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TARIQ. 2012.

DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

Chapter - 1 INTRODUCTION
1.1 GENERAL Dam: Dam is a manmade barrier built across a river to hold back river water for safe retention and storage of water or control the water flow. Dams allow to divert the river flow into a pipeline, a canal or channel (Fig 1.1). Dams result in substantially raising water levels in the river over a large area, thus create a storage space. Dams may be of temporary or permanent nature. Dams may be built by constructing an embankment across the river at some suitable location. The water body created behind a constructed embankment or dam is called a manmade lake or reservoir. Dams are built by humans to obtain some economic benefits. Natural processes as landslide and rock falling into the river may obstruct the river flows for some time and create a dam like condition. The earthquake of 2005 resulted in a debris embankment of more than 200 m width and 70 m height across Karli/Tang Nullah near Hattian Balla in AJK (Fig. 1.2a). Considering the stability of the debris fill the water impoundment was used as a tourist point until 2010 when heavy rainfall in the catchment area caused a huge flood wave leading to failure of dam by overtopping. A recent land slide caused a large rock mass to form a 2 km long, 124 m deep and 350 m wide fill across Hunza River with formation of 375+ ft (115 m) deep and 25+ km long Attabad lake (Fig. 1.2b) disrupting communication network KKH in the area. Effort is underway for planned demolition of this dam. Wildlife (Beaver) may also create ponds or small dams for their habitat purposes. Reservoir: Reservoir is defined the as a man-made lake or fresh water body created or enlarged by the building of embankment, dams, barriers, or excavation and on which man exerts major control over the storage and use of the water (Golze 1977, P-619). The embankment may be constructed on one or more or all four sides of the reservoir. Fig. 1.3 shows a reservoir created at a high location than river to boost operations of a pumped storage hydropower plant. Need: 1. River supply usually does not match with the demand at all times/months. Dam’s storage reservoir is created to match releases with the water demand.
150 Average monthly data (Th.AF) 100 50
Stored water released to meet demand

KT Dam: Average Supply and Demand
Excess river flows stored

Supply Demand

0 Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec

2. Dams are created to substantially raise water level and thus provide working head for hydropower production or to direct water into off taking canals (e.g. irrigation canal).

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TARIQ. 2012. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

Figure 1.1a: Water reservoir created by Tarbela Dam.

Figure 1.1b: Aerial view of Tarbela Dam’s 65+ km long reservoir (Source: Earth-Google).

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TARIQ. 2012. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

X-SECTION KARLI NULLAH LAKE

2.2 KM
150 M 60 m 202’ 189’ 171’ 149’ 137’ 122’ 110’ 95’ 77’

INLET DISCHARGE
4’

44’ 30’ 100 M 100 M 100 M 57’

100 M 100 M 100 M 100 M

100 M

100 M

100 M

100 M

BED OF NULLAH Average Width

Length of Lake Average Depth

= 2000 Mtr = 350 Mtr = 50 Mtr

Figure 1.2a: Natural dam across Kalri Nullah AJK formed by land slide due to earthquake.

Figure 1.2b: Natural dam across Hunza River formed by land slide. A spillway was excavated to drain the Attabad lake reservoir and planned breaching

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TARIQ. 2012. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING

Ch-1: INTRODUCTION

Figure 1.3 : Upper Reservoir of Taum Sauk 450 MW pumped power plant (Reynolds County, Missouri, on the East Fork of the Black River) made of ridge top 6562 ft long 84 ft high CFRD dike with 10 ft parapet wall. The reservoir dike constructed in 1960’s failed on Dec 14, 2005 due to internal leakage and slope failure. Plant remained out of use as of Jan 2007. [http://www.ferc.gov/industries/ hydropower/safety/projects/taum-sauk/consult-rpt/sec-2-summ.pdf].

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serving more than one purpose. Water is subsequently released to achieve various purposes.g. kayaking. rim stability against slides. Dams may be constructed to meet one or more purposes as (USBR 2001.2 DAM AND RESERVOIR DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY Reservoir design can be considered in a broader sense.g. Mine tailings dam (to store mine processing waste product) Multipurpose dams: Most dams are multi-purpose. Simly dam) 4. water tightness and water holding capability. Fish and wildlife protection and development. 2012. Development of a reservoir must assure structural integrity and adequacy of the reservoirs. Hydropower development (e.4: Multipurpose dam. Irrigation (e. For multipurpose dams. and improvement of river ecology 8..g. Bunji dam) 3. industrial water supply (e. swimming. Mining (for processing of raw ore or waste materials).g. Stream flow regulation for various purposes 10. Dam crest Normal conservation level Free board Flood surcharge Flood detention space Max spillway crest level River bed profile before Storage for dam construction Irrigation and other uses Dead storage level Dead storage Power tunnel / irrigation outlet Hydro power plant Figure 1. Navigation 11. Tarbela and Mangla dams) 2. P:1-3): 1.TARIQ. the storage is allocated and prioritized for different purposes and cost allocation (Fig. Hub dam. 12. Mostly these additional purposes are achieved as byproduct outcome. Recreation (picnic.4). 5 . The reservoir site is evaluated in terms of geology. 1. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Purposes Dams and reservoirs are built to raise water level for storage and safe retention of large quantity of water. municipal. seismicity. Stock watering 5. etc. Flood control 6. hydropower. camping. fishing. River water quality / pollution control and management 9. Domestic. recreation. e. 1. It is really selected with such improvements or remedial work as may be considered necessary to assure safe and satisfactory performance of its intended purpose. white water rafting) 7.

etc. 1. hiking and biking trails. Natural or man-made water bodies. The water stored behind the dam exerts a large water pressure on the dam. project guided tours. camping area. Simly. There may or may not be any control over the outflow. A dam must be able to withstand such high pressures.3 CLASSIFICATION OF DAMS Dams can be classified according to many different features as location. has high aesthetical appeal and thus attract huge number of visitors for recreation. The reservoir empties fully after the flood. destruction of dam body due to internal erosion and material failure. public services.1 According To Location On-Channel: Dam is constructed across the main water feeding river. enjoying surrounding scenery. The main purpose of the dam is to induce recharge to ground water system in the area. foundation uplift. Mangla. right-of-way and property ownership. and transportation facilities. restrooms. Off-Channel: Dam is constructed on a channel having much smaller flow. resettlement. Such clearing may be done by cutting/pulling or by protected fires. evaporation. Kurram Tangi dam. the flow is released in such a pattern to retain the 6 . There is no outlet provided to release water and all incoming water is retained. The outflow is controlled as per need. Examples Tarbela. sand mining etc.2 According to Release Pattern Storage dam: Water is stored and later released through an outlet for consumptive or nonconsumptive purposes as per requirements. water sports. For no control over the outflow the outflow rate varies as function of storage volume / water depth in the dam. 2012. These dams are used to retard the peak flow of flash floods. service region.TARIQ. The flood peak is thus considerably attenuated. hydraulic design. Recharging dam. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION bank storage. as farming. This is done due to non-availability of suitable/economic dam site on the major flow river. These should be evaluated in terms of need vs luxury and security concerns for the structure and public. filling and emptying mode. foundation thrust failures. motel. The outlet capacity is set that maximum outflow discharge do not exceed the safe capacity of the downstream river during highest flood. sedimentation. and retain storage contents – practically no loss of water due to seepage. In addition dam must be safe against failure due to overtopping. emergency services. Hub dam. utilities. size.3. e. Delay action dam / retarding dam. nature walk trails. The reservoir design must include provisions of recreation facilities as parking area. rock climbing. In flat side reservoirs large surface area is exposed on reservoir lowering. land use and mineral resources. Major storage water is transferred from a different nearby river. indoor shelter areas. Small release in d/s channel may be made to allow seepage in the channel bed. horse trails. 1. albeit large ones. picnic area. Water from other rivers may be diverted to the dam through feeder channels to increase the water availability. release pattern. etc. For control on outflow by gates (detention dam) .3.g. 1. relocation of the populace. Example Akhori dam. type of materials. historical-cultural and religious monuments. etc. The water infiltrates through the foundation and/or dam body. Reservoir area requires clearing of brush/shrubs/trees from below maximum reservoir levels for safe use of reservoir surface. Suitable alternatives may be evaluated to make economic use of this area for short time activities.

One type of such dam is a porous dam built of a porous embankment. medium or large as under: Small.4 Classification of dams according to Size Dams may be classified as small.g. e. After completion of the main dam the u/s coffer dam may be made part of main dam or abandoned to drown in the reservoir while d/s coffer dam is dismantled and removed. Coffer dam: These are small temporary dams built across the river on upstream and downstream side of the main dam in order to keep the flow away and the working area dry. c. (earth. Every aspect of its design and construction must be treated as a problem specifically related to that particular site. stone gabions.000 cfs) dam has specially difficult foundation problems dam is of unusual design Unique: Dams exceeding 100 m are considered as unique. The water evaporates or is evacuated and the solid contents dry up filling up the storage capacity.3 According to Hydraulic Design Non-Overflow dam: Flow is not allowed over the embankment crest for reasons of dam safety. Overflow dam The dam body is made of strong material as concrete and flow is allowed over the dam crest Concrete dams 1.TARIQ. Diversion dam These are hydraulic structures with a main purpose to raise water level to divert flow into the off taking channels / canals/ hydropower pressure tunnels and penstock of run-of-river hydropower projects. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION water for long time but there is enough storage available to store next flood event. 2012. These are preferably called as barrage or canal head works. e. Medium: Intermediate sizes 40-70 ft Large: ICOLD defined large dam as: a dam that follows one or more of following conditions. rock) dams. USBR defined small dam as one having maximum height < 15 m (50 ft). 1. b. Tailings dam These dams are constructed away from any river along a topographic slope by constructing small dikes on three or all four sides to store slurry / waste of mineral mining and processing facilities. The storage created by these is minimal. (Thomas 1976 P-0)   Dam height > 15 m (50 ft) measured from lowest portion of the general foundation area to the crest A dam height 10-15 m but it compiles with at least one of the following condition: a. The u/s coffer dam causes the flow through the diversion system and d/s coffer dam prevents the flooding of the working from backwater effects.g.3. crest of dam longer than 500 m capacity of the resulting reservoir more than 1 million m3 maximum flood discharge more than 2000 m3/s (70.32. 7 . These dams are usually meant to reduce flood damages as well as to induce maximum recharge in the area. d. e. Patrind Weir.

g.001 ≤ d ≤ 100 mm) compacted uniformly and intensively in relatively thin layers (20 to 60  cm) and at controlled optimum moisture content. al. E. The dams are defined as: Seasonal: Seasonal dams are filled and then emptied within the same water year (September to August). The water supply to all areas is possible through a network of river and canal systems. Example. Embankment Dams (Figs. Dams section may be homogeneous. Example Tarbela dam. with impermeable core. Thus all near and far located areas and geographic regions get the benefit. 2012. 1. Khanpur dams. Kurram Tangi Dam.1 ≤ d ≤ 1000 mm) is filled in bulk or compacted in thin layers by heavy plant. Carry over dams spread storage during wet years/months over to dry years and months and thus provide service for multiple seasons.g. Carry over dams are applicable where wide variations occur in annual flows. 2 to 5 years).6b). Simly.3. 1.3. 33) A. Compacted natural soils form more than 50% of the fill Material. 1. Regional: The service area of the dam extends to many widely apart geographic regions located any distance from the dam. 1. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION 1. For very wet or very dry years the reservoir may not reach the extreme levels.6 According to location of service area Local: The service area of the dam is limited to a single contiguous localized geographic area located very near the dam. The fill material is placed as rolled. or with asphalt or 8 . Thus water stored in wet years may be released during subsequent dry years The annual releases are usually more than minimum annual flow but equal to long term average annual flow.6) The embankment dams are made by use of natural materials of earth and rock only and no cementing materials are used. Zoned or with impermeable core (Figs.TARIQ.5 According to Filling and Emptying Mode The storage of a dam may be filled and emptied in short time (one season) or long time (several seasons). 2001 P: 11-18. e. Exampleas are Tarbela. Kurram Tangi. Carry over: Filling and emptying of a carry-over dam reservoir continues over more than one year (e. Dams are classified according to the materials used as under: (Novak et. The seasonal dams spread the water stored in wet months over to dry months in the same year thus provide service for a single season only.3. Earthfill Dam: These are constructed of selected soils (0. Rockfill dam: Over 50% of fill material be of class ‘rock’ usually a graded rockfill (0. Kalabagh. Same or varying materials are used to construct the dam embankment. Some impervious membranes/materials are placed in the interior or on u/s face of the embankment to stop/reduce seepage through the dam embankment (Fig.5 to 1. Zoned part is made of relatively finer material that reduces seepage flow.5 and 1. 1. Mangla dams. Diamir-Basha. Dams may be designed as: Homogeneous. zoned. 2.7 According to type of material A dam can be made of earth. clay. There are two main types: 1. Far located areas and geographic regions do not benefit. hydraulic fill or semi-hydraulic fill. Hub Dam. Such dams have annual releases usually equal or little more than the minimum annual flow.6a). concrete or wood. rock. Thus water level in the dam varies from maximum (normal conservation level) to minimum (dead storage level) in most years.g.

9 .g. Rubble/random/stone masonry may be used as bulk material in dam section. Buttress dam: It consists of continuous u/s face (i. Cupola/Dome/Double curvature dam:. The variations of concrete dam include: 1 Gravity dam: Stability due to its mass. The u/s face is vertical or nearly vertical. right-zoned dam. Dam section is narrow with steeper side slope (Figs. concrete. Core is made of clay. Arch dam: Arch dam has considerable u/s plan curvature. 3. The reinforcement is minimum mainly as temperature control. B. 2012. 1. Water loads are transferred onto the abutments or valley sides by arch action. 4. Concrete Dams Concrete dams are formed of cement-concrete placed in the dam body.b). Arch dam is structurally more efficient than concrete gravity dams (requires only 10-20% concrete).7a. The face of earthfill or rockfill dams may be also fitted with timber board for seepage control. round head with each section separate.e.5: Earthfill dam. 2. Concrete dam section designed such that the loading produces compression stress only and no tension are induced any where. Multiple arch dams. Such dams were mostly constructed by early gold miners in California USA for obtaining river water for separating gold dust and getting water power. Concrete is placed in two ways: as conventional plain/reinforced concrete (RC dam) or as roller compacted concrete (RCC dams). U/s & d/s faces curved in plan and profile section. However abutment strength and geologic stability is critical to the structural integrity and safety of the dam. curved in plan as well/ as arch (Part of a dome or shell structure). d/s sloping. Dams made from mix of large proportions of earth and rock materials are called as Earthfill-rockfill or Earth-rock dams. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION cement concrete face. Hollow gravity: Dam section are made hollow to reduce uplift pressure at d/s side and smaller total construction materials. such dams are not practically used any longer. diamond head. Dam straight or slightly curved u/s in plan (no arch action). e. (This type falls between gravity and buttress dams) C.TARIQ. clay. Ambursen / flat slab buttress / decked buttress. Zoned part is made of relatively finer material that reduces seepage flow. Figure 1. Timber/steel dam The bulk of the dam is made of timber braces with timber board facings. deck) supported at regular intervals by d/s buttress or crib. 5. Left-homogeneous dam. Types include massive buttress. U/s and d/s faces are nearly straight / vertical. asphalt concrete etc.

Figure 1. 2012.6b: Rockfill embankment dams.TARIQ.6a: Earthfill embankment dams. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Figure 1. 10 .

11 .7b: Future Concrete dams. 2012.7a: Concrete dams.TARIQ. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Figure 1. Figure 1.

flood volumes. Project water requirement 15. wind. Power requirements & national grid / transmission lines 16.1 Stages Any dam project is carried out at following stages      Initial screening based on river profile and topographic maps. Location & vicinity map 2. sunshine) 8. Geological / rock formations data of dam site 6. Still further details/revision continues well during the construction of the dam as new information is gathered or some already available information is found to be incorrect and not valid.TARIQ. air) 5. flood levels. rail. Public/Private buildings 22. base time. 47-50). Availability of construction materials 23. vegetation) 14. flora. dimensions and analysis.4. River environment/ecology (u/s. cross section. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION 1. ET. d/s) (fish. u/s and d/s area 19.4 PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DAM 1. These include as: 1. Public recreation need 20. Transportation map (road. River stage-discharge data (u/s. w/life. Elevation surveys/triangulation + bench mark 4. 1977 P. Groundwater table data in the vicinity. Seismic/tectonic activity map 7. Water rights 12.2 Data Required Large amount of data is required for planning/designing of dams (Golze. Stream flow data (daily average flows) 9. Climatic data (P.4. T. Land evaluation 21. Reconnaissance plan-uses only any available data Pre-feasibility plan-little exploration and additional field data Feasibility plan-Extensive exploration and additional field data Design stage: – point tests/surveys to finalize design At each succeeding stage. 2012. etc) of all or major floods 11. Demographic/land ownership/housing data for the reservoir area. at site. Topographic maps/aerial photographs of dam site 3. The design stage ends up with drawings appropriate for construction activities. the plan is firmed up with more precise details. time to peak. tail water) 18. resttlement 13. flood duration. More data is used at each successive stage. Sediment data 10. bank/valley levels) 17. River hydrographic data (bed levels. Geo-political economic data 12 . birds. 1. Flood data (instantaneous peak flow rates. fauna. flow hydrograph.

project cost repayment capacity and schedule 20. etc and needed mitigation measures to maintain healthy and conducive environment for on-site and off-site) 16. Many considerations are analyzed. Geophysist/Siesmologist. 2012. spillway. floods and spillways. geologic surveys and construction materials investigations. For associated irrigation development more professionals as Irrigation engineer. dam seepage and stability analysis. ) 11. abutment and pond area. Water resources engineer (for project design and water supply demand studies) 3. gates. energy dissipation) 9. Environmental engineer. 1. topographic surveys. (8). (6). total project costs 18.TARIQ. Hydropower engineer (for layout and design of hydropower units) 12. Diversion arrangements details (diversion tunnel. access road network. wild life. IRR]. Hydrology + meteorology (to assess water availability. valves. The dam storage space may be viewed considering river valley geometry u/s of 13 . Environmental studies. (10). Material quantities and costing. Instrumentation engineer (for monitoring instrument design) 14. embankment and cut slope design) 8. geologic evaluation of foundation. various tasks are as: (1). Engineering geologist.4. flora. etc. Most desirable condition is that dam project can provide largest storage volume with smallest dam size (in terms of dam length and height) for dams for irrigation purposes whereas small storage volume is required for run-of-river hydropower projects. Powerhouse. rim. (16). (4). Thus planning and design of dam is a multi-disciplinary task and require teamwork of following disciplines: 1. Project Manager (for overall project control) 2. (14). energy dissipation) 10. workshops. (17). (5). solid liquid waste disposal) 17. (9). (3). (7). DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION 1. (13). Site selection. fauna. coffer dam). water supply. hydropower works. spillway. Irrigation agronomist.dam section design. critical time analysis) 19. Layout planner (for alternate locations and/or layouts) 4. irrigation outlets and irrigation system design. Geophysical exploration specialist / Drillers (for foundation and abutment exploration) 7. Quantity Surveyor / Costing engineer (to quantify construction material volumes. (15). Infrastructure/road/municipal engineer / Civil engineer (for layout and design of office space. Land acquisition and replacement. Telecommunication engineer (to design workplace and office communication) 15. Surveyors (for plan and topographic surveys of reservoir area) 5. sizing and layout. (2). and floods) 6. Reservoir operation studies. Environmental scientists (to study environmental impacts of the project on fish. Electrical engineer (for design of electric power controls and transmission) 13. time and cost scheduling. (11). (12). workmen housing. water availability assessment. Geo-technical engineers (for foundation. Structural engineer (for structural design of outlets. contractor camp.5 DAM SITE SELECTION The purpose of a dam is to retain and store large quantities of water in a safe way. hoists. Economists (to determine project financial and economic viability [B/C ratio. Reservoir sedimentation. NPW.3 The Planning/Design Team Dam planning/design is a multi-task activity. material unit costs. Soil expert will be required. Mechanical engineer (for design of controls. Hydraulic engineer (for hydraulic design of outlets. security system. Construction planner / manager (to design construction activity chart.

9: River valley cross section and depth 1. Max water level Steep Gentle Flat Dam Figure 1. and flat .8) and river cross section (wide. River with flat bed profile and wide cross section will provide large storage volumes and are thus most desirable for irrigation dams. However preferred site have following characteristics which lead to lower project costs. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION proposed location in terms of river bed profile (steep. shallow).9) and river valley depth below adjacent mountains/rocks (deep. 3. leads to large storage for small dam length A wide and flat sloping valley upstream of the dam site (for storage dams) and narrow and steeply sloping valley for hydropower dams. 2012.TARIQ. 1. 1. Many times trade-off and compromises are made to select a dam site. River channel and valley has very flat slopes u/s of dam site (leads to large storage for small dam heights).8: River bed profile Deep Max water level Wide Narrow Gorge Medium Shallow River Figure 1. Small river channel width with steep side gorge: short dam crest length. 14 . Thus alternate dam sites locations are evaluated for most cost effective choice. Deep river valleys provide large storage volumes and shallow valleys provide small storage volumes. medium. A dam can be built anywhere if you can spend enough money. gentle or moderate. 2. On the contrary steep river bed profile with cross section as narrow to gorge is good for run-ofriver hydropower dams which normally need small storage volumes. narrow. and gorge – Fig.Fig.

8.10 and 1. The crest length of the dam depends upon topography at the dam site. 18. rail. 17. e. Existing infrastructure. 7. KKH and Diamir Bhasha dam. Kurram Tangi dams).6 DAM COMPONENTS Elements of a typical dam include (Figs. Construction material available nearby easily Site near load center (demand area) for water+ power No mineral resources in reservoir area (present or future) Site allows a deep reservoir & small surface area (less land costs and small evaporation losses). but it increases costs). diversion tunnel. and reservoir rim allow minimum percolation and seepage losses. historical places. e.6. 1. endangered species. 14. 21. 1.g. Mirani. Transportation system (air. 12.2 Flanks/Abutment: The rock mass on right and left banks of the river constitute abutments.TARIQ.1 Main Dam This is the main structure built across the river. The geology of the abutments has to be strong enough to enable 15 . Abutments are water tight. road) available to reach site and carry construction materials and machinery. approach road is present or can be developed easily. 19. Land use of reservoir area is minimal – lower economic values mean smaller resettlement issues and lower compensations. 1.g. 9. 10. Reservoir area not very sensitive to environment (wild life parks.11): 1. The stored water is released from the dam as per requirements. 1. 11. More sediment load requires large dead storage space. 13.6. this depend on river morphology and catchment characteristics. highway. 16. monuments etc). Reservoir and dam area less populated Site have adequate stream flow record Site is easily accessible. 5. 20. In addition outlet tunnels. 2012. competent hard rock is most suitable. spillways are also placed in the flanks. The height of a dam depends upon desired storage capacity and the site conditions. 15.Deep reservoir possible – require less area and lesser land costs. Diamer-Basha vs Kalabagh dams. 22. Dam is joined with and supported by the abutments.6 and 1. Socio-political stability (no unstable gestures) (Gomal-Zam. less surface evaporation Enough water flow/yield available to meet requirements/demand High sediment load tributaries are excluded Geology favorable for foundation (foundation can be designed at any site.7). DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION 4. No seismic and tectonic activities or active faults in and near the site. Deep valleys . Small river sediment rate (longer dam life). The dam may be built of many different materials (Figs. 6. least affected.

These tunnels may be abandoned (plugged – Simly dam) after project completion or converted to irrigation / power / desilting tunnels. Example: Sukian dam and Jari dam for Mangla Dam project. Coffer dam may be dovetailed in u/s part of dam (Mangla) or abandoned. 2012. Diversion tunnel may not be provided (Mirani dam) and u/s coffer dam. Gates may be provided at u/s. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION placing various structural components without any risk. It would be a tower or inlet flush with reservoir side walls. Water can flow out through the saddle. Material used earth. It has usually more elaborate arrangements and may be free flowing or gated. 1. Fuse plug. concrete etc.5 Cofferdam These are small temporary dams built u/s and d/s of the dam site to make the construction area dry and workable.6. 1. intermediate or d/s end of the outlet tunnel. The lower spillway is used to release often occurring flood and regular inflows and is called as service spillway.3 Saddle Dam: The reservoir is usually formed by the main dam on one side and low/high hills on all other sides of the reservoir. The capacity of diversion structure is set such that most probable floods likely to occur during the construction period can be passed over without danger of overtopping of cofferdam and inundation of construction area. There would be one or more spillways usually at different levels (Service.7 Outlet Works (a) Intake Structure / Tower: This is a structure to admit and control flow of water into the irrigation/power outlets. rubber dam etc may be used to delay water release and possible additional storage at the reservoir. 1. 1. In most cases the elevation of the hills along the rim of the dam is much higher than the reservoir maximum water level.4 Diversion Channel/Tunnel This is water conveyance system from upstream of u/s coffer dam to downstream of d/s coffer dam. A small embankment is then constructed at this low/saddle point to seal off the reservoir rim and is called as saddle dam.6.6. This is used only during flood events of extra-ordinary nature.6. In some other cases elevations of surrounding hills along a part of the rim/periphery of the reservoir is not high enough over a small section to completely contain the stored water and a saddle (low level place) is formed. The u/s cofferdam causes water to flow through the diversion tunnel and the d/s cofferdam prevents backwater level to inundate the construction area.TARIQ. Necessary arrangements are made at d/s end for energy dissipation. In addition abutments need to be of competent rock of lowest permeability without any structural defects. Necessary provision is 16 .6. 1. These channel or tunnel are constructed prior to dam construction such that river flow is passed around and away from the dam site through the diversion tunnels and that than dam site remain dry and accessible to construction at all time. The spillway may be an integral part of the main dam (mostly for concrete dams) or be a separate structure in the dam abutments. additional.6 Spillway This is a water release/conveyance structure to pass the large flood volumes safely across the dam without danger of overtopping of the dam crest. The auxiliary or emergency spillway is set at or above normal conservation level and has fewer arrangements and is usually free flowing. Arrangemnet are required for control of seepage across the coffer dam. rock. emergency).

draw water during repair of outlet tunnel/gates. At the u/s end an intake is provided along with gates. emptying of reservoir in emergencies. draw water from below dead storage level under very drought condition.10: Dam components (http://www. The power tunnel is transitioned into surge chamber. Irrigation outlet may release into a canal or into the river if demand site is at distance from the dam. if needed. The tunnel design must eliminate risk of cavitation and/or aeration.dnr. The intake level is kept much lower than the intake level main irrigation tunnel. Gates may be placed at u/s.state.us/ORG/WATER/WM/dsfm/dams/gallery. penstock/scroll case etc. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION made to keep the intake operation for long after sedimentation by having multiple water entry levels particularly for domestic supply purposes. May discharge into stilling basin for spillways/outlet works or as a separate energy dissipation structure provided. d/s or intermediate location. 2012. The intake level of the tunnel is kept below or at the dead storage level. trash rack. Figure 1.wi. Multi level inlet openings may be used. (c) Low Level Outlet: A low outlet tunnel may be provided to flush sediments. Water cushon for vortex control are also provided. Air vent is provided to minimize cavitation. (b) Irrigation/Power Outlet Tunnel: This is a large water conveyance structure to release water to irrigation network and/or powerhouse turbines. The outlet is in the form of a tunnel dug or formed through the abutment / flank for earth / rockfill dams or through the dam body for a concrete dam. etc.TARIQ.html) 17 . Energy dissipation structure may be provided at d/s end.

18 . saddle dam.11: Dam layout showing main dam. power house and irrigation canal. u/s and d/s coffer dams.TARIQ. power tunnel. diversion tunnel(s). spillway and stilling basin. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Reservoir limits 450 500 400 u/s coffer dam 450 Diversion tunnel Spillway Outlet Maindam Saddle dam 500 PH 500 450 550 400 d/s coffer dam Figure 1. 2012.

2012. up transformer. These include Office buildings. Chimney Drain. pore water/uplift pressure. generators.8 Preliminary Works This includes civil works. Blanket Drain. draft tube. etc. Sheet piles. office. etc for hydropower generation. foundations. control room. tsunami. rain water. These are horizontal. 1. stresses. 1.6. Other features include power channel. approach road. community buildings. low level outlet.10 Slope protection/Riprap Stone is placed on u/s & d/s dam slopes for protection against damage due to wave action. burrowing animals. Parapet wall may be used to protect dam top against sudden waves generated by strong winds. security arrangements. 1. etc. sloping. gate control room. water supply. spillway. Rest House.6.6. Toe Drain. Pressure relief / Drainage Wells. These include: Cutoff wall. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION 1. earthquake. etc. Arrangements are provided for safe exit of unobstructed seepage. These include offices. staff housing. infrastructures. 19 .9 Hydropower Development (a) Powerhouse: Building to house turbine. Features are included in the dam design to minimize seepage through the foundation and through the dam embankment and uplift pressure. helipad. U/s Blanket.TARIQ.6. To contain water hammer surge on plant load rejection / sudden shutdown.14: Operational buildings These are buildings required for operation of the dam and works. 1.6.13 Gallery/Shafts These are provided in the dam body for access to interior of concrete dam body. Slurry trench. air strip. rail sidings.8 Seepage Control and Drainage System Dams are designed to store water with least seepage through the dam embankment and the foundation but seepage do occur. Security buildings. draft tube etc. client/consultant/contractor camp. rest house. visitor area.6. Staff residences and other community buildings. labor camp.6. (b) Penstock: This is a large diameter pressure pipe used to deliver water to turbines. 1. vertical (with round stair ways). Grout Certain. (d) Switchyard: This is an area to install electrical equipment to change low to high tension power supply for further transmission. buildings required to be provided before start of construction of main dam work. etc. movement. The drainage/seepage water also causes tremendous uplift pressure particularly at d/s half of the dam base. irrigation tunnel. mechanical workshop. spillway to monitor settlement. (c) Surge chamber.11 Dam Instrumentation Various gages/instruments are installed in the dam body. tail race channel.12 Stilling Basin To dissipate excess energy of diversion tunnel. Drainage gallery. 1. valves.6. head race channel. 1.

Vulnerable to concealed leakage and internal piping/erosion in dam or foundation. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION 1.15: Temporary works: These are installations required for temporary use and are removed after project completion. Construction process highly mechanized and continuous (less human handling as form work. Concrete dams. dam can safely accommodate appreciable degree of settlement-deformation without risk of serious cracking and possible failure. Power house can be placed at d/s toe of dam. Embankment dams withstand earthquake better. 5. All concrete dams can accommodate a crest spillway. curing time) If properly designed.1 Embankment Dam a Merits (Novak et al. Has high inherent ability to withstand seismic disturbances. provided that a competent rock foundation is present at moderate depths (< 5 m) (arch best for narrow section) Concrete dams are not sensitive to overtopping under extreme flood conditions.7. labor camp. 4. 2001 P-14) 1. except arch and cupola. earth) if suitably zoned internally. Suitable to type of sites in wide valleys and relatively steep sided gorges alike. These include contractor’s camp. 3. Subject to the design criteria. Thus cost of separate spillway is avoided.TARIQ. 6.6. 5. casting yard. Adoptable to a broad range of foundation conditions-from competent rock to soft and compressible or relatively pervious soil foundation. machine room. provided that steps are taken to control d/s erosion and possible undermining of the dam.2 Concrete/Masonry Dams a Concrete Dam Merits 1. handling and stock area. 2012. 4. Outlet pipe works.7 MERITS AND DEMERITS OF DAMS 1. etc. 2. over the entire dam length. if deep and of unconsolidated origin. Limitations 1. 20 2. if necessary. embankment dams are extremely flexible to accommodate different fill materials (rock. are suitable to site topography of wide or narrow valley alike. 2001 P-17) b Demerits    c. material processing. 1. Spillway and outlet are usually separate from main dam. Inherent greater susceptibility to damage or destruction due to over topping (require adequate flood relief and separate spillway). is more liable to settlement and failure by earthquake (liquification). steel fabrication.7. (Novak et al. Use of natural materials at smaller cost thus no need to import or transport large quantities of processed materials or cement to the side. However the foundation of these dams. 3. valves and ancillary works are readily and safely housed in chambers or galleries within the dam. .

geology. 3. Cupola dam is extremely strong and efficient structure for a narrow valley with competent abutments.1) 21 . This relationship is determined from elevation contour map of the reservoir area. Dam engineering draws together a range of disciplines to a quite unique degree (hydrology. hydraulics.8 DAM FOCUS POINTS (Novak et al. foundation geology. 6. components must be designed for long life). financial or environmental reasons. large or small. The elevation is determined by topographic survey at grid or random locations (grid spacing varies with level of investigation from 200 m for prefeasibility study to 50 m or less for feasibility study). Wide contours indicate a gently sloping flat valley area and closed spaced contours indicate steeply sloping cliff sides. Cost per unit of concrete dam much higher than embankment fill. b Demerits 1. 1. 2001 P 10-11) Dams have following focus points and thus differ from other major civil engineering structures. Dams may be decommissioned at the end of their useful life. Smaller quantities seldom counter balance for dams of given height.TARIQ. or a functional life span dictated by the reservoir sedimentation. 5. Majority of dams are of earth fill made from a range of natural soils. These require processed natural materials of suitable quality and quantity for aggregate and importation to site and storage of bulk cement and other materials. structure etc). thus plan alternative design until discarded due to technical. Surface area is measured for each contour line. 1. Concrete dams require sound and stable rock foundations. labor intensive and discontinuous. is quite unique. Dams may have notional life for accounting/economic purposes. and are least consistent of construction materials. material characteristics. and require adequate skill for formwork. 7. Dams do not have a structural life span. Dams are required to function at or close to their design loadings for extended periods. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION 6. Every dam. FIRST PLAN: All type of dams may be considered at the site. 4. geotechnical. 2. 2. 1. this may lead to dam demolition. concreting etc. 1. Dam engineering is critically dependent upon the application of informed engineering judgment. Some compromise tradeoffs are always considered. 4. The incremental volume between two consecutive contours is determined by trapezoidal formula as: V = (A1+A2)/2×h (1. catchment yield and flood hydrology are each site specific.9: ELEVATION-AREA-VOLUME RELATIONSHIP The elevation-volume-area relationship for a reservoir/dam describes the variations of volume and surface area with elevation/height. 3. Contours are drawn at an interval of 5 to 10 ft (Fig.12). 2012. Traditional mass concrete construction is slow.

043 39.000 sq ft = 1 sq in = 25. Inverse equations may be derived to find volume or area corresponding to any elevation.993 286.00 0. e. Vol.3432 + 1805 El = 2.03 15.005 12. 2012.359 4. Elevation in ft amsl.460 Example.846 261. Area is reservoir surface area.048 124.14 to 1. 2 1 sq in = 5000 = 25. Total volume at any elevation is obtained by adding successive incremental area as VH = H V.05595 (Elevation .TARIQ.6905 × (Vol)0.789 ThAF 0 5 39 125 287 548 931 1. El = 2. for Kurram Tangi dam elevation-area-volume dam is described as (Volume in AF.88 4. reservoir simulations.115 6.000.945 161. and area on secondary x-axis) (Fig.14 Plan Area Incremental volume (Acres) 0 281 1. Area in acres and Datum = 1805 ft amsl.g. and A.000.163 (Elevation ft .913 Area = 0.134 383.133 (AF) 0 4. Map Scale: 1 inch = 5000 ft. 1. For Kurram Tangi dam the elevation-storage-area relation are described as: (volume in AF. C. 1. (1.11 7.Datum)2.Datum)1.459.079 2.352 1.379 528.= 0.330 9.838 547.1 below show calculations for elevation-volume-area relationship. e.005 85.2) The data points are plotted with volume or area on x-axis and elevation on y-axis (volume on primary x-axis.993 34. Vol is storage volume. elevation is ft amsl.1 : Elevation-Area-Volume Relationship for a Dam. Table 1. D are curve fitting parameters. in) 0. Table 1.438 Total storage capacity Acre Feet 0 5. =  Area dH 0 and Area = dV/dH.5821 × (Area)0.13).000 / 43.17 11.. 22 .92 Acres Selected datum (ft amsl) =1800 Elevation Height above Map area datum (ft amsl) 1805 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100 2150 (ft) 5 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 (sq. flood routing for spillway design and diversion tunnel design.560 = 573. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION where A1 and A2 is plan area of the two consecutive contours with h contour interval. and area is in acres and 1805 is datum) (Figs.g. Equations may be developed (usually a power function) to find elevation for a given storage or area as El = A (Vol)B + datum and El = C (Area)D + datum where El is elevation.17).5226 + 1805 For some cases more than one equation may be needed to describe the data for different ranges. B.972 931.9132 Equation form of the elevation-area-volume relationship may be useful for various purposes. The reservoir surface area and volume is related as (H = Elevation – datum): H Vol.49 1.69 21.

2012.36 1925 1900 1.TARIQ. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION N 2050 2000 ftft 2100 ft 1950 ft 2150 ft Kurram Tangi Dam Figure 1.000 1.460 0 287 125 39 5 0 200 400 2175 2150 2125 2100 9.00 931 2075 2050 548 6.400 1.200 1.13 12 11 5 4 3 2 1 1.Acre-ft) Elevation (ft) Figure 1. KURRAM TANGI DAM: Elevation-Capacity-Area Curves Area (Thousand Acres) 10 9 8 7 6 16 2175 2150 2125 2100 2075 2050 2025 2000 1975 1950 1925 1900 1875 1850 1825 1800 0 15 14 13 12.33 2025 2000 4.05 1800 600 800 1.28 1825 0.12 1975 1950 2.13: Kurram Tangi Dam: Elevation-Volume-Surface Area Curves.08 Reservoir Capacity 1875 Reservoir Surface Area 1850 0.600 Capacity (Th.12: Topographic surface contours of Kurram Tangi Dam. 23 Elevation (ft) .

Measure the crest length. d/s face slope = 3. Locate the centerline of dam crest by connecting two points on 2100 ft contour line along right and left abutments such that the dam has smallest crest length. 1.0 + 295.11 DAM LAYOUT Dam embankment Once the site of a dam is selected.5 + 3.5 ft = 3. For Gross storage = 0. the layout of dam embankment is carried out. = 1805.5 ft = 4.g. and dead storage = 0. The wave height and wave runup is determined from reservoir area. (ii) the space required to pass maximum design flood over the spillway (called flood surcharge). 2012.0 ft 2. river bed level = 1805 ft Crest: 1.166 MAF as determined from sedimentation analysis).18). contour interval = 50 ft.0 ft = 10 ft = 271 + 6.6905×(716000)0.716 MAF. Determine the dam crest length. Earthfill-Rockfill dam: Data: Dam crest level = 2100 ft.TARIQ. The outline of dam is done on a contour map of potential dam location.0 + 10.3432+1805 = 2076 ft amsl = 271 ft = 6. 30 ft) parallel to the selected centerline. Free board of 5 to 10 ft is customary provided depending upon the reservoir importance and other factors.55 as determined from mass curve / reservoir operation studies.5 + 4.g.g. e. the required dam height is worked as: Minimum River bed level at dam site Normal conservation level for 0. (iv) the wave runup over the upstream sloping face due to wind gusts and (v) the free board.0 ft amsl = 2. Following steps are taken (Fig. The geologic makeup of the foundations and abutments is also considered.g. right abutment. Mark chainage along the dam crest with 0+00 mark at one of abutments. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION 1.716 MAF Maximum reservoir depth = 2076-1805 Flood surcharge (from PMF routing) Wave height Wave runup Free board Total dam height Dam crest level 1. Mark the crest width (e.g. e. u/s face slope = 3. (iii) the wave height generated from extreme winds. depth and prevailing wind speeds in the vicinity of the dam. Referring to Figs 1.0 = 2100.13.716 MAF (Live storage = 0.10 DAM HEIGHT The height of any dam above the lowest level in the river channel is determined from (i) the gross storage (live storage + dead storage) capacity of the dam. 3.2 for gross storage capacity of 0.5:1 (H:V). the normal conservation level is determined as 2076. The reservoir level corresponding to normal reservoir storage is called as normal conservation level NCL and is determined from the elevationvolume relationship of the dam. 24 . e. e.0 = 295.0:1.0 ft = 1805.

005 12.200 1.600 Figure 1.999916 1.000 7. 25 .000 9.000 4.15: Kurram Tangi Dam: Elevation-volume curve fit to data.14: Elevation-Surface Area curve fit to data.133 Elevation Ft + 1800 250 225 200 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 0 0 281 52 1.000 14.000 3.359 4.000 12.000 13.000 6.115 6.000 2.079 2. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION KTD: Elevation vs Reservoir Surface Area Curve 375 350 325 300 275 9.522649 R² = 0.000 8.000 Surface Area (Acres) Figure 1.582141x0.400 1.000 11.TARIQ.000 1. KTD: Elevation vs Reservoir Capacity Curve 380 360 340 320 300 280 260 300 350 Elevation Ft +1800 240 220 200 180 160 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 0 200 400 50 20 100 150 200 250 600 800 Volume (ThAF) 1.000 5. 2012.330 y = 2.000 10.

000 11. 26 .000 2.000 10.162962x1.200 Volume (ThAF) 1.000 8. KTD Elevation vs Capacity Curve 1.000 3.359 4.000 1.600 1.TARIQ. elevation curve.000 5.460 1.400 1.115 6.999916 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 Elevation (1800 +ft) Figure 1.133 Surface Area (Acres) 9.330 9.079 2.913170 R² = 0.000 12.16: Kurram Tangi Dam. elevation curve.005 y = 0. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION KTD Elevation vs Area Curve 13.000 12.000 931 800 600 548 400 287 200 125 0 0 20 0 40 5 60 80 39 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 260 280 300 320 340 360 380 Elevation (1800+ft) Figure 1.000 0 20 52 40 281 60 80 1.000 7. 2012.000 4.000 6. Surface area vs.17: Kurram Tangi Dam: Volume vs.

5. 1. C-C’. 1. I-I’. 11. Mark lines H-H’. 6.19). 10.TARIQ. Draw longitudinal section (L-section) along centerline of dam crest.0 = 150 ft).5 :1 is slope of u/s face] Mark a line A-A’ on u/s face parallel to crest edge spaced 175 ft apart between 2nd contour line of 2050 ft. Mark location of point F of lowest elevation in the river channel. e. 13. Longitudinal Section and Cross section 14.12 DAM ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACTS Construction of dams significantly alters the river flow regime. respectively. This will provide valley profile between the river’s left and right abutments (Fig.23 describe the alternate layouts for Kurram Tangi dam for dam embankment and dam appurtenants. D/s face: 9. 1950. 1900. 1. This defines the dam outline or footprint along d/s sloping face. D-D’. 12.g. 1950. Figs 1. Determine the horizontal distance corresponding to 50 ft vertical height for u/s face ( = 50 x 3.20 to 1. 1850 ft. 15. 8. 1. Crest length. 7.7 H:1 V) Dam appurtenants The layout of dam appurtenants (spillway. The dam construction affects the migration of cold-water fish for their annual spawning voyage to u/s cold-water regions. 1850 ft. However the dam reservoir provides an excellent place for supervised fish 27 . and also at other chainage. [3. power house.19). outlet. Connect points G-H-I-J-K-L-K’-J’-I’-H’-G’ with smooth line and connect this with crest edge on d/s side. Concrete gravity dam: The layout of concrete gravity dam is similar to earthfill dams with the exception that u/s and d/s face slopes are very small (u/s ~ 1 H:10 V.5 = 175 ft).19). Determine the horizontal distance corresponding to 50 ft vertical height for d/s face (= 50 x 3. Few trials may be needed to finalize the layout of dam embankment and dam appurtenants. The changed flow pattern affects the ecology and echo system of the river d/s reaches. J-J’. 2012. Locate point L of lowest elevation in river channel on d/s side. etc) is determined such that space requirement of all dam components is adequately met. [3:1 is slope of d/s face] Mark a line G-G’ on d/s face parallel to crest edge spaced 150 ft apart between 2nd contour line of 2050 ft. K-K’ 150 ft apart between other contour lines of 2000. 1900. Draw dam cross section at maximum depth (section F-L at Ch 7+45 in Fig. The flow in flood season is considerably reduced while the flow in other months is increased. respectively. diversion tunnel. at every 200 ft apart (Fig. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION U/s face: 4. Connect points A-B-C-D-E-F-E’-D’-C’-B’-A’ with a smooth line and connect the outline with crest edge on u/s face. This defines the dam outline or footprint along u/s sloping face. Mark lines B-B’. E-E’ 175 ft apart between other contour lines of 2000. d/s ~ 0.

Waterlogging and high watertable may appear in some places above or below the dam site. This slowly lead to raising of the flood levels in the affected river reach requiring a constant raising of flood dikes and spurs. The sediment carried by the flood water get trapped in the dam and thus a small amount of sediments enters the d/s reach of the rivers. Construction of dam may lower the flood flows thus the sailaba area need to be irrigated by alternative means. 2012. Affected area adjacent to the dam may be provided supplemental canal or tubewell irrigation facilities. The sediment reduction due to dams leads to erosion/degradation of the river delta at the entrance to the ocean. The river may have cropped area which is seasonally flooded by the river flood flows (sailaba area). DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION development.TARIQ. The imbalance in the sediment flow combined with educed flood flows causes a aggradations of the river bed. It is required that environmental impacts of dam may be evaluated independently and necessary mitigation measures may be taken to mitigate and minimize the adverse environmental impacts. 28 . Thus erosion of coastal areas is negatively affected by the construction of dams.

2100 50×3. d/s = 3.18: Topographic surface contours at a dam and layout of dam outline.0 H:1 V.5=175 ft Crest Dam Crest. 2012. 29 .0 = 150 ft DOWNSTREAM AH AH’ SLOPING FACE 150 ft AI AI’ 150 ft AJ’ AJ 150 ft AK’ AK Ch 1+00 AL SLOPE: u/s = 3.TARIQ. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION RIVER Contour interval Δh = 50 ft 1850 SHORE LINE 1900 1850 1950 1900 1950 2000 2000 2050 AF AE AE’ AD’ AC’ UPSTREAM SLOPING FACE 175 ft 175 ft 2100 AD AC 175 ft AB 175 ft AA 2050 AB’ AA’ SCALE = 1:5000. length = 30 ft El = 2100 ft 4+00 6+00 8+00 10+00 12+00 14+00 2+00 1650 ft 150 ft AG’ AG 50×3. Figure 1.5 H:1 V.

El = 2100 Ft. 2012. 420 ft Figure 1.TARIQ. Dam crest: El = 2100 ft 105 ft El = 1995 ft El = 1960 ft 140 ft 368 ft 818 ft (e): Dam X-section at Ch 14+00 ft. 675 ft Dam crest: El = 2100 ft 165 ft El = 1935 ft River level = 1805 ft 255 ft 578 ft 1373 ft 765 ft (d): Dam X-section at Ch 12+00 ft.5 H River level = 1805 ft 1032 ft 1947 ft (b): Dam maximum cross section at F-L Ch 7+45 ft. 8+00 885 ft Dam crest: El = 2100 ft 225 ft El = 1875 ft Valley El = 1875-1950 ft 12+00 2+00 6+00 225 ft 787 ft 1492 ft (c): Dam X-section at Ch 4+00 ft. width = 30 ft Normal conservation level = 2081. Scale: 1:5000 30 16+00 0+00 .18.19: Longitudinal and cross section of dam of Fig.6 ft U/s slope = 1 V:3.0 H 295 ft Dam crest: El = 2100 ft. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Dam Crest. 1. Length = 1650 ft Elevation (ft) 2100 2000 1900 1800 14+00 El = 1875 ft River level = 1805 ft El = 1845 10+00 4+00 (a) Longitudinal section Chainage (ft) Dam section for concrete dam Dam section for earthfill dam D/s slope = 1 V:3.

DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Figure 1. 31 .20: Contour map of dam area of Kurram Tangi Dam site.TARIQ. 2012.

2012.TARIQ. 32 .21: Dam embankment layout of Kurram Tangi Dam. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Figure 1.

2012. 33 .22: Layout plan of concrete face rockfill dam (CFRD) embankment and appurtenances for Kurram Tangi Dam. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Figure 1.TARIQ.

23: Layout plan of concrete gravity dam embankment and appurtenances for Kurram Tangi Dam. 34 . 2012.TARIQ. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Figure 1.

The religious and social/cultural monuments and places must be planned to be protected by flood dikes. municipal water supply. Dam failure. Mangla dam. offices. spillway channel. Various socio-cultural-political groups must be approached. by moving to higher and safer levels. Rawal dam. parks. These also provided recreation opportunity. rock quarrying. approach roads. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION 1. It is also important to ensure the social and cultural harmony and adjustment of the people moving to new locations. The affected persons will not only loose their residential houses but most often their means of livelihood (agriculture. Simly 35 . etc. In addition the reservoir occupies very large surface area in many square kilometers. residential. Fig. grazing. medium and large sized dams in Pakistan with main purposes for irrigation. Hub dam. Nevertheless some inhabitants occupying the river banks and nearby villages will be needed to be moved out of the area and resettled. which is acceptable to both the affected persons and the dam owners. contacted and satisfied to come with suitable resettlement plans. small to medium business etc.14 DAMS IN PAKISTAN There are numerous small. commercial or industrial purposes. public entertainment. 2012. restoring their economic livelihood. The transportation corridors have to be moved to new locations above and away from the dam and reservoirs. Thus dam project must include a plan to resettle the affected persons to new places. outlet canals. Tarbela dam. kind (equivalent housing and business units in some nearby areas). housing facilities. The affected area may be under mix of private and public ownership. etc which is socio-politically acceptable to the affected population groups. etc. The affected persons may be provided compensation in the form of cash.) In addition the dam and reservoir may inundate some places of socialreligion nature. Monuments of lesser importance may not be protected due to the large numbers. hydropower generation. Construction of dam will deprive the current occupants of the area from productive benefits. 1. Most of dam sites are usually remote to present urban and industrial centers. highway. but now have been closed due to present security concerns. thus a significant part of the affected area may be barren and unproductive. The area may be partly or wholly used for various productive purposes as cropping. jeopardizing the whole project. Some transportation corridors (rail lines. Else the affected persons will react very strongly to the dam project.13 RESETTLEMENT The construction of dam requires large land area to be occupied by dam embankment. These dams are: Warsak dam.TARIQ. Chashma reservoir. The area to be occupied by a dam and reservoir has to be possessed before the construction of the dam. hydropower plant. etc. and other roads) may get submerged.

12. 6. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION dam. Khanpur dam. Region wise list of dams is as under: Azad Kashmir  Mangla Dam Akra Kaur Dam Burj Aziz Khan Dam Garuk Dam (planned) Hingol Dam (planned) Hub Dam Mirani Dam Naulong Dam (under construction) Pelar Dam (planned) Sabakzai Dam Saindak dam Shakidor Dam Sukleji Dam (planned) Wali Tangi Dam Winder Dam (planned) Bara Dam (planned) Gomal Zam Dam (nearing completion) Kurram Tangi Dam (planned) Munda Dam (under construction) Bunji Dam (planned) Diamer-Bhasha Dam (under construction) Satpara Dam (nearing completion) Rawal Dam Simly Dam Darmalak Dam (under construction) Jabba Khattak Dam (under construction) 36 Balochistan 1. In addition there are more than 50 small dams owned by provincial Irrigation departments. 2. 3. 2.TARIQ. .24 to 1. 8. 9. 13. Khyber Pakhtunkhwa 1. 5. 2.30 show features of few dams. Islamabad Capital Territory 1. 2. Gilgit–Baltistan 1. 4. 3. Mirani dam. 10. Figs. Federally Administered Tribal Areas 1. 7. 4. Satpara dam. 14. 2. 3. 11. 2012. 1.

4. 4. 2012. 8. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION 3. 11. Sindh 1. 3. 5.TARIQ. 4.html respectively.gov. 2. 7. 6. 5.html and http://www. 7.wapda. Details of WAPDA ongoing and future projects can be obtained from Wapda web sites http://www.gov. 37 . Details of few dams in included below. 10. Karak Dam (under construction) Khair Bara Dam (under construction) Khanpur Dam Lawaghar Dam (under construction) Karak Dam (under construction) Palai Dam (under construction) Tanda Dam (Ramsar Site) Tarbela Dam Warsak Dam Akhori Dam (planned) Dhrabi Dam Dohngi Dam Ghabir Dam (under construction) Kalabagh Dam (planned) Khai Dam Chiniot dam (planned) Darawat Dam (under construction) Karoonjhar Dam Nai Gaj Dam (under construction) Chotiari Dam Punjab 1. 3. 6.pk/htmls/ongoing-index.wapda. 9. 2.pk/htmls/future-index.

1980) 38 .TARIQ. 2012.24: Layout and cross section of Mangla Dam. (Source: Agha. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Figure 1.

1980) 39 .TARIQ.25: Layout plan and cross section of Tarbela Dam. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Figure 1. 2012. (Source: Agha.

DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Figure 1. 1980) 40 . (Source: Agha. 2012.TARIQ.26: Layout plan and cross section of Hub Dam.

27: Layout plan and cross section of Khanpur Dam. (Source: Agha. 2012.TARIQ. 1980) 41 . DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Figure 1.

28: Layout plan and cross section of Simly Dam.TARIQ. 2012. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Figure 1. 1980) 42 . (Source: Agha.

(Source: Agha. 1980) 43 . DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Figure 1. 2012.TARIQ.29: Layout plan and cross section of Bolan Dam.

DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Figure 1.TARIQ.30: Layout of Kalabagh dam (source: Wapda. 1988) 44 . 2012.

Location : on Soan River 35 km North-east of Islamabad 2. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION 1.14. Crest elev = 2295 ft 18. radial gates 11.1 Simly Dam data 1.1 MAF (10 BCM) Live capacity = 6.407 AF 9.5 billion 1. Dead storage : El= 2233 ft and cap = 5. 2012. crest length = 939 m Reservoir level = 1160 m Gross capacity = 8. Crest elevation = 2330 ft SPD 17. Catchment area = 150 sq. Construction: Started 1972. Crest length = 1010 ft 15. Energy dissipation: chute and two basins in tandem 21. Project cost: Rs. Gross storage at 2315 elev = 33.4 MAF (7.4 Mirani Dam Project Owner: WAPDA Design consultants: JV of NESPAK-ACE-Binie Black & Montgomery Contractor: M/s DESCON on EPC/Turnkey basis (fixed price) 45 .9 BCM) Dead storage level = 1060 m Spillway: Ogee type with flip bucket and plunge pool with 14 Nos. 643 million 5.24 m Outlets: low levele – 2. 3. Sediment load = 221 AF/year (against est of 331.14.115 AF 7. Max Height = 263 ft 14. crest elev = 2317 ft. Gates: 3 x 32x25 ft 20.000 cfs 19. Diversion: Horse shoe tunnel 28 ft dia. Main purpose: Water supply to Islamabad. Max Q = 35800 cfs 22. Live storage at 2315 ft elev = 27.14. Discharge capacity = 45.km 6. one on each left and right abutment) Annual generation = 18.5 m x16.000 GWH/yr Est cost = US$ 8. Water supply = 37 MGD 11. 594 ft long and RCC lining 1. Dam = zoned earth and rock fill 13.3 Bunji Dam Location: on Indus river near Gilgit Dam height = 180 m Type: RCC gravity 1. Main Spillway: Ogee crest length = 110 ft. Auxiliary spillway: free overflow weir 459 ft long at crest. completed 1982 4.14. Reservoir length = 6 km 10.5AF/y) 12.708 AF 8. sluicing – 5 Installed capacity = 12 x 375 = 4500 MW (2 underground type powerhouses. Crest width = 30 ft 16.2 Diamer Basha Dam Project Location = 40 km d/s of Chilas and 300 km u/s of Tarbela Dam type: Roller Compacted Concrete gravity (with small curve) Height = 272 m.TARIQ.

TARIQ.ml Max routed inflow = 2145 cfs Gross storage = 3152 AF Dead storage = 1502 AF Live storage = 1650 AF Normal Res level = 891 ft Dead storage level = 879 ft Pond area at NPL = 175 acres Pond area at dead level = 97 acres Main dam type = earthfill homogeneous Max Haight = 62 ft Length at top = 460 ft 46 .800 acres [236 cfs] Left bank command area = 12.964 sq.000 AF Dam Type = Earth-Rock fill CFRD Height = 127 ft (39m) Length at Crest = 3. mile (15 sq.000 AF (64 Mm3) Av annual releases = 114.47 AF/sq. 2012.14.400 acres [141 cfs] Completion = July 2002 to October 2006. and latitude 25-56-31. Average annual rainfall = 4. (30 km west of Turbat) at longitude 62-41-38.86 sq.2 inches Average annual flow = 223.800 cfs Max capacity = 384.km) Av annual rainfall = 230 mm Av Ann sediment = 5.350 ft (1020 m) Crest top width = 35 ft (11 m) Spillway Type = overflow Clear waterway = 344 ft Design capacity = 205.000 acre feet Reservoir Gross storage = 302. Location: Jammergal Kas (6 km N of Darapur village from Rasul-Jhelum Road) Distt Jhelum Catchment area = 5. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Location: District Kech in Central Makran Range of Balochistan. miles.200 acres Right bank command area = 20.46 E.000 AF (373 Million m3) Live storage = 52. Project cost = 101 Million US $ 1.5 Jammergal Dam Owner: Small Dams Organization.16 N River system = Dasht River in (Fed by Kech River and the Nihing River) Hydrology Catchment area = 7.300 ft Outlet Tunnel dia = 8 ft Capacity = 377 cfs Others Access road = 43 km Irrigation system: gravity lined channels: command area = 33. Punjab Irrigation and Power Dept.

400 ft (with concrete/brick lining) 1. a small tributary of Haro River in Attock District of Punjab. Discharge 848 Cusecs Length of Distributaries 204 Km Culturable Command Area 163. Flood Control (http://www. PRESENT STATUS Works in progress 1. annual – 120% Main irrigation channel length = 15. Rabi – 67%. Irrigated Agriculture Development 163.140 MAF Live Storage 0.086 Aces Power Generation 90.html ) 1. OBJECTIVES: (i) Storage of water for: a.00 MAF 47 .MAIN COMPONENTS a) DAM    Height 436.TARIQ. LOCATION OF DAM Khajuri Katch on Gomal River b) RESERVOIR            C) Irrigation System d) Power House e) BARRAGE 3.4 Ft.7 AKHORI DAM LOCATION: Akhori Dam site is loacted near Akhori Village across Nandna Kas. PROJECT BENEFITS 4.086 Acres Installed Capacity 17.4 MW Length of Barrage 620 ft.25 cfs Irrigation command area = 925 acres Crop intensity: Kharif – 53%. Type Roller Compacted Concrete Curved Gravity Dam Gross Storage 1.892 MAF Length of Main Canal 60.23 mile = 5. Length 758 Ft. 2012.S.16 km Gross Storage 7.wapda.pk/htmls/ongoing-index.14.gov. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Top width = 20 ft HFL = 897 ft Dam top level = 903 ft Spillway = chute type ungated Length spillway crest = 55 ft Max capacity = 2145 cfs Outlet: pipe outlet of 2 ft dia at 879 ft level Max Q = 7.5 Km F.6 MAF Live Storage 6.14.6 GOMAL ZAM DAM 2. Supplementing Indus Basin Irrigation System and (ii) Power Generation SALIENT FEATURES Main Dam Dam Type Earth & Rock Fill Height 400 feet = 122 m Length: 3.9 GWH.

PC-II for Detailed Engineering Design and Tender Documents of the Project amounting to Rs.3ft (76 m) Depth 32.00 Million submitted on June 23. 194.PC-II approved for Rs. .2006. 818. 2006 for approval of ECNEC. 2012.TARIQ.000 Cusecs Bed Width 249.Final Feasibility Study Report has been received on Jan. 26.804 million by CDWP through circulation in March 19.40 Billion Construction period – 5 years Current Status . 48 . 2004..8ft (10 m) Installed Capacity Hydel Power Potential 600 MW (2155 GWh/Annum) Environmental and Resettlement No of Affectees 55800 No of Houses 9270 Land 65976 Acres Roads 102 Kms Estimated cost US$ 4. DAM AND RESERVOIR ENGINEERING Ch-1: INTRODUCTION Saddle Dam Height 213 feet Length 4. .78 Conveyance Channel Conveyance Channel Length 23 Miles (37 Km) (from Tarbela to Akhori dam) Conveyance Channel Capacity 60.