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TARIQ. 2012.

DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

Chapter - 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL Dam: Dam is a manmade barrier built across a river to hold back river water for safe retention and storage of water or control the water flow. Dams allow to divert the river flow into a pipeline, a canal or channel (Fig 1.1). Dams result in substantially raising water levels in the river over a large area, thus create a storage space. Dams may be of temporary or permanent nature. Dams may be built by constructing an embankment across the river at some suitable location. The water body created behind a constructed embankment or dam is called a manmade lake or reservoir. Dams are built by humans to obtain some economic benefits. Natural processes as landslide and rock falling into the river may obstruct the river flows for some time and create a dam like condition. The earthquake of 2005 resulted in a debris embankment of more than 200 m width and 70 m height across Karli/Tang Nullah near Hattian Balla in AJK (Fig. 1.2a). Considering the stability of the debris fill the water impoundment was used as a tourist point until 2010 when heavy rainfall in the catchment area caused a huge flood wave leading to failure of dam by overtopping. A recent land slide caused a large rock mass to form a 2 km long, 124 m deep and 350 m wide fill across Hunza River with formation of 375+ ft (115 m) deep and 25+ km long Attabad lake (Fig. 1.2b) disrupting communication network KKH in the area. Effort is underway for planned demolition of this dam. Wildlife (Beaver) may also create ponds or small dams for their habitat purposes. Reservoir: Reservoir is defined the as a man-made lake or fresh water body created or enlarged by the building of embankment, dams, barriers, or excavation and on which man exerts major control over the storage and use of the water (Golze 1977, P-619). The embankment may be constructed on one or more or all four sides of the reservoir. Fig. 1.3 shows a reservoir created at a high location than river to boost operations of a pumped storage hydropower plant. Need: 1. River supply usually does not match with the demand at all times/months. Dams storage reservoir is created to match releases with the water demand.
150 Average monthly data (Th.AF) 100 50
Stored water released to meet demand

KT Dam: Average Supply and Demand


Excess river flows stored

Supply Demand

0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

2. Dams are created to substantially raise water level and thus provide working head for hydropower production or to direct water into off taking canals (e.g. irrigation canal).

TARIQ. 2012. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

Figure 1.1a: Water reservoir created by Tarbela Dam.

Figure 1.1b: Aerial view of Tarbela Dams 65+ km long reservoir (Source: Earth-Google).

TARIQ. 2012. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

X-SECTION KARLI NULLAH LAKE

2.2 KM
150 M 60 m 202 189 171 149 137 122 110 95 77

INLET DISCHARGE
4

44 30 100 M 100 M 100 M 57

100 M 100 M 100 M 100 M

100 M

100 M

100 M

100 M

BED OF NULLAH Average Width

Length of Lake Average Depth

= 2000 Mtr = 350 Mtr = 50 Mtr

Figure 1.2a: Natural dam across Kalri Nullah AJK formed by land slide due to earthquake.

Figure 1.2b: Natural dam across Hunza River formed by land slide. A spillway was excavated to drain the Attabad lake reservoir and planned breaching

TARIQ. 2012. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

Figure 1.3 : Upper Reservoir of Taum Sauk 450 MW pumped power plant (Reynolds County, Missouri, on the East Fork of the Black River) made of ridge top 6562 ft long 84 ft high CFRD dike with 10 ft parapet wall. The reservoir dike constructed in 1960s failed on Dec 14, 2005 due to internal leakage and slope failure. Plant remained out of use as of Jan 2007. [http://www.ferc.gov/industries/ hydropower/safety/projects/taum-sauk/consult-rpt/sec-2-summ.pdf].

TARIQ. 2012. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

Purposes Dams and reservoirs are built to raise water level for storage and safe retention of large quantity of water. Water is subsequently released to achieve various purposes. Dams may be constructed to meet one or more purposes as (USBR 2001, P:1-3): 1. Irrigation (e.g. Tarbela and Mangla dams) 2. Hydropower development (e.g. Bunji dam) 3. Domestic, municipal, industrial water supply (e.g. Hub dam, Simly dam) 4. Stock watering 5. Flood control 6. Recreation (picnic, camping, fishing, swimming, kayaking, white water rafting) 7. Fish and wildlife protection and development, and improvement of river ecology 8. River water quality / pollution control and management 9. Stream flow regulation for various purposes 10. Navigation 11. Mining (for processing of raw ore or waste materials), 12. Mine tailings dam (to store mine processing waste product) Multipurpose dams: Most dams are multi-purpose, serving more than one purpose. Mostly these additional purposes are achieved as byproduct outcome, e.g., hydropower, recreation, etc. For multipurpose dams, the storage is allocated and prioritized for different purposes and cost allocation (Fig. 1.4). Dam crest Normal conservation level Free board Flood surcharge Flood detention space Max spillway crest level

River bed profile before Storage for dam construction Irrigation and other uses Dead storage level Dead storage

Power tunnel / irrigation outlet Hydro power plant

Figure 1.4: Multipurpose dam. 1.2 DAM AND RESERVOIR DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY Reservoir design can be considered in a broader sense. It is really selected with such improvements or remedial work as may be considered necessary to assure safe and satisfactory performance of its intended purpose. Development of a reservoir must assure structural integrity and adequacy of the reservoirs. The reservoir site is evaluated in terms of geology, rim stability against slides, water tightness and water holding capability, seismicity, 5

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Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

bank storage, evaporation, sedimentation, land use and mineral resources, right-of-way and property ownership, relocation of the populace, utilities, and transportation facilities, historical-cultural and religious monuments, resettlement, etc. The water stored behind the dam exerts a large water pressure on the dam. A dam must be able to withstand such high pressures. In addition dam must be safe against failure due to overtopping, foundation thrust failures, destruction of dam body due to internal erosion and material failure, foundation uplift, and retain storage contents practically no loss of water due to seepage. Natural or man-made water bodies, albeit large ones, has high aesthetical appeal and thus attract huge number of visitors for recreation. The reservoir design must include provisions of recreation facilities as parking area, picnic area, camping area, hiking and biking trails, nature walk trails, horse trails, rock climbing, enjoying surrounding scenery, water sports, motel, public services, restrooms, emergency services, indoor shelter areas, project guided tours, etc. These should be evaluated in terms of need vs luxury and security concerns for the structure and public. Reservoir area requires clearing of brush/shrubs/trees from below maximum reservoir levels for safe use of reservoir surface. Such clearing may be done by cutting/pulling or by protected fires. In flat side reservoirs large surface area is exposed on reservoir lowering. Suitable alternatives may be evaluated to make economic use of this area for short time activities, as farming, sand mining etc. 1.3 CLASSIFICATION OF DAMS Dams can be classified according to many different features as location, release pattern, hydraulic design, size, filling and emptying mode, service region, type of materials, etc. 1.3.1 According To Location On-Channel: Dam is constructed across the main water feeding river. Examples Tarbela, Mangla, Simly, Hub dam. Water from other rivers may be diverted to the dam through feeder channels to increase the water availability, e.g. Kurram Tangi dam. Off-Channel: Dam is constructed on a channel having much smaller flow. Major storage water is transferred from a different nearby river. This is done due to non-availability of suitable/economic dam site on the major flow river. Example Akhori dam. 1.3.2 According to Release Pattern Storage dam: Water is stored and later released through an outlet for consumptive or nonconsumptive purposes as per requirements. The outflow is controlled as per need. Recharging dam. There is no outlet provided to release water and all incoming water is retained. The water infiltrates through the foundation and/or dam body. The main purpose of the dam is to induce recharge to ground water system in the area. Small release in d/s channel may be made to allow seepage in the channel bed. Delay action dam / retarding dam. These dams are used to retard the peak flow of flash floods. There may or may not be any control over the outflow. For no control over the outflow the outflow rate varies as function of storage volume / water depth in the dam. The flood peak is thus considerably attenuated. The outlet capacity is set that maximum outflow discharge do not exceed the safe capacity of the downstream river during highest flood. The reservoir empties fully after the flood. For control on outflow by gates (detention dam) , the flow is released in such a pattern to retain the 6

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water for long time but there is enough storage available to store next flood event. These dams are usually meant to reduce flood damages as well as to induce maximum recharge in the area. One type of such dam is a porous dam built of a porous embankment, e.g. stone gabions. Diversion dam These are hydraulic structures with a main purpose to raise water level to divert flow into the off taking channels / canals/ hydropower pressure tunnels and penstock of run-of-river hydropower projects. These are preferably called as barrage or canal head works. The storage created by these is minimal, e.g. Patrind Weir. Coffer dam: These are small temporary dams built across the river on upstream and downstream side of the main dam in order to keep the flow away and the working area dry. The u/s coffer dam causes the flow through the diversion system and d/s coffer dam prevents the flooding of the working from backwater effects. After completion of the main dam the u/s coffer dam may be made part of main dam or abandoned to drown in the reservoir while d/s coffer dam is dismantled and removed. Tailings dam These dams are constructed away from any river along a topographic slope by constructing small dikes on three or all four sides to store slurry / waste of mineral mining and processing facilities. The water evaporates or is evacuated and the solid contents dry up filling up the storage capacity. 1.3.3 According to Hydraulic Design Non-Overflow dam: Flow is not allowed over the embankment crest for reasons of dam safety. (earth, rock) dams. Overflow dam The dam body is made of strong material as concrete and flow is allowed over the dam crest Concrete dams 1.32.4 Classification of dams according to Size Dams may be classified as small, medium or large as under: Small. USBR defined small dam as one having maximum height < 15 m (50 ft). Medium: Intermediate sizes 40-70 ft Large: ICOLD defined large dam as: a dam that follows one or more of following conditions. (Thomas 1976 P-0) Dam height > 15 m (50 ft) measured from lowest portion of the general foundation area to the crest A dam height 10-15 m but it compiles with at least one of the following condition: a. b. c. d. e. crest of dam longer than 500 m capacity of the resulting reservoir more than 1 million m3 maximum flood discharge more than 2000 m3/s (70,000 cfs) dam has specially difficult foundation problems dam is of unusual design

Unique: Dams exceeding 100 m are considered as unique. Every aspect of its design and construction must be treated as a problem specifically related to that particular site.

TARIQ. 2012. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

1.3.5 According to Filling and Emptying Mode The storage of a dam may be filled and emptied in short time (one season) or long time (several seasons). The dams are defined as: Seasonal: Seasonal dams are filled and then emptied within the same water year (September to August). Example Tarbela dam. Thus water level in the dam varies from maximum (normal conservation level) to minimum (dead storage level) in most years. Such dams have annual releases usually equal or little more than the minimum annual flow. For very wet or very dry years the reservoir may not reach the extreme levels. The seasonal dams spread the water stored in wet months over to dry months in the same year thus provide service for a single season only. Carry over: Filling and emptying of a carry-over dam reservoir continues over more than one year (e.g. 2 to 5 years). Example. Hub Dam, Kurram Tangi Dam. Thus water stored in wet years may be released during subsequent dry years The annual releases are usually more than minimum annual flow but equal to long term average annual flow. Carry over dams are applicable where wide variations occur in annual flows. Carry over dams spread storage during wet years/months over to dry years and months and thus provide service for multiple seasons. 1.3.6 According to location of service area Local: The service area of the dam is limited to a single contiguous localized geographic area located very near the dam. Far located areas and geographic regions do not benefit. E.g. Kurram Tangi, Simly, Khanpur dams. Regional: The service area of the dam extends to many widely apart geographic regions located any distance from the dam. Thus all near and far located areas and geographic regions get the benefit. The water supply to all areas is possible through a network of river and canal systems. Exampleas are Tarbela, Diamir-Basha, Kalabagh, Mangla dams. 1.3.7 According to type of material A dam can be made of earth, rock, concrete or wood. Dams are classified according to the materials used as under: (Novak et. al. 2001 P: 11-18, 33) A. Embankment Dams (Figs. 1.5 to 1.6) The embankment dams are made by use of natural materials of earth and rock only and no cementing materials are used. Same or varying materials are used to construct the dam embankment. There are two main types: 1. Earthfill Dam: These are constructed of selected soils (0.001 d 100 mm) compacted uniformly and intensively in relatively thin layers (20 to 60 cm) and at controlled optimum moisture content. Compacted natural soils form more than 50% of the fill Material. Dams may be designed as: Homogeneous, Zoned or with impermeable core (Figs. 1.5 and 1.6a). Zoned part is made of relatively finer material that reduces seepage flow, e.g. clay. The fill material is placed as rolled, hydraulic fill or semi-hydraulic fill. 2. Rockfill dam: Over 50% of fill material be of class rock usually a graded rockfill (0.1 d 1000 mm) is filled in bulk or compacted in thin layers by heavy plant. Some impervious membranes/materials are placed in the interior or on u/s face of the embankment to stop/reduce seepage through the dam embankment (Fig. 1.6b). Dams section may be homogeneous, zoned, with impermeable core, or with asphalt or 8

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Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

cement concrete face. Zoned part is made of relatively finer material that reduces seepage flow, e.g. clay. Core is made of clay, concrete, asphalt concrete etc. Dams made from mix of large proportions of earth and rock materials are called as Earthfill-rockfill or Earth-rock dams.

Figure 1.5: Earthfill dam. Left-homogeneous dam, right-zoned dam. B. Concrete Dams Concrete dams are formed of cement-concrete placed in the dam body. Dam section is narrow with steeper side slope (Figs. 1.7a,b). Concrete dam section designed such that the loading produces compression stress only and no tension are induced any where. The reinforcement is minimum mainly as temperature control. Concrete is placed in two ways: as conventional plain/reinforced concrete (RC dam) or as roller compacted concrete (RCC dams). Rubble/random/stone masonry may be used as bulk material in dam section. The variations of concrete dam include: 1 Gravity dam: Stability due to its mass. Dam straight or slightly curved u/s in plan (no arch action). The u/s face is vertical or nearly vertical, d/s sloping. 2. Arch dam: Arch dam has considerable u/s plan curvature. U/s and d/s faces are nearly straight / vertical. Water loads are transferred onto the abutments or valley sides by arch action. Arch dam is structurally more efficient than concrete gravity dams (requires only 10-20% concrete). However abutment strength and geologic stability is critical to the structural integrity and safety of the dam. Multiple arch dams. 3. Cupola/Dome/Double curvature dam:. U/s & d/s faces curved in plan and profile section, curved in plan as well/ as arch (Part of a dome or shell structure). 4. Buttress dam: It consists of continuous u/s face (i.e. deck) supported at regular intervals by d/s buttress or crib. Types include massive buttress, diamond head, round head with each section separate. Ambursen / flat slab buttress / decked buttress. 5. Hollow gravity: Dam section are made hollow to reduce uplift pressure at d/s side and smaller total construction materials. (This type falls between gravity and buttress dams) C. Timber/steel dam The bulk of the dam is made of timber braces with timber board facings. Such dams were mostly constructed by early gold miners in California USA for obtaining river water for separating gold dust and getting water power; such dams are not practically used any longer. The face of earthfill or rockfill dams may be also fitted with timber board for seepage control. 9

TARIQ. 2012. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

Figure 1.6a: Earthfill embankment dams.

Figure 1.6b: Rockfill embankment dams.

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Figure 1.7a: Concrete dams.

Figure 1.7b: Future Concrete dams.

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Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

1.4 PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DAM 1.4.1 Stages Any dam project is carried out at following stages Initial screening based on river profile and topographic maps. Reconnaissance plan-uses only any available data Pre-feasibility plan-little exploration and additional field data Feasibility plan-Extensive exploration and additional field data Design stage: point tests/surveys to finalize design

At each succeeding stage, the plan is firmed up with more precise details, dimensions and analysis; More data is used at each successive stage. The design stage ends up with drawings appropriate for construction activities. Still further details/revision continues well during the construction of the dam as new information is gathered or some already available information is found to be incorrect and not valid. 1.4.2 Data Required Large amount of data is required for planning/designing of dams (Golze, 1977 P. 47-50). These include as: 1. Location & vicinity map 2. Topographic maps/aerial photographs of dam site 3. Elevation surveys/triangulation + bench mark 4. Transportation map (road, rail, air) 5. Geological / rock formations data of dam site 6. Seismic/tectonic activity map 7. Climatic data (P, T, ET, wind, sunshine) 8. Stream flow data (daily average flows) 9. Sediment data 10. Flood data (instantaneous peak flow rates, time to peak, base time, flood duration, flood volumes, flow hydrograph, etc) of all or major floods 11. Water rights 12. Demographic/land ownership/housing data for the reservoir area, resttlement 13. River environment/ecology (u/s, at site, d/s) (fish, w/life, birds, flora, fauna, vegetation) 14. Project water requirement 15. Power requirements & national grid / transmission lines 16. River hydrographic data (bed levels, flood levels, cross section, bank/valley levels) 17. River stage-discharge data (u/s, tail water) 18. Groundwater table data in the vicinity, u/s and d/s area 19. Public recreation need 20. Land evaluation 21. Public/Private buildings 22. Availability of construction materials 23. Geo-political economic data

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1.4.3 The Planning/Design Team Dam planning/design is a multi-task activity; various tasks are as: (1). Site selection, (2). topographic surveys, (3). water availability assessment, (4). sizing and layout, (5). geologic surveys and construction materials investigations, (6). geologic evaluation of foundation, rim, abutment and pond area, (7).dam section design, (8). dam seepage and stability analysis, (9). Diversion arrangements details (diversion tunnel, coffer dam), (10). floods and spillways, (11). hydropower works, (12). irrigation outlets and irrigation system design, (13). Reservoir sedimentation, (14). Reservoir operation studies, (15). Material quantities and costing, (16). Environmental studies, (17). Land acquisition and replacement, etc. Thus planning and design of dam is a multi-disciplinary task and require teamwork of following disciplines: 1. Project Manager (for overall project control) 2. Water resources engineer (for project design and water supply demand studies) 3. Layout planner (for alternate locations and/or layouts) 4. Surveyors (for plan and topographic surveys of reservoir area) 5. Hydrology + meteorology (to assess water availability, and floods) 6. Engineering geologist, Geophysist/Siesmologist, Geophysical exploration specialist / Drillers (for foundation and abutment exploration) 7. Geo-technical engineers (for foundation, embankment and cut slope design) 8. Hydraulic engineer (for hydraulic design of outlets, spillway, energy dissipation) 9. Structural engineer (for structural design of outlets, spillway. Powerhouse, energy dissipation) 10. Mechanical engineer (for design of controls, gates, valves, hoists, ) 11. Hydropower engineer (for layout and design of hydropower units) 12. Electrical engineer (for design of electric power controls and transmission) 13. Instrumentation engineer (for monitoring instrument design) 14. Telecommunication engineer (to design workplace and office communication) 15. Environmental engineer, Environmental scientists (to study environmental impacts of the project on fish, wild life, flora, fauna, etc and needed mitigation measures to maintain healthy and conducive environment for on-site and off-site) 16. Infrastructure/road/municipal engineer / Civil engineer (for layout and design of office space, workshops, access road network, contractor camp, workmen housing, security system, water supply, solid liquid waste disposal) 17. Quantity Surveyor / Costing engineer (to quantify construction material volumes, material unit costs, total project costs 18. Construction planner / manager (to design construction activity chart, time and cost scheduling, critical time analysis) 19. Economists (to determine project financial and economic viability [B/C ratio, NPW, IRR], project cost repayment capacity and schedule 20. For associated irrigation development more professionals as Irrigation engineer, Irrigation agronomist, Soil expert will be required. 1.5 DAM SITE SELECTION The purpose of a dam is to retain and store large quantities of water in a safe way. Many considerations are analyzed. Most desirable condition is that dam project can provide largest storage volume with smallest dam size (in terms of dam length and height) for dams for irrigation purposes whereas small storage volume is required for run-of-river hydropower projects. The dam storage space may be viewed considering river valley geometry u/s of 13

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proposed location in terms of river bed profile (steep, gentle or moderate, and flat - Fig. 1.8) and river cross section (wide, narrow, and gorge Fig. 1.9) and river valley depth below adjacent mountains/rocks (deep, medium, shallow). River with flat bed profile and wide cross section will provide large storage volumes and are thus most desirable for irrigation dams. On the contrary steep river bed profile with cross section as narrow to gorge is good for run-ofriver hydropower dams which normally need small storage volumes. Deep river valleys provide large storage volumes and shallow valleys provide small storage volumes. A dam can be built anywhere if you can spend enough money. However preferred site have following characteristics which lead to lower project costs. Thus alternate dam sites locations are evaluated for most cost effective choice. Many times trade-off and compromises are made to select a dam site. Max water level Steep

Gentle Flat Dam

Figure 1.8: River bed profile


Deep

Max water level Wide Narrow Gorge


Medium

Shallow

River

Figure 1.9: River valley cross section and depth 1. 2. 3. Small river channel width with steep side gorge: short dam crest length, leads to large storage for small dam length A wide and flat sloping valley upstream of the dam site (for storage dams) and narrow and steeply sloping valley for hydropower dams. River channel and valley has very flat slopes u/s of dam site (leads to large storage for small dam heights).

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4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22.

Deep valleys - Deep reservoir possible require less area and lesser land costs, less surface evaporation Enough water flow/yield available to meet requirements/demand High sediment load tributaries are excluded Geology favorable for foundation (foundation can be designed at any site, but it increases costs), competent hard rock is most suitable. Abutments are water tight, and reservoir rim allow minimum percolation and seepage losses. Small river sediment rate (longer dam life); this depend on river morphology and catchment characteristics. More sediment load requires large dead storage space. Land use of reservoir area is minimal lower economic values mean smaller resettlement issues and lower compensations. Reservoir area not very sensitive to environment (wild life parks, endangered species, historical places, monuments etc). No seismic and tectonic activities or active faults in and near the site. Socio-political stability (no unstable gestures) (Gomal-Zam, Mirani, Kurram Tangi dams), Diamer-Basha vs Kalabagh dams. Reservoir and dam area less populated Site have adequate stream flow record Site is easily accessible; approach road is present or can be developed easily. Construction material available nearby easily Site near load center (demand area) for water+ power No mineral resources in reservoir area (present or future) Site allows a deep reservoir & small surface area (less land costs and small evaporation losses). Transportation system (air, rail, road) available to reach site and carry construction materials and machinery. Existing infrastructure, e.g. highway, least affected, e.g. KKH and Diamir Bhasha dam.

1.6 DAM COMPONENTS Elements of a typical dam include (Figs. 1.10 and 1.11): 1.6.1 Main Dam This is the main structure built across the river. The height of a dam depends upon desired storage capacity and the site conditions. The crest length of the dam depends upon topography at the dam site. The dam may be built of many different materials (Figs. 1.6 and 1.7). The stored water is released from the dam as per requirements. 1.6.2 Flanks/Abutment: The rock mass on right and left banks of the river constitute abutments. Dam is joined with and supported by the abutments. In addition outlet tunnels, diversion tunnel, spillways are also placed in the flanks. The geology of the abutments has to be strong enough to enable 15

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placing various structural components without any risk. In addition abutments need to be of competent rock of lowest permeability without any structural defects. 1.6.3 Saddle Dam: The reservoir is usually formed by the main dam on one side and low/high hills on all other sides of the reservoir. In most cases the elevation of the hills along the rim of the dam is much higher than the reservoir maximum water level. In some other cases elevations of surrounding hills along a part of the rim/periphery of the reservoir is not high enough over a small section to completely contain the stored water and a saddle (low level place) is formed. Water can flow out through the saddle. A small embankment is then constructed at this low/saddle point to seal off the reservoir rim and is called as saddle dam. Example: Sukian dam and Jari dam for Mangla Dam project. 1.6.4 Diversion Channel/Tunnel This is water conveyance system from upstream of u/s coffer dam to downstream of d/s coffer dam. These channel or tunnel are constructed prior to dam construction such that river flow is passed around and away from the dam site through the diversion tunnels and that than dam site remain dry and accessible to construction at all time. The capacity of diversion structure is set such that most probable floods likely to occur during the construction period can be passed over without danger of overtopping of cofferdam and inundation of construction area. Necessary arrangements are made at d/s end for energy dissipation. These tunnels may be abandoned (plugged Simly dam) after project completion or converted to irrigation / power / desilting tunnels. Diversion tunnel may not be provided (Mirani dam) and u/s coffer dam. 1.6.5 Cofferdam These are small temporary dams built u/s and d/s of the dam site to make the construction area dry and workable. The u/s cofferdam causes water to flow through the diversion tunnel and the d/s cofferdam prevents backwater level to inundate the construction area. Coffer dam may be dovetailed in u/s part of dam (Mangla) or abandoned. Material used earth, rock, concrete etc. Arrangemnet are required for control of seepage across the coffer dam. 1.6.6 Spillway This is a water release/conveyance structure to pass the large flood volumes safely across the dam without danger of overtopping of the dam crest. There would be one or more spillways usually at different levels (Service, additional, emergency). The lower spillway is used to release often occurring flood and regular inflows and is called as service spillway. It has usually more elaborate arrangements and may be free flowing or gated. The auxiliary or emergency spillway is set at or above normal conservation level and has fewer arrangements and is usually free flowing. This is used only during flood events of extra-ordinary nature. Fuse plug, rubber dam etc may be used to delay water release and possible additional storage at the reservoir. The spillway may be an integral part of the main dam (mostly for concrete dams) or be a separate structure in the dam abutments. 1.6.7 Outlet Works (a) Intake Structure / Tower: This is a structure to admit and control flow of water into the irrigation/power outlets. It would be a tower or inlet flush with reservoir side walls. Gates may be provided at u/s, intermediate or d/s end of the outlet tunnel. Necessary provision is 16

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made to keep the intake operation for long after sedimentation by having multiple water entry levels particularly for domestic supply purposes. Multi level inlet openings may be used. (b) Irrigation/Power Outlet Tunnel: This is a large water conveyance structure to release water to irrigation network and/or powerhouse turbines. The outlet is in the form of a tunnel dug or formed through the abutment / flank for earth / rockfill dams or through the dam body for a concrete dam. At the u/s end an intake is provided along with gates, trash rack. The tunnel design must eliminate risk of cavitation and/or aeration. Gates may be placed at u/s, d/s or intermediate location. The power tunnel is transitioned into surge chamber, penstock/scroll case etc. Energy dissipation structure may be provided at d/s end, if needed. Irrigation outlet may release into a canal or into the river if demand site is at distance from the dam. The intake level of the tunnel is kept below or at the dead storage level. Air vent is provided to minimize cavitation. Water cushon for vortex control are also provided. (c) Low Level Outlet: A low outlet tunnel may be provided to flush sediments, draw water from below dead storage level under very drought condition, emptying of reservoir in emergencies, draw water during repair of outlet tunnel/gates, etc. The intake level is kept much lower than the intake level main irrigation tunnel. May discharge into stilling basin for spillways/outlet works or as a separate energy dissipation structure provided.

Figure 1.10: Dam components (http://www.dnr.state.wi.us/ORG/WATER/WM/dsfm/dams/gallery.html)

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Reservoir limits

450 500 400


u/s coffer dam

450
Diversion tunnel Spillway Outlet Maindam Saddle dam

500

PH

500 450 550

400

d/s coffer dam

Figure 1.11: Dam layout showing main dam, saddle dam, u/s and d/s coffer dams, spillway and stilling basin, diversion tunnel(s), power tunnel, power house and irrigation canal.

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1.6.8 Seepage Control and Drainage System Dams are designed to store water with least seepage through the dam embankment and the foundation but seepage do occur. The drainage/seepage water also causes tremendous uplift pressure particularly at d/s half of the dam base. Features are included in the dam design to minimize seepage through the foundation and through the dam embankment and uplift pressure. Arrangements are provided for safe exit of unobstructed seepage. These include: Cutoff wall, Sheet piles, Slurry trench, Grout Certain, U/s Blanket, Pressure relief / Drainage Wells, Drainage gallery, Blanket Drain, Chimney Drain, Toe Drain, etc. 1.6.8 Preliminary Works This includes civil works, infrastructures, buildings required to be provided before start of construction of main dam work. These include offices, staff housing, community buildings, water supply, approach road, client/consultant/contractor camp, labor camp, security arrangements, rest house, rail sidings, air strip, helipad, etc. 1.6.9 Hydropower Development (a) Powerhouse: Building to house turbine, generators, mechanical workshop, valves, draft tube, office, control room, visitor area, up transformer, etc for hydropower generation. (b) Penstock: This is a large diameter pressure pipe used to deliver water to turbines. (c) Surge chamber. To contain water hammer surge on plant load rejection / sudden shutdown. (d) Switchyard: This is an area to install electrical equipment to change low to high tension power supply for further transmission. Other features include power channel, head race channel, tail race channel, draft tube etc. 1.6.10 Slope protection/Riprap Stone is placed on u/s & d/s dam slopes for protection against damage due to wave action, rain water, burrowing animals. Parapet wall may be used to protect dam top against sudden waves generated by strong winds, tsunami, etc. 1.6.11 Dam Instrumentation Various gages/instruments are installed in the dam body, foundations, spillway to monitor settlement, movement, stresses, pore water/uplift pressure, earthquake. 1.6.12 Stilling Basin To dissipate excess energy of diversion tunnel, low level outlet, irrigation tunnel, spillway, etc. 1.6.13 Gallery/Shafts These are provided in the dam body for access to interior of concrete dam body. These are horizontal, vertical (with round stair ways), sloping. 1.6.14: Operational buildings These are buildings required for operation of the dam and works. These include Office buildings, Rest House, Security buildings, Staff residences and other community buildings, gate control room.

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1.6.15: Temporary works: These are installations required for temporary use and are removed after project completion. These include contractors camp, material processing, handling and stock area, machine room, casting yard, steel fabrication, labor camp, etc. 1.7 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF DAMS 1.7.1 Embankment Dam a Merits (Novak et al. 2001 P-14) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Suitable to type of sites in wide valleys and relatively steep sided gorges alike. Adoptable to a broad range of foundation conditions-from competent rock to soft and compressible or relatively pervious soil foundation. Use of natural materials at smaller cost thus no need to import or transport large quantities of processed materials or cement to the side. Subject to the design criteria, embankment dams are extremely flexible to accommodate different fill materials (rock, earth) if suitably zoned internally. Construction process highly mechanized and continuous (less human handling as form work, curing time) If properly designed, dam can safely accommodate appreciable degree of settlement-deformation without risk of serious cracking and possible failure. Embankment dams withstand earthquake better. However the foundation of these dams, if deep and of unconsolidated origin, is more liable to settlement and failure by earthquake (liquification). Inherent greater susceptibility to damage or destruction due to over topping (require adequate flood relief and separate spillway). Vulnerable to concealed leakage and internal piping/erosion in dam or foundation. Spillway and outlet are usually separate from main dam. (Novak et al. 2001 P-17)

b Demerits

c. Limitations 1.7.2 Concrete/Masonry Dams a Concrete Dam Merits 1. Concrete dams, except arch and cupola, are suitable to site topography of wide or narrow valley alike, provided that a competent rock foundation is present at moderate depths (< 5 m) (arch best for narrow section) Concrete dams are not sensitive to overtopping under extreme flood conditions. All concrete dams can accommodate a crest spillway, if necessary, over the entire dam length, provided that steps are taken to control d/s erosion and possible undermining of the dam. Thus cost of separate spillway is avoided. Outlet pipe works, valves and ancillary works are readily and safely housed in chambers or galleries within the dam. Power house can be placed at d/s toe of dam. Has high inherent ability to withstand seismic disturbances. 20

2. 3.

4.

5.

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6.

Cupola dam is extremely strong and efficient structure for a narrow valley with competent abutments. Concrete dams require sound and stable rock foundations. These require processed natural materials of suitable quality and quantity for aggregate and importation to site and storage of bulk cement and other materials. Traditional mass concrete construction is slow, labor intensive and discontinuous, and require adequate skill for formwork, concreting etc. Cost per unit of concrete dam much higher than embankment fill. Smaller quantities seldom counter balance for dams of given height.

b Demerits 1. 2. 3. 4.

1.8 DAM FOCUS POINTS (Novak et al. 2001 P 10-11) Dams have following focus points and thus differ from other major civil engineering structures. 1. 2. 3. Every dam, large or small, is quite unique; foundation geology, material characteristics, catchment yield and flood hydrology are each site specific. Dams are required to function at or close to their design loadings for extended periods. Dams do not have a structural life span, components must be designed for long life). Dams may have notional life for accounting/economic purposes, or a functional life span dictated by the reservoir sedimentation. Dams may be decommissioned at the end of their useful life; this may lead to dam demolition. Majority of dams are of earth fill made from a range of natural soils, and are least consistent of construction materials. Dam engineering draws together a range of disciplines to a quite unique degree (hydrology, hydraulics, geology, geotechnical, structure etc). FIRST PLAN: All type of dams may be considered at the site, thus plan alternative design until discarded due to technical, financial or environmental reasons. Dam engineering is critically dependent upon the application of informed engineering judgment. Some compromise tradeoffs are always considered.

4. 5. 6.

7.

1.9: ELEVATION-AREA-VOLUME RELATIONSHIP The elevation-volume-area relationship for a reservoir/dam describes the variations of volume and surface area with elevation/height. This relationship is determined from elevation contour map of the reservoir area. The elevation is determined by topographic survey at grid or random locations (grid spacing varies with level of investigation from 200 m for prefeasibility study to 50 m or less for feasibility study). Wide contours indicate a gently sloping flat valley area and closed spaced contours indicate steeply sloping cliff sides. Contours are drawn at an interval of 5 to 10 ft (Fig. 1.12). Surface area is measured for each contour line. The incremental volume between two consecutive contours is determined by trapezoidal formula as: V = (A1+A2)/2h (1.1)

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Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

where A1 and A2 is plan area of the two consecutive contours with h contour interval. Total volume at any elevation is obtained by adding successive incremental area as VH = H V. Table 1.1 below show calculations for elevation-volume-area relationship. The reservoir surface area and volume is related as (H = Elevation datum):
H

Vol. =

Area dH
0

and

Area = dV/dH,

(1.2)

The data points are plotted with volume or area on x-axis and elevation on y-axis (volume on primary x-axis, and area on secondary x-axis) (Fig. 1.13). Equations may be developed (usually a power function) to find elevation for a given storage or area as El = A (Vol)B + datum and El = C (Area)D + datum where El is elevation, Vol is storage volume, Area is reservoir surface area, and A, B, C, D are curve fitting parameters.
Table 1.1 : Elevation-Area-Volume Relationship for a Dam. Map Scale: 1 inch = 5000 ft; 2 1 sq in = 5000 = 25,000,000 sq ft = 1 sq in = 25,000,000 / 43,560 = 573.92 Acres Selected datum (ft amsl) =1800 Elevation Height above Map area datum (ft amsl) 1805 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 (ft) 5 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 (sq. in) 0.00 0.49 1.88 4.11 7.17 11.03 15.69 21.14 Plan Area Incremental volume (Acres) 0 281 1,079 2,359 4,115 6,330 9,005 12,133 (AF) 0 4,993 34,005 85,945 161,846 261,134 383,379 528,438 Total storage capacity Acre Feet 0 5,043 39,048 124,993 286,838 547,972 931,352 1,459,789 ThAF 0 5 39 125 287 548 931 1,460

Example. For Kurram Tangi dam the elevation-storage-area relation are described as: (volume in AF, elevation is ft amsl, and area is in acres and 1805 is datum) (Figs. 1.14 to 1.17). El = 2.6905 (Vol)0.3432 + 1805 El = 2.5821 (Area)0.5226 + 1805 For some cases more than one equation may be needed to describe the data for different ranges. Inverse equations may be derived to find volume or area corresponding to any elevation, e.g. for Kurram Tangi dam elevation-area-volume dam is described as (Volume in AF, Elevation in ft amsl, Area in acres and Datum = 1805 ft amsl.. Vol.= 0.05595 (Elevation - Datum)2.913 Area = 0.163 (Elevation ft - Datum)1.9132 Equation form of the elevation-area-volume relationship may be useful for various purposes, e.g. reservoir simulations, flood routing for spillway design and diversion tunnel design.

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2050 2000 ftft

2100 ft

1950 ft

2150 ft

Kurram Tangi Dam Figure 1.12: Topographic surface contours of Kurram Tangi Dam.
KURRAM TANGI DAM: Elevation-Capacity-Area Curves
Area (Thousand Acres) 10 9 8 7 6

16 2175 2150 2125 2100 2075 2050 2025 2000 1975 1950 1925 1900 1875 1850 1825 1800 0

15

14

13
12.13

12

11

1
1,460

287 125 39 5 0

200

400

2175 2150 2125 2100 9.00 931 2075 2050 548 6.33 2025 2000 4.12 1975 1950 2.36 1925 1900 1.08 Reservoir Capacity 1875 Reservoir Surface Area 1850 0.28 1825 0.05 1800 600 800 1,000 1,200 1,400 1,600
Capacity (Th.Acre-ft)

Elevation (ft)

Figure 1.13: Kurram Tangi Dam: Elevation-Volume-Surface Area Curves.

23

Elevation (ft)

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Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

1.10 DAM HEIGHT The height of any dam above the lowest level in the river channel is determined from (i) the gross storage (live storage + dead storage) capacity of the dam, (ii) the space required to pass maximum design flood over the spillway (called flood surcharge), (iii) the wave height generated from extreme winds, (iv) the wave runup over the upstream sloping face due to wind gusts and (v) the free board. The reservoir level corresponding to normal reservoir storage is called as normal conservation level NCL and is determined from the elevationvolume relationship of the dam. Referring to Figs 1.13, the normal conservation level is determined as 2076.2 for gross storage capacity of 0.716 MAF. The wave height and wave runup is determined from reservoir area, depth and prevailing wind speeds in the vicinity of the dam. Free board of 5 to 10 ft is customary provided depending upon the reservoir importance and other factors. For Gross storage = 0.716 MAF (Live storage = 0.55 as determined from mass curve / reservoir operation studies, and dead storage = 0.166 MAF as determined from sedimentation analysis), the required dam height is worked as: Minimum River bed level at dam site Normal conservation level for 0.716 MAF Maximum reservoir depth = 2076-1805 Flood surcharge (from PMF routing) Wave height Wave runup Free board Total dam height Dam crest level 1.11 DAM LAYOUT Dam embankment Once the site of a dam is selected, the layout of dam embankment is carried out. The outline of dam is done on a contour map of potential dam location. Following steps are taken (Fig. 1.18). Earthfill-Rockfill dam: Data: Dam crest level = 2100 ft, u/s face slope = 3.5:1 (H:V), d/s face slope = 3.0:1; contour interval = 50 ft, river bed level = 1805 ft Crest: 1. Locate the centerline of dam crest by connecting two points on 2100 ft contour line along right and left abutments such that the dam has smallest crest length. The geologic makeup of the foundations and abutments is also considered. Measure the crest length. Mark the crest width (e.g. 30 ft) parallel to the selected centerline. Mark chainage along the dam crest with 0+00 mark at one of abutments, e.g. right abutment. Determine the dam crest length. e.g. e.g. e.g. = 1805.0 ft amsl = 2.6905(716000)0.3432+1805 = 2076 ft amsl = 271 ft = 6.5 ft = 3.5 ft = 4.0 ft = 10 ft = 271 + 6.5 + 3.5 + 4.0 + 10.0 = 295.0 ft = 1805.0 + 295.0 = 2100.0 ft

2. 3.

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KTD: Elevation vs Reservoir Surface Area Curve


375 350 325 300 275
9,005 12,133

Elevation Ft + 1800

250 225 200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0


0 281 52 1,079 2,359 4,115

6,330

y = 2.582141x0.522649 R = 0.999916

1,000 2,000 3,000 4,000 5,000 6,000 7,000 8,000 9,000 10,000 11,000 12,000 13,000 14,000

Surface Area (Acres)

Figure 1.14: Elevation-Surface Area curve fit to data.


KTD: Elevation vs Reservoir Capacity Curve 380 360 340 320 300 280 260 300 350

Elevation Ft +1800

240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 200 400 50 20 100 150 200

250

600

800 Volume (ThAF)

1,000

1,200

1,400

1,600

Figure 1.15: Kurram Tangi Dam: Elevation-volume curve fit to data.

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Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

KTD Elevation vs Area Curve 13,000 12,000 11,000 10,000 12,133

Surface Area (Acres)

9,000 8,000 7,000 6,000 5,000 4,000 3,000 2,000 1,000 0 20 52 40 281 60 80 1,079 2,359 4,115 6,330

9,005

y = 0.162962x1.913170 R = 0.999916

100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380

Elevation (1800 +ft)

Figure 1.16: Kurram Tangi Dam. Surface area vs. elevation curve.
KTD Elevation vs Capacity Curve 1,600

1,460
1,400

1,200

Volume (ThAF)

1,000

931
800

600

548
400

287
200

125
0 0 20

0
40

5
60 80

39
100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 Elevation (1800+ft)

Figure 1.17: Kurram Tangi Dam: Volume vs. elevation curve.

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Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

U/s face: 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Determine the horizontal distance corresponding to 50 ft vertical height for u/s face ( = 50 x 3.5 = 175 ft). [3.5 :1 is slope of u/s face] Mark a line A-A on u/s face parallel to crest edge spaced 175 ft apart between 2nd contour line of 2050 ft. Mark lines B-B, C-C, D-D, E-E 175 ft apart between other contour lines of 2000, 1950, 1900, 1850 ft, respectively. Mark location of point F of lowest elevation in the river channel. Connect points A-B-C-D-E-F-E-D-C-B-A with a smooth line and connect the outline with crest edge on u/s face. This defines the dam outline or footprint along u/s sloping face. Determine the horizontal distance corresponding to 50 ft vertical height for d/s face (= 50 x 3.0 = 150 ft). [3:1 is slope of d/s face] Mark a line G-G on d/s face parallel to crest edge spaced 150 ft apart between 2nd contour line of 2050 ft. Mark lines H-H, I-I, J-J, K-K 150 ft apart between other contour lines of 2000, 1950, 1900, 1850 ft, respectively. Locate point L of lowest elevation in river channel on d/s side. Connect points G-H-I-J-K-L-K-J-I-H-G with smooth line and connect this with crest edge on d/s side. This defines the dam outline or footprint along d/s sloping face. Draw longitudinal section (L-section) along centerline of dam crest. This will provide valley profile between the rivers left and right abutments (Fig. 1.19). Draw dam cross section at maximum depth (section F-L at Ch 7+45 in Fig. 1.19), and also at other chainage, e.g. at every 200 ft apart (Fig. 1.19).

D/s face: 9. 10. 11. 12. 13.

Crest length, Longitudinal Section and Cross section 14. 15.

Concrete gravity dam: The layout of concrete gravity dam is similar to earthfill dams with the exception that u/s and d/s face slopes are very small (u/s ~ 1 H:10 V, d/s ~ 0.7 H:1 V) Dam appurtenants The layout of dam appurtenants (spillway, outlet, diversion tunnel, power house, etc) is determined such that space requirement of all dam components is adequately met. Few trials may be needed to finalize the layout of dam embankment and dam appurtenants. Figs 1.20 to 1.23 describe the alternate layouts for Kurram Tangi dam for dam embankment and dam appurtenants. 1.12 DAM ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Construction of dams significantly alters the river flow regime. The flow in flood season is considerably reduced while the flow in other months is increased. The changed flow pattern affects the ecology and echo system of the river d/s reaches. The dam construction affects the migration of cold-water fish for their annual spawning voyage to u/s cold-water regions. However the dam reservoir provides an excellent place for supervised fish 27

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development. The river may have cropped area which is seasonally flooded by the river flood flows (sailaba area). Construction of dam may lower the flood flows thus the sailaba area need to be irrigated by alternative means. Affected area adjacent to the dam may be provided supplemental canal or tubewell irrigation facilities. Waterlogging and high watertable may appear in some places above or below the dam site. The sediment carried by the flood water get trapped in the dam and thus a small amount of sediments enters the d/s reach of the rivers. The imbalance in the sediment flow combined with educed flood flows causes a aggradations of the river bed. This slowly lead to raising of the flood levels in the affected river reach requiring a constant raising of flood dikes and spurs. The sediment reduction due to dams leads to erosion/degradation of the river delta at the entrance to the ocean. Thus erosion of coastal areas is negatively affected by the construction of dams. It is required that environmental impacts of dam may be evaluated independently and necessary mitigation measures may be taken to mitigate and minimize the adverse environmental impacts.

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RIVER

Contour interval h = 50 ft

1850

SHORE LINE 1900

1850

1950 1900

1950 2000

2000

2050

AF AE AE AD AC UPSTREAM SLOPING FACE

175 ft 175 ft

2100

AD AC 175 ft AB 175 ft AA

2050 AB AA SCALE = 1:5000. 2100

503.5=175 ft Crest Dam Crest; length = 30 ft El = 2100 ft 4+00 6+00 8+00 10+00 12+00 14+00 2+00 1650 ft 150 ft AG AG 503.0 = 150 ft DOWNSTREAM AH AH SLOPING FACE 150 ft AI AI 150 ft AJ AJ 150 ft AK AK
Ch 1+00

AL

SLOPE: u/s = 3.5 H:1 V; d/s = 3.0 H:1 V;

Figure 1.18: Topographic surface contours at a dam and layout of dam outline.

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Dam Crest; El = 2100 Ft, Length = 1650 ft Elevation (ft) 2100 2000 1900 1800 14+00
El = 1875 ft River level = 1805 ft El = 1845

10+00

4+00

(a) Longitudinal section

Chainage (ft) Dam section for concrete dam Dam section for earthfill dam D/s slope = 1 V:3.0 H 295 ft

Dam crest: El = 2100 ft, width = 30 ft Normal conservation level = 2081.6 ft

U/s slope = 1 V:3.5 H


River level = 1805 ft

1032 ft 1947 ft (b): Dam maximum cross section at F-L Ch 7+45 ft.

8+00

885 ft

Dam crest: El = 2100 ft

225 ft
El = 1875 ft Valley El = 1875-1950 ft

12+00

2+00

6+00

225 ft

787 ft 1492 ft (c): Dam X-section at Ch 4+00 ft.

675 ft

Dam crest: El = 2100 ft

165 ft
El = 1935 ft River level = 1805 ft

255 ft 578 ft 1373 ft

765 ft

(d): Dam X-section at Ch 12+00 ft.


Dam crest: El = 2100 ft

105 ft

El = 1995 ft

El = 1960 ft

140 ft

368 ft 818 ft (e): Dam X-section at Ch 14+00 ft.

420 ft

Figure 1.19: Longitudinal and cross section of dam of Fig. 1.18.

Scale: 1:5000

30

16+00

0+00

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Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

Figure 1.20: Contour map of dam area of Kurram Tangi Dam site.

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Figure 1.21: Dam embankment layout of Kurram Tangi Dam.

32

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Figure 1.22: Layout plan of concrete face rockfill dam (CFRD) embankment and appurtenances for Kurram Tangi Dam. 33

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Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

Figure 1.23: Layout plan of concrete gravity dam embankment and appurtenances for Kurram Tangi Dam.

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1.13 RESETTLEMENT The construction of dam requires large land area to be occupied by dam embankment, spillway channel, outlet canals, hydropower plant, offices, approach roads, housing facilities, etc. In addition the reservoir occupies very large surface area in many square kilometers. The area to be occupied by a dam and reservoir has to be possessed before the construction of the dam. The affected area may be under mix of private and public ownership. The area may be partly or wholly used for various productive purposes as cropping, grazing, rock quarrying, public entertainment, parks, residential, commercial or industrial purposes, etc. Most of dam sites are usually remote to present urban and industrial centers; thus a significant part of the affected area may be barren and unproductive. Construction of dam will deprive the current occupants of the area from productive benefits. Nevertheless some inhabitants occupying the river banks and nearby villages will be needed to be moved out of the area and resettled. The affected persons will not only loose their residential houses but most often their means of livelihood (agriculture, small to medium business etc.) In addition the dam and reservoir may inundate some places of socialreligion nature. Some transportation corridors (rail lines, highway, and other roads) may get submerged. Thus dam project must include a plan to resettle the affected persons to new places, restoring their economic livelihood, etc which is socio-politically acceptable to the affected population groups. The affected persons may be provided compensation in the form of cash, kind (equivalent housing and business units in some nearby areas). It is also important to ensure the social and cultural harmony and adjustment of the people moving to new locations. The transportation corridors have to be moved to new locations above and away from the dam and reservoirs. The religious and social/cultural monuments and places must be planned to be protected by flood dikes, by moving to higher and safer levels, etc. Else the affected persons will react very strongly to the dam project, jeopardizing the whole project. Monuments of lesser importance may not be protected due to the large numbers. Various socio-cultural-political groups must be approached, contacted and satisfied to come with suitable resettlement plans, which is acceptable to both the affected persons and the dam owners.

Fig. Dam failure. 1.14 DAMS IN PAKISTAN There are numerous small, medium and large sized dams in Pakistan with main purposes for irrigation, hydropower generation, municipal water supply. These also provided recreation opportunity, but now have been closed due to present security concerns. These dams are: Warsak dam, Rawal dam, Mangla dam, Tarbela dam, Chashma reservoir, Hub dam, Simly 35

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Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

dam, Khanpur dam, Satpara dam, Mirani dam. In addition there are more than 50 small dams owned by provincial Irrigation departments. Figs. 1.24 to 1.30 show features of few dams. Region wise list of dams is as under: Azad Kashmir

Mangla Dam Akra Kaur Dam Burj Aziz Khan Dam Garuk Dam (planned) Hingol Dam (planned) Hub Dam Mirani Dam Naulong Dam (under construction) Pelar Dam (planned) Sabakzai Dam Saindak dam Shakidor Dam Sukleji Dam (planned) Wali Tangi Dam Winder Dam (planned) Bara Dam (planned) Gomal Zam Dam (nearing completion) Kurram Tangi Dam (planned) Munda Dam (under construction) Bunji Dam (planned) Diamer-Bhasha Dam (under construction) Satpara Dam (nearing completion) Rawal Dam Simly Dam Darmalak Dam (under construction) Jabba Khattak Dam (under construction) 36

Balochistan
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

Federally Administered Tribal Areas


1. 2. 3. 4.

GilgitBaltistan
1. 2. 3.

Islamabad Capital Territory


1. 2.

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa
1. 2.

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Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.

Karak Dam (under construction) Khair Bara Dam (under construction) Khanpur Dam Lawaghar Dam (under construction) Karak Dam (under construction) Palai Dam (under construction) Tanda Dam (Ramsar Site) Tarbela Dam Warsak Dam Akhori Dam (planned) Dhrabi Dam Dohngi Dam Ghabir Dam (under construction) Kalabagh Dam (planned) Khai Dam Chiniot dam (planned) Darawat Dam (under construction) Karoonjhar Dam Nai Gaj Dam (under construction) Chotiari Dam

Punjab
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Sindh
1. 2. 3. 4.

Details of WAPDA ongoing and future projects can be obtained from Wapda web sites http://www.wapda.gov.pk/htmls/ongoing-index.html and http://www.wapda.gov.pk/htmls/future-index.html respectively. Details of few dams in included below.

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Figure 1.24: Layout and cross section of Mangla Dam. (Source: Agha, 1980)

38

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Figure 1.25: Layout plan and cross section of Tarbela Dam. (Source: Agha, 1980)

39

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Figure 1.26: Layout plan and cross section of Hub Dam. (Source: Agha, 1980)

40

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Figure 1.27: Layout plan and cross section of Khanpur Dam. (Source: Agha, 1980)

41

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Figure 1.28: Layout plan and cross section of Simly Dam. (Source: Agha, 1980)

42

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Figure 1.29: Layout plan and cross section of Bolan Dam. (Source: Agha, 1980)

43

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Figure 1.30: Layout of Kalabagh dam (source: Wapda, 1988)

44

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Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

1.14.1 Simly Dam data 1. Location : on Soan River 35 km North-east of Islamabad 2. Main purpose: Water supply to Islamabad. 3. Construction: Started 1972, completed 1982 4. Project cost: Rs. 643 million 5. Catchment area = 150 sq.km 6. Gross storage at 2315 elev = 33,115 AF 7. Live storage at 2315 ft elev = 27,708 AF 8. Dead storage : El= 2233 ft and cap = 5,407 AF 9. Reservoir length = 6 km 10. Water supply = 37 MGD 11. Sediment load = 221 AF/year (against est of 331.5AF/y) 12. Dam = zoned earth and rock fill 13. Max Height = 263 ft 14. Crest length = 1010 ft 15. Crest width = 30 ft 16. Crest elevation = 2330 ft SPD 17. Main Spillway: Ogee crest length = 110 ft, Crest elev = 2295 ft 18. Discharge capacity = 45,000 cfs 19. Gates: 3 x 32x25 ft 20. Energy dissipation: chute and two basins in tandem 21. Auxiliary spillway: free overflow weir 459 ft long at crest, crest elev = 2317 ft, Max Q = 35800 cfs 22. Diversion: Horse shoe tunnel 28 ft dia, 594 ft long and RCC lining 1.14.2 Diamer Basha Dam Project Location = 40 km d/s of Chilas and 300 km u/s of Tarbela Dam type: Roller Compacted Concrete gravity (with small curve) Height = 272 m, crest length = 939 m Reservoir level = 1160 m Gross capacity = 8.1 MAF (10 BCM) Live capacity = 6.4 MAF (7.9 BCM) Dead storage level = 1060 m Spillway: Ogee type with flip bucket and plunge pool with 14 Nos. radial gates 11.5 m x16.24 m Outlets: low levele 2, sluicing 5 Installed capacity = 12 x 375 = 4500 MW (2 underground type powerhouses, one on each left and right abutment) Annual generation = 18,000 GWH/yr Est cost = US$ 8.5 billion 1.14.3 Bunji Dam Location: on Indus river near Gilgit Dam height = 180 m Type: RCC gravity 1.14.4 Mirani Dam Project Owner: WAPDA Design consultants: JV of NESPAK-ACE-Binie Black & Montgomery Contractor: M/s DESCON on EPC/Turnkey basis (fixed price) 45

TARIQ. 2012. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

Location: District Kech in Central Makran Range of Balochistan. (30 km west of Turbat) at longitude 62-41-38.46 E, and latitude 25-56-31.16 N River system = Dasht River in (Fed by Kech River and the Nihing River) Hydrology Catchment area = 7,964 sq. miles, Average annual rainfall = 4.2 inches Average annual flow = 223,000 acre feet Reservoir Gross storage = 302,000 AF (373 Million m3) Live storage = 52,000 AF (64 Mm3) Av annual releases = 114,000 AF Dam Type = Earth-Rock fill CFRD Height = 127 ft (39m) Length at Crest = 3,350 ft (1020 m) Crest top width = 35 ft (11 m) Spillway Type = overflow Clear waterway = 344 ft Design capacity = 205,800 cfs Max capacity = 384,300 ft Outlet Tunnel dia = 8 ft Capacity = 377 cfs Others Access road = 43 km Irrigation system: gravity lined channels: command area = 33,200 acres Right bank command area = 20,800 acres [236 cfs] Left bank command area = 12,400 acres [141 cfs] Completion = July 2002 to October 2006; Project cost = 101 Million US $ 1.14.5 Jammergal Dam Owner: Small Dams Organization, Punjab Irrigation and Power Dept. Location: Jammergal Kas (6 km N of Darapur village from Rasul-Jhelum Road) Distt Jhelum Catchment area = 5.86 sq. mile (15 sq.km) Av annual rainfall = 230 mm Av Ann sediment = 5.47 AF/sq.ml Max routed inflow = 2145 cfs Gross storage = 3152 AF Dead storage = 1502 AF Live storage = 1650 AF Normal Res level = 891 ft Dead storage level = 879 ft Pond area at NPL = 175 acres Pond area at dead level = 97 acres Main dam type = earthfill homogeneous Max Haight = 62 ft Length at top = 460 ft 46

TARIQ. 2012. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

Top width = 20 ft HFL = 897 ft Dam top level = 903 ft Spillway = chute type ungated Length spillway crest = 55 ft Max capacity = 2145 cfs Outlet: pipe outlet of 2 ft dia at 879 ft level Max Q = 7.25 cfs Irrigation command area = 925 acres Crop intensity: Kharif 53%, Rabi 67%, annual 120% Main irrigation channel length = 15,400 ft (with concrete/brick lining) 1.14.6 GOMAL ZAM DAM
2.MAIN COMPONENTS a) DAM Height 436.4 Ft. Length 758 Ft. Type Roller Compacted Concrete Curved Gravity Dam Gross Storage 1.140 MAF Live Storage 0.892 MAF Length of Main Canal 60.5 Km F.S. Discharge 848 Cusecs Length of Distributaries 204 Km Culturable Command Area 163,086 Acres Installed Capacity 17.4 MW Length of Barrage 620 ft. Irrigated Agriculture Development 163,086 Aces Power Generation 90.9 GWH. Flood Control
(http://www.wapda.gov.pk/htmls/ongoing-index.html )

1. LOCATION OF DAM Khajuri Katch on Gomal River

b) RESERVOIR

C) Irrigation System

d) Power House e) BARRAGE 3. PROJECT BENEFITS

4. PRESENT STATUS Works in progress

1.14.7 AKHORI DAM


LOCATION: Akhori Dam site is loacted near Akhori Village across Nandna Kas, a small tributary of Haro River in Attock District of Punjab. OBJECTIVES: (i) Storage of water for: a. Supplementing Indus Basin Irrigation System and (ii) Power Generation SALIENT FEATURES Main Dam Dam Type Earth & Rock Fill Height 400 feet = 122 m Length: 3.23 mile = 5.16 km Gross Storage 7.6 MAF Live Storage 6.00 MAF

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TARIQ. 2012. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

Saddle Dam Height 213 feet Length 4.78 Conveyance Channel Conveyance Channel Length 23 Miles (37 Km) (from Tarbela to Akhori dam) Conveyance Channel Capacity 60,000 Cusecs Bed Width 249.3ft (76 m) Depth 32..8ft (10 m) Installed Capacity Hydel Power Potential 600 MW (2155 GWh/Annum) Environmental and Resettlement No of Affectees 55800 No of Houses 9270 Land 65976 Acres Roads 102 Kms Estimated cost US$ 4.40 Billion Construction period 5 years Current Status - PC-II approved for Rs. 194.804 million by CDWP through circulation in March 19, 2004. - Final Feasibility Study Report has been received on Jan. 26,2006. - PC-II for Detailed Engineering Design and Tender Documents of the Project amounting to Rs. 818.00 Million submitted on June 23, 2006 for approval of ECNEC.

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