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How to Prepare Gases

Chemistry Lab Instructions
You can use common chemistry lab chemicals and equipment to prepare several gases. A conical flask, thistle funnel, delivery tube, pneumatic trough, and beehive are useful items to have on hand. Please make sure you are familiar with the use and functioning of the laboratory equipment you use, are aware of the characteristics of the substances (toxicity, flammability, explosivity, etc.), and take proper safety precautions. Use a ventilation hood (fume cupboard) and keep flammable gases away from heat or flame. I've tried to be as accurate as possible in my instructions, but you use them at your own risk. For convenience, I've listed the gases in alphabetical order.

Gas Ammonia NH3

Reagents Ammonium chloride Calcium hydroxide

Method Gently heat a mixture of ammonium chloride and calcium hydroxide in water.

Collection Upward displacement of air in a hood. Upward displacement of air in a hood.

Reaction Ca(OH)2 + 2NH4Cl → 2NH3 + CaCl2 + 2H2O 2HCl + CaCO3 → CO2 + CaCl2 + H2O

Carbon Dioxide CO2

Calcium carbonate (marble chips) 5M Hydrochloric acid Potassium permanganate Conc. Hydrochloric acid Zinc (granulated) 5M Hydrochloric acid

Add 5 M hydrochloric acid to 5 - 10 g marble chips.

Chlorine Cl2

Add concentrated hydrochloric acid dropwise onto a small amount of potassium permanganate crystals (in flask). Add 5 M hydrochloric acid to 5 - 10 g granulated zinc pieces.

Upward displacement of air in a hood. Collect over water.

6HCl + 2KMnO4 + 2H+ → 3Cl2 + 2MnO2 + 4H2O + 2K+ 2HCl + Zn → H2 + ZnCl2

Hydrogen H2

Hydrogen Sodium chloride Chloride Conc. Sulfuric HCl acid Methane CH4 Nitrogen N2 Sodium acetate (anhydrous) Soda lime Ammonia Calcium hypochlorite (bleaching powder)

Slowly add concentrated sulfuric acid to solid sodium chloride. Mix 1 part sodium acetate with 3 parts soda lime. Heat in a dry pyrex test tube or flask. Shake 20 g calcium hypochlorite into 100 mL water for several minutes, then filter. Add 10 mL conc. ammonia and heat mixture. Use extreme caution!

Displacement of air in a hood. Collect over water. Displacement of air.

2NaCl + H2SO4 → Na2SO4 + 2HCl CH3COONa + NaOH → CH4 + Na2CO3 2NH3 + 3CaOCl2 → N2 + 3H2O + 3CaCl2

Upward displacement of air in a hood. Collect over water. Mix 10 g powdered sodium nitrate and 9 g ammonium sulfate. Add concentrated nitric acid to 5 . Cu + 4HNO3 → 2NO2 + Cu(NO3)2 + 2H2O 3Cu + 8HNO3 → 2NO + 3Cu(NO3)2 + 4H2O NH4NO3 → N2O + 2H2O 2H2O2 → 2H2O + O2 Add 5 M nitric acid to 5 . Add hydrogen peroxide to about 5 g of MnO2. Oxygen O2 Sulfur Dioxide SO2 Heat solid KMnO4.10 g sodium sulfite (or bisulfite). Nitrogen N2 Air Lighted Phosphorus (or heated Fe or Cu) Invert a bell jar over lighted phosphorus. Heat well. producing phosphoric acid and leaving the nitrogen behind. which is absorbed by the water over which the bell jar stands (may be violent reaction). Collect over water. Ads . Collect over water. 2KMnO4 → K2MnO4 + MnO2 + O2 Na2SO3 + 2HCl → SO2 + H2O + 2NaCl Add dilute hydrochloric acid to 5 .Chloramine and explosive nitrogen trichloride may be produced.10 g copper. Removal of oxygen. Oxygen and phosphorus combine to form phosphorus pentoxide. Displacement of air.10 g copper. 5 O2 + 4 P → P4O10 Nitrogen Dioxide NO2 Nitrogen Monoxide NO Nitrous Oxide N2O Oxygen O2 Copper (turnings) 10 M Nitric acid Copper (turnings) 5 M Nitric acid Sodium nitrate Ammonium sulfate 6% Hydrogen peroxide Manganese dioxide (catalyst) Potassium permanganate Sodium sulfite (or sodium bisulfite) 2M Hydrochloric acid Upward displacement of air in a hood.

5 V with the electrolyte) 2 paperclips or (better yet) 2 pieces of electrical wire . For the same reason. but be aware this gas is not very pure. since the mixture could burn explosively upon ignition.findtherightjob. The reason you want water in the container is so you can collect hydrogen without obtaining air. which breaks water into hydrogen and oxygen gas. 4.Method 2 There are two simple improvements you can make to improve the efficiency of hydrogen gas production.bankofamerica. 5.www. If you wish. The hydrogen bubbles will burn.com Chemistry Ads      Gas Oxygen Gas Cabinet Natural Gas Fuels Air Con Gas Hydrogen It's easy to generate hydrogen gas at home or in a lab using common household materials. This method employs electrolysis. Air contains 20% oxygen. Place the other ends. H2O. The other bubbles are impure oxygen. You'll get bubbles off both wires. the oxygen bubbles will not burn.       2 pencils salt cardboard water battery (could go as low as 1. not touching. Here's how to make hydrogen safely. Apply for a Position Today!www. Make Hydrogen Gas .    water 9-volt battery 2 paperclips 1. Collect the hydrogen gas by inverting a water-filled tube or jar over the wire producing the hydrogen gas. into a container of water. which you want to keep out of the container in order to keep it from becoming dangerously flammable. Unbend the paperclips and connect one to each terminal of the battery.msanorthamerica.com Work from Home JobsFind Real Work from Home Jobs. 2. You can test which gas is hydrogen by lighting a match or lighter over the container. Disconnect the battery. don't collect the gas coming off both wires into the same container. The salt is helpful because it dissociates into ions which increase the current flow.com/ahead MSA Gas DetectionAdvanced & reliable fixed gas detectors & monitors. That's it! 3.Bank of America®Learn More about Our Commitment To Lend To Small Businesseswww. to avoid exposure to air.Method 1 One of the easiest ways to obtain hydrogen is to get it from water. you can collect the oxygen in the same way as the hydrogen. You can use graphite (carbon) in the form of pencil "lead" as electrodes and you can add a pinch of salt to the water to act as an electrolyte. The graphite makes good electrodes because it is electrically neutral and won't dissolve during the electrolysis reaction. The one with more bubbles is giving off pure hydrogen. Cap or seal the container before inverting it. Make Hydrogen Gas .

Be very careful to avoid contact with the acid. etc. which includes gloves. Epsom salts. heat will be given off by this reaction.Method 3 You can get hydrogen gas by reacting hydrochloric acid with zinc. Sodium silicate can be used to make chemical gardens. like those that result from Magic Rocks (which you can make yourself). 5. used in the magic rock project. Lay the cardboard over your container of water. 2. Set the cardboard with pencils aside for a moment and add a pinch of salt to the water. 3. Prepare the pencils by removing the erase and metal caps and sharpening both ends of the pencil. or 8 g for the stoichiometric ratio for sodium silicate) 10 ml water Prepare Sodium Silicate 1. 2. You could use table salt. If the crushed beads won't dissolve. shoes.    6 g silica gel beads (crushed) 4-8 g sodium hydroxide (4 g for water glass. Once the sodium hydroxide is dissolved. silica. 4. You're going to use the cardboard to support the pencils in the water. Attach a wire to each pencil and connect it to the terminals of the battery. but not touching the bottom or side of the container. and sodium hydroxide.1. Heat 4-8 grams of sodium hydroxide in 10 ml of water. add a little more water to the solution.   hydrochloric acid (muriatic acid) zinc granules Hydrogen gas bubbles will be released as soon as the acid and zinc are mixed. 3. etc. Insert the pencils through the cardboard so that the lead is submerged in the liquid. Sodium Silicate Materials All you need to make a sodium silicate solution are water. . slowly add the 6 grams of crushed silica gel beads. Collect the gas as before. You can prepare sodium silicate or water glass from gel beads (silica) and drain cleaner (sodium hydroxide). Also. Heat the solution between additions. Wear proper safety gear. Sodium hydroxide is readily available in its pure form or can be found as drain cleaner. Silica comes in those little packets labelled 'do not eat' with electronics. in a container that has been filled with water. Replace the cardboard/pencil. Make Hydrogen Gas .

SiO 2. from baking soda or sodium bicarbonate. These are easy instructions for making sodium carbonate. Make Sodium Carbonate Sodium bicarbonate is CHNaO3 while sodium carbonate is Na2CO3. 3. It is an easy project that only requires a few chemicals. Mix together 5 ml sodium silicate solution and 5 ml water. If you could separate out the impurities. which is silica or silicon dioxide. Simply heat baking soda or sodium bicarbonate in a 200°F oven for about an hour. Dry sodium carbonate will remain. Here is how to prepare pure sand yourself in the lab. but it presents an inhalation hazard since the small particles could become trapped in your lungs if inhaled. . Mix the two solutions together. use a glass stirrer to mix 3. you would have pure sand. Carbon dioxide and water will be given off. but don't play with it like you might with natural sand. Place the orthosilicic acid into a heat-safe glass or porcelain dish and heat it over a burner flame for about 5 minutes. The resulting gel that forms at the bottom of the liquid is orthosilicic acid.Sand that you find on a beach consists of several minerals and organic matter. 2. Sand is non-toxic. Therefore.5 grams sodium bisulfate into 10 mL of water. enjoy your sand. The orthosilicic acid dries to form silicon dioxide. Keep stirring until the sodium bisulfate dissolves. which is your pure sand. also known as washing soda or soda ash. Ingredients for Sand    sodium silicate (make sodium silicate yourself) sodium bisulfate water Make Pure Sand 1. In a separate container. 4.