.

.

THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY .

.

the chase. gluttony. refined and nimble thought.D. gazing upon his mud pools and his sombre sky?&quot. sweet poetic dreams. are for the happy shores of the Mediter ranean. &quot. art. THE EDITOR RIDGEWOOD. PH. ill housed in his mud hovel. NEW JERSEY 1912 . Smiling love. TAINE in English Literature. who hears the rain pattering whole days among the oakleaves what dreams can he have. drunken ness.Take civilization from this soil and there will remain to the inhabitants only war. Here the barbarian.THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY A Study of the Influence of Locality in its Development BY ELIAS LIEBERMAN.

THE EDITOR COMPANY . 1912.COPYRIGHT.

TO MY MOTHER 255789 .

.

It is the story of New England or Louisiana.FOREWORD A FEW years ago the expectant critic used to scan coming of the &quot. sanguine in their prophecies about In so far as they try for larger interpretation of our national spirit. the snows of Alaska. or.American the wonder of our new novel. therefore. fiction has taken the form of special local environment. or. in whose pages nationality was to find a worthy elucidation. our writers of fiction still fail in certainty fall and definite aim. rival of the book seems to be deferred. From that moment of achieved national consciousness our Somehow the ar real literature was to begin. it may be. of the corn lands of Dakota. of the crowded realism of the manifold life of New York City.&quot. of vivid cross-sections of the life of particular lo calities. fiction at its best is mainly an affair of localities. and commonly American into conventionality or jingoism. studies of the reaction between individual char and This interest of locality has vii made the decisive . or the mining towns of the Sierras. From it all we receive a succession American acter Consciously or unconsciously. and our the horizon for the critics are less it.

the American short story owes to lo Himself a writer of short stories. Perhaps so. a judiciously chosen series of representative instances. method in sense.viii FOREWORD opportunity of the short story.&quot. as well cality. with its characteristic emphasis upon &quot. will find their aims and some of their specific problems defined more significantly than in any ex isting study of this precise subject. but they will certainly not neglect the harvest of their predecessors. Dr. which. as a literary type. Lieberman has hit precisely upon the study of locality in its influence upon the American short&quot. story for the theme of his valuable study. and it must be emphasized that we no longer consider the short story as a primary school to the novel. Lieberman calls the &quot.local short story&quot. Un plored. its independent future is safe. as a student of literature in the better Dr. The short story has a being and an end in and itself. deterred by the vastness of the material to be ex he has brought enthusiasm and sound to the analysis of the precise debt. It is a singular . which. there may come those who. or its writer as a novelist in knickerbockers. what Dr. Lieberman has known how to give his treatment both practical worth and Writers of readability. after the host of short-story tellers have searched out the secret of every hamlet and byway. is thus far the distinctive contribution of to literature.situa tion. America Perhaps. on a larger canvas may attempt weightier things successfully.

and who of us is not not fail to be suggestive. Department of English. BOUTON. . The work will be of much value therefore as a work of reference for the general reader as well as for the special student. 1912. New York April University. has so far attracted Readers of the short story will find in the book an interpretation of certain elements of American literary tendency that can immense few serious students. ARCHIBALD L. 2.FOREWORD fact that the short story. in spite of its ix extension.

.

of our people through a system of general literacy free education has created a great reading public. A story is given a unique setting. who meets this call for his wares terial. replenished. the author.local color. the fact remains that works of fic tion are a very desirable commodity. cares of life. Whether the cause of the demand for fiction on their part is a desire to escape from the humdrum. because he feels that he can not give his work the convincing touches first \ it needs without a profound of his subject matter. if he wishes the stories he writes to be life Seldom does he stray far afield like and true. His stock-in-trade must be constantly He draws from his own experiences mainly. The fiction worker.INTRODUCTION NEVER before in the history of our literature has The there been so great a demand for fiction. The constantly searching for new ma public is ever hungry and he must is ever feed. iXfhus in our novels and in our short stories hand knowledge we get a great deal of what is called &quot. xi let us say in .&quot. or an effort to batten an or imagination starved by a narrow industrialism commercialism. or a tendency to follow an intellectual line of least resistance.

in the slums of planta In each case the author reconstructs the tion. ber section . his his pathos and his humor. Louisiana. . the lum . in general. It is the purpose of this book to investigate the numerous localities have had on the development of our short story. Virginia. of and Alaska. In the nature of the case my treatment can not be exhaustive. There are so many sections and so many writers for each that it would be an im possible task to take up the work of each author Even if done. with its numerous races and classes. moral problems. it would be confusing. . his characters. what features they have em phasized and. intensively. Michigan. section for us as he has seen it. Georgia Tennessee Kentucky the far West New York City. in the West of New England village or on a Southern becomes a vital part it of his story: its through demand for consistency shapes to own measure his situations. what aspects of the localities they have presented.xii INTRODUCTION 49. the Mississippi valley. I pur pose to do this by taking up typical sections and showing how they have been treated by various short-story writers. I have limited myself to the following sections as being fairly representative of our American life calities : influence which our New England. calities the From the fictional use of these lo reader can get some notion of the pos- . His setting a New York. what influence the lo have exerted upon their short-story work.

Every point of the compass has a jealous and aggressive group of literary folk standing guard over it and claiming it as their own. Stories with settings in our Island possessions or in the and South American have not been considered. Chinese quarter of themes for short stories have been evolved. The task of being comprehensive is all the more difficult be cause within the last ten years almost every avail able claim to an interesting locality or a sub division of it has already been made. In the expression &quot. For the student and the writer of the short story it should prove a valuable resume and should hint at the lines along which their own localities may be treated. Even the general reader ought to find the critical treatment of master short-story writers. an incentive toward a judicial selection of reading matter.INTRODUCTION sibilities xiii in territory not included. I have included only work with a setting in the United States and by writers either native to the United States or long resident in it. From the San Francisco. the lumber camp of the North. the Jewish quarter of New York and the log cabins of field-workers in the South. Republics various Central American It is hoped that the student of American litera ture will find in this investigation a not unworthy contribution to the bibliography of criticism deal ing with an art-form almost distinctively American. .American Short Story* in the title.

this work is presented to the reader. the writers themselves basis for I trust. fairly representative of the point of view of the literary men and women whom I have treated. In almost all cases. I have quoted from and have thus given the any conclusions I might have reached concerning the writer under discussion. For Chapters I and II no special originality is matter. These se lections have been culled with great care and are. er s claimed except in the disposition of the subject They are introduced to refresh the read mind concerning the entire subject and to give a philosophical basis for a study of locality in its influence upon the American short it fills With a story. realizing sense of its shortcomings and yet with a feeling that a little niche all its own in impressionistic literary criticism of the short story.xiv INTRODUCTION I have tried as far as possible to avoid critical citations concerning short-story writers from other sources. .

FOREWORD INTRODUCTION I PAGE v xi FORCES IN DETERMINING LOCALITIES AND TYPES OF MEN AND WOMEN Isolation f 1 Climate Topography Industries Occupations. Alice Brown. Page. NEW ENGLAND William Austin Harriet Beecher 24 IV IN MODERN NEW ENGLAND studies of 36 to-day.TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAP. in studies 64 from Cable. III IN OLD S Hawthorne Stowe. IN THE WEST The call for the western short story The work of Bret Harte Eepresentative writers 97 XV . II THE POINT OF CONTACT BETWEEN THE SHORT STORY AND LOCALITY The question of setting 14 Locality as an aid to unity of impression The effect of locality on action and characterization in the short story. New England 51 THE DAYS THAT ARE NO MORE The old South Harris. Sarah Orne Jewett. STORIES OF WHEAT AND LUMBER Hamlin Garland and the Mississippi Valley Stewart Edward White and Michigan. Freeman. V VI from Mrs. 84 VII VIII IN KENTUCKY AND TENNESSEE Studies from James Lane Allen and Charles Egbert Craddock.

BIBLIOGRAPHY 169 169 . Historical. . 177 . . . .xvi CHAPTER TABLE OF CONTENTS PAGE of California White The work of Stewart Edward The work of 0. . 113 IX THE PHOTOGRAPHER OF NEW YORK IFE: O. Biographical Fiction (arranged according to locality) .150 Studies XII 158 CONCLUSION: LOCALITY AS A FACTOR The contribution of locality to the develop ment of the American short story The influ ence of American life in making the short story the most typically American form of .x 1 ^! A GLIMPSE AT THE FROZEN NORTH The fictional motifs of the North from the work of Jack London. A B INDEX Critical. . X NEW 128 YORK FROM MANY ANGLES The Metropolis in various phases Myra Kelly and the school world Bruno Lessing and the Jew Over-specialization in locality Richard Harding Davis and the Club-man Other view points. .171 . . HENRY An inductive study The comprehensive view point. our fiction. Henry.

The note G-. to decided modifications in their points of yiew. through the agency of their environment. customs and habits of thinking and 1 acting. Jules Verne and H. are subject. the raw material of nearly all stories.THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY CHAPTER I FORCES IN DETERMINING LOCALITIES AND TYPES OF MEN AND WOMEN ALL fiction has its basis in reality. therefore. Wells there is a substratum of fact. Even in such flights of fancy as the pseudo-scientific romances of Edgar Allan Poe. reaction and inter action obtain in fiction as they do in the living us. . that the laws of human character lows. and their processes of action. world about Men and women. It is the product of the constructive imagination putting to gether old material into new combinations. of reality must be struck even in fiction to dis tinguish the product of the fiction worker from It fol the unrelated maunderings of the insane.

man. But ever. Sometimes he a god battling against great odds. sometimes mere driftwood lives borne toils. On the vast stage of the leave their impress. like so many and recross. Thousands of in fluences. ^Let us examine some of the most important forces that determine localities and therefore types of men and women. Out of the imperceptibly. being. though sometimes a&quot. his struggles. as he nature and his fellow man set and into reset characteristics kaleidoscopic com binations. each currents in a great bay. cross one modifying.&quot. is the individual actor shows all his heroic strength and all his pitiful weakness. Everyone conformed to previous traditions so that time went on without making changes un til there was one hundred years difference be tween Sleepy Hollow and other communities. picturing the seclusion of the place and its effect on the inhabitants. life world amidst the unceasing dins of the drama. 2 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY we are the products It is psychologically true that of heredity and environment. ( ington Irving. When a community finds itself iso lated from others there is a tendency to continue the same habits and customs generation after gen In the Legend of Sleepy Hollow Wash eration. . and his downstream. relates how old customs were perpetuated and innovations f rowTied upon. the character of raw material of his nativity there is shaped for good or for evil the complex character of the modern human all His joys. his sorrows.

however. in our own country. the decorum to be observed at all village ceremonies became prescribed and a permanent fashion in dress was established. after having &quot. the famous art galleries at Amsterdam is induced to go to Marken.&quot. though The New England village in winter is an isolated We may community. There. for these islanders. as things course. find a parallel to these conditions.done&quot. of centuries back. al in a milder degree.church-fair. Day after day the farmer sees the snow-covered fields and hillocks. does the same round of &quot. of isolation can do. Remote from the mainland and left to their own devices.LOCALITIES AND TYPES Marken what in Holland is 3 an interesting example The European tourist. and contracts &quot. customs and traditions became ingrained. tourist finds it is them the cause was not commercial. the Of as they were centuries ago. On this island. he is told. He becomes awkward in his ways when out of the beaten path of his . an occasional or &quot. From genera tion to generation habits of living were trans mitted without change. Not infrequently the farmhouses themselves are distances apart. the stomachers and quaint head gear of the familiar pictures have given way to more modern garb. he will see the fisher-folk in the dress In the streets of Amsterdam the - wooden shoon.party&quot. profitable are now. his social life to in the same way. to maintain a style of dress which at But originally tracts the tourist and his money.chores&quot.

almost soulenemies over and the feuds killing monotony. recent traveler reports that the warship given by the German government lies rotting in the ism although A principal harbor one s head is still and that conveying freight on a favorite means of transporta- . the mineral resources of South America remain undeveloped. I do not deny that there is a brighter side but it exists in spite of the isola tion to which the farmer jected. because anything is welcomed that breaks up the deadly. Liberia. As a result it has lapsed into a primitive barbar its founders were American negroes. trifles ner.4 life. on man are too In the South under his co squats to drop. and waits for the nuts He is congenitally Owing good labor is so difficult to secure. lazily Sea Islands the native coa nut tree shiftless. has a climate which is considered among the hottest in the world. to the fact that the negro republic in West Africa. prejudices antipathies thrive. and his family are sub vThe modifying well effects of climate known to need much comment. This may sound very played gloomy and pessimistic. and Neighbors become bitter last long because there is plenty of time on the part of both to brood over each fancied slight and grievance. of The silent tragedies of spin- sterhood and dreary domestic existence are over and over again. Gossip is retailed with zest. THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY uncongenial to strangers and taciturn of man In a vista so narrow and limited.

Buckle in his &quot. the citizens. &quot.History of Civilization in Eng land&quot. heightened. are en tirely too lazy to take hold of the government firmly. of Civilization in England. Spain and Portugal illustrate this tendency. II. great gales and the imagination of the inhabitants is earthquakes. i Buckle Chap. I. The Esquimo leaves his oil- heated snow hut only when he must. industry suffers on account of the intense cold. to obtain food. : Heightened imagination. . This is entirely due to climate. 5 The country is in an undeveloped condition because the individual units. but by enervating also by the effect it produces upon the regularity l He claims that people of northern of his habits.&quot. In the extreme north. &quot.LOCALITIES AND TYPES tion.History Vol. ami /In lands where there is constant contact with the terrible aspects of nature. Climate influences labor not only says: the laborer or invigorating him. Frequently it takes the form of su The innumerable legends about tu perstitions. climates as well as those of the south lack the habits of steady industry so characteristic of peo ple in temperate climates. however. where the rigors of heat and cold are not extreme. telary saints in Italy. In the temperate climates. the people of Sweden and In illustration he cites Norway on the one hand those of Portugal and Spain on the other. &quot. we find civilization at its highest efficiency and the greatest initiative among men.

adds its influence the that of climate in determining the nature of inhabitants. In Greece. The constant. Jupiter). Angelo. who must face him The stories of the desert and own experiences tend to excite superstition and fatalism. peoples due to climate and fertility Buckle cites a parallel between India In the former. battle with nature self-reliant. conceived gods in his own image The topography to of a country (Apollo. Sterility of soil in countries affects the popu- . : As illustrating differences among natural causes of the soil. People dwelling in mountain regions are almost always liberty loving and in dependent. among them. He created as gods monsters of un speakable terror (Siva).6 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY takes here art. where nature proved less formidable. successful makes the people hardy and flat Barren.) Death of the their stalks over the sands and with terror as a part the souls of those day s work. The verdure-clad mountains rising to the skies inspire freedom. man and Greece. Murillo and Velasquez. among them some of the very greatest Raffaello. on the other hand. stretches such in as the\ deserts of Arizona and Sahara are generally un-/ frequently inhabited although used fills transit. man being constantly eclipsed by nature permitted his imagination to roam wildly. another turn in the direction of The countries mentioned can boast of many great names in painting and sculpture.

LOCALITIES AND TYPES
lation noticeably.
is

7

Where

the means of livelihood

so

hard

scattered.
tions

to obtain, the settlements are thin and In consequence educational institu

and the refining influences of

society

as

are neg agents in the development of character Men grow up like cactus plants ligible quantities.

with a

This is true of un of culture. or newly developing communities, as developed well as those that have become dwarfed, stunted or static on account of the sterility of the soil. But

minimum

the reverse

is

also true.
is

fluences are congenial to agriculture, thriving

and climatic in com munities spring up. Our great Middle West owes its wealth to the vast areas devoted to grain grow The vicinity of large towns renders civiliz ing. and refining influences easy of access. In our ing own country, where a great foreign element is

Where

the soil

well drained

engaged in the cultivation of the soil, the type of the older generation differs from that of the
younger. The gap between the old and the young widens. Problems of adjustment spring up and many tense situations are created. The student
nature, the writer, seizes upor^Jfeese Hamfor the creation of dramatic stories. aspects lin Garland in his excellent little collection, "Main
of

human

Travelled Roads" has made a study of this type. In the days when the Mississippi boats plied up and down the river the li^ on the decks became

markedly

characteristic.

Mark Twain,

in his en-

8

THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY
"Life

tertaining v/alume,
this phased

on the

Mississippi"

treats

The kinds of industries adopted by people vary with their proximity to bodies of water. Important cities like Chicago, New Orleans and New York
their prosperity to the fact of favorable geo graphic location. They themselves radiate their influence over vast areas in their vicinity.

owe

They

literary centers, broadly speaking, culture centers. In some cases, as, for instance, in the case of New York, a city assumes

become

art

centers,

position over the entire country. the Atlantic to the Pacific, from the Great Lakes to the Mexican border its financial opera

a

commanding

From

tions

and

its

art products send

wave on wave of
lives.

jWhere the congested into a comparatively nar row area, social problems arise. The difference be tween the rich and the poor is greatly intensi
population
is

influence into countless

human

fied, because, on the one hand, the opportunities for spending wealth in a city are very numerous and the possibilities of degradation almost un

In the social and moral scale there al seems to be a one step lower. Thus count ways less types are created, running a human gauntlet from the luxury- wearied and pleasure-bored aris
limited.

tocrat to the flotsam

and jetsam of the

city streets,

the

human wrecks

that form on the bread line after
effects of isolation,

midnight.

iWe have dwelt so far on the

LOCALITIES AND TYPES
climate

We

and topography on the human character > have seen how man is reshaped in his manner

It of living through agencies beyond his control. remains to be seen how the interplay of man and

man and
industries

the influence of

man-made

institutions,

and occupations

affect the individual

and

humanity. In the early days of 49 when canvas-covered wagons followed a long trail westward to the gold mines of California, the far West had not yet found itself. Every incoming caravan brought a new host of adventurers. Law and order were
not firmly established. rough justice prevailed which often proved more cruel than it intended
to be.

collective units of

A

In the new

life all possible

tendencies for

good and for evil had free play. If a man desired to go to the devil he could go his own way pro vided he did not shoulder the wrong man once
too often.

The

lust

for gold

and the love of

woman, the pride of the pioneer, the rage of the whisky-maddened brute, the justice of the red wood gallows, all played their part in the new theater of dazzling opportunities, sudden wealth and baffled hopes. No wonder that the vogue of
wild-west fiction lasts so long. There are so many romantic and realistic combinations possible that

an author of even moderate fertility of invention never finds a dearth of picturesque material in that
quarter.
i
1

See

"The

Outcasts of Poker

Flat"

Bret Harte.

10

THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY
The cotton
fields of
life

a typical community

the South not only favored on the part of the negro

but an ingrained aristocratic exclusiveness on the part of their masters. The former, wallowing about in the cabins of the negro quarter, lived a

Sometimes plaintive their voices rose to the tunes of the banjo, sad, sometimes in a crescendo of hilarity they screamed encouragement to their buck and wing dancers.
life

of animal satisfaction.

and

The masters, accustomed to being served on every occasion, developed a formalism and courtesy found only in the courts of powerful rulers. "With their
equals always neighborly, social, convivial, they were patronizing or haughty with their inferiors,
as the

mood seized them. The factory towns of the past and present have done their share in modifying and creating types. Life is bounded on both sides by a factory whistle.

A monotony of routine prevails in which the human
being becomes a mechanism for the production of wealth, hardly a man with the full enjoyment of his powers. Passions are either subdued or break out inordinately. Tragedies are plentiful. Wives

and mothers deal with the drink problem in the concrete and all strive to drive the gaunt wolf of poverty a few inches further from the door. In agricultural areas and in tracts devoted to cow and sheep herding, the typical farmer and
the grazer are developed. They are simple folk whose joys are few and elementary, whose round

Every click of the telegraph. reflected in their move- . altogether out of their element. Edward Stewart White are only two writers who have seen the possibilities in this field. stenographers. unless they are at their work The short-story writer depicts or talking about it. The world of business. secre office is bookkeepers and of the financial world The excitement boys. Employed in undertakings varying from world-wide enterprises to little local deals is a tremendous office force of managers. with its vast machinery of our of finance types. When not within reaching distance of a large town or a city they be come men of ingrained characteristics. as sistants. in each one of which sits a man or men whose sole object is to manipulate what money they have to make more. every ring of the telephone. them either on their native soil or facing for the first time the unfamiliar life of the city. Some most picturesque characters in fiction are 0.LOCALITIES AND TYPES of life familiarizes 11 them with certain set duties which have to be performed. every quotation on the tape of the ticker during business hours makes some modification in someone s fortunes. taries. toiling. clerks. is Nowhere are responsible for so many certain distinctive human devices em tele ployed as for the facilitation of trade. Henry and the cow-punchers of the ranches. typewriters. The phone and the telegraph keep up an interminable Office buildings rise to dizzy heights and are partitioned off into little coops.

typography. justice. for whose features are exactly alike. climate. self-sacrifice. sys records inalterably the effect of all stimuli exerted upon it we can When we remember is that the human nervous tem very plastic and that it get some notion of the numerous character com binations possible in fiction.12 ments. depending A of the on the point of view of the principal actor and community in which he lives. a new variant is ever pos sible. depend for their full th play on the nature of outer stimuli and on nature of the reacting human being. anger. ambi tion. jealousy. hate. he environment. however. Just as there are no two human beings possibility. industries and occupations change the tyabits or the nature of man by creating distincfive types. The world- old passions of love. \^M All of the forces outlined here. THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY The earth revolves about the sun and they revolve in individual orbits about their respective businesses. loyalty. isolation. certain situation will be met in a hundred different ways. Without the would be a shadow. . fictional Every distinctive type means a new although the emotions themselves are old. Locate situations in def inite environments with fixed ways of looking at things and fixed modes of living and you will have a study of a concrete human being. The differ entia will be his own temperament. so there are no two persons who will meet an emotional crisis in exactly the same way.

LOCALITIES AND TYPES
Without
it

13

an author could never convey an im

no detail too trifling pression of reality. There is and no detail too vast for the faithful recording
of a

human

life.

Just as the best theater managers

look to the numerous minutiae of stage setting to make the drama realistic, so the writer of fic
tion to

make

ters not as ghosts

but as

men

must see his charac about in a dream haze moving of flesh and blood pursuing their call
his tale plausible
"The

ings in definite communities. Canby truly says in his book,
in
English,"
"And

Short Story

as the peculiarly geographical
civilization

development of our

and the general

shifting of social standards and social orders which marks the end of the nineteenth century, pro for its ceeded, more and more fields were opened up use. ^So after all Harte was (the short story s)

here right; it was the treatment of life, as it was the vogue of the short in America, which began
1
story."
i

Canby:

"The

Short Story in

English,"

p. 297.

CHAPTER

II

THE POINT OF CONTACT BETWEEN THE SHORT STORY AND THE LOCALITY

Now

that

determine

localities

we have considered the forces that and types of men and women

we are prepared to go a step further. What is the point of contact between the locality and the short story as an art form? Is the localization of a
story

an
is
"

essential

or

a

non-essential

process?

gained by giving the characters of our fiction a local habitation and a name"?

What

^The short-story writer if he artist desires isyan to create a definite impressionX Since the work
of tion of

Edgar Allan Poe, beginning with the publica "Berenice" in 1835 this has been an ac
In his re
"Hawthorne s
Tales"

cepted canon of short-story writing.

view of
"A

Poe says in part:

skillful literary artist has constructed a tale. If wise, he has not fashioned his thoughts to ac commodate his incidents; but having conceived

with deliberate care, a certain unique or single effect to be wrought out, he then invents such in cidents he then combines such events as may best
aid
i

him

in establishing his preconceived effect.
s

1

Graham

Magazine, May, 1835.

14

THE SHORT STORY AND LOCALITY
In one of the
the Short
latest an^rbest treatises
1

15

on

"Writing

Berg Esenwein, A.M., Story," by the editor of Lippincott s Monthly Maga Lit.D., zine, a man well acquainted with modern prac stated: tice, the following law is categorically
J.

short story produces a singleness of effect denied to the novel.

To produce

this effect,

however,

is

no easy matter.

It requires a peculiar

story real within a limited compass. Unlike the novelist the shortstory writer cannot build a character laboriously
that will tend to

power make the

to focus all elements

by showing

to the reader bit

by

bit the

many con

The introduction of the short story must be brief to the characters and vivid. No surplus detail can be added be
cerns of his most intimate
life.

yond those barely necessary
desired
lifelike.
effect.

to bring

about the

The

yet the impression must be moment we realize that the short

And

story

one dealing with puppets and marion ettes pulled by a visible string we leave the sorry
is

To identify the persons of exhibition in disgust. the fictitious drama with the men and women of
the

workaday world the writer

is

forced to show

their actions in relation to those of other prob

able persons.
setting.

Hence the short story must have a
a

Locality furnishes
i

great

number

of pictur-

J.

Berg Esenwein,

"Writing

the Short

Story"

Hinds

&

Noble, 1909.

16

THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY

esque settings. Writers do not hesitate at the pres ent day to make a first hand study of the localities

they intend to employ in works of fiction. Kirk Munro, a writer of Juveniles, and Jack London, the novelist, are only two of a great body that travel widely to do this. Nowadays no reputable
writer, for instance, would think of writing a short story that deals with the West unless he knows his

ground. Fred Lockley, the manager of the Pacific Monthly in an article for The Editor on Why They Come Back" quotes from an unsuc cessful short story and adds his comment
:

describing the cowboy the writer says: He was clothed in thick ominous buckskin, and at his either side hung pistols, their shining barrels pro truding out of their cases. The cowboy looked at
"In

the teacher with sheer astoundment
"Well

and remarked

:

I

m

blowed!"

as he fingered one of his shin

ing .42 s/ In the first place, I don t know how buckskin would go about it to look ominous; in the next place, they don t have thin, shining bar rels. They are blue steel and heavy barreled. Also they don t stick out of their cases for two
reasons, the first reason being that the case is called the holster, and the next reason being that the
holster is

made long enough

to

fit

the barrel, for
if it

the barrel would be sure to catch

protruded

out of the holster. Also, a cowboy usually uses a .44 caliber gun, or gat as they are usually termed. How he could finger a *. 42 is a mystery,

the convincing touch. American writers have used numerous localities. as has been shown. detail later. Wilkins and Bret Harte have used the setting as part of the story. ^Writers Page. demands It has been shown that the lo of effect. unity to secure this by making the setting cality helps The short v and real. can belled to mistake a paste jewel for a real diamond.42 caliber revolver. Among those that can be cited for the deep interest they lend to their stories are : South in Ante-Bellum Days/ &quot. be argued.THE SHORT STORY AND LOCALITY 17 because no one ever heard of a .&quot. The skillfully action is not only properly set off but it is directly like influenced through the conditions hypothesized by This will be shown in greater the environment. for the simple reason they are not manufactured in that size. . the atmosphere of reality. It has also been indicated how a false touch or ignorance can succeed in destroy vivid ing the necessary illusion. &quot.The New &quot. i Poe. is a The Editor. November. 1 It is evident that neither the reader nor his guardian. 1910. it may p. Klf the short-story writer desires to have a picturesque setting he must know Then his story will have his locality thoroughly. the editor.The Mining Town of 49. As backgrounds.The Itagland Homestead. 197. story.&quot. At first glance it might seem that the work of Edgar Allan Poe himself is a contradiction to what has been set forth.

soulthis earth depressing.The Fall of. melancholy. but the creations of his fancy be long nowhere. Locate the story in a happy valley of Cali and you rob it of that broods over to invent a you exorcise the atmosphere of evil it and lends it unique distinction. l// The setting of Poe s stories is in no place on but in a spot consistently built up by his wonderful imagination. each one decorated in a bizarre chromatic scheme.18 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY Locality. One need only begin &quot. the House of Usher&quot. story. not the all- important influence in shaping a successful short stoy. to realize that the landscape is veiled in a haze of the author s own making. flood it with sunshine all its effect. fornia. is Southern writer. the rotting timbers of the mansion and the dull leaden sky. with its tripod of light . Somber. it harmonizes with the mood of the Crime and sin festering in a human con science are set off by the dreary marshland. therefore. In the &quot. How much the story gains in power through the vivid picturing of the scene those who have read it can testify. ^But such reasoning overlooks the fact that in his works there is a substitute for locality. It is atmosphere.Masque of the Red Death&quot. Poe is forced wonderful palace with a suite of re markable rooms. Personally I confess to a thrill whenever I read about the final stand of the prince against the Red Death in the Seventh Chamber.

. Wilkins has given us a very good story about this theme in A New England Nun. cause Poe It is a poor substitute. mainly on action and cessitate a characterization. was forced to employ &quot. although he did not make use any definite locality. 1 Bret * i Wilkins : &quot. She deliberately breaks an engagement for that reason.A New England Nun and Other Stories. is She finds that such an act of sacrifice easy for her.THE SHORT STORY AND LOCALITY 19 in the corridor streaming through a red window on the black draperies within. For ex supplies ample.&quot. however. of Poe. Mary E. for verisimilitude. therefore. Her New England conscience and the attitude of her fellow villagers toward similar problems render this action probable and realistic.&quot. be most earnest partisans will not claim for him that he succeeded in investing his stories with the impression of reality. a girl may wish to remain single in her New England home because her many years of spinsterhood have decided her habits irrevocably. The most that can be said of them from the standpoint of locality is that they obey the laws of their own imaginary domain.at s mosphere. It Locality a peculiar source of motivation. Other demands of short story craftsmanship ne thorough knowledge of the locality in which the story is placed because the short story depends. diversifies both. Within those limitations they are con sistent.

The Outcasts of Poker Flat&quot. hotel on Broadway and amid the noise of the street cars unravels itself before us. These charac ters are all of a type to be found in the days when municipalities of the far West were The petty thief. Luck Four &quot. One cannot be detached from the other without render ing it all flat and insipid. affects Surely the keen a typical New Yorker. the story opens with a view of the park benches and of the climate their lolling occupants.The Assessor of Success&quot. 2 &quot. &quot. In one of 0.The the of key to Roaring 0. A snowstorm arises one typical and the story goes on to its pathetic conclusion. Here the environment. Henry s stories 2 a young man is introduced who makes his living by swindling the people with whom he comes in contact. 1 would have been improbable anywhere except in A newly settled com its own peculiar setting. Poker Flat&quot. 1 &quot. is decidedly part of the web of the story itself. The scene is laid in the neighborhood of Union Square. his operations are hardly is locality furnishes is the the character and &quot.Outcasts of Camp&quot. . fisher for human dupes In the roar of traffic Here again the noticed.THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY Harte s story. and the woman of the demi-monde are all very the little characteristic. motive. munity expels all the bad people of the town during a sudden wave of reform.The Million&quot. the setting. takes us to a &quot. the gambler just springing up.flashy&quot. from Bret Harte. from Henry.

Clark. therefore. There is as much of the universal human nature in an Indiana town as in Thacker ay s London or Balzac s Paris. other things his . and the source of one main merit in all our recent It may have led to some wild scrambles fiction. secondly. of effect and thirdly it diversifies action and charac by depicting men and their^actions as by a peculiar environment. locality has been both the stimulus thjg? scene of plot development. is threefold: locality furnishes a picturesque setting and aids realism the locality makes possible unity . and V^The the point of contact between the short story and First. Ward its comic aspects but it is really a sign of health. The true cos mopolite. The influence of locality in creating the modern short story has been variously recognized by writers and critics. is the man who knows own parish. the locality. A few citations from different sources will perhaps serve to illustrate some other points terization affected of view. And. and has signalled to him the truth that honest.Now this cult of the god of local color has Mr. accurate observation will dis cover the stuff of fiction anywhere. speaking of the widespread use color says: of local &quot.THE SHORT STORY AND LOCALITY the solution of the situation. for the unoccupied sites but on the other hand it has taught many a young author to look for his material at home. one remembers. 21 In all the three in stances cited.

&quot. Not so uncertain is the time when they became most popular with English and American readers. Again the rising popularity of the short story has been paralleled quite exactly by the growth of interest in special and peoples 2 places. July.&quot. Article on p. p. 487.&quot. the Indiana town has or at least once had the advantage for us all of being com paratively fresh and novel.The Short in Story English. Furthermore. but the history of.THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY being equal. .&quot. and distinctive qualities of scene.To He say says: when such narratives begin is to court disaster. 1910. Prof. is not hard to understand why local color has played such a part in the short story of this The technique invented by Poe is thor period. since of is essential for good description. 1 From The Bookman. 319. the latter part of the nineteenth century. to wit. Local color for its own sake has no place in a story. the human creature in a new environment that will always afford a vision of 1 possibilities. Canby.It oughly adapted to catch and record the superficies life. attributes the use of local color in the short story to the development of the new tech nique. Edward White by Ward Clark.&quot. in his book. the much in little of the nineteenth century short story pro vides the easiest of means for getting observation brevity into readable form. Stewart 2 Canby: &quot. &quot. and particularly idiosyncrasies of habit. &quot.The Short Story in English.

. iW. L. summar cism. Within thirty. forty or fifty pages you have to convey to the reader a perfectly distinct and self: W. &quot. Courtney: &quot. Its art is bound to be some vari ety of impressionism. centered narrative. Fiction. 200.&quot.&quot. Think of the conditions.&quot. Courtney in his volume of criti Feminine Note in Fiction.The izes the need of locality to the modern short story in these words &quot.The Feminine Note in p. idea or impression.There must always be something pictorial in the short story.THE SHORT STORY AND LOCALITY Finally 23 L.

the short story. v The faults in Hawthorne s stories. a long time New England practically meant It is not surprising. But in spite of Poe tial these patent defects. are obvious. VThe first notable interpreter of New England in fiction was Nathaniel Hawthorne. along with s. A great deal of irrelevant matter is introduced in the form of description and moralizing.CHAPTER IN OLD III NEW ENGLAND America. that it exercised so profound an influence upon an art FOR form that developed much faster here than in the mother country. as looked at from the modern standpoint. The same problems of conscience that stirred his an cestors to a more pronounced dogmatism found in 24 . the unity of impressionism which is so essen a characteristic of the good short story of to day. In some respects the influence of New England on Hawthorne was greater than that on any one of his contemporaries. The passing of the sterner Puritanism had left its deep trace upon him. his stories possess. The movement is therefore too frequently retarded. therefore.

others the peculiarities. This aspect of Hawthorne actual 1 &quot. conscience. than its &quot. &quot. Pub. Professors Wendell and Greenough make this statement : he grew to be of all our writers the least The circum imitative. . 350. 1904. Con cord and Boston all his life. America&quot. when he acted as consul.&quot. it will be remembered that he lived in the neighborhood of Salem. Hawthorne was a delicate receptive agent of the its over spiritual inheritance of New England. at least in the phases we have 1 known.IN OLD NEW ENGLAND 25 him an artistic expression. the attitude toward life of the people in their localities. the most surely individual.Thus stances of his life combined with the sensitiveness of his nature to make else his individuality indigenous.&quot. Wendell and Greenough. he expresses the deepest temper Beyond anyone of that New England race which brought him forth. In their &quot. Some writers notice wrought religious the features of landscape about them. the characteristic traits.visible forms.History s work as well as his observation for literary purposes of the of Literature in P.History of Literature in America. ^Bawthorne seized the very essence of their natures and s through wrought To him the locality in which he lived connoted more it his artistry into short stories. It must be remembered that Hawthorne spent fifty years of his life in one Aside from the time spent in Europe locality. seems vanishing from the earth. and which now.

locality in tion. was retained under the care of the latter. are entering at the church Pearson and Dorothy separated at the door of the meeting house. shows Hawthorne s attitude toward Puritan New England. He was a sweet infant of the skies that had strayed away from his home. drew back their earth-soiled garments from his touch. Pearson. Highly imaginative though spirit of the times. We are holier than thou. . illustra &quot.Twice Told Tales&quot. it is. closed &quot. Ilbrahim. L. and all the inhabitants of this miserable world up their impure hearts against him. A. It is a powerful study of Puritan persecution against the Quakers.The Gentle Boy&quot. 63. the mild-featured maidens seemed to dread con tamination. being within the years of infancy. Burt. P. and many a stern old man arose and turned his repulsive and unheavenly countenance upon the gentle boy. it is true to the The characters are New Englanders of a bygone generation when a stern and active fanaticism had not yet been replaced by moral rigidity only. The wrinkled beldams involved them even selves in their rusty cloaks as he passed by. i &quot.&quot. and Ilbrahim. as if the sanctuary were pol luted by his presence. his wife and the Quaker door: 1 lad. and x said.26 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY which he lived require some . Here is a picture of Puritan intolerance from The Gentle Boy.

Rill cally focused: &quot. stories and sketches are almost purely de lowing scriptive. landscape studies through a lens s Ramble.Little Annie from the Town &quot. and &quot.&quot. is ernment of Andros. thither she came to cast herself upon the floor. a study of the Puri tan asserting his rights against the tyrannical gov Gray Champion&quot.&quot.IN OLD The desire NEW ENGLAND martyrdom implanted in 27 the is for breasts of those exposed to bitter persecution thus depicted : &quot. artisti &quot. the representative of James II.The is masterly.Gentle Boy&quot. Quaker spirit.The Pump. It illustrates ad A mirably Hawthorne s peculiar mastery of subjective . &quot. index of their contents.&quot. although equally firm. The titles themselves are almost a sufficient characteristic bit of description from one of them might not be out of place. the conflict is between the harsh Puritan nature and the sweeter. and whenever a dungeon was unbarred.&quot.Sights from a Steeple.Catherine s the sundering of all fanaticism had become wilder by human ties. and wherever a scourge was lifted.&quot. In the &quot. there was she to receive the blow. although his descriptions are The fol ever colored or modified by his fancy. Hawthorne s grasp of the feelings manifested by both parties in the un equal combat &quot. There is no want of evidence that Hawthorne was a good observer. Village Uncle.The Toll-Gatherer s Day.

my mouth waters. majestic masses fit to be bridal loaves at the wedding of an heiress. It is true that Hawthorne s sense of locality is dimly suggested but this is to be expected from an author whose characteristic atmosphere is one of half lights and shadows. their summits deeply snow covered with sugar. Burt & Co. but we will not be tempted nie. heart shaped or round. whether rich mince with whole plums intermixed. written in many moods can be adduced to illustrate the impression which his environment made upon him. &quot. their contents be ing a mystery. . moun kisses . nor are his scenes highly subjective as they are. 103. revel on the dainties of a confectioner those pies with such white and flaky paste. named those dark. piled in a lofty pyramid those sweet little circlets sweetly . . other than pictures from the Geography of Dreams. Perhaps his characters are never real flesh and blood.&quot. or piquant apple delicately roseflavored those cakes.28 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY It is taken from &quot. P. little An so doth yours. so let us hasten on except and ward devouring the vision of a plum cake. tains in size. Oh. But there is no i &quot. . spiritually and from the standpoint of subjective observation.Here is a shop to which the recollections of my boyhood as well as present partialities give a pe How delightful to let the fancy culiar magic. . Ramble&quot.Twice Told Tales&quot. to an imaginary feast.Little Annie and pictures a candy shop: s description. 1 Numerous descriptive passages. .

Hawthorne built/ the finished structure. American Note of description. he once wrote: have another great difficulty in the lack of materials for I have seen so little of the world that I have nothing but thin air to concoct my stories of. Fortunately the public has had a chance to study these in the volumes known as &quot. He made the best of thN in one section entailed enforced provincialism which his long residency upon him. I have caught a glimpse of the real world.&quot. watched the pageant passing before him with theeye of a dreamer but noted details with the skillful characters his accuracy of a journalist. in which tiny bits and imagination are jotted down. is from among his own countrymen and. and the two or three articles in which I have portrayed these glimpses please me better than the others. &quot. he kept careful note books. He. musing Books. ^There is no doubt that in many of his short stories and novels he chose models for his. . was deeply influenced by the history and fortunes In the stories and sketches al of New England. To Longfellow . It is clear thaj: frequently from these bare hints.I . as well as in many others. from his own experiences and observations. .IN OLD NEW ENGLAND 29 doubt whatsoever that the heart of his locality in them. It is interesting to notice the topics Hawthorne his &quot. Desirous of investing work with reality. Sometimes. through a peep hole.Note thought worthy of jotting down in .&quot. he drew : ready named.

6. A A They are as follows and back. drive to Ipswich a country tavern char acters sitting there a graveyard visit numerous A studies for future stories. Comment on the appearance of oaks in an autumnal wood on a sermon heard hints for stories. 1. his physical topics as to subject matter. It will be noted that the hints for stories are ini Hawthorne : &quot. a hint of a story.The American Note Books. 8. ride to Boston a stop at an inn in East Boston 4. . comment on the characters found there.&quot. &quot. A walk through Dark Lane and home through 1 the village of Danvers landscape described meet ing house in Danvers described miscellaneous thoughts and studies for sketches and stories. Comment on the appearance of elm trees in miscellaneous reflections suggested by September his reading. 7. walk down to the shore in Salem descrip and sea. A tion of the sky 9. A children playing. A drive to Nahant comment on physiognomy . Principally hints for stories and sketches of a highly fanciful nature.30 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY They are a sufficient index of what in environment impressed him most For purposes of reference I have classified his first ten Books. noted landscape 3.Weather : walk in North Salem. walk to the seashore 2.&quot. the appearance of the sea 5. 10.

lt. he has reacted on his locality. that he has read aright the Puritan temperament. inner life. Robert Morss Lovett. as far as can be discovered. be allowed to draw the inference that Hawthorne stories took a great deal of the actual material for short and sketches from personal observation. Mr.IN OLD NEW ENGLAND We 31 may terspersed among his other observations. some times of the present day. The inner significance of his outward world. . he says himself in what is generally considered one of his best short stories. In the deepest and fullest sense. see how the same New England has impressed other writers. Rappaccini s Daughter (referring to Aubepine. Hawthorne was influenced by : Hawthorne &quot. He confirms the \ his locality. that he understands&quot. the mythical author of the story. concerning the signifi cance of Hawthorne idea that 1 s short story. / We shall f therefore. .Rappaccini s Daughter. of Of his art course. way. and sometimes.His fictions are sometimes Hawthorne him historical. tents himself with a very slight embroidery of out ward manners. the faintest possible counterfeit of real life. have little or no reference either In any cas-e he generally con to time or space. and endeavors to create an interest by some less obvious peculiarity of the subject/ We have seen then that Hawthorne reflects his environment in his own. but before going on to them it might not its &amp. received the greatest attention.&quot. be amiss to quote a paragraph from a modern critic. a thinly disguised veil for self) : i i * &quot.

but a great deal of interesting matter is to be found colicern- first ing the roads and the inns of the early days. they set the type which the American short story has in the main followed. has most fineness of flavor. in. August. in Reader. 1824 and it was sevi Robert Morss Lovett: &quot. tin &amp.&quot. 1 to mention three writers among three hundred. 1905.lt.On Hawthorne s Short Story&quot.who They are William Aus Neither onelsrpreeminently a great or e veil a -good short-story writer but their work requires some mention because it and Harriet Beecher Stowe. in the life of that corner of the world. like Poe s mechanical horrors. They ally embody in art that which. The main char acter is partly real.Hawthorne deals centricities of conscience with moral problems and ec which might be said. and del icacy and distinction and charm. . of Bret Harte. the Missing Man. of Mr. In their localism too. V William shows the influence of the older New England. Austin is chiefly noted for his story &quot.32 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY &quot. There are two writers of the pre-modern era 7 (the era of imperfect technique) in New England.Peter Rugg.the tales of Miss Wilkins. Garland. partly mythical. They are the exclusive chief contribution of the fiction new world to the world s absolutely native and national. to have no necessary or home and yet his tales are characteristic and unmistakably of New England. The part was printed in Buckingham s New Eng land Galaxy. require some mention. September 10.

week. no more to be with Boston than a wigwam with a compared palace.&quot. : is but a sorry affair. there. New York in those days was probably not the center of importance to the coun try that it is to-day. g. drawn with sympathy and humor.Sam 7 of a little Massachusetts village in Norfolk county. jXfeich more important than this story in reflecting the older New England for us is the work of Har riet Her two volumes. 33 eral times reprinted entire. 7 in the Boston Book for 1841. One character. Poh. though I was never am told you might put all New York mill pond (Boston s). ^Since Mrs. each reeling off a serial story. The following extract from &quot. No. says.The Ghost in the matter was. &quot. The Stories! time is about 1800 and the types shown are those Beecher Stowe. runs through all the stories. They include Indians. a story teller. and &quot.In those days we had no magazines and daily Once a papers. New York. Rugg &quot. Sam Lawson. The Columbian Sentinel came from Boston . &quot. sir.IN OLD NEW ENGLAND e. indicates how scarce reading pecially of the lighter kind. in our New York is nothing. I I assure you. es Mill. Stowe was born in 1812 it is not improbable that her sketches are the result of personal observation. Hibernians and English. In the course of the story.Oldtown Lawson s Oldtown Fireside Folks/ are pictures of a bygone society.

narrative and which keep the mind of the present poetical gen eration ablaze with excitement had not then even all the multiform devices an existence. and shut us forever into the &quot. down dark at half past four o clock sity of and left the long. The following paragraph shows to . same volume. s Stowe stories in the superstitious belief among the simple New Eng land folk of the early nineteenth century forms the theme of the story.How wilderness. Along the iron-bound shore. the neces amusement became loneliness of early : urgent.In those days of early Massachusetts faith and credence was in the very air. is thus depicted &quot. There was no theater. Two thirds of New The New England England was then dark and unbroken forests. the annual election or Thanksgiving festi val and when winter came and the sun went . hours of evening to be provided for.&quot. except perhaps. to Fight the Devil&quot. there were in Oldtown no parties or balls. It tells of a practical joke that went The tendency astray. but pictorial. through whose tangled paths the mysterious win ter wind groaned and shrieked and howled with weird noises and unaccountable clamors.34 with THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY its slender stock of news and editorial. is another one of Mrs. the stormful Atlantic raved and thundered. no opera. and dashed its moaning waters as if to deaden and deafen any voice that might tell of the settled life of the old civilized world.&quot.

peculiarity. short story. 1 Now Mrs. .IN OLD how these beliefs NEW ENGLAND affected 35 the nomenclature of places in the neighborhood.&quot. The Devil s Punch Bowl/ The Devil s Wash the most beautiful We shall who have pass on to a group of three writers treated of New England in the modern now We shall see how each one of these. Charles Freeman. Stowe s interest was mainly pictorial.In Bowl/ The Devil s Kettle/ The Devil s Pulpit/ and The Devil s Den/ have been designations that marked places or objects of some striking natural Often these are found in the midst of and romantic scenery. or other natural object whose singularity would seem to suggest a more than mortal occupancy. Mrs. was impressed by her environment. by his name some particular rock or cave. Miss Wilkins. almost every New England village the per sonality of Satan has been acknowledged by calling &quot. 1 Miss Jewett and Miss Brown. and the sinister name seems to have no effect in lessening its attractions. Unlike Hawthorne s.

We cannot assume that a few generations have completely transformed the 36 .CHAPTER IV IN MODERN NEW ENGLAND FOR some of peculiar psychologic reason. pecially irksome to the more volatile them a deeper spiritual impression. the fact that aside from Since the era of the Puritan. once used liberally on the backs of men. But character undergoes a slower change than practice. Per haps it is because the life of New England with its barrenness of esthetic inspiration has been es Hav sex. The bitter fanaticism which condemned men to the stake for differences in creed is gone. The whip. Sarah Orne Jewett and Alice Brown. is now employed sparingly even on horses. ing made upon it may have found a more ready and more skill ful literary expression. the importance of the purely religious element in the life of New England has dwindled. the field New England three women. lative portraiture has been monopolized They are Mary Wilkins Free But this is merely specu and suggested by Hawthorne Mthe New England short story of to day represents a triumph of feminine achievement. by man.

his manner.o life. odern . tudy him how the old tempera are ini To Mrs. New England man- nerisms peculiarities of conscience. is farmer a descendant of the to see Puritan. were gone. * &quot. is calle circle.IN MODERN NEW ENGLAND 37 Puritan attitude. disappeared after the religious issues.A inten npt a comprehensive gen Nun&quot. his keen religious conscience. y the : She will dpc and c&amp. ks an example. prim and methodical. So the strength of the Puritan. It is not .The . them as a blend of heredity and the study of of view. We musjLMJidlBF e that the tremendous strength of char^aeter^wnich originally drove them to a new country. His bearing. upon which it had been freely Take. Freeman we ged.present Miss Wilkins eral survey. once struggling so great problems of church and indomitably w to master the vexing but petty state. who had become so . is New Engmnd the story of a typical old maid. a gen exercised.c and industrial environment. Although he moves about in a friendly and peaceable social he is still the general. eral who has come back fronJthe wars.lt. the intonation of his speech are not sud denly dropped. thful portrayal of the type. tangles &quot.uch to make an exhaustive it find his habitual point re be more profitable to characteristic stories of ^.

Then she went into the garden with a little blue crock ery bowl to pick some currants for her tea. from long use and constant association. Now she quilted : her needle carefully into her work. which she folded precisely. and laid in a basket with her thimble and thread and scissors. used to her single great skill Miss Wilkins pictures her queer neat ways and her horror of having anything The rough boots of a man would work disarranged. Louisa tied a green apron round her waist. She gladly relinquishes an opportunity to marry. Louisa Ellis could not remem ber that ever in her life she had mislaid one of these little feminine appurtenances. and got out a flat straw hat with a green ribbon. She looked sharply at the grass step beside the step to see if any had fallen there. contented and thoroughly inured to the life of petty . This is almost a perfect picture of spinsterhood. After the currants were picked she sat on the back door and stemmed them. be cause it would take her out of the orbit of habit. a very part of her personality.She had been peacefully sewing at her sitting. which had be come. havoc with the carpet and the freshly scoured little With floor. collecting the stems care fully in her apron. and afterwards throwing them into the hencoop. room window all the afternoon. The following is a deft bit of characterization &quot.38 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY life and its regular routine that the prospect of a change appalls her.

had been so life was is That well-known type. She loves her herbs The principal character.life to use Shaw s expression.A Gatherer of Simples. &quot. such a type is by no mean^rare. turn.&quot. . Freeman has succeeded not in drawing an old maid of her own locality but in sounding the very depth of a unconscious tragedy. Affection and spinster s mother love have been turned into a passion for neatness in trivialities. Myrtie. force. the see in such a picture the universal particular. whom she adopts. is a study with a rich capacity for love almost atrophied under the desiccating influence of a very narrow village environment. of a woman before chance brings the form of a human love into her life in little girl. Where young men of the marrying kind are few and maidens many.Viny drank in the story as if it much nourishing jelly. In picturing the delight with which Viny.&quot.IN duties MODERN NEW ENGLAND We in 39 and observations. this &quot. In the struggle for the ultimate possession of the child all her pent-up affection bursts out.&quot. one of the minor characters. Lack of wide interests and cheerful ing effect of a life society and the stunt of routine are well portrayed. Aurelia Flower. Freeman writes: &quot. Mrs. In another story. Her too narrow killing her as much as anything else. takes another Instead of spending itself in a round of do mestic duties it turns to an absorbing avocation. an invalid. Mrs. the kitchen drudge. hears a bit of news.

still is sweetened by a touch of ro tin peddler. her feet spread beyond their natural bounds from head to foot she was a little discor dant note.&quot. and her expression was at once passive and eager.Her shoulders bent. Dull.40 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY title the main character in the &quot. were pointed and knobby. She had a pale. minuteness of detail and intense reality is it not comparable to the justly celebrated paintings of the Dutch masters? Poor Sally appears in all her gauntness. In the introductory paragraphs the at her work. in those farmers . which her rolledup sleeves displayed. toil shown The physical : results of her protracted are vividly portrayed finger joints and wrist bones were knotty and out of proportion. Often they rode for a mile or two through the lovely fresh woods without coming to a single house.&quot. mance when she marries a &quot. drab daylight and gray reality ! Her life.light that never was on land or sea.&quot. girl is Humble Romance. Not an its In angle nor a straight line nor a hideous knot is soft ened by the glow of the &quot. fair hair was strained tightly back and twisted into a tiny knot. all her pitiful awkwardness.Their way The country. It tin peddler lay through a thinly settled found readier customers wives who were far from stores.A story of her volume. peaked face. however. was late spring. her scanty. her &quot. her elbows.

is not the He .Father&quot. is a man whose way of living had tightened up his tongue and cramped his soul. the son. is &quot. His speaks seldom and then silence.Mother&quot. As its name indicates it is a study It presents a faith of strained domestic relations. are reproduced with great fidelity to life. &quot. and &quot. ful picture of New England life.&quot. the father.The girl had never heard of Arcadia. narrating the re volt of a woman who had for forty years sub jugated her own will to that of her husband. but very little.The Revolt of Mother. The stooping figure at the kitchen sink might well be placed side by side with that other delineation of Toil Brutaliz ing Man The Man with the Hoe.Sammy. The romance is certainly humble.IN MODERN NEW ENGLAND 41 &quot.&quot. as well as &quot. Adoniram. content to leave his family in sordid quar ters while he continues putting up outhouses and is He sheds for his cattle. The story depends for its main interest on the evolution of the soul of a kitchen drudge from the numbness caused by the narrowness and hostility her farmhouse environment. considered by many among the best ever written. but all unexpressed to herself she was riding through it under gold-green boughs to the sweet broken jang ling of tinware. of to be One of her very best stories.&quot. the characters come from a low walk of life but the power of the writer and her sincere grasp of the truth are a constant source of gripping interest. however.

He hustled the collar on to her neck with a jerk. I want to know over in the field for. Father! &quot.&quot. What What is it? are them men diggin over there in the field for? &quot. I wish you d go into the house. Father! The old man slapped the saddle upon the mare back. father. The opening of the story is impressive. he shut his mouth tight and went on harnessing the great bay mare. He ran his words together and his speech was al most as inarticulate as a growl. &quot. This passage illustrates a type of mind dwelling in a twilight or darkness of its own making. . s Look men to are diggin here. of the old There was a sudden dropping and enlarging man s face as if some heavy weight had settled therein. an what them I m goin know. The two main characters at once reveal their natures not only in what they do but in what they fail to do : &quot. mother. Som ber. &quot. curt and brutal. the old man said then.42 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY silence of restraint but the silence of a spirit that has been dulled and brutalized by the unvarying sequences of rigorous farm labors. Adoniram reflects the dead ening of the spirit which results from the daily grind. &quot. and tend to your own affairs.

&quot. soul starvation. in the main. as we have like had her inspiration from Mrs. 19. can be readily seen its mind reacted on sympathy of touch she group. more calm. are in a higher social order than Mrs. Free man s. has re New England and corded her observation in story form with deep insight. her outlook on life is more even. 1910. Seldom does she stray from her Maine villages and New sympathy and England back grounds. rigidity. Xov. . like her. York - Times. .New all. delineate men. Miss Jewett is an artist of a high order. but she is by no means less able to Her rural The Puritan just seen. Commenting upon her life-work the reviewer of The Times said x : &quot. ller characters. Altogether her work is a distinct contribution to the fiction of locality and to American literature.IN MODERN NEW ENGLAND it 43 the stories cited. In a great number of her stories the happiness and suffering of woman is her theme.The people of her books are familiar to us &quot. Her works were recently collected and brought out in a uniform edition. Freeman. iBook Review. is environ- downright realism of portrayal and unrivaled in her life own are almost pain pictures^pf ful in their fidelity. and repression of modern New England have been carefully noted by her and artistically limned. there is less violence of tragedy and more of hap piness in her stories but.

44

THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY

Her stories are constructed from material of the most elemental kind: of the pathos incident to old
age and loneliness, of the joy of friendship, the

peace of quiet paths, of the struggle of trying to make both ends meet, of the humorous development
of character where isolation lays heart and mind, or perhaps the
its emphasis on odd cranks and

whimsies induced by the like

cause."

Winter Courtship will give story some idea of the characters she chooses for her tales

Her

1

i

A

and her attitude toward them. The stage driver, who is a widower
solitary passenger

has, as his

on a winter journey of seven miles, a woman who is a widow. Mrs. Tobin cleverly manipulates the situation to elicit a proposal from
Jefferson.

A

gentle

humor pervades

the sketch.

for eighteen years had been traveling the seven miles between Sanscrit Pond and North Kilby, is a vivid bit of characterization. He

The stage

driver,

who

is

depicted as a mild
stories

little

man who

reads blood

an unloaded heavy revolver under his front seat cushion. Both he
carries

and thunder

and

and the scheming old widow, Mrs. Tobin, are typical The sameness of their New England surroundings. in his life is well suggested and also her sense of triumph in getting the man she wanted against the
competition of two elderly rivals. The rigors of a New England winter, as seen
i

Sarah Orne Jewett
Wayfarers."

:

"A

Winter

Courtship"

from Stran

gers and

IN

MODERN NEW ENGLAND

45

by Miss Jewett, can be gathered from this para graph Be we got four more (miles) to make? Oh, Urge the beast, laws! mourned Mrs. Tobin. my
:
"

can t ye, Jeff son? I ain t used to bein out in such bleak weather. Seems if I couldn t get my with I m all pinched up and wigglin breath. Tain t no use lettin the hoss go shivers now.
:

step-a-ty-step, this fashion. contrast to this bit of realism

A

and

also to the

work
called

of Mrs.
"A

Freeman is White Heron/

a delicate little sketch
It is a country idyl

little town-bred girl is taken of early summer. to her grandmother s house in the country and learns to love the birds and little animals that are

A

the plentiful near her wild home. While driving cow home one evening, she meets with a young man

who

is

an ornithologist and has spent the day

hunting for birds. He especially seeks information about a white heron. Sylvia thinks she knows the spot where the nest is found, because once she

had seen the bird standing in the lush grass
the

of

swamp

near the woods.

At dawn

the next

morning she climbs the tallest pine tree in the woods and learns, to a certainty, where the nest is lo The stranger had promised her ten dollars cated.
if

she could help him find it. In spite of this inducement she decides to maintain silence rather than be the cause of the white heron s death.

The woods

at nightfall are thus described:

46

THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY

"The woods were already filled with shadows one June evening, just before eight o clock, though a bright sunset still glimmered faintly among the trunks of the trees. little girl was driving home her cow, a plodding, dilatory, provoking creature in her behavior, but a valued companion for all that. They were going away from the western

A

into the dark woods, but were familiar with the path, and it was no matter whether their eyes could see it or not."
light,

and striking deep

their feet

The beauty and fragrance of the woods
a fitting setting for this of a wood-child.
little

affords

episode in the life

in its suggestion is a story Miss Temgy^sJWatchers. "Two women -called^ are acting as watchers at a funeral in a small farm ing town of New Hampshire. Their characteristic
?
,

Much- jnore_grim

and insight into the lovable character of the deceased furnishes the main interest.
gossip

The appearance of the two gested in this sentence:
"Their

women

is

well sug

faces

were

interesting

of

the

dry,

shrewd, quick-witted New England type, with thin hair twisted neatly back out of the way."

The sterile nature of most of the farm land is hinted at by Mrs. Crow, one of the women: Tempy had only ninety dollars a year that came in to her; rest of her livin she got by helpin about with what she raised off this little o
piece

ground, sand on one side and clay the other.

"

--IN

MODERN NEW ENGLAND

47

hroughout all her stories the reader finds evi dences not only of external observation but also of
deep understanding. The New England existence, narrow yet intense, finds in her a literary artist who comes to her task in a genial spirit, prepared to
see the brightest side. After one has been intro duced to the soul-embittered, never-to-be-forgotten characters of Mrs. Freeman one turns with relief to the more genial atmosphere of Miss Jewett.

^Iis^AJieBrown,
trio is
felt

the last of the

New England

decidedly worthy of mention. She too has the spirit of her home environment. Her

stories are characterized

by a joyous outdoor spirit and a keen delight in the open air. They are in the main similar in subject matter and treatment to those of Miss Wilkins and Miss Jewett.

One
cal 1 ed

fragrant

of her sketches, typical of her best work, with the rosemary of remembrance. It

is
is

i JDnnryflj flF

and views the

life

of a

little

New

Englancf village from the point of view in dicated by its name. In one house dwelt a little woman whose instinct for play found an outlet in In another lived a farmer solitary croquet games. whose passion for trading manifested itself out

wardly in a wild disorder of farming implements and vehicles in his dooryard. In front of a third
house stood a hogshead filled with rain water into whose mysterious depths a little child gazed with a deep poetic brooding. The little woman who
liked to play croquet

had a very

stolid

husband

:

had dreams and desires forever bursting from brown shells. the play instinct. finds solace ward her soul story is thus pictured : in all the meeting had thus far mirrored others of its class. Cramped from its proper bounds and outlets by a bare and unsympathetic environment. The prayer meeting before which Hannah tells is a stricken path. the esthetic emotion in woman. A soul made bitter by continuous sorrow is regenerated. This insistence on types whose emotions are re pressed or distorted is characteristic of the New England trio of writers we are considering. &quot.Taking it all .&quot. die. though she carried her end of the yoke with a gallant spirit. Hannah Prime widow whose son had taken the down At the very height of her grief she and comfort in watching the dusk settle on woods and lake. If the droning ex&quot. hu man caricatures whose grotesque physical and mental features furnish rare material for the sym pathetic artist.&quot. is a study of a revival meeting.THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY was duller than the ox which ploughs day long for his handful of hay at night and his heavy slumber.Eben all only to live a moment in the air and then like bubbles. which is al most the art instinct. but Delia.^ Her story. to the pursuit of turnp crotchets and eccentricities. Experience of Hannah Prime. * Hence the New Eng land short story is so full of queer characters.

Her hus The former band had just died little habituated to tasks.&quot.&quot. it was chiefly because they had to be expressed in the phrase of strict theological usage. &quot. Very &quot. ness in an old maid. and must be dressed in the fine linen which she herself had elected to wear. Nun.&quot. alone with her memories. Freeman s story. . the latter is a study of the effects of routine on a married woman. festooned the windows and an intricate sum. There was an unspoken agreement that feelings of this sort should be described in a certain way. still the yellowed evergreens. duties and her mind had become so and observances late which had become formulated about her that she looks with reluctance spouse and later with horror on a second marriage. They were not the affairs of the hearth and market. Miss Brown s collection.A similar in theme to Mrs. still adorned the black board. she prefers to remain single for the rest of her life. there explained to the uncomprehending admira tion of the village fathers. relics of Last day. they were mat ters pertaining to that awful entity called the soul. New England is Alice is Brown s^ A a study of prim _Second^Iarriage.IN MODERN NEW ENGLAND 49 periences were devoid of all human passion. The description of the village schoolroom in which the meeting was held is interesting There were the maps of North and South Amer : * ica. In spite of the fact that she is wooed again by a lover of her youth.

Wilkins-Freeman. . there has always to New England the fiction s sterile soil has thus worker. further illustrations of her point of view. have always appealed to a wider reading public because of their more obvious spectacular elements. been a quiet following for the domestic story of England. proved fertile Although in popularity.50 THE AMEEICAN SHORT STORY contains specimens of her best work and Tales. In Mary E. stories dealing with the Far West&quot. Sarah Orne Jewett and Alice Brown this genre of story has found its ablest exponents and New New England her most eloquent interpreters.

He is a type of more than twenty years farmer. MISSISSIPPI WE now go further west to see how our common human nature reacts on a different environment. original fund. The^Jsgvjnote of both England us_suffering: GaflaSTdTlpresents realistic pictures of the hard-worked farmer. the individual person. Along comes the unit of life. Overburdened and dull. The there.CHAPTER V STORIES OF WHEAT AND LUMBER: THE VALLEY AND MICHIGAN I. the pioneer Western deepest sympathies are stirred by the 51 . Our ago. with his native sents so capacities. Closely akin to Mrs. meets his environment and is shaped by it. he misses most of the joys that life has to offer. tend to create their own standards. plodding day after day through the same round of arduous and unremunerative toil.with the Mississippi valley. the good and the bad is always Variations arise because Nature herself pre many differing phases and because com munities of men. Freeman s stories of New life are those of^Hamlin Garland dealing . in some mysterious way.

localized Mississippi The tragedy has its inception in the jealous valley. who live with them. selves to loss and the . a During that interval she marries Kinney. The woman with her in cessant household duties is physically and mentally beaten down. It will be sufficient for our purpose which is to indicate the author s point of view and the influence of the locality upon his work The in merely to subject three of these to careful first analysis. Moral degeneration follows. each one powerful. He is a brute and she becomes a drudge. worn to the bone through the constant housework and the unceasing taunts of her husband and his parents. the wheat-growing region of the There follows between the pair a seven- year separation. rage a lover feels because his sweetheart smiles on others. Branch Road. story is a &quot. contains six stories. Dulled and insensible them anything except the narrow profit and killing routine of life. the farmers those in intimate contact with them to ill expose treatment and neglect. Y &quot.&quot. man named They nag at her continually and make her life al most unendurable through the practice of many insidious meannesses.52 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY narrative of his soul-stunting drudgery and his heroic though passive endurance. The big truth of the narrative lies in the fact that she is typical of a class of unhappy farmers wives in that locality.Main Travelled Roads&quot.

urges It is singularly fitting that when her old lover the sickly drudge his best girl of yore to run away with him and she at last consents.&quot.Main-Travelled Roads. 1 &quot.wheat thrashing. 1893. and But the tragedy is only deepened by contrasting this bounty and happiness with the pitiful.&quot. rust wheat. 2 Here is one showing a &quot. one of the jolliest and most sociable of the western farm. yellow-brown wheat .STORIES OF The WHEAT AND LUMBER It 53 setting is delightfully portrayed. blue as a sea. smiled again in spite of herself. &quot. she was so weak and worn. bent &quot. that the author should reflect the infinity of man s life and its countless phases in a parting touch from Nature. passion-tossed and passion-broken spirit of the West&quot. But the sun shone on the dazzling.She ling above them and the world lay before them.A . This scene. an ability also to feels like using that overworked phrase &quot. 1893. shows a keen appreciation of nature on the part of the seize her happy moods. in &quot. in &quot.the One the exuberance of Nature. had a charm quite aside from human companionship.Main-Travelled Roads/ by Branch From Hamlin Garland Stone & Kimball. Will shuddered with a thrill of fear. writer. by Hamlin Garland Stone & Kimball.&quot. to describe the sunshine life of man. The author s keen observation of his environment is x seen in many little descriptive passages. The beautiful yellow straw entering the cylinder the clear. the fathomless sky. 2 From Branch Road&quot.A Road&quot.

valley. In an agony of remorse and shame Howard tries to soften Grant. chaff and dust puffing out in the great stacker. And for what ? The mere struggle is lost to exist. sparing no detail in the wretched life of the small farmer. misery of the and dramatist. is another story of life in the Mississippi valley over which there hangs a Homeric gloom. again as and at last succeeds. The latter is cold and bitter.54 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY . overtures of friendship to his brother Grant. pulsing out at the side the broken straw. work. work when the sun beats hot and when the rain pours freely out of the swollen clouds. but fruitless battle against his lot. almost brutally told. un ceasing. Two on the brothers. The poetry of Nature in the tear-blind sorrow of man. suggestive of the passage of time. &quot. crisp air. Then Howard seeks at least to make reparation to his old mother. But they stand together with clasped hands and Grant has refused all offers of help as unavailing.Up the Coulee&quot. Howard has just returned from the a success ful actor behind him. the gloom of the irretrievable and the fated. and the bright sun somehow weirdly Nowhere have I read a short story more directly. Work. life he had He is sickened at the so long left He makes She readily forgives her son for his long neglect. the cheery whistling and calling of the driver. his pitiful. latter s Howard and Grant McLane meet farm in the Mississippi city. the one who had remained to work on the farm.&quot. assert- . the keen.

The soil rolled away black and Near by. is realistic 2 : Corydon and Phyllis would delight ally sketched in the following &quot.Up &quot. and the impatient jerk and jar The of ill temper or worry. The plow man clad in a ragged gray coat with uncouth. Here is a view of the dullness and sordidness of the farm life.&quot. a sticky and with a dull sheen upon it. he waited. pastoral kind that in. muddy boots upon his feet walked with his head inclined sleet. triviality and its endless drudgeries. to shield his face from the cold and sting of it.STORIES OF WHEAT AND LUMBER 55 ing that the opportunities once lost are gone forever.As its sordidness. in the same story. dullness. sprawling clouds. not of the dainty. &quot. send ing a freezing thin dizzle of rain as they passed. towards the 1 2 From From the Coulee&quot. when the figure arose from the cow and approached the gate. Farm work. gray. upon a man following a plow. angry. and put the i pail of milk down on the platform by the pump. he could hear a woman s fretful of kitchen voice. All the joy of the home-coming was gone.&quot. .Main-Travelled Roads. The horses had a sullen and weary look.A farm in the valley! Over the mountains swept jagged. things indicative stood absorbing this farm scene with all longer he &quot. the lower his heart sank. and their manes and tails streamed sidewise in the blast. the author leaves us in an atmosphere of predestined misery.

Among the Corn Rows. &quot. the other tragic. brothers. somber in his soft &quot. It forms a black. the one fair-skinned. the record of Although &quot. The men. there is the same recognition of man s struggle for mere existence against nature and our economic system. another of the stories in the same volume. The scene is laid in Dakota and throughout the tale we are brought in touch with rough big hearted and coarse. the latter was able to gratify his whim for every luxury.Main- . long. From the Coulee&quot.The two men stood ened mood.A corn field in July : field under the is a hot place. the wind comes across the in mur muring i leaves laden with a &quot. his back to the gale.Up warm. full-lipped. handsome in his neat suit . is a comedy. his large. boisterous. Garland draws a final contrast between them as they stood together in the attitude of reconciliation : there. a Prosperity had made a deep gap between the The one who had remained on the farm barely eked out his existence.56 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY cattle . boy with tears on his cheeks was watching dog seated near. face to face. Imagine a family working in a following conditions &quot.&quot. sickening smell Travelled Roads. 1 on a veteran. rugged Scotch face bronzed with sun and scarred with wrinkles that had histories like saber cuts his battles. tragic strand is again monotony.&quot.&quot. hands clasped. straight-ruled pattern even against the golden background of love.&quot. The lazily soil is hot and dry .

. whose hearts beat on though numb with pain. the sun nearly vertical. and these stories are full of the bitter and burning dust. it must be confessed that his There is no in a species of vivid realism. Garland comes from and writes about. the an nals of men whose hands are crusty with weather and toil.&quot. locality had an influence upon this author. His are no dainty storiettes dealing with the boredom and finesse of those whose fathers earned fortunes for its them $hey are the record of homespun lives. It is not in our attempt to glossover conditions province in this investigation to probe into economic power lies !&quot. It has seared drear hopelessness into his brain. Garland for the ississippi valley.Among the Corn Rows&quot. * In summarizing the work of Mr. drops a flood of dazzling light and heat upon the field over which the cool shadows run. but the work of Hamlin Garland certainly Not only has the takes a step in that direction.Main-Travelled Roads.STORIES OF WHEAT AND LUMBER 57 drawn from the rapidly growing. only to make the heat em more intense. in &quot. the That it in part (Main-Travelled Roads) : call the i From &quot. in the preface to the vol consideration. ume under William Dean Howells. broad-flung ban ners of the corn. has so excellent an ap preciation of Garland s work that I may be for given for quoting is what they highways in the part of the West that Mr. problems.

two are concerned with other phases The titles of the other four. They are of forest &quot. Edition Stone & . 1 Edward^Stewart White was brought up in the lumber regions of Michigan and in a great number of his short stories and novels has dealt with that * locality. make the wealth that enriches the alien and lessly the idler and impoverishes the producer.&quot. pathetic. and they know that the wrong is not theirs. &quot. the type caught in Mr. Roads. life. but it is heart breaking in its rude despair. how lum The &quot. ferocious figures whom our satirists find so easy to caricature as Hayseeds.The Sealer.. Garland s book is not pretty.Main-Travelled Kimball. Blazer! -T^ajj^ Stories is a collection Of treating mainly the life of the lumber worker.58 foul THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY the life of the and trampled slush of the common avenues of men who hopelessly and cheer life. grim.&quot. sordid. it is ugly and often ridiculous. 1893. the six stories.The River Boss/ i Preface to &quot. and &quot. These stories are full of those gaunt. II. grotesque to the newspapers and so menacing to They feel that something is wrong politicians. indicate the close relation they bear to the ever. The Riverman. and whose blind groping for fairer conditions is so &quot.. ber industry.. : Foreman/ The characters and personalities of the men that go to make up a lumber camp are well depicted.

to the sterner virtues.About monitory cracks. This jam. The first few tiers toppled smash into the current. capable of In a &quot.STORIES OF The first WHEAT AND LUMBER 59 story introduces us to &quot. if birling&quot. grumblings. need Both are undemon is strative. groanings forward. promises to get even. In the latter a quiet force. In the kind. Here is a characteristic description of a scene when logs. The author shows a thorough knowledge of the lumber region and the life of the lumber workers.Roaring Dick&quot. be.log- contest Darrel fouls Powers in his and wins. Pow ers. reluc tant shiftings of the logs give opportunity for the men to assure their safety. Jimmie s prediction was fulfilled. along with an utter unscrupulousness. T During an Darrel quiet way. unforeseen jam in the logs a little later. Without the slightest warning the jam pulled/ Usually certain pre &quot. after in explicably hanging fire for a week as inexplicably started like a sprinter almost into its full gait. but each rising. suddenly break apart and begin to float with the current. figures of a powerful former great skill and agility in big work had been developed. jammed together. and sullen. Powers saves him and then dryly explains to his questioner that he had merely saved him for the contest of next year. almost apathetic. equal They are both skill and iron determination. s life is in danger. certain sinkings -down. three o clock that afternoon. foreman and riverman respectively. shruggings. Darrel and Jimmy Powers. rais- .

In an uneven combat against two men. is the faithfulness of the Fore man to the firm that hires him. in &quot.The Riverman&quot. and reap the of Camp profits his saloon which the spending of their earnings in would give him. as the integral logs were up turned over. a saloon owner. 6. Richard Darrel pre vails against Silver Jack and his companion and then &quot. &quot.Blazed-Trail . rising and into the air by the mighty power playing jack 1 straws with them/ The theme &quot.Blazed-Trail Stories. His object is to demoral they ize the camp. spurred on by his duty to his firm. encourage desertions. in &quot. he attempts later to pass liquor to the men Thirty.Richard Darrel painfully cleared his eyes and dragged himself to a sitting position. in charge of Richard Darrel.&quot. Foreman&quot.&quot. A man named Silver Jack. the mass behind plunged forward blindly falling. p.The Foreman&quot.60 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY ing a waterspout like that made by a dynamite ex plosion. Richard Darrel while the latter had once whipped was out on a drink ing spree in Bay City. He 1 2 From From &quot. sweeping the blood of his shallow wound from his forehead. while are at their work.The &quot. Stories. which follows Riverman&quot. thrust one side or forced bodily ended. On the strength of this victory.The of &quot.That a taste or so of whisky will shiver the patience of men oppressed B C to the northby long monotony is as A 2 country saloon keeper.

On the James Bourke. He stood over them. in the whisky jugs. savagely until it was reduced to splin ters and twisted iron.The Foreman. &quot. a man whose work plays an important part in the man agement of a lumber camp. against the light Dick of the woods. &quot. it With it he first smashed Then he wrecked the cutter. me And again. By the time this was done. 1 the Man defending his Work. The next study is that of the Sealer. back trail/ said he. huge. going on a prolonged drunk himself during the off season is one person. Ihe incarnation of necessity. a Foreman. the Foreman. The Work becomes the Man.&quot. s basis of his simple report would be paid for the season i work. Inevitably From &quot. We shall permit the author to recount the sealer &quot.STORIES OF WHEAT AND LUMBER 61 searched out the axe. The Foreman s duties you round these diggings he stood there. dominant. menacing the dominant spirit.Roar ing Dick&quot. another. damn Don you . Rich ard Darrel smashing the whisky jugs because they would cripple the efficiency of the workers at his camp.His s duties for us : business was of each log. . You t . Roaring see toward the firm are here valued as more important than life itself. his antagonists were in the throes of returning chopping consciousness. hit th let . to of board feet put in by measuring the diameter ascertain and tabulate the number by the contractor. quick! menacing.&quot. Darrel.

culled&quot. The brutes deserve no better fate. should the latter dare to help them.62 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY he at once became James Bourke s natural enemy. are all drunk when they beat Fitz Patrick. Fitz Patrick.The to the work iFrom Sealer&quot. &quot. and there nobody else to put them in in. Owing to the loose discipline.Blazed-Trail Stories. They decide to maul him An opportunity arises for them to carry severely. the men. in &quot. In their drunkenness the crew had overturned the stove and set the cottage on fire. He even bruised in the snow. Bourke and the men resent the fact that he had &quot. They can go finally. out their designs. &quot. citates him. Again faithfulness to the firm and hand is a dominant theme. . a log which he claimed was useless because it had been improperly cut. Finally he decides to save them. they both notice a wreath of smoke com ing from the direction of the men s cabin. The first impulse of Fitz Patrick is revengeful. including the Boss. threatens the cook with physical injury. They leave him frightfully The cook finds and resus While the former is engaged in mak ing tea. to hell for all of me/ he an swered put in but my people want these logs s this winter. He will let them burn. and so of every man in the crew with the possible 1 exception of the cook.&quot. insists in the interest of the firm that the logs be cut carefully. the sealer. but not from humanitarian motives : &quot.

Jimmy&quot. 63 In the last of the Boss.&quot. In each of his stories. it will be the vo noticed. was the first to give expression in fiction to very picturesque phase of our American life. is cation . commits a serious misdemeanor in the eyes of the law in order to get his logs to a certain spot within an appointed time limit. |^ Edward Stewart White has grasped in these stories the ruling considerations of his locality. the same dealing with &quot. He knew He this the territory well because he had lived in it. revealed as rising dominant over the in dividual characteristics of the man. &quot.The idea is emphasized.STORIES OF River WHEAT AND LUMBER series.

first Cable is best known even short stories day life is the of a series of to and novels by him.&quot. that hejoJ^01d Creole W 4 Days waspublished in 1879jt opened an~entrance into a hitherto~&quot. attempting Louisiana.CHAPTER VI THE DAYS THAT ARE NO MORE: THE OLD SOUTH No section of thusiastic treatment at the America has received more en hands of her writers scenery.Madame Delphine. tives. semi-indolent life. Her beauty of ure-loving.unexplored and unexploited field.Creole&quot. her graces. that it is &quot. of French descent and untainted by the admixture of any negro blood. the term it might be said right here used by Cable to signify a white man or woman. the opening story has its 64 . her poetry. her pleas than the South. $The book by which George to this W.^ picture a phase of of the Creoles of that has passed away. her attitudes have all received sympathetic and loving portrayal. The author had an intimate knowledge of the Creole character and had felt the magic of the peculiar dialect spoken musically by these half-French na For the benefit of those not familiar with &quot.

Pere Jerome. The society man and a The quaint of the day is reconstructed for us. Thompson. and the was one of those fancy and the imagination that cannot sleep. a truth Capitaine le Maitre are all drawn with of delineation arising from a knowledge of the out neighborhood and the big passions that grew in the South. Madame Delphine. Doctor Varillat. faithfully reproduced. The theme is racial. in the New streets of Orleans. beckoned away from be hind every flowering bush and sweet-smelling tree and every stretch of lonely. the The locality here as in Mrs. of the race question of the best bits of description in the story that which pictures a Southern night : One &quot. the rapture of Southern musical patois of the natives are all scenery. slip their fetters and escape.THE DAYS THAT ARE NO MORE setting 65 Orleans of long ago. by the genius of poetry. the kindly priest. presenting in the plot develop ment based upon it the rigors of both law and between a white public opinion against a marriage woman of mixed blood. The air stirred softly now and then. half-lighted walk.It is Southern nights under sterner energies of the mind whose spell all the cloak themselves and lie down in bivouac. the village notary. best stories is not only a setting for the Freeman s action but an integral part of the motives inciting New the characters. and was still again as if the breezes lifted their expecting pinions and lowered them . the suffering Jean quadroone.

Posson Jone&quot. 1 song. He succeeds in get ting the parson drunk but fails to get the money which had been stealthily hidden away by the parson i Ange. like a pause in worship. in &quot. a mocking bird began the first low flute notes of his all-night &quot. Jules plays the part of a confidence man. visit. Even in his fall from grace the parson gives such evidences of nobility.&quot. that the vol- From &quot. in which a crabbed love have Can old priest realizes for the first time why moon This passage reveals light was given to the earth.66 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY silence. the walls. And anon she rose. . who s slave. There he meets a typical scamp. . in the same volume another Orleans story dealing with the picturesque is a Northerner. a parson. . who has been entrusted with church funds and has come to New New Orleans on a St. any more rapturous setting than this? It reminds one of Maupassant s famous sketch &quot.&quot. the roads.Old Creole Days. . just within this enclosure and almost overhead. &quot.Madame Delphine&quot.Le clair de la lune&quot. The hero of about 1820. and the suburban and half- suburban streets. awaiting the rising of the moon in a which fell upon the fields. in the dark boughs of a large orange tree. Cable as a man who saw his locality through the is eyes of a prose poet. the gardens. Monsieur Vignevielle s steps were bent toward the more central part of the town when. once more.

as he sees : it. &quot. . November. form an integral part of the story. is influenced to begin his reformation. the marshes were &quot. narrative itself and not merely a garment. stories The heroic casion calls it self-sacrifice of the Creole when oc forth is the theme of Cable s &quot. is attested by Laf cadio Hearn. streets laid. as it The local color in all of Cable s were. the preceding one gives ample evidence of inspira tion for theme and plot development from the life of New Orleans. i l that the scenes of his stories are by Century Magazine.&quot. Jean-ah- in the middle by way of deri Poquelin (the resists the progressive invaders to no avail. as we learn to paint each thing &quot.THE DAYS THAT ARE NO MORE atile 67 and emotional Creole. also a gambling den. V That Cable s success in throwing vivid views of New Orleans upon the screen was not an acci dent but the result of conscious artistic striving The reason. the customs and manners portrayed. being filled up and new &quot. The setting. is that he had been on his premises a brother who secretly harboring was a leper.Jean This is a very dramatic story. St. sion) later.The He says sharp originality of Mr. 1883. -ah-Poquelin. Cable s descrip Old tions should have convinced the reader of Creole Days. The action takes place at a time when New Orleans was outgrowing its old bounds. the flesh and blood of the is.ah&quot. Ange. In the course of the narrative a bull fight is well This sketch like described.

320. of Tite the picture of a semi-tropical life and the Poulette . K. Cable s work in local &quot. no means fanciful have resided in and the is strict perfection of his Creole architecture New readily recognized by all who Each one of those Orleans. and worthy Abstract this and the local of. which s is most valuable in Cable works: such local color of as arises from the unforgettable characterizations Mine. Cable has wrought. however. such descriptions. fiction it might be permitted to quote the following estimate of his achievements by J.68 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY .The Short Story in English. Mr. Delphine.It is the descriptive element. in infinitely finer and subtler lines for his soft-fea tured and passionate native land. typifying fashions of building which prevailed in Colonial 7 days/ Canby in &quot. . charming pictures of places veritable pastels was painted after some carefully selected model of French or Franco-Spanish origin. Aetherhigh ill: larity of Bret Harte has done for the stern angu Western life.&quot. 1 color from the stories and what have you left ? As a final tribute to Mr. p. Next in value is the tender sentiment proper to. atmosphere of a vanishing civilization. places the same high estimate on the local color of Cable s work: &quot. of Jean-ah-Poquelin. Those who come after him in delineation of Creole character can &quot.What i Canby: &quot.The Short Story in English&quot.

tation is stripped of all its belongings fields touched upon. No sacrifice is too great for its friends and no parley can be had with its enemies. love and patriotism clash there is material for a story of strong emotion. 57.&quot. in for an excellent portrayal We are indebted to Page of plantation life in the Southern states. And when. The motif of the story is the faithfulness of Old Uncle Billy. War in all its horrors is scorching the land. The old plan : horses stolen. by Jeanette and Joseph Gilder Cassel & P.&quot. havoc. . although 69 only be followers in his footsteps.Authors Edited Co. The splendor and affluence and happi ness of the old plantation days is Desolation. for to him alone new vein.good old times&quot. so also writing of the South has chosen Virginia as the locality for There is a strain of regret for the his settings. iln &quot. his stories. and war come on. at 1888. as in this little tale. Patriotism to the Southern cause is revealed at white heat.MehJ[jady We : A not so much because the plot jjftory of the War. a negro. passing of the &quot. trampled upon. Thomas Nelson Pa. negroes freed or lured away.THE DAYS THAT ARE NO MORE belongs the credit of striking this rich in promise and fulfillment. Home. to his mistress and her daughter. is exceptionally Southern but because the characters chosen and their manner of speaking is so thor oughly local. The negro dialect is used as a vehicle for telling these storiesjf turn our attention first to &quot.

Charles Scribner s Sons. no more scufflin an de ole back agin. callin me &quot.Marse Chan/ is who has grown gray serving the his master and mistress and whose allegiance is proof against poverty and the lures of freedom itself. I was settin in de do wid meh pipe. an de fence all roun de pahsture. an I heah meh kerridge horses stompin in de stalls. an I heah em settin dyah on de front steps. an pesterin me to go fishin while somehow Meh an hit an de times done come . . 1892.Unc Billy. settin like hummin &quot. He dreams of the old days almost as the French emigre dreamed of the splendid reign of Louis XIV. dee voices soun in low like bees. low dyah on de steps wid de water runnin in de dark 1 Does not Page seem to be the minstrel of days gone by calling up reminiscence after reminisi In &quot. an de place all cleared up agin. Lady an de Cun voice l. an I smell de wet clover-blossoms right good.In Ole Virginia&quot. and I sort o got to studyin pear like de plantation live once mo ain . an de moon sort o meltin over de yard. climbin up on meh knees.70 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY Uncle Billy. like typical servitor Sam in &quot. Night has fallen over the scene and the old negro muses in these words: An dat night when de preacher was gone wid he wife an Hannah done dropt off to sleep. an Marse Phil an Meh Lady done come back an runnin all roun me.

.Meh negrcT for his master (same ffie sense of honor in the South Eady&quot. a typical Southern girl. The time of the action begins just before the Civil War and ends at the fall of Richmond. The storyjllustrates not only the affection of the ThemcTW in ^&quot.THE DAYS THAT ARE NO MORE 71 cence of the past ? The short story. by his brave master. proud of family Southern democrat. servant of Marse Chan. violent in debate as follows: Marse &quot. even demanding a strong impression is a very good medium for that purpose. are typically Southern. It is very dramatic ally told in negro dialect. also a life battlefield. courageous Anne.Chan. imperious. honor Southern gentleman Miss able.the incidents is negro slave. We get a glimpse and of the Southern family feuds. The Fisher. a Sam. of plantation sometimes began over mere trifles and em which bittered all the members of both families against * another during their progress. faithful Judy.) oiie butjtlsp ern gentleman and the master slaves? s devotion to his the rescue of a One &quot. a plantation lily. Sam s wife . . Old Colonel beautiful.of &quot. The setting is an old Virginia plantation in ante bellum times. . an intense par Chamberlain. devoted. They are characters Ham a^flery blooded. an old negro body tisan. allowing. Marse_Chaji!llagreat many critics consider A It is supposedly told to a traveler by an old negro who had been Marse Chan s (Channing s) body servant.

by Page an essay from &quot. In a preliminary note. that the husband philosopher. . Page draws a distinc tion between the negro dialect of Virginia and that of Louisiana. 1 This is written in a vein of regretful memory.The Old South. Page was his native This state. Page.Social feouth. is confirmed by reference tJr The Old South.&quot. contains an essay called &quot. thrilled subtly yet powerfully the Upon reading memory it we see how of the old life Mr. the story is realistically treated.guide. From adored his wife who was not only his &quot. the essay we gather that the life was one of refinement and hospitality.72 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY s maid.&quot.&quot.&quot. 1892. Nelson War:&quot. Mr.&quot. but the head of all his maLife Before the T. letter Tound in the breast pocket of a soldier who had been killed at the A battle of Seven Pines furnished the seed plot for the story. to which reference has just been made. Although the main theme is romantic love. Virginia.The Old Charles Scribner s Sons. &quot. The title of the volume is in itself the best evidence that the source of inspiration for Mr. The author has been and Anne at great pains to give a faithful picture of life in Old Virginia even down to the matter of dialect. The picture drawn seems al most an idealization and yet it has the artist touch of true conviction. Marse Chan s parents. his book of essays. friend. i &quot.Social Life Before the War. a loyal Southern couple.

re&quot. . The&quot. Old &quot. a life rich in the blessings of content and good fellowship. aloes. The author con- .&quot.se Blanc. it is no won der that even children shouldered arms to protect her when they thought her rights were denied.made&quot. 2 War&quot. according to Page.&quot. Beecher Stowe a gagne triomphalement un grand &quot.Questions &quot. If the love for the South be the passionate. 65. Es say Amerique d autrefois. that the negro. Madame Therese Blanc claims that Page was the first to present the South favor ably before the tribunal of the North. deux proces qui etait celui de Thumanite tout entiere. but it has left it to sweeten and to its children. A French critic. eludes | * : It has passed its from the benignant influence behind earth. She says: cotes il doit y avoir une part d exde prejuges tout naturels mais si Mme. ! although he worked after. intense feeling which is his. hard.^isjoel If to C/hanjler _Hams. par Mme.THE DAYS THAT ARE NO MORE \ 73 /terial affairs.&quot.Des . happy and looked It I /[ was. but myrrh.The South Before the by Thomas Nelson Page. was contented. Page. ageration. 2 Another writer whom the South &quot.&quot. * sustain Enough has been adduced to show that Page was inspired to his work by the associations of his native state.L Americains. P. The ivory palaces have been destroyed. 1 From &quot. le merite d avoir rectifie bien des traits grossis pour les besoins de la cause reste a M. and cassia still breathe amid the dismantled ruins. the short-story in &quot.The reader South.

For Home. . He enjoyed the privilege of studying his charac ters first hand. * * his position as an interpreter of his native state and as a writer of national reputation would he was singularly adapted to fit him Erastus Brainerd. at &quot. his sympathy edge of with the negro genuine and profound. in speaking of his personal habits says amusement he hunted rabbits with a pack : of half-bred harriers. he was enabled to write his masterpiece. who contributes the sketch of &quot. Had he never written anything other than Uncle Remus the&quot. Remus&quot. Through this. His life for his work. ob served his characteristics and appreciated them. He heard the negro s stories and enjoyed them.Joel Chandler Harris&quot.Uncle Tom s Cabin&quot. Harris certainly represents__Georgia. and Page for Virginia.My Old Kentucky Home&quot. Gilder. or listened to the tales of the plantation negro. as a novel and &quot. are the traest ex )^The legends of &quot. Uncle Remus told So it was that he absorbed the wonderfully complete stores of knowl edge of the negro which have since given him fame. for &quot. who was there to be found in primitive perfection of type.Authors secure. &quot.Uncle Remus. i In &quot. which shows so intimate a knowledge of the negro and his point of view. &quot.&quot. It was on the Turner plantation that the original his stories to the little boy. Jeannette L.74 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY Cable stands for Louisiana. His knowl home locality is deep.Authors at Home&quot.Uncle pression of the negro character.&quot.

mildly arrogant on account of self-esteem arising from his position in the household. Uncle Remus is a slave who is favored by his mistress because he had seen her grow up from childhood to womanhood. faithful to his mistress a and master.How the Birds Talk&quot. But in the stories of &quot. a good story teller. The duties of Uncle Remus were sundry and varied. Brer Fox. are as He is super a stitious. The little Boy whose questions elicit his delightful stories is probably a son of the master.Uncle Remus&quot. individu alized human beings. In a series of legends Uncle Remus recounts the adventures of Brer Rabbit. good singer. credulous. a lover of children and handy man of all work. These creatures are but thinly disguised. the ingredients in the character of the plantation negro himself. Neither one is popular with the negro. his services are enumerated: general supervision over .Uncle. Being the household favorite he was given all things and free rein to do as he pleased. Brer RabbrTis^his own hero. Brer Coon and many other animals. traits as His we see them through the medium follows: of &quot. It is the negro himself who his under the mask of the various animals reveals own interesting personality. The mix ture of shrewcTneslTand helplessness perhaps gives Remus.&quot.THE DAYS THAT ARE NO MORE 75 as a song are both idealizations. Both represent the white man s dream for him. In &quot.

&quot. It will be seen at a glance that this array of animals is portrayed from direct observation of various negro types. mink. tricky. : Polecat : arrogant. in short. and. he made shoes. He tanned leather.&quot. Snake: sleek. : Terrapin : stupid. 109. Brer Fox: thievish. 8. in &quot.How away. Judging them from they 1. roguish. foot mats. Brer Rabbit: shrewd. the Birds Talk. fish baskets. 4. not generally suc Brer Brer Brer Brer Brer Brer cessful. Each animal is strongly individual in character. polecat. rabbit. 7. he fed the hogs.Daddy Jake. and ax handles for sale . 5. 6. buzzard and terrapin. The dramatis per sonce of these sketches are the possum. 3. revengeful. Buzzard a knave. looked after the cows and sheep. The setting is some times a plantation and sometimes a swamp. I have attempted to get the essential attribute of each one. but good natured. Owl : mysterious. he had his OAvn watermelon and cotton patches. p. coon. their actions in all of the stories : may be classified as follows 2. he manufactured horse collars.76 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY &quot. scouring mops. owl.He did no great amount of work. but lie was never wholly idle.&quot. clumsy. Wolf a gourmand. wolf. i &quot. the Run . was the busiest person on the plan 1 tation. snake.

strike white 1 J. . a secret meeting place for runaways. &quot.Daddy&quot. 1889. The children of Dr. ler Harris in American literature William Malone Baskervill. ignorant over uses Daddy Jake. 3. 2 Century Co. the Runaway&quot. the most permanent contribution to American litera 1 ture in the last quarter of this century. f enn. &quot. Harris. Nashville. the Runaway/* 2 Harris departs from his familiar legends to tell a story in which the main character is a runaway of ne slave. to whom &quot.jjaddy Jake. . to Putnam County was awarded of giving birth to most valuable and in the writer s opinion. a Southern critic says: the honor Uncle Remus. by William Malone Baskervill Barbee Smith.Daddy Jake. so that the latter hits An him on the head with a farming implement. In another story. overseer is The merely stunned. meted out to negroes who punishment men and therefore runs away and hides in Hudson s Cane Brake. P. C. and to the Little Boy whose inexhaustible curiosity and eagerness to hear a story have called forth the &quot. &quot. a veritable Ethio pian ^Esop. belongs to the class groes seer who ill are very well treated by their masters and completely relied upon. He knows the terrible & .THE DAYS THAT ARE NO MORE 77 The value of these sketches as a contribution to American literature has by no means been over In discussing the standing of Joel Chand looked. Gaston.Daddy Jake&quot. philosopher and gentleman. but the negro believes him dead. .

a mixture of brutality The attitude of the whites and kind Th. the rest of the story. is pictured. Southern politeness and hospitality are all well portrayed or suggested.Crazy Sue&quot. From &quot. Georgia. their subservience. How he is brought back by them and happiness restored con stitutes Jake&quot. but the development of the plot takes into account the relations between master and slave in the days before the war. AUnlike Cable s stories. toiling on is We toward them ness. She woman who had been cruelly treated by her master and had run away. i The story of the relates how the master War. without the knowledge of their parents.&quot.Daddy whose faithfulness and love of children are characteristic qualities. C.78 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY belonged. are very lonesome without their old friend and go &quot. the setting is not especially emphasized. . The setting is in Putnam county. Besides &quot. She tells the little children a story about Brer Rabbit and Brer Coon. Harris. pog ^ The scene of action is in Georgia.down the river&quot. the state of of the big plantation the hot cotton fields. his domination over the rest of the negroes. The character of the faithful but proud negro slave overseer.ejQolpnd Vlggger &quot.Tales Home Folks in Peace and in by J. get the spirit and the &quot.niggers&quot. to search for him. very a is woman named a half -demented &quot. in ante-bellum times.

A Bold De War&quot. In the letter she tells her son to have great patience her.&quot.&quot. &quot.When the little negro was well out of sight the Colonel would unleash Jeff and away the miniature hunt would go across the fields. serter.THE DAYS THAT ARE NO MORE pursued 79 Ms erring but faithful slave with a beagle When he finds especially trained to catch negroes. 1 &quot.The Colonel s we learn how dogs were trained Nigger Dog &quot. him and is about to lash him severely.&quot. Twice a day he d hold Jeff and make one of the little negroes run down by the spring-house and out across the cow lot.A Baby in the Siege. Although these and others in the same volume are good stories showing ability to handle plot and to suggest suitable backgrounds. &quot.The Colonel s &quot. for negro hunting &quot. represents a dramatic situation at the siege of Atlanta. In the following passage from &quot.The colonel trained : him assiduously. pictures the hardships of conscription in middle Georgia. the Colonel cheering it on in regulation style. &quot. by Joel Chandler . Nigger Dog. &quot. they are not the distinct and individual contribu- iFrom Harris. the negro is for given and peace is established. with the negro because of his faithful services to Of course the son relents.The Comedy X of portrays a scene between the two con flicting parties on neutral ground. the present master s mother. the old by family servant hands his master a letter written his dead mistress.

Mead & Co. itself fiction. American litera must ever be. Old Plantation Days. . 1903. where does the author intrude himself. domestic life of the Southern The book in which most is of his prose work * calledJIInjQlcL Plantation Days. In a series of sketches about negroes. Aunl-JLempe & Triumph. Thus far we have seen the South through the Fortunately the negro race has produced its own interpreter^J?. sentimental and much given to aping their masters. shrewd. They are very sus ceptible to religious emotion and respond very The humor and fun of readily to the revivalist.Uncle tion of Joel Chandler Harris to ture Remus&quot.&quot. well brought out. contained They are very short-story subtle in their delineation Y The negroes as Paul Laurence Dunbar depicts /them are faithful. by Paul Laurence Dunbar Dodd. Stories told accurately and faithfully but objectively. pf negro old plantation life is and very little subjective writing. He will always hold his place along with the other unperishable characters of eyes of the white men.80 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY which &quot. poet and writer of short told with no mean moral.&quot. is literary skill of the spiritual. are No The opening i &quot. Strangely enough (judging from the race of the author) there is no sentimentality in his stories the character. story.In &quot.ulJJaur stories has rejle_r)jiiibar. social and negro. he gives brief snatches and episodes of their lives in form.

riage herself.&quot. a negress named Lucy is introduced whose hatreds have a is primitive African fierceness. . Thus from JAIn the Walls of Jericho&quot. Not only do we get an insight into how the negroes spent their spare time from IHow Brother from Grace.THE DAYS THAT AKE NO MORE is 81 She whose imperious privi leges and rights (generically) we have learned to know from the work of Harris and Page. we get an excellent picture oTthe negro In the stress of a religious frenzy. One of the culprits. dancing and eating while they march about imaginary walls of Jericho. In this case she insists on giving away Miss Liza in mar is a study of the faithful family servant. because she brought her up from infancy. a plantation mammy&quot. Mandy s Jim. claiming the privilege as due to her. In the heat of his zeal for reforming his flock. The emotional negro character seen to best advantage at a revival meeting. He has them howling. &quot. accuses the preacher of denouncing card playing because he himself had been unsuccessful at it. but we also get an un PaiikeiL^Fell^ usually well-defined^portrait of a typical negro preacher. In an other story &quot.Aunt Tempe s Revenge&quot. Stuart Mordaunt. Brother Parker steals into a smokehouse and catches some of his parishioners playing cards on Sunday. is represented as being very amenable to her guidance. A preacher named Johnson uses truly theatrical means to gain and hold his congregation. The owner. a widower.

and &quot.fu de Gospel s sake. /but is caught at it. the Preacher declares that he can play better than Mandy s Jim and is willing to prove it &quot. delightful crea tion.A Supper by Proxy.The we get the comedy of plantation life in Trouble_About Sophiny&quot. In &quot. the life of which he himself was a part. Lastly &quot. He is the only author who has given us the negro in the short story from the Paul Laurence . All is afterwards explained and Brother Parker is exonerated. Sam. they are chargrined to find that a field hand. much to his discomfiture. pompously imperson ates his master during the latter s supposed absence. Both desire to invite Sophiny. is waged. ing maid to a ball given by the &quot. Brother Parker s master appears and puts the wrong construction on the scene.&quot.THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY Angry at the taunt. the negro butler. While they are playing at high-low-jack.Quarters.&quot. Brother Parker. His zeal and ruffled dignity are well portrayed. Anderson. It decided that the question of who should ask her first be decided When the battle has been fistically. who is willing to play with Satan for the sake of the is a most Lord. had anticipated both of them and had been accepted by the fickle Sophiny.&quot. \ Dunbar has faithfully presented the aspects of the life he saw.&quot. a negro wait Proxy.A Supper by The former deals with the question of social primacy between the Butler and the Coach man. much to their mutual harm.

.THE DAYS THAT ARE NO MORE 83 negro s own standpoint. he avoids the pit fall of sentimentality. shadows. It is surprising to find how very much akin his point of view is to that He sees the lights and the of the white writers. writing with an artistic re straint and an objectivity which are in every way admirable. the comedies and the tragedies of the negro quarter both fairly and sympathetically. the humors and the sorrows. Skillfully.

Reverend Moore. kindly in spirit and solici tous of his parishioners welfare. through an oversight has committed a wrong. Kentucky. the main character is a Ken tucky parson. at the end of the eighteenth and the beginning of the nineteenth century. The parson. The story although true to its locality is only mildly in dicative of Allen s strong trend in the direction of Kentucky characterizations and Kentucky word - 84 . and the time. In the title story. They all deal with his native country. is the name of a volume Flute and Violin that contains a collection of stories. The place of the action is Lexington. the blue-grass region of Kentucky. is a simple character who. He is shown in the midst of his parish working quietly.CHAPTER IN VII KENTUCKY AND TENNESSEE of THE fame James Lane Allen rests mainly upon his strong Kentucky novels but in his short-story work as well he emphasizes the fact that the lo cality { * can furnish considerable stimulus and in spiration to a writer. His struggles to have the church endowed are typical of any small community. and its picturesque folk.

The status of the town is indicated in the following sentence from the story there : &quot. sale. King Solomon.&quot. by Southern writers. &quot.Yes. decides to stay. King Solomon. Adolphe Xaupi. an old negress. Aunt Charlotte. the summer of 1833 was at hand. Medical students. Seized by a sudden noble resolution. in the market place as a shiftless character and bought by a negress. the vag rant. are: 1. for . Kentucky. irresponsible lot who The action takes place at the time when Henry Clay was in his prime. She has memories of King Solomon as a neighbor of her former master s. 4. The Sheriff who conducts the slave are present at the sale. the personi fication of faithfulness. a happy. typical of Kentucky. A pestilence breaks out upon the volume. 2.The characters of the story. new luxuries. and must be new pleasures. KENTUCKY AND TENNESSEE Far better * 85 is another story in the same The prin Solomon ofJKentujfe* C( cipal character. . This characteristic all is es pecially emphasized 3. Even the gravediggers flee. originally a Virginian who had migrated to Kentucky and fallen upon evil ways. a dancing master. in mockery called King Solomon.IN pictures. He is sold is a vagrant of Lexington. 5.King town. old Aunt Charlotte. takes his mattock and spade and inters the dead who otherwise would have been left unburied.

There is a poetic fervor in each reminiscent detail: universe and left Eternal Power seemed to have quitted the all Nature folded in the calm of the Eternal Peace.Wheat fields.Flute and Vio .King Solomon of lin/ by James Lane Allen. The splendors of the old regime of the happy.The of the heavens. &quot. singing negro laborers. Peter Cotton. gentle. the former slave and negro preacher is hardly less distinct. blend together in a harmonious Like Page s stories of Virginia it breathes picture. plan tation life under the reign of a kind master are sympathetically portrayed. all But the best of and one especially the stories in the volume &amp.Two Gentlemenj)fJpTi tn pfcy_ It i s a pathetic narralfve^of the relations existing be tween a faithful slave and his former master. the gentle old colonel and his faith ful body servant. polite. Around the pale-blue dome &quot. but with an implied acknowledgment that the new era rightfully in its is place. in &quot.&quot. a few pearl-colored clouds &quot.86 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY x Lexington was the Athens of the West and the Kentucky Birmingham. especially the scene when the Col onel leaves his old homestead. VThe descriptions of the blue-grass country are Admirably done. hung i From Kentucky&quot. indicative of Allen s peculiar strength is &quot. his vision turned toward the past.gt. Colonel Fields stands out like a portrait of Old Rem brandt s: quaint. a sigh for the passing of the old times.

. another leading his saddle horse to the stiles. crowning with faint radiance the remoter lowswelling hilltops and deepening into dreamy * shadows on their eastern slopes. and one little negro was blackening his shoes. He . Once more the magic of the old life is thrown over them. ward through the soft silvery light that filled the atmosphere and created the sense of lonely. A Colonel Fields revolves the old times in his memory.. Again in a frenzy of alive merriment the strains of the old fiddles issued from crevices of cabin doors to the rhythmic beat of hands and feet that shook the rafters and roof. &quot. felt the magic of his native scenes. This is a description in which words are ver itable artists this must have man who writes like pigments. a third bringing his hat. un imaginable spaces. Now he was sitting on his porch. i From &quot. sees the old plantation as it silent fields The was around him seemed again : with negroes singing as they followed the plows down the corn rows or swung the cradles through the bearded wheat. The light overhung the farrolling landscape of field and meadow and wood.IN KENTUCKY AND TENNESSEE 87 motionless. as though the wind had been withdrawn Not a crimson leaf floated down to other skies. and a fourth handing him a glass of ice-cold sanhis garee or now he lay under the locust trees in in the drowsy heat of the sumyard falling asleep .Two Gentlemen of Kentucky&quot. in &quot.&quot.Flute and Vio lin. .

its Kentucky.Two Gentlemen of Kentucky&quot. has only one town of over five thousand inhabitants seems as unlike land the America of our imagination as old Middle Eng itself. and one i From &quot. Indeed. descended by way of Virginia. Kentucky. ancient homesteads and hospitality. it is a true offshoot of old England. with glorious grass. Summarizing his value to the de velopment of the local story in the United States. A. which.Flute and Vio lin.&quot.THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY mer afternoon while one waved over him a bough pungent walnut leaves. with a population of only two millions. Bennett says: &quot. in &quot. He sees and all have them through a poet s into his stories through they run like threads of purest gold. E. of 1 not necessary to quote any further in or/aer to prove the fact that James Lane Allen is a magician of landscape.&quot. face. ^liich I This unusual ability to depict the Kentuckian glasses and weaves them /And his land has attracted a great deal of notice from critics.In reading him one is made is conscious of the fact that the United States not a single country its but several. its Roman delight in fine roads. To him his native fields is Y It and a hills and valleys are all beautiful tale to tell. . until he lost conscious and by and by awoke to find that they both had fallen asleep side by side on the grass and that the abandoned fly-brush lay full across his ness.

&quot.Concerning James Lane Allen&quot.&quot. and not roar nor Chicago affronting the skies. Page & Co.IN KENTUCKY AND TENNESSEE 89 has a comfortable suspicion that is ing the real.Little . but in Mr. Nature is not behind the action she is in Allen * . Her presence is everywhere. 2 From Kentucky distance nor is to Tennessee is not a very great any discernible gap in the of Charles Egbert Craddock (Miss Mary artistry Noailles Murfree) and James Lane Allen. from &quot. P. Bennett E. 1 Another tribute to the powers of James Lane is paid by Mr. volved in it. Allen s ro mances. P.In of the short story as he did. valid America. &quot.&quot. reproducing 1 &quot. 174. Mabie: Nature furnishes a background of many charm ing American stories. 2 Pilgrimages. by E. New York this. tion. The former has gathered inspiration from her Tennes see mountains as the latter did from his Kentucky meadows. the tremendous forces which sweep through her disclose their potency in human passion and impulse. Dutton & Co. C. She has expressed herself through the there medium lection. 1902. and finds delicate and effec tive remembrance in the hands of writers like Miss Jewett and Miss Murfree. Her col the Tennessee Mountains&quot. Quoted from The Outlook by E. the deep and prodigal beauty which she wears in rural Kentucky shines on every page. her influence streams through the story. A. F.Fame and Fic 1901. Harkins in Boston: L. contains eight studies of the rude mountaineers.

and for the same as dearly relished as Civili reason. rising in the distance and never changing. is a powerful story wKich the mountains and their environment seem more than a setting. extending their pageantry of color over crag and chasm. leading routine. They rear mass upon mass of shaggy sides to the skies. tinting the heights and reach ing into the abysses. towers cold and in exorable. The characters are the inhabitants of the moun tains. rise and sunset. But he must have in being impressed by deed a large brush and a vast imagination to paint Sun their scenes with the necessary heroic stroke. especially if they lead to somber or tragic consequences. primitive men and women. . zation has not altogether penetrated machinery and . with its desolation of mankind. is like life itself. An artist cannot help them.90 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY their language and suggesting a tremendous latent power both in the men and in the mountain scenery. the flotsam and jetsam drifting into that unknown haven are our vanished opportuni ties or cherished dreams unrealized. and the creek winding down from the summit and lost at the base. may play / f i DriftingjnowTi Lost Ciree&quot. Pine Mountain. happiness vanishing forever to the The little odds and ends on the surface. the mountains are an impressive theater. For the actions of men. are the spotlights of God over a stage on which great elemental passions their part. Gossip is New England. mys in terious.!?&quot. uneventful in lives.

.&quot.In the Tennessee ) Mountains. Cumberland spurs to the east are gaunt and bare in the wintry wind. Outlook on the s Vander is world narrow and wrong. with a for mechanical contrivance. their deciduous forests denuded. Even when the the mountain whence it springs. 1 From &quot. their crags unveiled and grimly beetling. smokes a pipe occasionally. The opening description is very impressive and characteristic of s the best descriptive touches in Miss Murfree 1 work. Cynthia s mother a shrewd mountain woman. They fail to understand their son s ambition. parents very ignorant. women capable agriculture are of great self-sacrifice. 1 all The spoken language of the characters is is the more easily Tennessee dialect of the whites. by Charles Egbert Craddock (Miss Murf ree Houghton Mifflin & Co. steadfast as themselves. the home of men imbued with great ambitions. 1884. Ware a simple mountain girl who loves Vander Price and makes a great sacrifice for him. some natures. as follows: The persons in the story are talent Vander Price Cynthia a young blacksmith. It understood by the general reader than the talk of Page s Virginia negroes. High above Lost Creek Valley towers a wilder So dense is this growth that it masks ness of pine.IN KENTUCKY AND TENNESSEE 91 But the mountains are still crude. changeless mystery its . shrewish in temper. Pine mountain remains a somber.

&quot. Vander Price. the Tennessee Mountains. 2 &quot.&quot. when his mechanical work gains recognition in the town.&quot. The action marches on to its in hopeless conclusion. The passion of the loser. his shrieks echoing and reechoing among the moun game played by tains and the weirdness of the entire scene are well described. 1 If a untutored in in &quot.In the Tennessee Mountains. . Whether the skies are blue or gray. 2 with a mountain setting for its action. It stands against the west like a bar In theme the story deals with the change that comes over the mountain youth.92 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY clifty heights are hidden. An intensely dramatic gambling story isuliQld. A great social difference sometimes comes be lives tween two and eventually girl is results in tragic all consequences. There is a good account of a card the mingled light of the moon and the fire of pine knots.In but From From &quot. evitable It is the old motif: forgotten love and for gotten duties.Drifting Down Lost Creek&quot. rier. the dark austere 1 line of its summit limits the horizon. symbolized by the Creek which winds down the mountain side and \ mysteriously disappears. its chasms and abysses lurk unseen. Throughout the story are occasional pictures of the mountain scenery that impress the reader with a sense of grandeur and awe-inspiring mystery.

. of edu separated from her by abysses social station is the theme of the story.The Star jn_the_ Valley and her potential lover is a man of the story must take the course that it does . The story is replete with pictures of wild scenery at all seasons.There are many things that suffer unheeded in those mountains. the Tennessee Mountains. the camp fire she jutting crag whence had shone had so often watched her star. the birds that freeze on the trees . To a huntsman camping on a crag at a very high at elevation the lighted room of a mountain girl She is the in the valley. the wounded deer that leaves its cruel kind to die alone.* The other iFrom &quot. unexpressed love for feud.&quot. in &quot.IN mountain KENTUCKY AND TENNESSEE lore 93 culture. able in her own way of rising to great She tramps deadly the hunter cation fifteen miles in a snowstorm to save three men from being killed as the result of a Her hopeless. In one paragraph the and central idea is clearly defined: &quot. of her Again the authoress shows the inspiration mountains. set forever looks far over the valley beneath where in one of those sad little rural graveyards she had been laid so long actors in the Star in the ago.In be- Valley&quot.&quot. unsophisticated moral heights. night appeared as a star but cap daughter of a blacksmith.A mountain tragedy in &quot. the despairing flying fox with its And the pursuing train of savage dogs and men.&quot.

dilettante hunter./ That the authoress knows her territory can be readily seen. * This is The setting is in the Tennessee mountains story. the girl s father. It seems to lack the unity of her earlier efforts and shows a poor sense of pro portion. There are some striking descriptions especially one of eagles and their brood on a mountain top. but that the story is loosely constructed is also alas too evident.Drift ing Down Lost Creek All the incidents previous to Hilary s meeting with the Bushwackers and to many . including the final episode in which he loses his arm through the rascality of a comrade. taineers silent.In the Tennessee Mountains/ &quot. was published (1899). apathetic ^V /] Fifteen years after the appearance of &quot.The Bushwackers&quot. and the action takes place during the war.94 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY Jerry Shaw the drunken black Chevis the sophisticated sides the girl are smith. 7 In the background one gets a view of the wives and moun and mothers-in-law. The title is derived from the name given to the band of reckless and irresponsible foragers who plundered both North and South alike. Hilary s love for Delia is a trivial affair as compared with the passion depicted in &quot. The hero is taken through the greater part of the war and incidents recounting his bravery are related.

One more story of Miss Murfree 2 s. sudden&quot. J^rKeTgnorance eer and we &quot. The the firing plot is well developed through the climax.&quot. its scenes and its characters.In the Tennessee Mountains. of the church. who frequently became intoxicated with their own products. But in spite of all faults whatever excellences are to be found these old-fashioned are those that come from a thorough knowledge of the locality.Election- eerin on Big Injun Mounting. &quot. of leave t^e &quot. wave of reform that spread over wftirthe the little mountain community and led to the expul sion of the Brice Brothers.subject. the Tennessee Mountains.&quot. distillers. .&quot. The story deals ject of illicit distilling is treated. in revenge very good description in the story is that of A a train passing at night over a railroad bridge that spans a chasm.In From &quot. is a good bit of characterzation. Rufe Chadd. for expulsion from church. The expository ending is and inartistic. a candidate for reelection as attorney-general has a reputation for extreme severity in the pursuit of justice.must the mountain and yet his susceptibility to noble influences is well brought out. He is 1 2 In &quot.IN KENTUCKY AND TENNESSEE man who had 95 his saving the life of the ruined his arm seem entirely irrelevant in the develop ment of a short story. In . Hilary s old mother. who deliberately plans against her son s going to war.

1 Thanks to Miss Murfree s work in this direction.In Page 163 &quot. who avows is held in captivity. in the Tennessee Mountains/ . The following excerpt shows the educational sta tus of the individual mountaineer and of the com munity There he (Rufe Chadd) had lived seventeen years in ignorance of the alphabet. Rufe.Electioneerin on Big Injun Mounting&quot. Isaac Bowker. behind the progress of those centers. ^Of that locality she is to-day not only the pioneer but also the great est living interpreter. Bowker is not to be prosecuted. the great Smoky Mountains of Tennessee and their inhabitants have been well delineated.96 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY the deed and stabbed by a drunkard. i &quot. but the mountains were a hundred years : &quot. tells the spectators that in the event of his This turns death. She has drawn for the bulk of her work from the moun tains among which she lived. he was the first of his name who could write it. From an almost primitive state he had overtaken the civili zation of Ephesus and Colbury. the tide of public feeling strongly in his favor. no great achieve ments it might seem to a sophisticated imagina tion. as he gazes at Bowker s worn wife. Rufe Chadd is reflected by a great majority. in the expectation of dying.

work of the famous and some of his better known First of all.&quot. It is.. 62 The Editor Pub. Even the moving picture houses our latest visitation have featured sce narios dealing with Western life and adventure.CHAPTER IN VIII THE WEST SINCE Bret Harte first exploited his unique Cali fornia before the admiring East. Deposit. N. the bucking bronco and revolver juggling are principal features.the cowboy. I desire to show that there is a constant call for material dealing with Western themes.1001 Places to Sell 1909. Co. followers. Mss. It may be assumed that numerous writers are more than ready to gratify this The following extracts are taken from a trade manual 1 for writers and specify the needs exist who want.. there has never been any dearth of Western stories. The maga zines regularly print tales in which the ranch. 97 . impossible to cover the entire scope of what has been accomplished in this field but it is feasible to glance at the pioneer.. of the publications mentioned: i &quot. Y. p. Bret Harte. of course.

San Francisco. &quot. g. : . of Western pointedly of any other locality . Southern and other settings. Monthly. adventure. life. This requirement is not met by merely locating the story. 2 Just as the Magna Charta marks an important epoch for the liberties of the English people. .98 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY &quot. nevertheless a iPage Page 63. Portland.&quot. . for example. 1868) signalize the beginning of the modern American short story that deals with a specific Al locality. I would say that the one definite re quirement of this magazine is that the matter shall be Western.Out Los Angeles.. Mass. . &quot. &quot. . but does not care for New England.lt. &quot. the publication of Liss&quot. uses stories of pioneer West. Luck of Roaring by Bret Harte himself.Overland Monthly. Ibid. but the Westernness must be vital. does the * __ though short e.M stories of this nature &quot. Cal.&quot. mining. Boston. Replying to your letter. Ore. in the West. storiettes if. Ibid. and in particular clean and wholesome fiction of West ern life and characters. The. Fiction: Likes Western.Pacific the Pacific. &amp.National Magazine. Lafayette B ld g. life. Fiction Uses love stories if not over senti adventure fiction if of the Western or of mental. so Bret Harte s ITJ^-JjiicjL appearance/of * (Overland Monthly. or if not desires .The appeared before Camp. 1 &quot. CaL A magazine of the West. 60.&quot.

its very successful attempt of or of anyone to transcribe the un usual phases of life and scenery in the gold dig It is notable as the first author ging regions into the form of fiction. The plot development and the final resolution or climax depend for their success upon the wild scenic and human environment in which they take their course. The passions portrayed is are naked and gripping. and for author a national Briefly. the artistry of &quot. gulches. it is the story of the regeneration of a mining camp through the birth of a little child. its 99 u success was itself The Luck&quot. torrents and elemental man. No short story since the day of Hawthorne had made skill so singularly an American appeal.The Fall of the House of Usher. no short story since the day of Poe showed so much technique. The description of the various types of men that were to be found in &quot.&quot.story not only and a realistic background but the vmity of impres sionism rivaling in class though not in kind. Its pathos heightened by the setting of primal woods. achieved for reputation. will illus trate Harte s knowledge of his locality and his vividness of characterization: .Roaring Camp&quot. fiercely strug gling with his environment. the Rockies. lacking the restraints of civilization but rudely appealing and powerful. The giant snow-crowned the rude cabins of the pioneer settlers. . melee of a refugee society give the .IN their THE WEST merely local.

ears. the cool and most courageous man was scarcely over five feet in height. the gambler mentioned r description. The greatest scamp had a Raphael hair . All of them had been exiled from the mining town of Poker Flat. when persons women that town underwent a violent moral regenera tion.. had the melancholy air Hamlet.100 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY The assemblage numbered about a hundred men. One or two of these were actual fugitives from justice. with a profusion of blonde Oakhurst. and intellectual abstraction of a the camp may have been deficient. The tragedy is heightened by the presence of un suspected nobility in the dissolute outcasts and the background of mountain scenery looming about them in awe-inspiring grandeur. All the of the story except two are men and of loose morality. The crux of the .&quot. and all were reck Physically they exhibited no indication of their past lives and character. with a soft voice and an embar The term roughs applied rassed.The Outcasts of Poker Flat. to them was a distinction rather than a definition. but these omissions did not detract from their ag gregate force. some were criminal. John Oakhurst. Perhaps in the minor details of fingers. the best shot had but in this one eye. The strongest man had but three slight fingers on his right hand. toes. face. less. est etc. a gambler. timid manner. is the chief character in the companion story of &quot.&quot.

crowned with remoter passionless stars.Tennessee&quot. They look about them. .Tennessee s Roaring Camp.And above all this. 1 Thus. he plods along thinking of nothing but the mem ory of the man he had befriended his partner. track less sea of white lying below the rocky shores to which the castaways still clung. with the snow drifting in hopeless masses all about. innocent and guilty alike. a hopeless. One sentence is sufficient to outline -the scenic setting : &quot. faithfulness. seeking some avenue escape.But of it revealed drift on drift of snow piled high around the hut.IN THE WEST 101 plot is reached through a snowstorm which hedges in the poor victims and subjects them to certain death from starvation. &quot.The Luck of &quot.&quot. their lives to nature in one of her cruel- moods. Partner/ by Bret Harte. etched on the dark firma ment. So forcefully is his act of final de votion to a dead comrade (a scoundrel) depicted that we are touched to tears. &quot. yielding est * * up they perish. 2 A very interesting publication that gives an excellent idea of what California has meant to its rose the Sierra 1 2 From From &quot. uncharted. remote and passionless. Almost beast-like. Tennessee s Partner/ is worthy to take a place beside these two masterpieces of Western delinea is the very incarnation of tion.

Jerome A. He has a wonderful Bret Harte world of his own that he draws on and amplifies and turns and twists to suit his literary purpose. to gather inspiration i &quot. which never were in quite the right focus. Ella Story of the Files&quot.California Story of the Files. gives a lengthy list of short-story writers who have life. still an excellent idea of California writers. was published at the time of the World s Fair celebration and is in the nature of a trumpet blast heralding the greatness of that state and its pre letters. 1893. Mr. l The editor of the Argonaut at that time. Sterling Cummins. much more faithful than his old supply. The feeling against the faithfulness of Bret Harte s portrayals is voiced in this passage &quot. possibly he might get a series of kodaks to lay away that would give him an entirely new world to present.If he would only come and sojourn here for a year. . eminence in Making all allowances.California from the scenes Mrs. as it impressed its It also attempts to define the California attitude toward them.&quot. &quot. for a little fond exaggeration. it how gives ever.102 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY is writers It called &quot. dealt list with various phases of is California as it The furnishes some interesting inasmuch slight indication of the way writers flock to seize upon the material most famil iar to them.But : he has remembered things rather strangely. much more agreeable. Pub. so Calif ornians think. Hart.

and among L. From^gtc^ies of of the form we can glean some excellent examples er s work. Utah and other Territories and (now states). be compiled for any local might Mr. &quot. the semi-Spanish civilization. Stories great ranches of Wyoming. W. Yda Addis Stork: Another phase Pacific Coast life. army cattle R. mentions the following writers and the scope of 1 : their work : E. already noted his portraits of lumbermen. list a similar ity. &quot. Clough Stories distinctively of the coast ranches pictures of life in mines. Hart among others.^OTOnfe and O. Frank Bailey Millar d and Edward Muson: Stories relating to life on the railroad in the rail road towns and with the Indians. William S. To a greater or less extent.been &quot. on cattle towns. posts O Neill: Life on the frontier of the &quot. E. Townsend: Pictures of life in San Fran cisco. Sam Davis: Stories of the life of the frontier. Henry. . Turning from California we shall note the work of two representative modern writers who have White influenced by the West^Edward ^Stewart the&quot. H. in frontier and of Mrs.IN of their THE WEST 103 own homes.His cowboy is the real cowboy not the fantastic creature of the stage. Ketchum: the Indians. (We have Ibid.) Page 204.

The girl told to kill herself. The girl. .Stories of the Wild Life&quot. in her excited state. and her fiance. An accidental slip of his foot gives the girl. Alfred. who spurs to overtake her. a band i &quot. bashful fellow. The hero of the story. of them are sighted by Indians.From various directions. the guide Alfred. In the fight that follows he stands the In dians off.104 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY &quot.The__Girl dian story W Got tKeTWest Who Rattled&quot. Here is a vivid description of how the Indians rally for fight: &quot. Allen. should the Indians succeed in dering her companion. 1904. warriors on horseback sprang into sight and moved dignifiedly toward the first corner. but one in whom true courage was not wanting. She kills herself in accordance mur her how with his warning. Phillips & Co. through knowing their methods of warfare. Miss Caldwell. single handed. He explains to the Indians habitually maltreat their female cap tives and afterwards expose them to a lingering death. silently. is rep resented as being a little. Edward Stewart White. forming at the last. are represented as typical Easterners whose idea of &quot. 1 A young a typical In girl in a journey is across the plains breaks wagons and her absence away from the train of is noted by one of the Both is guides. the impression that all is lost.roughing is obtained from the comfortable surroundings of the usual camp. McClure. it&quot.

but he hates to go into it in cold blood. timid manner for lack of grit by people who do not 1 mistaken know him. does not want to be that one. but. &quot. is the scout.&quot.The Wild 2 Life. he can break a it is . . cold blooded. knows that but one will fall. or when heated by lively resistance. X In another story. and then suddenly Each savage raising the muzzle of his gun. and divides . and then. whose bashful. As he nears So the opposing rifle this feeling gets stronger. one vals. it is and for since in such disciplined fighters each himself. often a man with nerve enough to hold his fire. jiiUvJIs Tenderfoot. Girl Who Got Rattled&quot. and that is their lack An Indian will fight hard when of discipline.a like a flock of swift 2 windy day. &quot. but firing no shot as yet/ 1 Their method of warfare is outlined as follows Yet there is one thing that can stop them if skillfully taken advantage of.IN THE WEST 105 of perhaps thirty men. he promptly ducks behind his to the right or the left. cornered. at regular inter detached themselves and began circling at full speed to the left throwing themselves behind and yelling shrill voiced.Stories . mount and circles away The whole band swoops winged terns on Alfred. their horses : 1 fierce charge merely by waiting until within fifty yards or so. They talked together for by one. of the From Ibid. . in by Edward Stewart White. a moment.

He promises to leave them and the the trail. he traveled in many localities and gained &quot. forces all is to put down their arms. empties the revolvers in a wonderful display of shooting and rides off with all the horses of the bandits. excitement it. the timid man asserting himself in the moment of trial as a hero. The play of pistols and the hold-ups are added as scenic accessories. Jiln 0. because he suspected of haying harbored and protected the messenger. vivid. His work reflects his diversified travels. tings for Henry who has some of also his stories used Western set we meet a writer who can claim the distinction of being a true cos mopolite. and not in breathing the steam-heated air of a close office.106 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY gets a commission to take fifty thousand in green backs from Standing Rock to Spotted Tail. the bandit chief. lifetime spent in living&quot. full of and the clicking of guns. At this point Alfred enters. \ Edward Stewart White s is the Western story as tne Easterner likes to read action. confiscated firearms at a point along a source of interest the strange contrasts of a primitive order of society the sound : YThis story like matic and uses as others of its class is melodra sleep and the sudden death . At Alfred would Billy s tavern there is a hold-up. have gotten away safely but Billy s life is threat ened by Black Hank. the braggart and swagge rer proving a coward.-^ raw. During an eventful .

the sub ordinated husband. Queen of the Napolito. 0. The characters are cowpunchers and knockabout * agents. as we shall see in the next chapter. is a collec His volume. C. A great deal of the material is taken from the life of the Mexican border and the big cattle ranches. The setting furnishes the main plot motives and contributes to the developing incidents. is a typical story of the gearts_jjid ^Crosses West. at Greensboro. in 1868.IN THE WEST 107 He was born inspiration and material from all. tion of stories with a setting in the Western States. V&quot. The principal persons are Webb Yeager. his adviser. as a sojourner for business reasons in Central America and as a soda water clerk in a drug store. served as newspaper man. formerly Santa McAllister. a cowpuncher. cedence was readjusted is the theme of the story. The freedom and ease of the life depicted may be contrasted with the narrower but no * less intensely exciting existence of the ? New Yorker. .. Henry s own experience on the Western plain gave him a first hand knowledge of the customs that prevail there. and Santa Yeager. Finally he settled in New York. N. spent two and a half years on a Texas ranch. It tells of the love of a ranch manager who married a cattle king s daughter only to find him How the order of pre self second in command. Heart of the West. Here he seems to have drawn his greatest inspiration. Baldy Woods.

108 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY of horseback riding are especi The descriptions ally sympathetic: &quot.At Dry reined the ponies hoofs on the matted mesquite grass. For miles they up had ridden in silence save for the soft drum of &quot. &quot.With rise of a pounding rush that sounded like the a covey of quail.&quot. You may fill in a mile. Baldy reined in on the top of a bare knoll. 2 . But in Texas discourse is sel dom continuous. A hundred yards on his route. He swayed on his horse. but in the saddle he was a master of equilibrium. the riders sped away to ward different points of the compass. ing: There 1 s a herd of cows and calves/ said he.The Heart of the West/ by O. From Ibid. Henry. had he been on foot the earth would have risen and conquered him. and emitted a yell. 2 His first hand knowledge of cattle conditions is to be gleaned from this Webb is speak passage. So without apology. AVebb offered an addendum to the conversation that had begun ten miles away. and the rattle of the chaparral against their wooden stirrups. and laughed at whisky and despised the center of gravity. a meal. they for a parting cigarette.Hearts in &quot. where their routes diverged. * Here is a picture of horseback comrades in Texas : Lake. and Crosses&quot. and a murder between your paragraphs without detriment to your thesis.

IN THE WEST 109 to be near the Hindo Water-Hole on the Fris that ought moved away from timber. tled in every But the mock bird whis of vantage. the bellowing of cows as they are branded. the yelping of lobos. Lobos have killed of three the calves. &quot. &quot. x A night scene on the ranch briefly but vividly sketched. leagues of flow ers scented the air and a kindergarten of little bough shadowy rabbits leaped and played near by.At The light prairies were somewhat dim. clothed in something dark and plain. reminding us somewhat of the nocturne in Cable s &quot. Delphine&quot. the dash and verve of women born to action and power.Mme.: 1 famous midnight Santa slipped softly out of the ranch house. its animals. the picturesque and charming dialect of the half-Mexi cans all these. diluted with particles of an impalpable. 2 Ibid. we may ask? composite photograph of its men. blended harmoniously and their es sence distilled. might stand for the spirit of the West.&quot. and the moon was pale orange. is orders. 2 in an open space Y/What |the It is is the Western spirit.Hearts and Crosses. the beat of horses hoofs on soft mesquite grass. She paused for a moment under the live-oak trees. i From &quot. the tread of men wearing heavily weaponed belts. flying mist. the plains of chaparral. I You d better tell Simms forgot to leave to attend to it. . The tramp and bellowing of cattle its scenery.

And truth to human nature the best part of it all is the absolute that dominates all characters tions they no matter in what out-of-the-way or unusual posi may be thrust. the hotel pro prietor. occurs a passage worth quoting as showing the means of livelihood adopted by commercial free lances. 1 V The humor of 0.Handbook of Hymen bound &quot. Sanderson Pratt is telling Friend. &quot. In the &quot. to the depicted.The got there : iFrom West. speaks: I had a friend once of the entitlement of Paisley Fish that I imagined was sealed to me for an endless space of time. ennui or worries. It is like the dashing of cold water on a forehead hot and pulsing with the day s business. The is resulting disgust of one with the other humorously What a contrast.&quot.In a Far Coun where two men are placed in a similar situa try tion and are thrown solely on each other s com &quot. Henry is the genuine kind that makes you smile both inwardly and outwardly. Side by side for seven years we had mined. herded sheep. for instance. brutal realism of Jack London s &quot. Heart of the by 0. ranched. built wire fences and picked prunes. as we shall see.110 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY In &quot. Friend&quot. the inciting cause is the fact that Sanderson Pratt in and Idaho Green are snow the mountains for over three weeks. Henry.&quot. took photographs and other things. how they in &quot. . &quot.Telemaclms.Jelemachus. panionship. Hicks. sold patent churns.

Green. I have some hesitations in confess for society ing to you that if I had my choice between you and a common. three-legged cur pup. The rest of the story tells how the men find two books and one of them applies the knowledge of a wife. yellow. had grubstaked us. but I have an idea it would be music of the spheres compared I to this attenuated stream of asphyxiated thought that emanates out of your organs of conversation. with on hand to last an army through a enough grub peace conference. Green discourses &quot.&quot. . The disgust of the men with each other. you having been a friend of mine once. The kind of half-masticated noises that you emit s cud. and you ain &quot.IN &quot. Mr. indicated in their conversation. says I. t. A chin- whiskered man in Walla-Walla carrying a line of and hope as excess baggage. never exactly heard sour milk dropping out of a balloon on the bottom of a tin pan. but most of them have taken as their models.We THE WEST 111 the was up in the Bitter Root Mountains over Montana line prospecting for gold. only every day puts me in mind of a cow she s lady enough to keep hers to herself. gleaned from his volume to the winning There have been many writers of Western stories. 7 &quot. one of the inmates of this here cabin would be wagging a tail just at present. there we was in the foothills pecking away. a feel : is thus ing of which Polar explorers have told.

serio-comic or altogether humorous. will prove disappointing and will sound merely as an echo of what someone else has said before.112 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY whether consciously or unconsciously the big men such as Harte. . This does not mean necessarily that the writings of the others are less originalXbut that the work of the three men mentioned short story be is it fairly typical of the Western tragic. White and 0. Henry. the It is find a fresh point of becoming increasingly difficult to view and for that reason modern writer s product unless it reflects the West as he himself sees it from his own peculiar angle.

perhaps. He drew freely from its almost inexhaustible stock 113 . To his observing senses and sym pathetic heart its sights. some thing suggestive. Thus New York.CHAPTER IX THE PHOTOGRAPHER OF NEW YORK LIFE : O. odd. malodorous. but al sion according to wealth. dingy. HENRY NEW YORK since it can hardly be called a single locality of so is made up First vidual sections. sounds and experiences be came blended into a kind of significant composite of wonder/ To him the streets were like the thor oughfares of Bagdad through which the good Caliph Harouii al Always to Raschid strolled in search of adventures. many distinctly we have a well defined indi divi In addition to the more or less prosaic middle class we have the extreme types of the rich and the poor. not being a homogeneous city seems hardly adapted to being artistically circumscribed by one man. ways picturesque. something typical of a great city. him there was something salient. there is a writer who came nearer than ^/And yet anyone else to understanding the New York motif. In addition there are the various nationalities grouped in their own quarters. complex as it is.

1 On the sidewalk in front of 2 &quot. Current Literature. and walk at all who would hold converse with met anyone but what I could learn something from him. July. things then I wouldn t think of doing now. either he 1 will shut up or he will become a Hall Caine. 2 interesting types. . don t flash a pencil and note book. Page & Co. the distinction of characters ness that makes Henry (Sidney Porter) belongs life.When He says of himself : I first came to New York I spent a great I did I deal of time knocking around the streets. the chances are that you can extract some thing of value from him. his A &quot. But whatever else you do.Whirligigs&quot.114 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY and portrayed them with a faithful them easy to recognize. ^To 0. I have never own view point. down the Bowery. Doubleday.A surprises story attempting to convey a sense of the New York constantly holds out is Little The author sup posedly goes out with his friend Rivington to see what the Bowery can offer in the way of Local Color. &quot. to used hours of the day and night along the river fronts. 1910. If you go at it in the right way. dropping into all^nanner of places. through Hell s Kitchen. he sees the world from talking with anyone me. of having been the photographer of metropolitan His methods of work were straightforward and effective. 1910. he s had some experi ences that I have not had.&quot.

The Four Doubleday.NEW YORK LIFE 115 the club where they had dined. that the man is professor. . The officer points out a young man named Kerry. Each one parts with the thing most dear to get the present. He to his surprise. they come upon two men engaged in an earnest discussion about political economy. who. he with his only She purchases an heirloom. she with her precious long hair. The author asks this is &quot. not a Bowery tough.Of all who give and receive iFrom gifts. knows the Bowery very well. Rivington is very much taken aback but consoles himself thus : Well.such as they &quot. &quot. expensive platinum watch. They continue to the Bowery ington meets a policeman whom he knows. &quot. Riving- ton whether finds. anyhow.The Gift jiLth Jim and Delia plan to give each other a Christ mas present suitable to the estimate in which a very loving married couple hold each other. &quot. Million&quot. he says. slangy&quot. Page & Co. a heavy gold watch. he a set of tur quoise combs for her lost hair. &quot. The flat dwellers.&quot. Rivington addresses him in to a college where Riv- Bowery argot but is astounded hear the tough answering him in pure English. in his One of these is very utterances. chain. especially the occupants of cheap furnished rooms are well portrayed in &quot. Henry. it couldn t have happened any where but in little old New York. writes 0.

The self-sacrifice here the principal theme. I was told by a sculptor from Mauch Chunk that the . opulence or and largess-loving garcons. Yorkers will easily recognize an original somewhere corresponding to this description from the New same story : &quot. Note the accurate detail in the fol lowing invoke your consideration of the scene the marble-topped tables. 1 In Between Rounds&quot. &quot. the music wisely catering to all with its raids upon the composers the melange of talk and laughter and.&quot. speaking in ladies dressed in demi-state art. the toilets. . The following extract will take us at once into the midst of the war crash: i From &quot.A Cosmopolite in a Cafe&quot. 0. That well-known New York institution. is well drawn. the range of leather-uphol : &quot.&quot. and an electric button from which no mortal finger could coax a ring. the cafe. the Wiirzburger in the tall glass cones that bend to your lips as a ripe cherry sways on its branch to the beak of a robber jay. scene was truly Parisian. Henry gives us a view of a quarrelsome domestic pair in a repertoire of discord. if you will. the sedulous an ex quisite visible chorus of taste.&quot.116 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY They are is are wisest. in &quot.I stered wall seats. of the poor the magi. &quot.In the vestibule below was a letter box into which no letter would go.The Four Million. the gay company. economy.

the big city has ever stood against its revilers.The From &quot. A by her husband struck Mrs. McCaskey and hurled a stew pan full of bacon and turnips at her lord.NEW YORK &quot. &quot. it In is thrown upon the screen sharply and truly. is it? said Mrs. There are a great many men and women who. He repartee. For all the humorous treatment of the quarrel. the * same story. is But beneath the hard crust of the lobster found a delectable and luscious food. On the table was a roast rocks. i The desirability of the house. grim. LIFE 117 &quot. Still nobody should take offense. black. We would call no one a lobster without good and sufficient claws. of lava. in Four Million. They call it hard as iron they say that no pulse of pity beats in its bosom. colossal.&quot.Mr. half seriously Silent. should have ended. they compare its streets with lonely forests and deserts . live in furnished rooms.&quot. garnished with sham retorted with this and drew the ap propriate return of a bread pudding in an earthen hunk of Swiss cheese accurately thrown dish. McCaskey was no novice at knew what should follow the entree.Between Rounds&quot. . having no ties of kindred in New York City. according to courses.Pigs face&quot. &quot. McCaskey below one When she replied with a well aimed coffee eye. New York : is characterized half humorously. semi-fragrant liquid the 1 battle. Perhaps a different simile would have been wiser. He sirloin of pork. pot full of a hot.

Your hand crept to your throat you gasped. It occupied seven by eight feet of floor space at the middle of the hall.furnished is shown around: if you still stood on one foot. 1 0. Through the glass of the little skylight you saw a square of blue infinity. pretenders and camp followers of 1 Love. . is touched upon in &quot. seemed to close in upon you like the sides of a coffin.A Service 2 2 From From &quot. you looked up as from a well and breathed once more.In it Its four bare walls . how the hunter for a &quot. The type that goes to make up New York s great Bohemia of artist would be s.A Four Million. was an iron cot.The Four Million. Then Clara. Clara would say in her half&quot.&quot. Henry pictures for us room&quot. loudly the word Clara/ she would show you her back and march downstairs. a washstand and a chair. Two dollars. Parker be cicerone of yours. Love&quot.&quot. then with your hot hand clutching the three moist dollars Then and hoarsely proclaimed your hide ous and culpable poverty. suh. contemptuous. On each side of it was a dark lumber closet or store room. geniuses. never more would Mrs.The &quot.&quot. Service of in &quot.118 the THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY room and the treatment depends upon the lodg In &quot.&quot. the col ored maid would escort you up the carpeted ladder that served for the fourth flight and show you the Skylight Room. Skylight Room&quot. She would honk in your pocket.The er s purse. half-Tuskegeenial tones. oh.

He i doesn he doesn Town&quot.&quot. . is a &quot. Parallel in interest to our Bohemian is the &quot. isn t exactly well. Mrs. he fits in between bouts. what does he do. Who is he.Rounder&quot. The story subsequently relates their struggle to char exist but what interests us most here is the acterization of the pair. We get a glimpse of the source from which the tawdry Bohemias of lower New York are being constantly recruited. promisingly in a pine that her relatives chipped in enough in her chip hat &quot.Man sketch by &quot.&quot. and a &quot. Henry called About Town&quot.Club something between l Why/ said he.Man About Town. pump with a prominent citizen passing it hastily. t in belong either to the &quot.A Man About Four Million. 0.Man man.NEW YORK &quot. They could not see her our story. &quot.The From &quot. This effort was framed and hung in the window by the side of the ear of even number of rows. Caruthers did things in six octaves so tree village in the South.&quot.Delia drug store corn with an un for her to go f North but that and is finish. Fish receptions and private boxing well. attempts to frame a definition: About Town&quot. He s t.&quot.Joe LIFE 119 Larrabee came out of the post-oak flats Middle West pulsing with a genius for pic of the At six he drew a picture of the town torial art. At twenty he left for New York with a flowing necktie and a capital tied up somewhat closer. what does he look like? A a newspaper reporter in a &quot.

I suppose he s Dress clothes every evening. turned and stared at Dulcie as she sped unheeding.An Unfinished Story&quot. Here night. Yes. You see know how him every s anything doing. he never travels with the where there a type. Meanest and vilest of all are the i From &quot. rivaling the choicest work of de Maupassant in forceful presentation.&quot. &quot. hydrogen derivatives. in accurate clothes with faces like those carved on cherry stones by the old salts in sailors homes. I don t exactly ll describe him to you. was beginning to unfold its dead white.The Four Million. Manhattan. knows the ropes calls every policeman and waiter in town by their first names. glowing leagues. in &quot. . 1 In the streets of this dangerous city walk all types of men. The calling electric lights of Broadway from from hundreds of leagues out of darkness around to come in and attend the singeing school.&quot.The an impression from were filled it of the streets at streets with the rush hour floods. of people.120 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY vanized Iron Workers Lotos Club or to the Jerry McGeorghegan Gal Apprentices Left Hook Chowder to Association.An Unfinished is Story. heavy- odored petals. were moths from miles. You generally see him alone or with another man. No. One of the best stories I have read by any author. .&quot. Men past them. vividness and suggestiveness is &quot. &quot. the night blooming Cereus.

and the magnanimity He wore expensive clothes and was of a cat. The author s s invitation is at last accepted. He could look at a shop girl and tell you to an hour how long it had been since she had eaten anything more nourishing than marshmallows and tea. and a policeman took me by the wing and asked if I belonged with them. vivid characterization : is a model of Piggy needs but a word. intended for him I . . When the girls named him. . The words-of-three-letters-lesson in the old blue spelling book begins with Piggy s biography. the habits of a bat. is comment put in the form of a dream : I said before. dwell upon him no longer my pen is not the kind . . he had the soul of a rat. Men who escort dogs upon the streets at the end of a He is a type. in the same ners. . a connoisseur in starvation.As this particular story ends unhappily. I dreamed that I was stand ing near a crowd of prosperous looking angels. longing for excitement and champagne din man of this kind is Piggy&quot. an undeserving stigma was cast upon the noble family of swine. am no carpenter. tired of monotony and crusts. Of course Piggy &quot. He hung about the shopping districts and prowled around in depart ment stores with his invitations to dinner.NEW YORK avowed prey is LIFE 121 sensualists and human beasts whose usual the poor shop girl. A &quot. I can string look down upon him. He was fat. The following description story.

cabs. We have seen a street- blockade such as &quot. vans and street cars filling the vast space where Broadway. I m only the fellow that set fire to an orphan asylum and x murdered a blind man for his pennies. and cross one another as a twenty-six inch hurling themselves into the struggling mass.&quot. how ever. The entire traffic Story.&quot. of Manhattan Four Mil From From &quot.An Unfinished &quot. He saw a congested flood of wagons. Sixth Avenue and Thirty-fourth street maiden fills her twenty-two inch girdle.122 &quot. I asked. trucks. the weak. . More powerful. And still from all the cross streets they were hurrying and rattling toward the converging point at full speed.Mammon and the Archer&quot. the beast. A good bit of observation is contained in all Mam 2 mon and the Archer.Richard is described in the following : stood in the cab and looked around. and Piggy.&quot. THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY Who are they? Why/ said he. It is against the code of the story teller s art preach a moral lesson. &quot. lock ing wheels and adding their drivers imprecations to 1 2 the clamor. in &quot. Are you one of the bunch ? Not on your immortality/ said I. 11 they are the men who hired working girls and payed em five or six dollars a week to live on.The lion. &quot. than an economic exposition of the dangers of starvation wages and more appealing than the to most eloquent sermon is this story of Dulcie.

Page & Co. He now hundred thousand true were wiped out. At first he is repelled. seeking the ideal. though its journey be through but a few poor yards of He no longer saw a rabble but his brothers space.Brickdust Row 1 man named where he Blinker. but then the inner meaning of the sight becomes clear to him.NEW YORK seemed oldest to LIFE around them. Henry s fresh view point. idealists.The Trimmed Lamp&quot. was the husk Romance. the breath-catching though safe-guarded dip and flight of adventure. at least. . The clamorous amuse ment place is not only perfectly described but the very soul of it is laid bare. 123 have jammed itself The the thousands of specta tors that lined the sidewalks had not witnessed a street blockade of the proportions of this one. 7 &quot. looked clearly upon a Their offenses Counterfeit and false though the garish joys of these spangled temples were. There was no magic of poesy of here or of art. introduces us to a wealthy He goes to Coney Island sees the masses pushing and jostling to en joy themselves. New Yorker among Let us take a look at Coney Island from 0.He no longer saw a mass of Vulgarians seek ing gross joys. the magic carpet that transports you to the realms of fairyland. but the glamour of their imaginai From &quot. Here. Doubleday. he per ceived that deep under the gilt surface they offered saving and apposite balm and satisfaction to the restless human heart. &quot. the empty but shining casque of chiv alry.

the weeping.124 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY tion turned yellow calico into cloth of gold and the megaphones into silver trumpets of joy s heralds. as showing 0. Voice of the City/ * as its name indicates. the laughter and music of the night. &quot. 1909. Doubleday. and of the essence an extract an audible extract. From &quot. City&quot.The Voice of the Million. I may cite from the opening paragraph of &quot. tones of Dr.The Voice of the City. &quot. To arrive at it . the whispers of the lovers in the parks all these sounds must into Voice not combined. of which one drop 2 shall form the thing we seek. As we roam the streets they slyly peep at us and challenge us in twenty different guises. are always abroad seeking worthy woo ers. Parkhurst. the stealthy hum of cab wheels.&quot.The we must take the tre mendous crash of the chords of the day s traffic.. and of go the mixture an essence made. Romance and Adventure. 3 &quot.&quot. attempts to get at the meaning behind the noises &quot. With1 Page 2 Title story from & Co. the hullabaloo of the strawberry vender and the covers of Everybody s Magazine.The Four .The Green Poor.&quot. the solemn &quot.&quot. the ragtime. of the great metropolis : . the shout of the press agent. Henry s attitude toward Lastly the big city whose meaning he read so well.In 3 the big city the twin spirits. the tinkle of fountains on the roof gar dens. but mixed.

hate. We pass on. and the lost. affection and fear with hurrying strangers in the passing crowds. eyes besiege. written upon. flutters down to our feet from the high lattices of Chance. the perilous changing clues of adventure are slipped into our fingers.NEW YORK LIFE 125 out knowing why. * There are numerous other s stories and sketches Henry remarkable knowledge of the great metropolis and its human types. which one. in a sleeping thorough fare we hear a cry of agony and fear coming from an empty and shattered house. with a smile. But few of us are willing to hold and follow them. the lonely.&quot. fingers beckon. the rapturous. .The Four Million. a satin rosette kept thing in a safe deposit drawer. at the end of a very dull life. a sudden souse of rain and our umbrella may be sheltering the daughter of the Full Moon and first cousin of the Sidereal System .The Green Door&quot. that reveal 0. and some day we come. instead of at our familiar curb a cab-driver deposits us before a strange door. I have i From &quot. in &quot. opens for us and bids us enter a slip of paper. we look up suddenly to see in a window a face that seems to belong to our gal lery of intimate portraits. and a lifelong feud to reflect that our with a steam radiator. romance has been a pallid of a marriage or two. we exchange glances of instantaneous . the mysterious. We are grown stiff with the ramrod of convention down our backs. at every corner handkerchiefs drop.

philis- and men-about-town form a delightful stock company for the enact ment of brief comedies and tragedies arising from the problems of their occupation and posi tion in society. In the stories of 0. Henry. the characters are so intensely human. &quot. The plots of his stories need not particularly be emphasized. cabbies. however. It a that he pictures. They represent skillful workman is true. They are almost all cleverly conceived and because the surprise ship. the setting is so realistic that we are whirled along in the tives so plausible sweep is of the tale. but technique. In a weaker writer this would element in them and yield a nonsensical hash in a writer gifted merely with a pretty fantasy it would entertain but never convince. Broad yield him Artists.&quot. Coney Island.all power. the furnished life. shopgirls . . a be woefully prosaic or imbued with an atmosphere of the wildest romance. fascinated and convinced. and not secon darily through criticism.126 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY tried as far as possible in this chapter to reveal him to the reader at first hand. hoboes. it is so prominent. the incidents situations are frequently bizarre. New York. their mo and above all. The magician s wand has touched tines. is outside the province of our discussion. thousand candle way. the cheap eating house. unusual and very often strained. pulsing New York that can with room. one- the tenement flat. as such. the cafe illuminated with the sidewalks of their stories.

Types. Henry is almost too vital for any dusty place on the shelf of classics. 0. the 0. kO. It is too early to predict his place in literature. . LIFE 127 for they are their natural selves and themselves with a freedom and vivacity disport usually not seen in private individuals appearing in important roles before a critical audience. if sometimes unorthodox. diction. as well as vigorous. appeal strongly to posterity. Henry as ^Tew York from all others who have taken a setting in the respect that he possessed a far broader range of vision than any one of them. Henry will not suffer oblivion.NEW YORK them all. sights. sounds. But if ever keen obser vation and a fresh view point. adventures all coalesced and from the blend came that remarkable product 0. Henry story. He is not content to single out one neighborhood and exhaust all its fictional possi In the great hocus-pocus of the city he bilities. differs saw unity.

Henry s 128 . New York after a unit. All indulge in their native pastimes and ceremonials and yet dimly recognize an allegiance to the government that has turned most of them from subjects into citizens. The German has his imitation Rathskellers on Broadway. retailing the latest happenings in the lands they had left and instructing them in their duties toward the land of their adoption. spectrum of many 0. the Frenchman streets. his table-d hote restaurants on side the Italian his spaghetti haunts in the heart of his quarter. the im migrant Jew (on the lower East Side) reconstructs a replica of his former quarters. The Greek seeks his brother in the Ice Cream Parlor or in the Florist Shop. dramatic and musical tastes in his own play house. The Chinaman languages. On all sides one hears baffling sounds in unfamiliar Away from his native Russia. But is. colors. All have newspapers in their own language. worships in his own Joss House and indulges his weird. like the all.CHAPTER X NEW YORK FROM MANY ANGLES THE sense of wonder and the sense of mystery are forever stirred by great polyglot New York.

NEW YORK FROM MANY ANGLES 129 gaze saw the white harmony. It is interesting. when judged as the impression the locality made on an outsider. bad terms with each other over a real estate deal. and settles his outstanding The two little girls get &quot.glad on each other. ^-The delineation of school life on the lower East Side has been a unique contribution of Myra Kelly When her first vol to the fiction of New York. was issued the public smiled Little Citizens. is hardly true to life. It il lustrates a tangle in the lives of two school children. In this chapter I shall sketch a few writers who have specialized on the individual tints. The setting is a school on the lower East Side devoted to the Americanization of Jewish children. who quarrel because the fathers are on cousins. &quot. The first story. They are represented as talking a mixture of Yiddishized English. Eva and Sadie Gonorowsky annoy all each other in sorts of ways and Teacher is Fi distracted at her inability to stop the quarrel. He gets a big sum money as insurance debt to his brother. it settles itself.A Little Matter of Real Es tate&quot. It is not in our province to criti cise the individual bias of an author toward any . which. although very funny. treats of the humors of school life. great fire breaks out in nally A Nathan Gonorowsky of s store. The children. * broadly at the queer sayings and doings of the little Jewish lads and lassies so grotesquely portrayed. ume. however.

It is the story of the gift that Phillips iFrom & &quot. As a contrast to the foregoing we have another story in which the author sees the pathos of her little school world. No two original artists can see a scene. Goes months. but merely to establish the fact of influence. From long he come when I was a little bit of baby. Teacher. what you think? he don t pays it back. So my papa he goes on the lawyer und the lawyer he writes on my uncle a letter how he should to pay. Comes no thousen dollars. 1904. Und say. a situation or a story in exactly the same way. . Und he didn t to have no money for buy a house. It ain t polite you takes thousen dollars und don t Well. by Myra Kelly McClure.130 THE AMEEICAN SHORT STORY given locality. This must be taken into account whenever its it appears that the writer s point of view differs from our own conception of the truth. So my papa he s awful kind he gives him thousen dollars so he could to buy. we shall listen to Sadie telling us the cause of the trouble : Mine uncle he come out of Russia. . pays it .Little Citizens.&quot. . Co. Comes no thousen dollars. back So my papa he writes a letter on my uncle how he could to pay that thousen dollars. To give some notion of the peculiar Myra Kelly dialect a concoction for which the children are only partly responsible. &quot. Goes 1 months.

present for ladies.NEW YORK FROM MANY ANGLES 131 the much loved but very poor Morris Mogilewsky gave to his teacher at Christmas time. their miscellaneous nature and the fever with which they are bestowed are equally great &quot. The passage recounting the presents given by the children is very true to life. Sadie Gonorowsky : brought a basket containing a bottle of perfume. x But the contribution of Morris was one that his mother had kissed when his father had handed it to her. a thimble and a bright silk handkerchief. Their uselessness.&quot. /Her depiction of school officials whose heads are inflated with a sense of petty power is brutally humorous.A Christmas Present for a . From &quot. under the pleasing delu sion that it was an atomizer. very often develops into a pom It may be the constant contact with those who must bow it before his will or lose their positions. i may be the influence Lady. It turned out to be the receipt for a month s rent for a room on the top floor of a Monroe street tenement. He was sure that it must be a very ap propriate &quot. narrow individual. Isadore Appelbaum bestowed a large cal endar for the year before last.Nathan Horowitz presented a small cup and saucer. Through a peculiar psychologic process luloid collar button the school official pous. Sara Schrodsky offered a penwiper and a yellow cel and Eva Kidansky gave an elaborate nasal douche.&quot.

he had caused five dismissals. known affection Gum Shoe Tim. the nobility. the ambition shining out through the fogs of poverty and despair she has not touched i From &quot. The self-sacrifice. caution that it is a But I leave her with the are Myra Kelly world we reading about and not. in &quot. during a brisk campaign of eight days.132 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY his official attention. On licenses his approval or disapproval. and an epidemic of hys teria. \.Morris and the Honorable Tim&quot. : in this instance.Little Citi zens. of a thousand petty details to which he must give Whatever the cause. &quot. * in the story. his soul the milk of frequently shrinks until all the humanity and all human kindness have been wrung out it.&quot.&quot.hp Hpn. the school world of the lower East Side. strictly speaking. are especially brutal &quot. . of This particular type of school official is por trayed by Myra Kelly in the person of an Asso Superintendent of Schools.n the narrow confines of her chosen field she has worked sincerely. His methods. Myra Kelly orable Tim&quot.-^ gives a vivid delineation of this opin ionated and power-bloated official. nine cases of nervous exhaustion.Morris nnd t. teachers were renewed or canceled.He had almost finished his examinations at the nearest school where. due by his teachers as to his stealth in ferreting out a teacher s shortcom ciate ately ings.&quot.

The my opinion. Phillips & Co. McClure. The conven who pronounces his w s is and whose ruling passion the accumulation a figure that recurs again and again in their work. of stories called &quot. has depicted his people half as convincingly in their new environment here as Zangwill has in the old. With the gift of a rich sense of humor she has dwelt upon the foibles of language and of manner that have differentiated the Jewish type from all others in this country.NEW YORK FROM MANY ANGLES 133 upon. The opening story of the Task. is.Children of Men&quot. tionalized as v s of Jew who is cringes. End Its i &quot. is fairly rep resentative of the best he could do.Children of Men&quot. No American Jew astray by the grotesque elements. in of this volume. all in all. the best. her stories show a fair knowledge of conditions in her school environment and marked ability to interpret artistically its bizarre picturesqueness. . Her work is all At times she la too frequently broad burlesque. &quot.&quot. Bruno Lessing. We have had numerous short story writers who have dealt with this class All too many of them were led of our citizens. He is a Jew himself and came to his task with an adequate knowledge of the subject and with a The collection certain degree of natural sympathy. but. bors too consciously for contrasts. money **T)ne of the minor writers attempt to see the Jew clearly who has made an honest is Bruno Lessing.

who wilts away in The constant din of the machinery scribed : is thus de &quot. devils.up-town. One day he takes her to a free exhibition of paint ings &quot. When. plain how it came into his Braun is represented whose possession.&quot. The girl. Braun decides to steal it for her if possible. His attempt is fortunately suc is made happy but does not re her death he returns the picture to Upon the exhibitors but is arrested when he fails to ex cessful. been caught by a Corot landscape. is a pale. she raves about this picture. Each machine is made up of dozens of little wheels and cogs and levers and ratchets. Liz schen. of conditions home through the faithful among the sweatshop Braun and Lizschen.THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY tragic import is driven description workers. Lizschen cover. she becomes very ill. The girl has consumption. as a hard letariat finer feelings worked pro have been kept alive by his love for Lizschen in spite of the dulling monotony and noise of the shop. shortly after. foreign timidity incite a them out. are both toilers in the same sweatshop. sickly flower the close air of the shop. fancy has Their ragged appearance and museum guard to order but not before Lizschen s They go.The sewing machines whirred like a thousand what a noise thirty sew machines will make when they are running at ing full speed. You have no idea . lovers.

he tried to dash out those poor brains against a padded wall. A listener comments on how beautifully it was played. The Roumanians and the Hungarians. He is a Hungarian drunkard. Po latschek denies this and seizing the leader s violin plays the march with great dash and fervor. One night while guzzling freely he hears the restaurant or chestra playing the Rakoczy March. may observe their wine and restaurants. Cloud&quot.&quot.A Lessing gives us a good picture of the cafe devotee. squeak and bang and roar louder than all the others. &quot. as distinct from the Russian Lithuanians. . The old man who went same shop used to sit in the cell crazy last year in this very where they chained him. The foregoing paragraph 1 is an example of sub the details it jective description that interprets feruno Lessing saw the tragic phases describes. and seems to take an odd delight in music.Night after night he would sit where the Gypsies play on Thursdays. with his fingers in his ears.&quot. scrape. Rift in the In one of his stories.NEW YORK FROM MANY ANGLES 135 and each part tries to pound. Polatschek. &quot. to keep out the He said the incessant noise of the sewing machines.&quot. and time and again. are All over the East Side one cellars &quot.The End of the Task. din was eating into his brains.high livers. of the neighborhood clearly. Here is a glimpse of him in the cafe interior in Natze s Cafe. drinking : i From &quot.

Those who struck the Reverend Gillespie are renegades to Judaism. On music nights he would drink more than usual and his eyes would fill with tears. : * Would you Ah. drink. you &quot.&quot.A convert him? What would you his like have him believe? faith? i To what would you change will say there are not Cloud&quot.Unconverted&quot. crowd.Children of . We all used to think they were maudlin tears.&quot. he points out. 1 sliyovitz drink. A its suggestive little story &quot. and never a word to a soul. The latter scatters the blood upon the Reverend s to his rooms on the top floor of an East Side tenement. is a real Jew. stanches the cheek and invites him up The young man tells the Reverend the old man s story a story of self-sacrifice under wrong and true nobility of character. During his first open air meeting he is struck with a stone on the cheek but is saved from further injury by the intervention of a tall young man. This.&quot. stage. He ends up fervently &quot. The Rever end Dr.Mission to the East Side Jews.136 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY which is the last He would drink. takes theme from the numerous attempts constantly made to convert Jews to Christianity. many Men. but we had grown accustomed to Polatschek and his strange habits and nobody paid attention to him. An old man in the last stages of a wasting illness is lying on a couch. Gillespie opens a &quot. From Rift in the in &quot.

NEW YORK FROM MANY ANGLES him. is the story of a singular predicament in which Isidore and Moritz t&quot. because he times he is humorist.A were placed because they endeavored to share a dress suit between them during one evening. &quot. But it was faith in Judaism that made him what he was. has been able to seize upon and reproduce the unique humor of the Jew.&quot. a conscious.Unconverted. sometimes an unconscious In both instances he is equally delight Swallow-Tailer for Two&quot.&quot. ful. : Efry time I looked around me I seen his i From &quot. is a Jew himself. In the mean time Isidore trails after him to see that the suit should be in perfect condition for him.The second outdoor meeting of the Reverend s mission to the East Side Jews has Gillespie ! neve* taken place. Mor itz promised to give up the suit to Isidore at eleven o clock for two hours wear. If I if all Jews could only believe in the religion of their fathers as he believed l what an example to mankind Israel would be The story ends with this significant paragraph: &quot. . 137 No! would to God there were! It would be a happier world. This is humorously related by Moritz in Yiddish-English dialect &quot. Centuries of persecution have not banished the smile from the Jew s lips. Some ^Bruno Lessing.

&quot.&quot. Mr.I am aston ished.Don t vatch me like dot. unt dot I stole somet ing. is JOut tells&quot.Moritz.&quot.&quot. announces his intention to begin drinking as a means of punish ing her.Dey ink you are a detectif. please don t get wrinkles in der swallow tail. &quot. &quot. Efry time I took a drink Moritz comes unt holds der handkerchief under der glass so dot der beer should not drop on der swallow tail shirt.138 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY a lookout on der swallow tail evening Such big eyes Isidore had that night! eyes keepin dress. Four . of it all is But is that Moritz and Izzy cease the telling of the story rather than the plot a noteworthy feature. Rosenstein. Bruno Lessing in this skit of the dire consequences to the individual Jew if he suddenly changes the habits of a lifetime and becomes a drinker. &quot. angered by his wife s insistence on obtaining new red wall paper. &quot.Izzy. Remember I got to wear it next. One of his of the best stories in the volume Orbit. I says to him. &quot. Izzy. Here is where his troubles begin. &quot.&quot. Moritz s humor under stress is especially characteristic of Jewish nature a shrug of the shoulders and a joke told at one s own expense. Efry time I drops a leetle tiny bit from a cigar ashes on my swallow tail shirt Izzy comes vill t running up mit a handkerchief und cleans it off. I said. The upshot to be friends. Efry time I sits down on a chair Izzy comes up unt vispers in my ear.

The consequences of his vagary. He looked at the row of bottles behind the counter. . was Benedictine. finds that in the artificial exuberance induced A by the spirits. * I want a drink. not a drop. he finds. asked not the bartender. he had dismissed his store staff for a week s holiday. His wife is overjoyed and Mr.Rosenstein He did know one drink from another.It frowned. to explain promises her fer This * is the helpless way in which Rosenstein or dered a drink: * &quot. Give me a drink.NEW YORK FROM MANY ANGLES 139 Benedictines gulped down at once change this se date and stationary sphere for Rosenstein. The bartender poured some of it into a tiny liqueur glass. and then his face lit * up. He vently never to take another drink. are pleasant to all others series of He but frightful to himself. demanded Rosenstein. had purchased a white horse to prepare for the opening of a new milk store and among other things had engaged a whole staff of painters to repaper not only the one room his wife desired but the entire suite. Rosenstein has not the courage the secret of his generosity. Fill me a big glass. &quot. What kind of a drink do you want? looked bewildered. That bottle over there the big black one. but Rosenstein &quot. I said. startling mishaps has taken place. &quot.

its humor on of the the End of Task&quot. belongs to him.A Lessing view. Besides these serious aspects Bruno Lessing has handled with relish the humors of Jewish life and Jewish character. Sometimes as in the American ization of Shadrach Cohen&quot. applies to the relations between them and him. we feel the utter hopelessness the sweatshop worker s fate.&quot. tragedy on the one hand and In such tales as &quot. although his work falls short of sub- . no respite. s treatment theless true to is broad burlesque but never Jewish mannerisms and points of / Altogether.The other. its and sharp climaxes. Bruno Lessing has caught the double nature of Jewish life.140 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY this point Rosenstein s life liveliness At became one of picturesque *^In the stories I have mentioned. In Swallow-Tailer for Two. He is in a worse plight than Hamlin Garland s farmer. Bruno stories like &quot. He outwits them and makes them appear mere tyros in the world of business. the fun has an un dercurrent of seriousness. The din of the machines and the smell of the shop are ever with him. His life is a round of working and sleeping. Boss of Bosses summons him. The latter at least has the advantage of language. the children that the The father proves to command. although it yields him but a bare living. Honor thy father and thy mother. But for the worker on the machine there is no He pedals away until the consolation.&quot. The soil he tills.

It is mentioned here as as reflecting a tendency to further specialization. ^ferief mention must here be made of a new tendency in fiction. All the plots in the book are field. &quot. Pub s. Abe and Morris.NEW YORK FROM MANY ANGLES limity in treatment 141 in and although nowhere. who are cloak and suit manufacturers. even his greatest climaxes. Nobody style he.The i &quot. never theless his stories are drawn from life and are worth reading as a Jew s impressions of Jews. but it hardly strikes a high level in the delineation of the Jew. Specialization has gone so far that not only does an author outline a restricted territory for himself on the basis of nationality but even a single occupation within that nation ality is made the source of a series of stories.Potash and Perlmutter/ by Montague Glass Henry Alteraus Co. does he combine the feeling of reality with a sense of dramatic fitness. drawn from that limited The book is humor ous after a fashion. has some good bits of character ization and touches of commercial philosophy in dialect. New York so comprehensively What he misses in the niceties of more than makes up in scope of observa training Richard Harding Davis re ceived as a reporter on metropolitan papers had tended to sweep him into many places of interest and had made him feel instinctively what was worth &quot.Potash Montague Glass in and Perlmutter&quot. sees the reporter.. . * gives us an entertaining account of the relations between two partners. tion.

Van Bibber is impelled to do what he does by the the thought that the life of the stage sooner or later contaminates the moral sense. 1 is a story in which the darker side of the stage is touched upon. 1892. . H. New York &quot. an apparent man living according to a set set is dawdler. His yet a Van Bibber. and code of honor manner prescribed by his peers an interesting character. Davis Harper & Bros.With He knows when man s paternal instincts.Her club-man s attitude toward First Appearance&quot.Van Bibber and Others. He is not merely a type because Davis was artist enough to give him an individuality of his own but he is in society. in which he is well-nigh inimitable and that is in recording. Van Bibber notes a pretty little child making her debut in a production of the Lester Comic Opera Co. The father finally acknowledges her. however. sufficiently characteristic to and in the be indicative of the life. New York club-man. the delineation of the creation.142 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY In the short-story field he has touched upon many phases and has drawn his settings from numerous quarters.&quot. There is one field. he hears her mother s name that who had disowned her is a wealthy club-man of his own set. The story is full of references to doings behind the scenes which i&quot. great difficulty he works upon the father s mind sufficiently to arouse the father &quot. by R.

their failing to recognize in new costumes his old acquaintances of the company. just being staged and Bibber. Even in their lapses from convention it is evident that both he and Van Bibber know the correct form of pro cedure under the circumstances. but he saw Kripps. the stage manager. wildly waving an arm to someone in the flies.Her First Appearance&quot. in &quot. although iFrom Others. who retains his good breeding though violently angry. x to the is the obdurate father.NEW YORK FROM MANY ANGLES make one feel that 143 Davis had gathered material is for this story at first hand. is The new production Van wandering about behind the scenes &quot.Van Bibber and .&quot. the latter. and a practical pair of steps over it. He belongs type of impassive club-man. taking advantage of the license ac corded him as an old college chum of Lester s. Carruthers For instance. and dragging out a canvas floor of tessellated marble. perspiring and in his shirt sleeves as always. and fighting with the set for the second.For a moment he hesitated in the crosslights : and confusion about him. when Van Bibber tells the reason for his errand to Carruthers. beckoning with the other to the gas man in the front entrance. and aiming the high quaking walls of a palace and abuse at whoever came in their way. The stage hands were striking the scene for the first act. &quot.

They have some absurd regard for my feelings. A thrilling experience is related in which Van insult Bibber whips three toughs and saves her from and perhaps injury. The habitual In restraint of the well-bred man is here evident even &quot. Note the calmness of Carruthers utterance: Mr. .Her First Appearance. neither scolds nor storms. you have no compunctions about tear ing open old wounds. brave young man. In a man ner chillingly polite he wounds Van Bibber by pointing out to him that his intrusion into another man s affairs is the act either of a cad or a fool. they hesitate to touch upon a subject which in no way con cerns them. gets wind of the story. Van Bibber. on coming back to New York. goes down i From &quot. and which they know must be very painful to me. 1 . You have dared to say to me what those who are my best friends what even my own family would not dare to say. .Eleanore when his anger is at blood heat. I suppose. get a study of a settlement worker. They are afraid it might hurt me. we workers from the ranks of the ler is rich.&quot. Eleanore Cuy a wealthy young girl who undertakes work in a Rivington Street Settlement after dismissing young Wainwright who intended to propose to her. But you have the courage of your convictions. you are a very &quot.144 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY deeply hurt. The big settlements situated in the poor districts of the city draw many of their Cuyler&quot. . Wainwright. &quot. he began.

The strength of the story and of Davis s work in general. 1 The incident of the fight with the toughs is somewhat strained. discouraged mood.From the light of the lamps he could see signs in Hebrew and the double eagle of Russia painted as easily as he does : home i From &quot. lies in his acute re: He shows realities to the portorial observation. no conception of the problems wealthy home. and that she was not to blame if the world would be wicked and its people unrepentant and ungrateful.NEW YORK FROM MANY ANGLES 145 town.She had grown sceptical as to working girls and of the good she did them or anyone else. . was drunk again and promised trouble. finds his Eleanore in a weary. here well out She comes from a Cuyler. It was all terribly dreary and forlorn and she wished she could end it by putting her head on some broad shoulder and by being told that it did not matter.&quot. on the third floor. Her discouragement just before the coming of Wainwright is thus described &quot. Corrigan. proposes to her and is The lined &quot. He reconstructs the environment of a lux urious street in the early an East Side morning hours &quot. type is accepted. reader.Settlement Worker &quot. due to the numerous difficulties encountered in her work.Eleanore Cuyler. has in Eleanore that are to confront her of settlement and seeks to enter the field spirit work in the of pursuing a philanthropic fad.

for she was going out later to a dance. and on some of the stoops and fireescapes of the tenements a few dwarfish specimens of the Polish Jew sat squabbling in their native tongue. 2 The valet. Walters. eats the 1 Van From &quot. . is the theme of a little story called &quot.Eleanore Cuyler. suddenly has to be called off.&quot. &quot.&quot. Long rows of trucks and drays stood ranged along the pavements for the night.146 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY on the windows of the saloons. with her gloves and fan on the divan beside her. ordered by Bibber. as a most necessary adjunct to the comfortable existence of the club-man. does not cancel it as he is told to do.Van Bibber s Man Serv ant. A valet in the employ of Van Bibber is ambitious to feel the joys of being in his master s place at Delmonico s if only once. passes himself off as one of the guests. and she was now sitting in the drawing-room near the open fire.Miss Eleanore Cuyler had dined alone with her mother that night. 2 Ibid.She was reading a somewhat weighty German review and the contrast which the smartness of her gown presented to the seriousness of her oc cupation made her smile slightly as she paused for a moment to cut the leaves. the valet. * A different atmosphere is suggested by the open ing paragraph: &quot. A dinner.

enjoys so much story : was just the sort of dinner he would have ordered had he ordered it for himself at someone else s expense. with Johannisberger Cabinet.. cold as paragus with French dressing. . good wines and good cigars which the New Yorker. torpidly self-satisfied of the restaurants is reflected in this short the delight in good dinners. and seemed to be en joying what they had ordered with such a refine ment of zest that he felt he would give a great deal could he just sit there as one of them for a brief hour/ 71 In order to write this an author must have felt &quot. and the longer he sat and thought about it the more he wished to test its excellence. cigar 147 dinner and and a The life spirit of the contented. Camembert cheese and Turkish coffee. And then the people all around him were so bright and happy.Van Bibber s Man Servant. before the oyster crabs. with Chablis.&quot. As there were to be no women he omitted the sweets and added three other wines to follow the white wine. The minute i From &quot. He suggested Little Neck clams first. . and pea soup and caviare on toast. It the spirit of restaurant gayety. then an entree of calves brains and rice. It is not enough merely to have read of it in books. then no roast but a bird. .NEW YORK FROM MANY ANGLES is just enjoying his mint julep in the cafe when Van Bibber comes in. It struck him as a par ticularly well-chosen dinner. who dines out.

Robert W. for instance. detail is laboriously gathered life. So many millions of ganglionic cells plot and toil within it that the eternal quiet which falls daily . the bizarre. the dramatic. the comic. in marble palaces. rStephen Crane and Owen Kildare were familiar with its dregs. It is an inexhaustible wonderbox of the quaint. vast a subject that there are other authors who have seen it from still is so and . hopes are born afresh and despair claims the weak. \S Thus it happens that the big city has its own fas cination for literary folk. Every human passion plays itself out. in skyscrapers. the tragic. the maudlin and the pathetic. Its four million souls work out their blers. It is destinies in filthy rookeries.148 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY first touches here and there indicate ity with the subject hand familiar the ordering of the dinner. Night and day within the walls of its buildings. Chambers with the decadents of its mon eyed class Edwin Lef evre with . So that there is an endless variety of subject matter for the writer of the impressionable spirit an. other peculiar angles all their own. its Wall Street gam no wonder that there should be so many writers who take New York for a setting. Such as the result of a full less opportunities to New York who want offers count people their hours to pass swiftly New York many gayly. as much as the sea or the plain or the forest.d the vivid pen. For night and day upon its pavements there beats the tread of feet.

NEW YORK FROM MANY ANGLES 149 upon thousands of men never calls a halt to the day s work. The tireless. nervous machine throbs away at its labors like a huge piston on an ocean liner. Truly New York is wonderful and its his torians in fiction are like so many Ali Babas know ing a myriad Open-Sesames to a myriad treasure troves of human interest. .

The Son of the Wolf/ 1 The first story.The The situation is exceedingly tense and draGrosset ers Son of the Jack London.CHAPTER XI A GLIMPSE AT THE FROZEN NORTH ALASKA : No more fearful setting for human action exists than the bare stretches of ice and snow in the far North.The White Silence&quot. &quot. It is not a land to thaw out the genial nature in man. Under its dark sky of a six months night wan sky of a six months day the most gruesome tragedies can be imagined. selfishly glad to be alive. may get an adequate idea of the general scope of this type of short story by reading the col lection contained in Jack London s volume. Wolf&quot.: & Dunlap. is a tragedy in which a man known as Malemute Kid is forced to shoot his life-long comrade. because the latter had been irretrievably injured by a falling We pine. Mason. i&quot. Selfpreservation consequently forms a dominating mo his tive and and about this theme very many tales dealing with the northland may be grouped. It makes him shrink into the warmth of his furs and its snow hut. &quot. Publish 150 .

affrighted at the sound of his own Sole speck of life journeying across the voice. faithful Indian woman who meets the tragedy with the stoicism characteristic of her race. Strange thoughts arise. All move heavens are as ceases. And the fear of death. the most stupefying of all. from the get a glimpse of the setting : fol lowing of the &quot. Ruth. Mason s wife. the slightest whisper seems sacrilege. ing more. and man becomes timid. the sky clears. the fury of the storm. Nature has many tricks wherewith she of his finity. the ceaseless flow of the tides. the shock of the but earthquake. The agonizing silence of the great snow wastes broods over the tragedy. realizes that his is a maggot s life.A GLIMPSE AT THE FROZEN NORTH 151 matic because the nearest civilized spot was then at least two-hundred miles away over a snow trail must be traversed with the help of is a starving dogs. the . . and the mystery of all things strives for utterance. noth audacity. of God. of the universe. convinces man is ment brass the passive phase of the White Silence. unsummoned. he trembles at his ghostly wastes of a dead world. the most tremendous.The White afternoon wore on and with the awe. Both man and dog have become elemental brutes and the struggle between them for mastery is the old one of the beast against his We shrewder captor. the voiceless travelers bent to their work. born Silence. the long roll of heaven s artillery. that vicious.

The sat between their Wolf.&quot.The Son of the Wolf. writ man who had evidently experienced the feel all the awesomeness of the White Terror. the medicine man of the Sticks. In the story we dread that a sudden death in the Arctic can inspire. To the South the nineteenth century was reeling off the few years of its last decade. of the barbarian against the European. &quot. a forgotten fragment of the Elder World. the yearning for immortality. here flourished man &quot. man walks alone with God. As in the previous story the theme is the revelation of elemental strength in the son of the dominant race battling for the possession sires to of a woman. an anachronism. From White Silence&quot. Chief of the Sticks. One white man withstands a hostile tribe of Indians.It primeval. and the life. the vain striving of the imprisoned essences-it is then.The Son of the . a shade removed from the prehistoric cave dweller. Shaman. The title story. in &quot. Scruff Mackenzie de win Zarinska. of civilization against the primitive. i The tawny wolf-dogs &quot. daughter of Thling Tinneh. for reasons of his own antagonistic to Mac kenzie instigates a wild dance by women of the tribe : was a weird scene. This is ten by a certainly an impressive description.152 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY the hope of the resurrection conies over him. if 1 ever. deals with the old battle of brain against brawn.&quot.

The justice of the wilderness therefore not a thing of legal and oratory. Explanations. while the Spirits of the Pole trailed their robes of glory athwart the heavens.The Son of the Wolf. The White Silence. the stars danced with great leaps. by starva tion and by attacks from hostile tribes is not un life common. if left undone.&quot. the work of the individual. J In a land where man constantly faces the grim aspects of nature. for the subterfuges of our conven tional city life do not obtain in a wilderness of snow and it. society where it is necessary to counteract so de termined an opposition on the part of nature to the comfort of man. It is dealt out directly in quibbles is i From &quot. A man must mean a thing when he do his part of the community says work with sheer faithfulness. ex In a state of cuses. ful simplicity.A GLIMPSE AT THE FROZEN NORTH 153 skin-clad masters or fought for room. . seemed ever crushing inward. The woods. the firelight cast backward from their red eyes or slavered fangs. sky. as is their wont in the time of the Great Cold. apologies are not wanted. in ghostly shroud slept on unheeding. for the moment driven to the rimming forest. where death by cold. leaves a gap through which the He must forces of destruction may enter. men lose the surface polish of civilized and reveal their elemental virtues or their ele Things are reduced to a fear mental weaknesses.

It s a gloryus game. All the percentage to the house The and niver a bit to the man that s buckin &quot. . justice of the wilderness have a duel with the combat. Malemute Kid and the sympathy with afford the loss of either rest of their friends are out of all They cannot so they give the combatants the following hopeless alternative: the man that escapes being killed by bullets will be hanged. even to relinquish the slight chance which favored him in many hazardous ventures of the past. no percentage whatever of safety in such a combat. and after exchanging blows decide to Both the if possible. the punishment for most offenses.chain-ice&quot. He makes up his mind that to fight means to give up life what ever happens. pistols. death to the man whose life mars the happiness or welfare of his brethren. . Faiie get into a quarrel about the existence of &quot. A man undertake an enterprise if there is a fighting chance for its success. But where the odds are completely against him he will quickly withdraw.The Men of Forty Mile. and the re deeming chance receive apt treatment in London s Bettles and Lon Mc&quot. Since there is man.yer running Kid/ cried Lon McFane. Another element that enters into the life of the is Chance.&quot. Lon McFane withdraws from it. He will face grave danger dweller in the Arctic wastes will if there is a possibility of escaping unharmed.154 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY Death is primitive fashion.

ume ing heart. is clearly denoted : time. As the quiet minutes passed. join an expedition to the Klondike gold fields. led. i From &quot. of the most characteristic stories of the volin showing the influence of the North upon the conventional civilized Its realism is brutal. and in their souls an unswerving faith in the God of Chance.The Men of Forty Mile.A GLIMPSE AT THE FROZEN NORTH Devil himself d niver tackle such a cinch 155 and damned if I do. Carter Weatherbee and Percy Cuthfert. might the Sphinx.. the former a clerk and the latter a club-man. But that merciful deity had been shut out from the present deal. They soon become undesirables to the rest of the party on account of their general tendency to shirk and to When the party decides to advance act selfishly. They studied the face of Malemute Kid but they studied as one . a feeling that speech was incumbent on them began At last the howl of a wolf-dog cracked to grow. There is gestion. 71 The point of view of both men in the following passage &quot. then died away in a long-drawn sob. the silence from the direction of Forty Mile. Every detail is pictured in the no attempt at sug morbid life in a dreary spot history of two men left alone to shift for themselves. . Both men had led forlorn hopes in their with a curse or a jest on their tongues.In a Far Country. man is &quot. The weird sound swelled with all the pathos of a break //One &quot.&quot.&quot. .&quot.

lead to petty quarrels. to long silences between them. The effect of the silence on the two consequent breeding of morbid fears thus: &quot. then to madness and lastly to murder. The psy chology of the situation is well interpreted and the gradual progress from mutual dissatisfaction and dislike to hatred and insanity are powerfully cecorded. and was born in the darkness of December when the sun all this of the North. and told him cold. It was a fascinating thing. He shrank away from the clammy contact as they drew closer and twined their frozen limbs about him.To men and is the described was added a new trouble the Fear This Fear was the joint child of the Great Cold and the Great Silence. the cabin rang with his frightened . It them according to their natures. these two men.156 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY last stop at the during the winter from their Porcu pine River. and bee came to him from out of the and snuggled into his blankets. affected dipped below the southern horizon for good. appalled at the pros pect of hardships in traveling determine to remain at the cabin. the The lonesomeness of the North and monotony of their mutual companionship. of their toils and troubles ere they died. Weather- fell prey to the grosser superstitions. and when they whispered in his ear of things in his dreams they to come. and did his best to resurrect the spirits which slept in the forgotten graves.

gt. we are indebted to Jack London for the vivid subjective delineation of a territory that presents Nature in her most moody and most terj rible aspects. All in all.* . i^The effect that the North exercised upon London was gloomy in the extreme. 157 Cuthfert did not understand.&quot. man going mad and so came to fear deemed the for his life. 1 The story necessarily comes to a tragic conclusion.In a Far Country. In all of his stories there are emphasized over and over again the re call of man life between elemental passions. i From &quot. the so lemnity. and when thus awakened he in variably grabbed for his revolver. the somber beauty of the North left their impression along with the horror of its many hard ships. The grandeur. for they no longer spoke. Then he would sit up in bed shivering nervously with the weapon Cuthfert trained on the unconscious dreamer. &amp. the struggle and death and the deadening influence to of the white desolation.A GLIMPSE AT THE FROZEN NORTH shrieks.

A writer in The Editor. which endeavors to be short story 158 . deavored to be intensive. It was impossible to be of the investigation is too But we have therefore en the men and women who have it written short stories to ascertain just the locality affected their work. The method of treatment was to take a note a few of locality. Having done this we are prepared to see why locality has proved it about and of and endeavor how so helpful to the development of the American and lastly why it has made it the most typically American form of our fiction. this has been a task of impressionistic criticism from a set view point: the importance of locality as a contributing factor to the author and his work. their art. Frankly.CHAPTER XII CONCLUSION LOCALITY AS A FACTOR illustrations IN the previous chapters we have cited many to show how certain localities im pressed the writers of the short story and how the authors utilized the material thus gathered in the practice of exhaustive. The field vast to permit it.

by R. Nor are Illinois towns the same as Hoosier towns. church customs vary. Stott. makes it characteristic and significant. 1911. habiti The Editor. locality has a gallery of its own charac These readily become the principals in a short story because their crotchets and individual ^Each mannerisms suggest in &quot. type like Adoniram by Mrs. says: &quot. Freeman presents a problem of forcing a close-fisted. who strive to reflect the life we know.The plots. ward. Cable s or the California of 49 from Bret Harte s and we rob them of their great est charm. contributes the typical setting. G. A Revolt of Mother&quot.CONCLUSION 159 a magazine of technical interest to authors. It differentiates the story at once from the mass of other stories. Moral standards vary. to be true and accurate and sensible. Take New Eng land away from Mrs. &quot. sets up its own conditions and. ters. trades and trading vary a Kentucky court day is not the Northern Saturday. imposes the reader. January. It gives to the short story the touch of intimacy and reality. In each case mentioned the itself life of the locality stamps upon its own hypotheses. stand at the outset that the editor expects us. as a* re. locality. 5.Remember that when once you have placed your yarn in Kentucky it must ~breatlie Kentucky. 1 iXTo the short story. Freeman s stories or New Orleans from Mr. and we may well under . therefore.The Finer Touches/ . produces an effect peculiar to itself. p.

But in addition pejpsons the essence of to this source the locality itself. ates the tragic situation in &quot. The best example of this particu lar effect is to be found in the work of Hamlin Garland. A character like &quot. Almost every one of the stories in &quot. plots are suggested and situations evolved.160 TPIE AMERICAN SHORT STORY stunted man into an act of plain duty. Henry Archer&quot. in the story of that name by Bret Harte becomes the incarnation of the camaraderie fostered in the rough days of the Argonauts.&quot. cre city-bred occupants. naturally shapes a story in which the central motif is self- abnegation in behalf of his vocation. irrespective of its ations.Tennessee s Partner&quot.Mammon and the complication and denoue ment are brought about by a typical New York traffic blockade. therefore. develops through the the entire pe culiar nature of the farmer s existence in the Mis sissippi valley. Country. furnishes interesting and dramatic situ Thus the loneliness and intense cold of their Northern camp drive to madness the two The locality. A sense of Humanity in the extreme North demands the shoot- .In a Far In one of 0. Through characters that are distinctive. ^fcven morality undergoes a change according the section where it is to to be applied. Each respective locality furnishes numerous types of this kind that embody in their some human trait. the type of the faithful foreman.Main Travelled Roads&quot. s stories. characters. &quot. Richard Darrel.

. When the indi vidual resists his environment we get a story no less typical but more dramatic. the comedy and the humor are typical.The Outcasts of Poker Flat.An Arctic Death&quot. locality contributes to the short story typical settings.A New England although her point of view and narrowness are universal. Courage in The Eevolt of Mother&quot. help to produce stories in which the pathos. the tragedy. typical situations and typical problems of con science. therefore. nevertheless gains in clearness and in verisimilitude by being depicted as a New Englander. g. Her entire life in her little restricted pro Nun&quot. of a husband its necessitated the defiance of gossip and s orders. For other examples of typical vincial . Justice in the West the sudden of the golden days was translated to mean and violent expulsion of all doubtful * characters from the limits of the town. &quot.CONCLUSION 161 ing of a comrade in distress as we saw in &quot. The old maid in Mrs. e. Freeman s &quot. community bears out her point of view. He acts according to his lights and the prescribed con vention of his society. Thus each locality makes own distinctive appeal to the individual. These. by Jack London. typical characters. according to the nature of the ma terial. The pathos is intensified by being sectional as well as universal because we are dealing with a human being in the concrete and not with an inhabitant of No Man s Land. To summarize. When the two points of view agree we get a typical study.

&quot. by Charles Egbert Craddock. typical pathos and humor were treated in the work of some of our greatest short story writ- tings. by Cable where the problem of the mixture of the races leads to a pathetic denouement. it is the locality that cre For the typical humor there are stories of planta tion negro life by Joel Chandler Harris and Paul Laurence Dunbar. local characters. . by Bruno Lessing in which the stifling monotony of the sweat shop creates mental. the stories of Bruno Les sing in which the Jewish mannerisms and mental crotchets evoke a laugh. situations.162 THE AMERICAN SHOET STORY pathos from the stories we have considered may be cited &quot. ceding chapters We have seen in the pre the various set how powerfully problems of con science. as well as in many others that might be adduced.The Star in the Valley&quot. Henry with principal characters drawn from hosts of metropolitan types. the whimsical stories of 0. &quot.The End of the Task&quot. Even if locality has these were the only contributions that made to the American short story. they would be considerable. somber as it is.Madame Delphine&quot. where the mountain girl of rough parentage finds her social status a bar to love. In each of the cases cited. ates the pathos. physical and moral disorders. Much of the work of the New England short-story writers. in toto presents humorous individual characteriza tions as we have already seen.

was forced to resort to native talent and was at a loss for material. George their and Bulwer Lytton were turning out most successful work. . Thackeray. The English periodicals were filled with installments of these works of fiction and also with essays by such men as De Quincey and Leigh Hunt.CONCLUSION ers. however. cause there was a need for it. The short story. The supply of periodicals contin ued to increase. Owing to the custom of serial publication and the vogue of the circulat ing library. demand The public did it more profitable to Droduce the three-volume novel and the essay. XThe American periodical. the time Eliot when Dickens. The rapid growth in territorial extent and in population created a corresponding demand for reading matter. the short story was these reasons there was never a great for the short story in England. And as these magazines had to be filled with interesting material. however. not want it and the writers found For drafted in to fill the gaps. the United States presented no native authors who ranked with them as novel ists in the public esteem. a few other inferences to be drawn. therefore. 163 There remain. these writers composed long novels elaborated far beyond the practice of to-day. sprang up be says. Local achievement in the novel was Nor did the American public desire es meager.

Thackeray.Berenice&quot.surprise&quot. or &quot. Thus with a ready and waiting market. In addition to the periodicals we find in the earlier decades of the nineteenth century a great call for Gift Books and Literary Annuals of all kinds.164 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY this field In our native authors had their little or no competition from English Dickens.hoax&quot. &quot. story were frequently found in their pages. latter type foreshadowed the technique of the til The mod ern story whose interest remains undiminished un the last word is reached. Eliot and Lytton wrote short stories only occasionally and then with a degree of clum siness rivals. work inartistic and superfluity of detail which made and very much inferior to their their novels. vXrhus the short story became of necessity a form of fiction produced in America rather than in Eng land. But a native school of short story writers in spite of Poe and Irving and Hawthorne was not yet firmly . in 1835 he es tablished a structural standard for all future American work. These were elaborately designed and were filled with sentimental verse and short tales. The unity of impressionism and the use of suspense raised his stories immediately above the efforts of his contemporaries. The moral tale and the &quot.When Poe published &quot. the sup ply was plentiful but the work was still crude both in selection of material and in treatment.

The keynote of the future had been struck. Structurally his work reached perfection. :/*The first great impulse in that direction came with the appearance of &quot. was a story in which the material was taken from a picturesque American locality and shaped to meet the requirements of Poe s technique. especially in the short story. as has been shown. &quot. It is said that Harte owed a great deal to Dickens. there were men and women to follow in Harte s footsteps. Perhaps this is so when we remember the English man s unique powers of vivid characterization and Harte s work in the same direction. But from the structural standpoint Harte s master and the master of them all was Edgar Allan Poe. The sensational success of Harte s work revealed a new source of rich material to the short story writers of our country. In all sections of the United States. that the . He did not have the fault of Irving s discursiveness nor of Hawthorne s moralizing. thus far. in The Overland Monthly (1868). that canons for successful It is clear.CONCLUSION 165 founded.The Luck of Roaring Here Camp&quot.With Poe s technique and the rich results of their own ob servation and experiences they reproduced their localities in all forms of fiction. They were the pioneers but the great horde of followers was to conae a little later. as it is understood to-day. unique American market had been created.

Great hopes dazzle each individual. We can call it the most typically American form of our fiction. the cultivation and the of the immense tract of territory development under the stars and stripes energetic. On every especially Complete neighborhoods are wiped out. and pe culiar to our country and its localities. it is not straining a point to call it a typical American product. But we can go still farther. a Californian. where everything his wealth tive is rigid. keen. to change. appear in totally strange and new guises. We have made of us a people feverishly are dynamic to a fault. Fortunes are still in the making. The reasons for this are mainly psychological. All the forces de termining the production of the short story being American.166 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY writing had been expounded by an American and that a distinct impulse to the ex ploitation of localities had been given by the work short-story of Bret Harte. Big cities have sprung up by the tens and immense sky scrapers of commerce by the hundreds. . the social order is not yet fixed. Unlike the countries of Europe. a man s place depending upon and ancestry rather than on his initia and energy. hand there is restlessness and change. / The settling. enticing him into renewed efforts. En terprises on a gigantic scale are constantly being conducted at a vast expenditure of money and nervous energy. here. the fighting chance though the competition is is extended to every man.

music. economics. in fact all that is makes our life a journey in which the scenery ever new from day to day. politics. 1 statis Thus and Canada there are published twenty-four thousand. on a long and sustained train of There are thousands of people that read class newspapers and periodicals only. sharp and i of decisive. in the main.245) newspapers. Under these conditions there are created numer ous ephemeral phases of interest. Imagine what a seething cauldron of events this indicates and ask yourself whether the long novel show how feverishly active our Press we learn that in the United States or the short story can beat take this transitory life and reproduce ity essencei^xhrough its very brev the short story can take the fleeting emotions its life. These fleeting con ditions clamor to be recorded. women. p. The two countries that approach this number nearest are Great Britain with 9. enterprises. They concern men. industries. art. occupations. Statistics of the Press. This readers wants something short. is unable to concentrate thought. of our too inconsequential for a complete novel and incorporate them. 460. 1911. World Almanac. Besides the singular adaptability of the short stpry to record our rapid American progress we a reading public that. . tics Newspaper is. religion.049. two hun dred forty-five (24.CONCLUSION The poor farm boy may reasonably aspire : 167 to become the president.500 and Germany with 8.

ere The short story. ^/The growth of our localities is identical with the growth of our country. the story of plot and action rather than the static or psychological story is in such demand by current magazines. political and industrial life of our localities that the short story derives its greatest impetus. and is therefore responsible for the development of our short story into what it is to-day. as we have seen. therefore. . It is all a flowing circle of cause and effect invol ving the triplicate elements of locality. It is from the constant changes in the social. reader. .168 THE AMERICAN SHORT STORY much short story. |. through the influence of locality and for historical and psychological reasons may lay claim to being considered the most typically American form of our fiction. the writer furnishes fiction to the reader. the reader eates the locality. writer. That is why the ad its The venture story. because of its brevity. The locality spurs on the writer. because of in little is a favorite form of literature for minds weary with the day s work and craving a brief spell of excitement. They furnish the authors with material and create the fiction hunger which craves for the short story.

169 . Nashville. The Short Story: in English. BLANC. E. Its ALBRIGHT. BIOGRAPHICAL The Short Story: Macmillan. HENRY SEIDEL. The Bookman. Questions Americans. &quot. tion. HISTORICAL. EVELYN MAY. Historical and critical. ples Princi and Structure. land. July. Holt. Of special interest: Amerique d autrefois. The Short Story: Technique. CANBY. 1. CUMMINS. BENNETT. ELLA STERLING. Contains a critique of James Lane Allen. Barbee & Smith. The Story of the Files. 1893.Concerning James Lane Allen. WILLIAM MALONE. BASKEBVILL. The Feminine Note in Fic Discusses the work of Miss Wilkins. WARD. THOMAS HENRY.&quot. Pub. WILLIAM LEONARD. Is an appreciation of Harris. Yale Studies CLARK. California: Literary History. E. THERESE. Treats the Southern authors from a French standpoint. MRS. Tenn. COURTNEY. &quot. 1910. History of Civilization in 2. MME.BIBLIOGRAPHY A. A. Button & Co. Joel Chandler Harris. CRITICAL. 1901. Eng Vol. Fame and Fiction. Shows effect of climate on locality. P. Chap. Stewart Edward White.&quot.L BUCKLE. 1902. Discusses the use of local color in short stories.

Gives a good picture of life in the old South. D. Cas- & Co. July. Charles Scrib- Sons. Comhill Magazine. Reader. THOMAS NELSON. Gives the fragmentary hints that were the nucleus of Hough- many JESSTJP of Hawthorne s stories. F. Social Life in Old Virginia. FISKE. 1909. C. HARTE. AND CANBY. . The Short Story: Technique. FRED.170 ESENWEIN. NATHANIEL. Intimate biographical studies of authors in their home environment. Noble & Eldredge. No made by writers of fiction due to ignorance of locality. THOMAS NELSON. Illustrates errors Story. HAWTHORNE. PAGE. Treats of social conditions in the South before the war. 1910. LOVETT. Contains an appreciation of James Lane Allen. ROBERT MORSS. Analysis of Hawthorne s art. August. Chautau- qua Society. Bret Harte on his own work. The Book of the Short Appleton & Co. 1899. Page & Co. Why They Come Back. Hinds. Boston. 1902. BRET. L. Authors at Home. vember. The Editor. Treats of the provincial type in the American novel also touches on the short story. HABKINS. GILDEB. BEEG. Provincial Types in American Fiction. LOCKLEY. E. PAGE. ner s The Old South. JEANNETTE sel AND JOSEPH. ton Mifflin & Co. The Short St ory: Historical. American Note Books. 1905. BIBLIOGRAPHY J. On Hawthorne s Short Story. Little Pilgrimages. Writing the Short Story.

A: B: Collections of Short Stories. 1835. SIDNEY 1910. 1911.&quot. (1) Books on the Short Story..BIBLIOGRAPHY 171 POE. 3. Valuable bibliographies dealing with the following headings can be found in J. 1001 PLACES TO SELL Mss. P. Review of Hawthorne s Tales. Appendix Appendix Stories. Ridgewood. Editor Pub. STOTT. EDGAR ALLAN. POETER. The Edi &quot. J. Current Literature. Hinds. July. Scribner s. indi cating preferences of setting. Autobiographical. 375. This article states the underlying principles of shortstory technique. One Hundred Representative P. N.&quot. HENRY). Sets forth needs of current magazines in fiction. Sketches and Tales. 382. Noble & Eldredge: 1.Writ ing the Short Story. January. Contains advice concerning proper use of setting. WENDELL AND GREENOUGH. Appendix G: (2) Books Referring to the Short Story. Gra ham s Magazine. Co. 2. (O. 1912. Berg Esenwein s &quot. .The Finer Touches. (3) Magazine Articles. A good general history. EOSCOE GILMORE. History of Literature in America. tor. 1904.

Thursday. Strangers and Wayfarers. (New York State. HAWTHORNE. (New England. Wisconsin. (New England. Houghton Mifflin & Co. SARAH ORNE. A New England Nun. MARY ELEANOR WILKINS. GARLAND. ELSIE. (The Mississippi Valley.Big Fireside Stories. Houghton Mifflin & Co. . Atlantic.172 BIBLIOGRAPHY B. CONNOLLY. Lumber McClure. 364. HARRIET BEECIIER.) Adirondack Stories. Stone & Kimball. Mosses from an Old Manse. Century. Scribner. ALICE. p. Stories of the Old Dominion. 1904.) Houghton Mifflin & Co. WHITE. Houghton Mifflin & Co. Houghton Mifflin JEWETT. Blazed-Trail Stories. (New England.) A Humble Romance. Vol. Harper & Bros. EDWARD STEWART.) COOKE. Sam Lawson s Oldtown Mifflin & Co.) Co. HAROLD. JOHN ESTEN.) & Co. Vol.&quot. 704. Houghton Mifflin & Co. FICTION (Arranged according to locality) BROWN.) p. Lothrop.The Main Travelled Roads. STOWE. HAMLIN. SINGMASTER. (New York State. The Deserter and Other Stories. JAMES B.) FREDERIC. FREEMAN. 71. Harper & Bros.) Oldtown Folks. 1893. (Michigan.&quot. (New England. 101.) Out of Gloucester. Phillips (South: General. (New England Fishing Tiverton Tales. Houghton (The East: Pennsylvania Germans. County Seat. Meadow Grass. NATHANIEL. & Section. Harper. (New England. DEMING. PHILANDER. Banks. &quot.) &quot.) Twice Told Tales. Houghton Mifflin & Co. Tales of New England.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
DUNBAR, PAUL LAURENCE
eral.)

173
Gen

(colored).

(The South:

In Old Plantation Days. SMITH, FRANCIS HOPKINSON.

Dodd, Mead & Co. 1903. (The South: General.)

Colonel Carter of Cartersville.

Houghton

Mifflin

&

Co.

STUART,

(The South: General.) The Golden Wedding and Other Tales. Harper.

RUTH MCENERYJ

JOHNSTON, RICHARD MALCOLM. (Georgia.) The Primes and their Neighbors. WOOLSON, CONSTANCE FENIMORE. (Georgia and Neighbor
ing States.)

Rodman the Keeper. (The South: ALLEN, JAMES LANE.

A

Kentucky

Cardinal.

Harper s,

Kentucky.) May- June,
1897.

1894;

Macmillan. Flute and Violin.

Harper & Bros.

(The South: Kentucky.) Fox, JOHN, JR. Hell fer Sartain and Other Stories. Scribner. CABLE, GEORGE W. (The South: Louisiana.) Old Creole Days. Scribner. KING, GRACE. (The South: Louisiana.) Tales of a Time and Place. Harper. (The South: Middle Georgia.) HARRIS^ JOEL CHANDLER.

Daddy
ton.

188 9. Jake, the Runaway. Century Co. Tales of the Home Folks in Peace and War. Hough-

Nights With Uncle Remus. Houghton. Northern Georgia. ) The South HARBEN, WILL N. "Two Birds With One Stone." Century, Vol. 48, p. 61.
(
:

"The

Sale of the

Mammoth

Western."

Century, Vol.

53, p. 74.

CRADDOCK, CHARLES EGBERT (MARY NOAILLES MURFREE). (The South: Tennessee.) In the Tennessee Mountains. Houghton Mifflin & Co.
1884.

The Bushwackers.

Herbert

S.

Stone

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1899.

174

BIBLIOGRAPHY

BRADLEY, A. G. (Virginia.) Sketches from Old Virginia. Macmillan. PAGE, THOMAS NELSON. (The South: Virginia.)
In Ole Virginia.
fornia. )

Charles Scribner

s

Sons.

1892.

ATHERTON, MRS. GERTRUDE FRANKLIN.

(The West:

Cali

Before the Gringo Came. 1894, also published under the title of "The Splendid Idle Forties." Mac
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FERNAU>,

CHESTER BAILEY.
)

(The West:
Century.

California Chi

nese.

The Cat and the Cherub.

HARTE, BRET. (The West: California, 49.) The Luck of Roaring Camp and Other Sketches. Houghton. From Sand Hill to Pine. Houghton. WHITE, EDWARD STEWART. (The West: General.) Stories of the Wild Life. McClure, Phillips & Co.
1904.

THANET, OCTAVE.
PORTER,

Stories of a Western

SIDNEY

(The West: Iowa.) Town. Scribner. (0. HENRY). (The West:

Texas and

Adjoining States.) Heart of the West. McClure Co. 1907. GLASS, MONTAGUE. (New York: Cloak and Suit Deal
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Potash and Perlmutter.
delphia, 1910.

Henry Altemus &

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Phila

PORTER, SIDNEY (0. HENRY).
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(New York

City:

Compre

The Four Million. Doubleday, Page & Co. 1909. The Voice of the City. Doubleday, Page & Co. 1909. The Trimmed Lamp. Doubleday, Page & Co. 1909.
Whirligigs.

Doubleday, Page

&

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1910.

MATTHEWS, BRANDER.

(New York

Vignettes of Manhattan.

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KELLY, MYEA.

175

(New York:

Jewish School Children.)

McClure, Phillips & Co. 1904. Wards of Liberty. McClure, Phillips & Co. 1904. (New York: Jewish Life.) LESSING, BRUNO.
Little Citizens.

Children of Men. McClure, Phillips & Co. 1903. (New York: The Club-maa.) DAVIS, RICHARD HARDING. Van Bibber and Others. Harper & Bros. 1892.

(New York: The Slums.) Maggie. D. Appleton & Co. SULLIVAN, JAMES W. (New York: The Slums.) Tenement Tales of New York. Holt & Co.
CRANE, STEPHEN.

LONDON, JACK. (Alaska.) The Son of the Wolf. Grosset & Dunlap. New York. AUSTIN, WILLIAM. (Early American work showing traces
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Peter Rugg, the Missing Man.

New England

Galaxy:

September

10, 1824.

The&quot. 88 &quot.Bold Deserter. by O. 73 Blazed Trail Stories&quot. The&quot. study of Coney Island. 80 Austin.&quot. 56 &quot. on Joel Chandler Harris. Robert W. 52 &quot.Billy 116 by Edward Stewart White. 79 Brainerd. 64 California in fiction. 81 &quot. by Dunbar.Branch Road.. Siege&quot. study of faithful fam ily servant. 5 &quot.. 22 m &quot. on value of &quot. study of domestic infelic &quot. the South in war time. ity.Aunt Tempers Triumph&quot.Aunt Tempos Revenge&quot.INDEX Action in the short story.&quot. 11 Bennet.Bushwackers&quot. 105 Therese. Erastus. 102 Canby.Baby in the Baskervill. 58 &quot. by Edward Stewart White. &quot. Henry. by Garland. by Bruno Lessing. by Hawthorne.Americanization of Schadrach Cohen&quot. E. 74 s Tenderfoot&quot. &quot. 94 Business. the South in war time. 19. 130 &quot.Among the Corn Rows&quot. 88 &quot. Blanc. George W. 19 James Lane.Uncle Remus&quot. Mme. Estimate of Cable s use of local color.Between Rounds&quot. 29 &quot. Henry. 148 Characterization in the Short story. 159 177 . 32 Allen. 68. Alice. Short Story English. by Harris. by O. love under difficul ties.. opinion of Page. William. by Harris.Brickdust Row&quot. study of a farmers wife.The Chambers. A. 123 Brown. by Dunbar. concerning James Lane Allen. 11 Cable. by Craddock. 36 Buckle. effects on man. by Garland.American Note Books&quot. 84. 79 William Malone. 13. power of landscape description.

144 &quot. by Craddock.Editor. by Bruno Leasing.Eleanore Cuyler&quot. Richard Harding. 21 Climate. 148 Creole types. 4 &quot. 79 &quot. portrayed by Cable. study of inhabitants. study of moun tain and town. on use of local color. &quot. 60 Freeman. on need of locality to modern short story. 163 &quot.Why They Come Back. difference between short story arid novel. 89 Crane. attitude of slave owner.178 &quot. on &quot. 80 &quot. on man.Colonel s Nigger Dog by Harris. 131 Clark.Drifting Down by Alice Brown. 163 Dickens. study Eliot. itudy of a revival meeting. 23 Craddock. spoiled family servant.Christmas INDEX Present For a Lady&quot. Paul Laurence. George. 90 Dunbar. Ward. by Edward Stewart White. 47 Lost Creek&quot. 16 &quot. by Harris. Mary E. W.Experience of Hannah Prime&quot. 141 &quot. cafe&quot. settlement worker. 78 &quot.Cosmopolite in a Cafe&quot. Esenwein.Foreman. study of a Mounting&quot. pathos of school life. Wilkins. 77 Davis. 95 by Craddock. by Myra Kelly. 116 Courtney. Stephen.. studies of slum life. 48 Factory towns. Henry. The&quot.&quot. L. The&quot. 10 of the House &quot. by Poe.Daddy by Harris. by O.End of the Task. by Alice Brown. 19 by James Lane Allen. 163 133 &quot. Charles Egbert. the South in war time. 36 . 15 &quot.Dooryards&quot. 64 Jake.Comedy of War&quot. &quot. &quot. study of the De Quincey. by Richard Harding Davis.Flute and Violin&quot.Fall life in. effects of. of Usher&quot. 84 &quot. the Runaway&quot. study of types. The&quot. lumber indus try in fiction.Electioneerin of on Big Injun mountain politics.

2 Isolation. 39 &quot. Lafcadio. 51.The Gentle Boy. Henry. by Jack London.&quot. The&quot. tragedy in the North. 2 &quot. 40 Hunt. 107 &quot.Her first Appearance&quot. study of a revival . 97. 32 Hearn. by Dunbar. 24. 102 Hawthorne.Gift of the Magi&quot. 142 Howells. 7. by O. Hamlin.Gatherer of Simples&quot. overspecialization of. significance of his work. &quot. by Hawthorne. 57 &quot. 81 &quot.In a Far 155 Country&quot.-jjr* IN HEX Garland. by O. Leigh.How Brother Parker Fell From Grace. Montague. 104 &quot. 26. 124 Harris. as an observer of his locality. study of flat dwellers.Girl Who Got Rattled&quot. Indian method of warfare.Hearts and Crosses&quot. Jerome A. 29. by Stowe. 74 Hart. 73. list of Californian writers. personal habits of. by Charles Egbert Craddock. The. from work of Edward Stewart White. 102 Harte.Humble Romance? by Miss Wilkins. opinion concerning American short story. by Richard Harding Davis. opinion of Cable s work. study of the club-man. opinion of Garland s work. 81 Irving. by Edward Stewart White. 13. real ism of.How to Fight the Devil&quot. 67 &quot. 57 &quot. 105 Industries.. by Joel Chandler Harris. study of a pecul iar avocation. the Walls of meeting. study of a kitchen drudge.Gray Champion. 162 &quot. faithfulness of his portrayals questioned. 27 Green Door. Henry. 26 &quot.Gentle Boy. by Miss Wilkins. Henry. as pioneer of the Western story.In the Tennessee Ot7 Mountains&quot. Joel Chandler. 163 &quot.In Jericho&quot. Bret. stories of Mississippi valley. 141 &quot.&quot. 75 &quot. 115 Glass. 8 &quot. by O. 34 Humor of different localities. The&quot. problems of conscience. by Hawthorne.How the Birds Talk&quot.

Henry. 114 by O. 3 by Page.Little Annie s Ramble&quot.&quot. 119 Marken. by Sarah Orne Jewett. 8. 148 &quot. Twain. by Hawthorne.Jea*i-ah-Poquelin INDEX by Cable.King life.Local 129 Color. 122 &quot. A Little&quot. 160 . Myra. Estate&quot. problem of mixture of the faces. 150 Lovett. by Jack London. by Poe.180 &quot. &quot. humors of of school &quot. 129 Kildare.Masque of the Morality. 36 Kelly. 51 &quot.Little Matter of Real life. &quot.Legend of Sleepy Hollow&quot. Sarah Orne. estimate of. study of a faithful slave. bv Myra Kelly.Meh Lady&quot. study of a vagrant Lefevre. Jack. 2 Lessing. 17 Mississippi valley. concerning James Lane Allen.Life on the Mississippi. Henry.Man about Town&quot. 67 Jewett. stories of by Hamlin Garland. 140 &quot. 69 &quot.Madame Delphme&quot.Mammon and the Archer&quot. by Page. by Harte.Main Travelled Roads. study of slave and master. Edwin. as setting.Little Citizens&quot. 27 &quot. 32 Mabie. 89 &quot. by O. 163 Story. surprises.Luck of Roaring Camp&quot. heroic self-sacrifice of the Creole.Miss Tempy s Watchers&quot. 154 Mining town of 49.&quot. study of gossip. study New York Local color. Owen. by O. 21 London. 18 &quot. Hamilton Wright. by Allen. use of.On Hawthorne s Short &quot.Men of Forty Mile&quot. 129 &quot. 98 Lytton. &quot. studies of slum &quot. 98 &quot. Bruno. 70 Red Death&quot. 16.Marse Chan&quot. in different localities. by Myra Kelly.&quot. by Cable. Robert Morss. 7 &quot. 148 Solomon 85 of Kentucky&quot. study of a New York street blockade. Bulwer. 46 &quot. sense of. 64 Magazines using Western stories. Henry.

as photographer of New York life. 20: as a cos mopolite. by Hawthorne. canon of short story writing. 20 100 &quot. romances of. 37 &quot. 63 The&quot. 92 by Stowe.River from the Town Pump&quot. 3 New York. by Cable. study narrow school officials. 32 Plot structure.Posson Jone* by Cable. 114. 11.&quot. 138 . by Harte. 31 by Miss Wilkins.Riverman. 89 Negro traits. Hawthorne. conscience of.Peter Rugg&quot.Morris 181 of and the Honorable Tim&quot. &quot.INDEX &quot. lumber in 59 . 41 &quot. 17 &quot. fiction. 66 Problems of conscience. by Mary E. Thomas Nelson.Revolt of Mother&quot.Outcasts of Poker Flat&quot. in modern setting. by Myra Kelly. lumber fiction. study of the &quot.Old Creole Days&quot. by William Austin. by Craddock. as setting. 69 of Jolton s Ridge&quot. as revealed in &quot. 37 of prim New England Winter. 132 Munro. 95 &quot. 76 New England homestead. about himself. 17.Oldtown Folks&quot. 16 Murfree.Panther by Craddock. Occupations. 126 &quot. 1. 135 &quot.Potash &quot. study of illicit distilling. &quot. use of locality by. 24 &quot. gambler dominant.Rift in the Cloud&quot. by Montague Glass. influence of. Page. use of an essential setting. Kirk. 141 &quot. 14 and Perlmutter&quot. study of straiaed do mestic relations. by Edward Stewart White. Mary Noailles. 9 8 O.Out of His Orbit&quot. The&quot. by Bruno Lessing. Edgar Allan. 113. study of a Creole rogue.Old Sledge at the Settlemmt&quot. Wilkins. study ness. 160 Poe. by Hawthorne. dustry in by Edward Stewart White.Rappaccini s Daughter&quot.Uncle Remus.New England Nun&quot. Henry. by Bruno Lessing. 27 Boss. estimate of. Puritan. in dustry in &quot. 64 &quot. 32 &quot.Rill &quot. 106.

Unfinished &quot. Mark. 86 &quot.&quot. negro comedy. negro comedy. 32 82 &quot. by Hawthorne.Service of Love. effects of. 16 82 &quot. 159 Stowe. 72 &quot. by Hamlin Garland. 54 &quot. 137 the.Second &quot.Telemachus.Sights &quot.Trouble about Sophiny&quot. 110 by Harte..Son essay by Page.Tennessee s Partner&quot. Henry. An&quot. by O. study of habit.Up lem. The Old&quot. disruption in fam ily. &quot. by Allen. study store problems. 72 by Jack London. as setting. by Page. by Dunbar. Friend&quot. Harriet Beecher. 74 a religious prob by Bruno Lessing. of furnished &quot. 93 Stott. by Richard Harding Davis. 146 . by Dunbar.Sealer. study room lodgers. . by Edward Stewart White. by Hawthorne. &quot.South. lumber industry Marriage&quot. 119 &quot.182 &quot. study ful slave. 150. 163 &quot. as an aid to the author. in fiction. 49 by O. by Stowe. A&quot. 6 Travel. 33 The&quot. 22 &quot. 7 of a faith &quot. 61 &quot. The&quot. by Alice Brown. Henry.Social &quot. 136 of department Story. study of &quot. &quot.Unconverted&quot. Henry. 101 Thackeray. 17. R.Swallow Tailer for Two.Short Setting of the short story.Toll-Gatherer s Day&quot. on truth to setting. by Harris. 37 Room. 70 A&quot.Sam INDEX Lawson s Oldtown Fireside Stories&quot. The&quot.Uncle Remus&quot.Skylight from a Steeple&quot. old regime of the Wolf. study of negro traits.Two Gentlemen of Kentucky&quot. 152 South.Supper by Proxy&quot. study of New York s Bohemians. in the cotton fields of. 120 the Coulee&quot. &quot. 9 &quot. by O. by 0. by Canby. study of social dif ferences. The&quot. by Craddock. in ante-bellum days. Henry. by Bruno Lessing. &quot.Van Bibber s Man Servant&quot. 27 Topography. Twain. G. study of elemental friend ship. 118 Life Before the War. study of a valet.Star in the Valley. 159 Story in English&quot.

by Jack London. 44 A&quot.White ture.Winter Courtship.&quot. Edward Stewart. 1 Uncle. 133 .History of Literature in Amer 25 far. 150 by Sarah Orne Jewett. quaint types. vogue of. by O. &quot.. 27 &quot. isolation with na The&quot. 58 by Sarah Orne Jewett. 1 Wendell and Greenough. 9 West. K. &quot.Voice of the City. ica. romances of. by Hawthorne. 45 Silence. 97 Wetherill. The&quot.White work in local fiction. estimate of Cable s Western 68 White. &quot. study of Zangwill. The&quot.Village 183 of. 124 Wells.INDEX Verne. convincing writer of Jewish fiction. the story. Heron&quot. meaning of a city s discords. J. &quot. Henry. romances &quot. 11.

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