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DOI: 10.2298/FUACE0802179P

FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD APPLICATION IN DESIGN OF FOUNDATION GIRDER OF VARIABLE CROSS-SECTION LOADED ON ENDS UDC 624.72.22:624.042(045)=111

**Verka Prolović, Zoran Bonić
**

University of Niš, The Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, Serbia

Abstract. Deflection of foundation girder supported by the deformable base has been defined by the system of differential equations, where the differential equation of the elastic line of the girder is of the fourth order. The most convenient solution of the problem is application of numerical procedures, in this case it is the finite difference method. In the paper, the mentioned method is applied in the special case of foundation girder of variable cross section loaded by arbitrary load on its ends. Key words: foundation girder, finite differences method, matrix equation, load

1. INTRODUCTION Theory of calculus in the field of foundations and geotechnics in general is related to solution of differential equations describing a physical problem. Their solving through analysis, in a closed form, entails many mathematical difficulties, thus very often various simplifications a re applied in order to obtain acceptable solutions of the problem. When it comes to the difficult tasks, such as design calculus of foundation girders, analytic approach is usually abandoned, giving way for the numerical methods, which can include considerably larger number of influential parameters. The most frequently used numerical methods are the finite difference method and finite element method. 2. PROBLEM DEFINING BY FINITE DIFFERENCE METHOD The observed foundation girder is loaded by arbitrary external load that varies according to the law p(x) and by the resistance of the base that varies according to the law q(x). The base resistance must be determined in the course of calculation. The girder is longitudinally divided into n equal sections whose length is c = l / n (Figure 1).

Received June 15, 2008

the differential equation of the elastic line of a constant cross-section girder can be given in the following form. Z.. In practical terms. defining the elastic line of the girder. The first derivative is in accordance with that: dw Δ w 1 ≈ (2) = ( wk +1 − wk −1 ) dx Δ x 2c Further differentiation yields higher derivatives: d 2 wk 1 = 2 ( wk −1 − 2wk + wk +1 ) dx 2 c d 3 wk 1 = 3 (− wk − 2 + 2wk −1 − 2wk +1 + wk + 2 ) dx3 2c d 4 wk 1 = 4 ( wk − 2 − 4wk −1 + 6wk − 4wk +1 + wk + 2 ) dx3 c (3) Introducing the last equation from (3) into equation (1) an expression for determination of the ordinate of elastic line of the girder in an arbitrary point k is obtained k: wk −2 − 4wk −1 + 6 wk − 4wk +1 + wk + 2 1 = ( pk − qk ) B c4 D ( k = 0.. through application of finite difference method is substitution of differential by difference calculus.. 1.. BONIĆ Fig... the differential equation of the elastic line of the girder (1) is reduced to the system of linear . so that a system of n + 1 equation is obtained. Discretization of foundation girder As it is known..180 V.1.. PROLOVIĆ. d 4 wx 1 = ( px − qx )B D dx 4 (1) where D = EI x − is rigidity of the girder to deflection in cross section x (for the foundation girder of constant cross section D = EIx) wx − is unknown function of vertical displacement of beam axis point in cross-section x px qx − function of given external load − unknown function of reactive load Basis for solution of this differential equation.. n) (4) Equation (4) can be written for each dividing point of the girder.

For elimination of the excess of four unknowns. there occur n + 5 of unknown ordinates of the elastic line. wn+2 in the points outside the girders. The ordinates in the points outside the girder: w−2. When the values calculated in this way are introduced in the system of form equations (4). wn−2. wn+2 − are excessive and they are eliminated using the contour conditions.Finite Difference Method Application in Design of Foundation Girder of Variable Cross-Section Loaded on Ends 181 algebraic equations (4). 1. written for each dividing point of the girder. w−1. This further implies that equations for points 0. Then. w−1. contour conditions are used in which the moments and transversal forces on the ends of the girder are equal to null. Ordinate of the elastic line of points on the girder and outside Fig. from the system of equations (6) are determined in function of the ordinates: w0. the contour conditions agreeing with the terms (3) can be written in the following form: x=0 d 2 w0 w−1 − 2w0 + w+1 = =0 dx 2 c2 d 3 w0 w − 2w−1 + 2w+1 − w+ 2 T0 = 0 ⇒ = − −2 =0 3 dx 2c 3 d 2 wn wn−1 − 2wn + wn+1 Mn = 0 ⇒ = =0 dx 2 c2 d 3 wn w − 2wn −1 + 2wn +1 − wn+ 2 Tn = 0 ⇒ = − n −2 =0 dx 3 2c 3 M0 = 0 ⇒ x=n (6) The unknown ordinates w−2. n-1 and n contain also the ordinates of the elastic line of points which are outside the girder: c4 w− 2 − 4 w−1 + 6w0 − 4 w1 + w2 = ( p0 − q0 ) B For point 0 D c4 For point 1 w−1 − 4w0 + 6w1 − 4w2 + w3 = ( p1 − q1 ) B D c4 For point (n−1) wn −3 − 4wn− 2 + 6wn −1 − 4 wn + wn+1 = ( pn −1 − qn −1 ) B D c4 For point n wn − 2 − 4 wn −1 + 6wn − 4wn −1 + wn + 2 = ( pn − qn ) B (5) D Fig. a system of linear algebraic equations is obtained. wn−1. in agreement with [2]. Foundation girder with ends loaded by moments and transversal forces In a system of n + 1 equation (4). 2. 3. wn in the points which lie on the girder. w2. which can be represented in the matrix form for the sake of convenience . wn+1. w1. wn+1.

... wn] − unknown ordinate column vector of elastic girder line points 0..n {q} = {q0... q1.. .... conditions on the ends of the girder can be differently defined. pn} − external girder load ordinate column vector in dividing girder points 0... into the equation system (4) it is transformed into: .. wn+2 are unknown. PROLOVIĆ.... wn] {p} = {p0.. the mentioned ordinates assume the following values: M 0c 2 + 2w0 − w1 D M c2 T c3 w− 2 = −2 0 + 2 0 + 4 w0 − 4w1 + w2 D D 2 M c wn+1 = − n − wn −1 + 2wn D 2 M c T c3 wn+ 2 = −2 n − 2 n + wn−2 − 4wn−1 + 4wn D D w−1 = − (9) After introducing the values calculated in such a manner..... w−1...182 V.. the contour conditions in these points assume the following form: For the point x = 0 M = M 0 and T = T0 d 2 w0 w−1 − 2w0 + w1 M = =− 2 2 D dx c d 3 w0 T w − 2w−1 + 2w1 − w2 = − −2 =− 0 D dx 3 2c 3 for the point x = l M = M n and T = Tn d 2 wn wn−1 − 2wn + wn+1 M n = = D dx 2 c2 d 3 wn w − 2wn−1 + 2wn+1 − wn+ 2 T = − n−2 =− n Dn dx 3 2c 3 (8) In this system of four equations.. the ordinates w−2. BONIĆ [ A]{w} = where: [A] c4 ({ p} − {q}) B D (7) − is the square matrix of n+1 order whose elements are coefficients with unknown w w = [w0. wn+1. When the moments and transversal forces at the ends of girder are other than zero... qn} − unknown ordinate column vector of base resistance in dividing girder points 0.... By solving the equation system.. Z. p1. (Figure 3).1...1......n However..n w = [w0.1.. .. w1. . w1.. .

Only by the ordinates of external load in the points 0. Accordingly. In this way. 1. {p} vector is modified into {p'} vector. the matrix equation (13) is transformed in a following way: [ D' ] [ A] ⋅ {w} = { p ' } − {q} (14) c4 where [D '] − is the square matrix of n + 1 order. n-1 and n. that is: . n−1 and n respectively. D [ A] ⋅ {w} = ({ p ' } − {q}) B (13) Bc 4 When the beam has a variable cross-section. the matrix equation (7) is transformed into. c4 [ A] ⋅ {w} = ({ p ' } − {q}) B (12) D that is. Their values are determined according to the terms obtained after the equation systems is arranged (10): M T ' p0 = p0 − 2 0 − 2 0 Bc Bc 2 M p1' = p1 + 0 Bc 2 M ' pn−1 = pn−1 + n Bc 2 M T ' (11) pn = p n − 2 n + 2 n Bc Bc 2 In this way. in the case when the girder ends are loaded by moments or transversal forces will be different from the {p} vector in cases when the ends are free of load. whose elements are relations of beam rigidity at the individual segments (Dk = EIk) and beam width at the same segments (Bk). 1. vector of given external load {p'}. p'1.Finite Difference Method Application in Design of Foundation Girder of Variable Cross-Section Loaded on Ends 183 c4 ' ( p0 − q0 ) B D c4 − 2w0 − 5w1 − 4w2 + w3 = ( p1' − q1 ) B D ---------------------------------------------------------------1 ' wk − 2 − 4wk −1 + 6 wk − 4wk −1 + wk + 2 = ( pk − qk ) B D -------------------------------------------------------------2 w0 − 4w1 + 2 w2 = wn−3 − 4wn− 2 + 5wn−1 − 2wn = 2 wn−2 − 4 wn−1 + 2 wn = c4 ' ( pn−1 − qn−1 ) B D c4 ' ( pn − qn ) B (10) D Where p'0. p'n−1 p'n are modified ordinates of external load in dividing girder points 0.

Vol. the differential equation of the beam elastic line is reduced to a matrix equation (14). Facta Universitatis. 3. Zagreb.. Pearson Prentice Hall. Niš 2000. 2001.. R. 1991. Stevanović S. . PROLOVIĆ. Prolović V. 1981.: The calculation of foundation girders in equivalent elastic semispace. United States. Beograd 1989. Note: The paper deals with the research which is a part of Project TR 16021 financed by the Ministary of Science And Technological Development of Serbia. 6. Prentide-Hall. According to that. It is more general in type in respect to the equation (7) which is derived for the constant cross-section girder whose ends are not loaded. 61-67 4. 1999. (12) or (14) forms. Tomlinson M. Englewood Cliffs.184 V. Mehanika tla i temeljenje građevina. Edinburgh. Nonveiller E.275-291 7. str. McGraw-Hill Book Company.: "Fundiranje I". T. str.1290-1303. BONIĆ Z.C. Građevinskoarhitektonski fakultet u Nišu. str. the matrix equation of form (14) will be applied for the girders of variable cross-section and for the girders whose ends are loaded by moments and transversal forces. 2007. Lukić D. 7-26 2.: "Prilog teoriji proračuna temeljnih nosača na elastičnoj podlozi". : "Numerical methods in geotechnical engineering". Prokić A. pg.: Dynamic behaviorof braced thin walled beams. implementing finite difference method. 5. The matrix form is very convenient for mathematical representation and creating of computer program intended for solution of the presented problem. United States. Inc.: "Foundation analysis".: "Foundation design and construction". Scott F. pg.J. 545-554 3. Školska knjiga. BONIĆ ⎡ D0 0 ⎢ ⎢ B0 ⎢ D1 ⎢ 0 ' ⎢ B1 [D ] = ⎢ ⋅ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎢ ⎣ 0 0 ⋅ ⋅ 0 ⋅ 0 ⎤ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ ⎥ Dn ⎥ Bn ⎥ ⎦ (15) Final solution of matrix equations of (7). CONCLUSION By the described procedure. Naučna knjiga. 1999.. Z. Desai S.. Bonić Z. magistarski rad. Christian J. 2. requires previous defining of relations between vectors {w} and {q}. NO1. Vol. International Applied Mechanics. 1977 [3].43. REFERENCES 1.

Za rešavanje postavljenog problema je primena numeričkih postupaka. U radu je prikazana primena navedene metode za specijalni slučaj temeljnog nosača promenljivog poprečnog preseka opterećenog proizvoljnim opterećenjem i na njegovim krajevima. od kojih je ovde usvojena metoda konačnih razlika. pri čemu je diferencijalna jednačina elastične linije nosača. .Finite Difference Method Application in Design of Foundation Girder of Variable Cross-Section Loaded on Ends 185 PRIMENA METODE KONAČNIH RAZLIKA U PRORAČUNU TEMELJNOG NOSAČA PROMENLJIVOG POPREČNOG PRESEKA OPTEREĆENOG NA KRAJEVIMA Verka Prolović. Zoran Bonić Savijanje temeljnog nosača koji se oslanja na deformabilnu podlogu definisano je sistemom linearnih diferencijalnih jednačina. četvrtog reda.

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