a given manager.

b. Increase time members spend together. Asch Studies: Demonstrated the power of conformance. 5. 7. b. Diverse Input. 4. Time-consuming activity. Size: Group size affects behavior (Twelve or more members is a “large” group . b. 5. 2. not to individuals.Seven or fewer is a “small” group). c. Increased acceptance of decisions.Norms: Acceptable standards of behavior within a group that are shared by the group’s members. Offer increased diversity of views and greater creativity. 6. a. Generate more complete information and knowledge. Classes of Norms: a. Discussions can be dominated by a few members. What are the advantages and limitations of cohesive groups?. Give rewards to the group. Cohesiveness: Degree to which group members are attracted to each other and are motivated to stay in the group. 7. Social arrangement norms à friendships and the like. Make the group smaller. Appearance norms à what to wear. Strengths of Group Decision Making: a. c. Allocation of resources norms à distribution and assignments of jobs and material. Fact-Finding Goals. Conformity: Gaining acceptance by adjusting one’s behavior to align with the norms of the group b. b. Physically isolate the group. Weaknesses of Group Decision Making: a. Generally more accurate (but not as accurate as the most accurate group member). d. Conformity pressures in the group. Encourage agreement with group goals. Best Attribute for use of small group affect group performance: Speed. Best Attribute for use of large group affect group performance: Problem Solving. c. Advantages and limitations of cohesive groups had managerial implications to increase cohesiveness: 1. c. 20 . What are the strengths and weaknesses of group (versus individual) decision making?. Norms and Behavior are evidence of influence an individual's behavior: a. Increase group status and admission difficulty. 6. Individual Performance. Stimulate competition with other groups. Performance norms à level of acceptable work. 3. d. How does group size affect group performance?. Overall Performance. Reference Groups: Important groups to which individuals belong or hope to belong and with whose norms individuals are likely to conform.

And shows clearly the impact of social loafing in collectively cultures. Surface diversity may increase openness. The effective are: 1. and electronic meeting groups?. brainstorming. Commitment to Solution.    Nominal Group Technique: Works by restricting discussion during the decision-making process. 2. d. How does diversity affect groups and their effectiveness over time?. Brainstorming: An idea-generating process designed to overcome pressure for conformity. Group Diversity affect groups and their effectiveness over time: a. 8. Correct the weaknesses and focus on the strengths lead to àEffectiveness and Efficiency. Potential for Interpersonal Conflict. Development of Group Cohesiveness. 3. Its High effective in Task Orientation. Its High effective in Number and quality of ideas. Social Loafing: Most often does not affect in individually culture. b. The evidence for the effect of culture on group status and social loafing: a.d. Members are physically present but operate independently. 4. Interacting Groups: where members meet face-to-face and rely on verbal and nonverbal communication. Increased diversity leads to increased conflict. Electronic Meeting: Uses computers to hold large meetings of up to 50 people. Status and Culture: The importance of status varies with culture &And certainly varies from one group to another. Task Orientation. b. Its High effective in Number and quality of ideas. nominal. If the initial difficulties are overcome. Its High effective in Social Pressure. Task Orientation. Money Costs. 9. c. Development of Group Cohesiveness. diverse groups may perform better. May cause early withdrawal and lowered morale. 21 . How effective are interacting. What is the evidence for the effect of culture on group status and social loafing?. A situation of ambiguous responsibility.