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In merely fantasy.1 book. University 2 David Wellbery. the of and colonizedindividuals. It politicallyengaged and empiricallygrounded anthropology. is de rigeur dismissworkwritten it to undertheir influence as and.according Wellbery. notes. Givenitsobjects. p. and and philosophy. significance.Discourse tendency American to as merely He criticism dismisspost-structuralist out-dated fashion. uncommon that with and precision the extentto which post-structuralism demands and facilitatesa consistency. Princeton: Princeton JamesT. beingno longerin fashion.And itis in abouttheworkings fetishism theconstitution modernity. Fetish. Grammatology.JacquesLacan. and but GeorgSimmel: axiology also experience representation. is. thought thattheeffort render to rather as something fashion of acerbically. beingprecisely fashionable Whatis so marvelous aboutFetish. thecirculation signs. 3 Jacques trans." formation a new kindofauthorial subject.1990). Recognition. University 1 Friedrich Discourse trans.Recognition. Suchdismissals onlyrepeata falseSimmelian not radicalism premise.It is workings desirein the space betweencolonizers abouttheplace ofmoney and commerce. Metteer withChrisCullens(Stanford: Stanford Kittler.275pages.most notablyGeorge McT."2 contrast.1976). in manycircles. Revolution-a book almostas difficult Recognition.modernity which of of in a theforce nationalism of would survive and indeedthwart moreradicalpossibility the ofrevolution. at thesame time. James Siegel'sbook. Networks. of post-structuralism yetto be actualized assertsthatthe profound has radicality within institutions American the of criticism. concerns relationships It the betweenthe emergence of the of and Melayuas a "linguafranca. University Rosalind Morris In his "Foreword"to the Englishtranslation Friedrich of Kittler's monumental David Wellbery chastises certain a in Networks. to graspas OfGrammatology3-is it demonstrates. in short.And it is similarly and in rooted thephilosophical of announces to project post-structuralism. literary Such a foreword well introduce T." Discourse Networks. withthe immediate Siegel'sbookdemands comparison other"classics" of the field. Derrida.1997. Kahin's Nationalism and Press. is is claims to say thatpost-structuralismno longerfashionable to say thatits first wereexcessive. too as and.Fetish. Siegel'spreface readersthatthe book is indebtedto JacquesDerrida. post-structuralism "in" to it and an (whether or "out")is partoftheattempt contain nullify by suggesting Thatwhichcan go outoffashion no historical has To ephemeral quality. anthropology Revolution a book aboutthehistory force languagein is and of Fetish.Revolution. might Recognition. in "Foreword. Michael Indonesia 67 (April 1999) . companions anthropology. This astonishing texthas the promiseforanthropology that Kittler's DiscourseNetworks forliterary has criticism media studies.vii. and Martin Thesearenotaltogether common intellectual in Heidegger. Siegel. Revolution. Press. Gayatri John Of Chakravorty Spivak(Baltimore: Hopkins Press. and of rumor.a to rebuff thespuriousaxiologythatanthropology chosento inherit has magnificent from the that would opposenotonlyhistory fashion. the Indonesianrevolution. to but they "wish-fulfillment he are.
.. ironically.language.ofcourse. first that have tobe translated oftheir out mother and therefore the analogy that tongueinto a foreign tonguein orderto circulate" betweenmoneyand languageexistsonlyinsofar thelatter understood mean as is to Nationalism Revolution Indonesia and in (Ithaca: Cornell Press.1952). International pp."nor and otherliterary productions. freedom bornin themoment thatthe who suffer effects thatdislocation coloniallaw comes to bear on individuals the of between substanceand appearance which is the resultof commodification.letters. wherea process generalization of suchmagictakesin thecolonial inbotheconomic linguistic and forms producing possibility a certain was the kindof of for It a freedom colonialsubjects. effects revolutionary and of in Indonesiaare unusualones foranthropologists: essays. DirkJ. 5 Benedict O'G. revolutionary in The materials whichSiegelreadsthecauses. is." to turn"each [ofone's own] powers into my incapacities Thismagic. magicofdissemination-turned-dissimulation whichitis not. Recognition. of wereproducedin and through he believesthatthesubjects Indonesian modernity in the and. is concerned one withtheform that Siegel milieuofIndonesia. Fetish.wherein of money'sability one's actualcapacities one's appearance: "transform insert gap between a and to to all and intotheircontrary. ina Time Revolution R." Marxian For.and that seems to be the case in the writingof In Indonesia'srevolutionary a Revolution. he holds fastto Marx'ssingular But emerges thatit is notin a parallel between the insight moneyand languagethatone discovers but in the analogy that would link money with "the magic of the commodity oflanguage. recognition produces says annulling sametime.book history. Anderson. and departsfrom.and historical transformation in lies of of The fetishism.theother foreignness specter haunting Siegelseemsto come from Marx'sobservation "Ideas . will quickly become mandatory readingforall scholarsof both Indonesianand other(failed) movements. any case. "specter of Siegel'sre-reading Marx'searlytreatment commodity Marx"thathauntsthisbook is.traces. (New York: Manuscripts 1844. moreparticularly.Kahin. possibility Thisis notbecause he has abandonedthe"real. Press. that about Thoughhe does notciteit. and through kind of communication-at-alanguage form bothitsliterary itseconomicdimensions) and distancethatthecommodity (in permitted. rather.TheEconomic Philosophical and ed.5 of a It maybe thecase thattwo decades mustpass before new classiccan be added to the canon of so-named texts. in Revolution Indonesia4 Benedict O'G. 167-8.one can surmise thegenesisofthisargument the relationships betweenmoney. Java of University 6 KarlMarx.Its first sourcecan be foundin The and Marxdescribes Economic Philosophic Manuscripts 1844. "cultural in becausehe wantstofind because but. meaning" literary production. The of and risks itat the thefetish appearances.Struik of 1964). Anderson's Java a Time Revolution. doubled.164 RosalindMorris in and R. Cornell (Ithaca: 1972). Publishers. Siegel. whichboth leans upon. Unviersity 4 GeorgeMcT.. as Siegel is perhapsless cynicalthanMarx about thenatureof such freedom it in thecontext commodity of relations."6 a something the whichSiegelreminds nonetheless us to requires lookofanother becomefelt the by who possessesit is themagicofthefetish.novels. theseearliermonuments.
Siegel extends Marx's own nonetheless. not .thiskindofsubjectivity appears ofa giventext to thereaderto produceforthema sharedtemporal location. is a freedom characterized thenon-identity of ultimately by that and therealization difference that (boththe"difference" Marxpositedas subjects of theinternal betweenuse-valueand exchangevalue. Siegel." According to Siegel.thisarticleterrified Dutchbecause it suggestedthattheywere being the "over-heard" and thattheirwords were producingunintended consequences.Revolution 165 Fetish. a readingofMohammedBakir's todiscussthecorollary sucha universal of the prosody. by the part of the speaker:"The 'I' of the lingua francais not fullyinhabitedby its of speaker. Penguin. in its power to compel a 7 KarlMarx. It therefore.Siegelargues constitutes definitive the attribute themass mediated of that audience. however. themedium communication thedistant of with worldthrough workings money. is . of the "lingua franca. is and bornoftheaspiration universal to linguafranca. Melayuin particular. And it is the factof thisstructure constitutes that both the historical and for to ground thelegitimating argument Siegel'sattention literature: In suchan age oftranslation. language. by as usersofthelinguafranca. precisely thatthismisunderstanding in translation. the of Authorsare not merelythe producersof texts. 31) The consequences such an unstablepronominal positionis first of he claims. mentally replacecolonialmasters. Martin 1973). generated conclusion to make the "foreignness language" the source of a complex but of It unrealizedfreedom. beingoverheard peoplewho. contradiction thecommodity and thetemporally deferred dimension identified Derrida'sterm diffrrance) of is the by condition possibility revolution."(p.as "Djika Saya Nederlander. largepart. but theyare the ones who claim for to givereaders theworld. francais important because throughit one imagines otheridentitiesand can." language that a traverses differences is therefore all and of totaltranslation.The of secret however. werenotfully identified withthesubject positionofthe listener. response thisobservation of course. namely development ofa first an "I. of about thehistory Melayu is. supposedlycapable (p. not merelythatit 26) Whatis significant the ideal of a universal but thatit achievesits statusas figures impossible language. Both and thestructuralist to translation. imagined thoughts theDutchwere. payment theaccessthey thisinaugural via Siegel movesfrom argument.7 thebourgeois has.in thetranslation SoewardiSoerjaningrat's famousarticle." whichis imaginedto be "language itself. trans. Nicolaus(Harmondsworth: Grundrisse. within text when'I' speakfrom the and embody the communicative there political are effects. of for necessary The first of of argument the textconcernsthe emergence a modernauthorial For in themoment thatthewriter subjectivity. "Als ik eens Nederlander was" intoMelayu. accounts. recognized. in and by the lingua franca. 163..in thecase form. 25) takeson a particular he says.forthe Siegelsuggests in failureof revolution Indonesia. been one that fantasizesthe possibilityof total commensurability or movesin theoppositedirection. Recognition.In an effort recoverthe radicality to thatwas. whileacknowledging any that Siegel translatability.an attribute is in from political the moment which inseparable globalliteratures begantobe translated into Melayu.. that thisstructure "hearing of outsideofsocialidentity" Indeed. p." whichis defined substitutability a lackofidentity and on pronoun. gestures Sucha "sharedlinguistic milieu"(p. 'I' ofthelingua The poweroflanguage.
to thenmakethephotograph For that"beyond." TheCritical Image.(pp." The central of with"fetish appearances. operates to book and in itsrelationships thesocialcontext itsinscription." that Withacidicforeboding. thebenefits everywhere And are palpable. or. capacity displaceor fissure strange resides. infamous substitute/simulacrum "wife" not one. thesensethat makes visible a quality of the originalwhich was not visible until it had been bothdrawson. 36-7) force he remarks "Thisis nota successstory." figures crisis She a and of representation. 71) He does not. in The idea of the fetishis addressed first a series of discussions about the tale of Njai Dasima. CarolSquiers(San Francisco: Bay Press." of concept thebook. becomestheobjectaroundwhomthere swirlsdistrust an and therelationships between surface and theauthenticity concerning anxiety appearance oftheoriginal. a character who is. termthatis variously of a unifiedpower. whomSiegelis arguing.nonetheless. ."(p. Siegel Indonesia muchmoredirectly. supplemented.1990).translated.like Metz. the occasionally toengagetheliteratures histories of one forgives becauseitpermits this and end. of In a stunning abouttheuse ofthephotograph an earlypublication in of argument The Storyof Njai Dasima. fromthe start.theradicalpotential the and of the corollary dissolution hierarchically of organizedand displaced subject. 155-64. Just value realizesitself thecommodity onlyin the of withdesire-in moment itsexchange(and is annihilated so thefigure Njai of use)."Photography Fetish. thepost-scriptus history surrounding will as a so dense and conflicted discourse thaton fetishism perhapsbe a bitirksome trained theAnglo-American in traditions citational of Even forthosereaders practice. one might say. believe thatphotography is 8 Christian and in ed. then to of Thisis nota successstory because." (p. Like the improbableassignationof definitions "language" to of Chapter 2 status intellectual of footnote in Chapter One. pp. and appearance."8 Siegel. him. completion. fetishism occursin a footnote overviewof otherconceptsof (note 33) to actually Three.Thisornamentation for is. 73) Thisobservation (p.theprofundity his departure In obscuredby thishabitof relegating to argumentation a footnote.thenotionof replaced of is to "the fetish modernity" perhapsthemostdifficult graspand it comes to the The onlyapproximation an historical of readerin a processof gradualdisclosure. ifhe readsthecategory theauthor terms bothtextual But of in of and so thesupplement forSiegelboth withinthe extra/inter-textual relations. ChristianMetz's understanding photography an inherently of as fetishistic device whichincites viewersto imaginea space beyondthe frame the of and serveas an inadequatesubstitution for photograph.thephotograph attached thebook as an indexofthat is to which lies "outside. Dasima is associatedforSiegelwitha logicof"supplementarity. is annulledby the "fetish modernity.according Siegel. Siegel tells us that the photographwas intended to the in a it "ornament" book. wanttoknowwith themostgenerous reader mayoccasionally of from thesesof bothFreud and Marx is the Indeed. 63) She movesalongthevector theDutchman's of desirefor satisfaction the"Indonesian" and as in woman's desireformoney. and overturns.166 RosalindMorris its to thatits political subjects overhearing. Metz. endlessly recirculating in therelationship and a certain betweensurface associatedwithexchange instability The ofa who is. Njai Dasima is theone "who embodieswhatpasses between.
85) Tirtho.thesetwo collapse intotheunityof "thecamera.Revolution 167 Fetish. 10RolandBarthes. Thus does Siegel conclude.but sees in both technologies capacity to a relatively to And he attributes that capacity a politicallyand manufacture appearances. to the even ifonlyas a figure. 47-61."10 despitethefactthat sense This "disincarnation whichrevealsa genetic his that ofthestrange shares proximity themassmediamakespossibleevenat a distance School writers.it seems. Recognition.on the otherside of the year thatTirtho Kracauerwas positing muchmorefamousopposition his between world. Howard(New York: ReflectionsPhotography. of of We can observe herethedegreetowhich servesas Siegel'sinvocation technology A oriented a foilfora moreontologically has.. Levin Kracauer. But The claimis thrilling. .the identity.adequately 9 Siegfried in MassOrnament: Weimar ThomasY.thatcotton appear to be moresilkthansilkitself. ofsilkcan hide thefact and appearance In can more.1991). Press. "Photography" The Essays. much with otherFrankfurt that the between Tirtho's anxiousefforts to however."(p. that permitsthe mobilityfromwhich the photographderives its magic or the as the newspaper..Siegfried and imagistichistory. a parallelbetweenthe Tirtho's Siegel posits journalistic camera and the lingua franca.(p."Tirtho'sphotographic image is condensed 86) language.the whenit is accompanied thedemandforan agencythat becomesrepressive force by can claimknowledge whatis hidden. is not thata successful of but a photograph precisely a resemblance itsreferent rather essence. 102-3. juxtaposition of the could be deemed an presumed offense. trans. by University pp. 86) of reproduction appearances schoolanalysesthanon theBarthesian to restless on Frankfurt belief seems. and with introduction Thomas Levin(Cambridge.in discussing articles aboutphotography. beendevotedto understanding differences and course.In thiscontext.It is. was worried about the of because theypermitted imagesin newspapersettings juxtaposition photographic noblesand soup cans to sitnextto each other. appearancescannotbe trusted revealan original that is merely it cotton thatone sees in a film.therefore.61. considerable body oftheory the between film photography.Indeed. more fetishistic than film. force. Thoughhe suggests much. maybe legitimately it one feelscompelled ask whether is precisely camera. Lucida: on Camera trans. between the aspiration to a total photographichistory mimesis-what he called the "general of inventory a naturethatcannotbe further of assessment truth. as a of it condensation essences. Y. felicitous convergence Siegelfinds desireto exploit magicthatcomesto the its contain powerand Barthes photography's forehere. of project. pp. Becausethephotograph was Javanese to containthetruth its original. as Siegel discernsherea use of thephotograph image. Richard Noonday.thatis to say. and especiallyWalterBenjamin. him to For Siegel. of reduced"9-and thepossibility a critical Siegel's claim that Tirtho's writingsrest on an understanding the photographas being both a of of and a "condensation whatis knownand said" (p.to mymind. ed. thereader discomfited here."whichpermits the false idealizationof a "photographic" which is blind precisely seeing engage of because it is incapableof seeingbeyondthesurfaces things. maybe helpful recallthat.That forceemergesin the momentthat transformative epistemologically to when forexample. Mass:Harvard 1995). book does not. Siegel's analysis. thesame to in ran his storiesabout photography (1927). Thus.
However.especially when that crossing entailed sexual relations.this possibility and in would need fuller articulation be convincing.to "Becomewhatyou industry that to are." 85) It is.in Tirtho's suspectedofdissimulation. Thisconstitutes thereby forSiegel."Recognition.""I.Siegel (p.in theend. rather. negatively. powerand givesto ititsfullpolitical by findsthestory a youngman who overcomes of the Mas MarcoKartodikromo. It is a possibility between culturalbackgrounds. thesubject recognition and of in The arguments substantiation arguments Section are Two.168 Rosalind Morris betweenphotography and statewhat it reveals.Siegelextends premise his thata third is thesourceofone's subjects person In own fetishistic significance.possibilities that. this. Student Hidjau. is in of increasing powerand function thecolonialpoliceforce tobe understood terms and identity in to between ofthedemandforthem securetherelationship appearance wherea linguafranca made itpossiblefor has to crosstheotherwise a context people identification. and is. 104) (p. were. stories Berita." Siegelis able to demonstrate theattempt actualizethiscommandmentof forms thatappearedin magazinesforexample. in centered inter-ethnic on the relations (thosebetweenIndonesian discussing literature studentsand Dutch people in Holland and those betweendifferently ethnicized in Java). Individuals who dressedlikeDutchpeople linesofnational sacrosanct stories and in actuality. nonetheless. But. could signify than that moreand differently they thepossibility they intended and to oftheir achievethetransformation selvesin theeyesofothers. effort thepartofthepolice. Soenda the comeswithphotography.It needs therecognition others. and image. thenexplainsthat. To focus too narrowlyon the camera and the problemof juxtapositionis. 102) Much has been writtenabout the extrememeasures taken in Indonesia to preventthe crossingof culturaland nationalboundaries.thedemandofthemassculture was.the "weldingof appearanceto language. defer argument Siegel'sbroader recognition In like and aboutswindlers thieves. nationalidentity. to aboutthedemandfor that nonetheless. learns a thatthistransformative is actually power.It is not.led to a new understanding on and theresponse that to of he a fetishization appearances. however. possibility a thatsomehowescapes the subjectsof different prohibitionsof the colonial law which would have forbiddenone to become what one of appeared to be if thatappearance was scandalously transgressive one's putatively proper place." who could move between can attention myself to bothappearance through languagesand positions. meansthatpeople discovered of By appearances. itis stillwanting the to argument text.thecamera between language convergence particular to the that"has thecapacity recontextualize.Here. but he is interested less in the prohibitions of the colonial order than in the imaginary possibilities that were actually facilitatedby colonial encounter. as Adorno once said. newspaper. of play of and the of constitutes secondsection Siegel'sbook.Siegel pays respectto these analyses.namelythatit is the relationships and thataccountforthe mass publication. (p. Siegel and of "fetish modernity" learnsthepleasureand possibility believing of thathe can in at thatemerges therelationships become anything all. betweenthephotograph thenewspaper. call others' "I" He becausethelaw responds and utterance."closed down" the revolutionary potentialof literature linking"desire by and imaginationto identity"and particularly." relativelymore easily apprehendedthan those of the "Fetish" section.theimitation commoditized in. thatthe newspapermerelycomes as a supplementto mobilize a mightrespond thatwas bornwiththe camerabut not actualizedthere. .
how different would be it Whatof theseinterlocuters? hearsDerrida'sdiscourse "supplementarity" One on the and Lacan's understanding of throughout book.Flower is 1928).Butin his prosestyle. After we knowthattheIndonesian revolution follow. on operations thelevel of textual although practice. says.there no ofAtjeh (DjeumpaAtjeh. she comprehendhow radical a notion the "trace" mightbe. point. are whenreadingFetish. that Revolution. Recognition. that and and communists weretobecome youths thevictims an authoritarian whoseviolences of state have knownfewlimits.rather thanthe as. are probablygoing to read the book as literature. in Muchoftherest thebookmaps thehistory whichStudent of Hidjau's encounter into the repressive with an imaginary freedom converted is pursuitof a national that would merelysubstitutefor Dutch hegemonyby containingand identity and muchpathosin this the logicofhierarchy unity. Sitti Saniah. it becomes possible to anticipate. modernity quitesimply.Revolution 169 Fetish. forSiegel.it is to that a testimony thesuccessofSiegel'sargument therestofthebook is notsimply narration that of but it to and toilluminate how the denouement that continues explore in course of history Indonesiawas determined the forms representation of that by of moments: theworkings languageand itsrelationships to dominated by subsequent other of This technologies transmission.namely is especially of oftheconcept "love"and "cinta. is also whyother like like This scholars. Siegelfinds reproducing latter's that a processwhichhe suggestsis born in the existential homesickness process. thispointin the book. one feels Recognition. scholars. of thedomestication theforeign 158).who mustdie to makethe Revolution. the path thatSiegel will at thathe willhave to follow. simply ideological critique." seento cause deathor other is catastrophe. in likea diviner searchof theghostly interlocuters It whomSiegel is engaging. reactionary in in the erroneous thatcharacters the eminently assumption popular Sino-Malay thattotaltranslation possible.Onlybad translation. there manyoccasions. Yet. Siegel intothenovels about brokendesireand eros at the providesus withgreatinsight boundariesof ethnic readersto understand how it was that community. Zainuddin'snovel. of the death-knell revolution. in of of made manifest theimage. within therealization one has a foreign that element oneself.But thesefactsare not disguisedin Fetish. is it subject . is as wishes forhis reader to experience of his own writing thoughSiegel something of of theorists-in orderthat practice-anexperience beinghaunted thetraces other by the from fetishism wouldidentify that imageand origin.This "victory thefetish appearance"is. Freud'snotionof theuncanny formation be felt can between and behindthelines. Theywill notbe disappointed. all. M. thetime By accompanies he ofH. Recognition. novelsmake. of This manifests itself understanding eruption thenew and thedifferent. (p. permitting romance becametheidiomin whichnationalist sentiment founditsmostdeeply petty felt narratives. Whateverelse one may have wanted of the discussionof romancenovels. myself. 143) It is associated with an understanding of (p. becamea mere WarofIndependence. and to scrutinizeits myself. is whatmakesthebook so valuableforother who are notIndonesianists. will Feminist criticics wantSiegelto be morecategorical narratological in identifying womenas themereinstruments masculine of national formation subject and in stating thatit is female like characters. save thatthequalitiesof theoriginalare difference betweenimageand appearance. the to to suchthematizations Siegelcan permit stories workforus as they that might havefor their readers. They are of nottheobject a thematized itis in his resistance Indeed.
certain to of of is hereunderstood be thecondition possibility literature. Thereare manysuchgestures specification Fetish. well as a certain copying. citing following enigmatic passage. a jest to be enjoyedbut not as Indeed. 190)And he focuses on veryapotheosis theprocessthat (p. Hong University .. A briefexample of this tacticcomes fromChapterEight.inwhich womanmarvels at herhusband'sdoubledexistence thetrust elicits and he from boththerakyat the and Dutch: is The Humanity stillpure. Independent spacing. Princeton 1983).wherehe in into in the himself thetext theveryactof that moment whicha copyist states copies of A as he alienation. ambition achievement. 191) in people ofKadungora. the of She describes miraculousness thefact he was tricking Dutch the that.trans. marking bookas theenactment perform important specifications texts of thanthereflection deconstructionist rather reading. 11SerenKierkegaard. the He gestureof Freudian(dream)interpretation. a describes role the independence. does Siegelperform classic a on Thus treated itssurface. seemsto inform takentoo earnestly Siegel'sapproachto the exceptin itsobservation. The Recognition. mosttranslated Siegel. reducing butnotsuperficially. they (p. of the the question purity." whichSiegelinterrogates writings variousindividuals the that to submitted a contestmarkingthe thirtieth of of anniversary the proclamation One submission comesfrom womanwho.She finds proof solidarity this her as 31. literally. thewoman'sremarks therelationship between thepeople. logics surfaces of speech throughassociative linkages that will have to be pursued and retrospectively without guarantee. whichreiterate without thecontent thecitation.and the regarding money. Kierkegaard's specters.11 accountsof the storiesand novels from which he practice in of "fetish appearance" of unfold thetext a strange as derives notion modernity's his a as witheach itself kindofre-writing.instead.000co-residents betrayed man. physician. in of Revolution.Thinkof thewages whichtherakyat paid directly! on appreciationof the Dutch towardFather's[the husband's] influence the had fullconfidence father. a the for playedin "educating" masses(rakyat) independence. HowardV. "Repetition" Fear Trembling/Repetition. achievesthestatus authorship.170 RosalindMorris and Kafkawho seem to be themostnaughtily and obtusely Kierkegaard persistent notionof repetition.. although whileappearing be their to he in of collaborator. herhusband. citation The of is statements. in and ed. he understands explanatory circulating beyondtheir gesture the of Soewardiinaugurated."Collaborationand in CautiousRebellion. and Edna H.in whicha space inscribes the of This and effort specify content thereferent.inwriting. Siegeldescribes writing an of thefearthatpeople experience when theybelieve their names to be explanation and this as control. is bothappropriate performative to of that of ofthenotion authorship Siegeldevelopsat thebeginning thebook. resists hermeneutic gesturethat would seek a correspondingly and meaningforany utterance singleand originary willmanifest in thatunconscious themselves thetransformed assumes.are generally numerous followed summary by by quotations. citational and the ofhis own authorial logicand therepetitive an of this labor. The of readingitself. Kadungora. was notturned by theinhabitants his in thefactthatnotone of the of their district. (Princeton: Press.herhusband."copying" it were.
Siegelfollows: moredeeply: do nottalk. Again at that itself across the space of mass-mediation. hierarchical. point. says. One mightsay. understands. Siegel identifies the transmitting such mediated And again and again."(p. Theypay. Siegel exchange. Siegel linguistic of for that.which moneyas gift. be thecurrency their A the [Duke worksto date (excluding evenmorerecent NewCriminal inIndonesia Type . at that of residedin thefeeling proximity one experienced communicating a through of the and again." role differentiating withtheword. They appreciate. tokenof theiresteem.that moneyhas lost its for can dimension. conclusion that. then.and they talk.theypay wages to mark that appreciationor theydo not appreciate. a and moneyin thewoman'swriting. could becometheinstrument therevolution's possibility traversing It and into conversion something repressive.Theywould have ceased tobe functionaries. is. indicates. 191). is. they in would have had difficulty continuing their their "Without wages. they not him." is. As unitary. This as a sourceofcontamination. appreciate of take it.thefunctionaries of It the work. the spreading wordofwho one really (p. 191. In the context the Indonesian particular historically ethnographically even as it held open the communication he could prevent revolution. gift gesture that understands of antecedents thoseorganized monetary Instead. rakyat. gift. then. It their that "'The people' pay wages and itindicates purity. substance be an irreversible Thiswould be thereflex to of dislocation value from to oneswho imagine economies be themere ofless accomplished readers. is led to be believe. respect. read the fact.he findspeople resisting heartof revolution. people ofthisclass. rather. distance.Revolution 171 Fetish. however." relationships in of The progression Siegel'sreading thepassagejustcitedis rather breath-taking.itis thisforce. to be associated vengeance likely in in thatit mustbe understood He communication. short.is. Recognition. opposed to talk. notthathe discerns relationship of (Levibetweenthesign and money.Her is circulating onlyin definedcircumstances.myemphasis) the of from strange thanthisin extracting juxtaposition Siegel will go even further in thiscontext. an opportunity. could and itdid. of content" "semantic He bothin itsreachand itsrapidity. cannot oriented Siegel's of Thisis themosthistorically of cancellation.'and 'functionary. the seems to overturn previousone and it announcesits own subsequentstatement "But. one But'thepeople' pay as a signoftheir Precisely."' Siegel's between thatensuresa difference Yet. as he says. the to do forthesamereasonthey notreport camat theDutch. an isomorphic is The therevolution. is as can by moneycan be contained fetishism.finally.He does not repeatthetruisms structuralist nor Straussianor Foucaultian)analysis and findabsolute contingency. ofmoney one understand. force languageand ofcommunication. by It communication. money purity "a It a as "does not function payment.One cannot will nor will knowin advanceifrevolutions succeed. continued of and ways.currency of It of distance.the point is history. Here. signification whichmoney. goes beyondtheseeming the statement (and its broader context)to find evidence of a complex logic of of all in and socialrelations precedethesubjects language. no longerstandas a substitute thelinguafranca."nota successstory.Thosewho do not But had did who wishtobe hisenemy.thethreat therevolution remarking goes stillfurther. payment wages the'people. as cancellation deferral. circulateswithoutlimit. one sees the solidarity the rakyat. of far as the theorization money goes. respect. be used to prohibit as as withgifting exchange."He thenprobestheremark their is.
if it is a modernity" errorand. moves between betweenparagraphstoward the book's end where Siegel finally and "modernism. The "With thefetish modernity of K.citing own self-representation a singleletter with while invoking idea of the the writer's as and whathe describes thefailure literature of cryptogram usingit to slidebetween The nameofthewriter in Indonesiaand thehighmodernist literature FranzKafka. passagecontinues. moreexciting. first of to But the he reflect thestory: confesses killing." (p. He is nottheoutcome thepathofnationalism have traced. carries his the of coincidence-the who out for rolein theIndonesian without understanding larger ever the struggle independence whichhe works. movement the often becomevisiblebecause ofa failedrepetition. otherdifferences.to achieve the power of whata Dutchman be The "K imagining might thinking. differences scrutiny." of was Modernism would have defeated modernityif it could have recognized the power of language as the inherent the lingua francaas itbecame a nationallanguage. showsthat thefetish modernism nottheonlyway to independence.172 RosalindMorris is morevisible Press. repetition of leads to a So." One might by-pass-as mere resonance between narrator theconfession. is describing another a contestant."One wonders. the passed thisresonancehimself. beyondthis.A summary a of and difference. thus. Butone surmises thatSiegelis too knowing writer have bya to and so one wants to pursue it further.. has been set aside. 216) in K anotherpossibility power of non-identity..The willbecomeclear. writing It is in thediscussionofK (on page 216) thatSiegelslips betweenthe "fetish of and the "fetishof modernism. Indeed. 1. reasonsthat Siegelin a The The reasonconcerns contents the footnote.thedoubtis notwithout University merit. passagebegins." (p. as thereare so manyin thelatter sectionof thebook (for typographical Princeton whichfact Pressoughtto apologize). Siegel "modernity" his to of man who recounts submission slogansand his killing Dutch soldiers. witha repetition thetext. "fetish modernity. and "K" or "Joseph of TheTrialand TheCastle. Siegel achievesthisanalysis achieves purpose-in Kierkegaard's its sense. ." (p. Take. "won no prize" but he "represents In Siegel'stext. makesclearhis affection theplay of initials a means of engagingthe for as preface of and of itself. initially. of to at who confesses hurling grenades theDutchis "K. forexample. 216) K does place aftersuch recognition 12Footnote 274." This time. the of formed whena certain linguistic power became evidentwhen it seemed to summonauthority it. writer the who imagined himself a Dutchman as as only to disavow identification a Dutchmanand.. themovement But finds reasonlaterin thetextand turns (it seems) to its out have beenmorethanaccidental. thereby someelements givesthemup formorecareful."Siegeluses thisnotion passwordin a complexkindofjest. and and text estranges But and Indeed." "for remarks nameofthismanis withheld." of we Insteadhe is alignedwithSoewardi. thence. 216) And he against remarksthatthe "full appropriationof the forceof language perhaps could only take awakened awareness of linguisticpower.1998])and itsinsistence uponhistoricizationnowhere University of thanin thistreatment money. problem alphabetization.p. writings theuse of upon of the "passwords. thereare otherrepetitions.12 reasonsare at leasttwo-fold. K" scenariowithin These "K"s remainsimilarly blind to the logic of thatsystemto which theyare on nonetheless call.
and a one manin whomhe finds thwarted possibility in madnessthat kepthima prisoner his own home. program. The profits in houseinsideofwhichwere: obtained thismanner permit Dollyto "builda masonry The storycontinues. produceartor literature. a man as gives a to to beholden slogansand thepoweroftheforeign: revolutionary subject the utterly of a time the hand.he us thetwo possibilities separatelives." whichwas written 1948 in "Flunky PramoedyaAnantaToer's shortstory. Siegelgivesus morethanviolence. it exemplifies.we have K. and acts out the same strategy. saysSiegel. Rodinah.to thecolonialmasters whomtheslavishservants attaches in It themselves. Gradually. Siegel. also givesus theworkof the ofbothrevolution literature. subject. she and however.despitetheinsistent AnantaToer. has manwho." (p.believing soundedoff after other!" thatshe has becomethe objects "Who can compete?"(p. this one named Inah."Noteventhetworadiosand thegramophone understood" cause ofherillness(p. might. whenhe couldfind enough is thislatter figure. whenshedies.all degeneration in Revolution. a Freudian thisis what Siegel findsin Pramoedya'swork. lucid:Pramoedya has remained In the last sectionof thebook. 244-5)In thisstory. who exhibitsthe mark of Kafka's epistolaryand in a pronoun thethird person." They posit they and yet with the promiseof possessionof it. 235). thatK's in the "Epilogue. might perhapshave becomea writer. might fathers persuadessix menthatthey extractsfromthem supportfor the child who is "50 percent"hers.Siegel providesa fulltranslation analysisof and + Maid. foreignness submit to to itself themen."thatSiegel concludeshis discussionof K and remarks in violenceinstead. It is was in prisonas a counter-revolutionary. and of whom thetwinpossibilities literature madnesswould be united.Instead.is also here. a tale ofgenealogical whilePramoedya in and for and abjection thecolonialcontext." "Nightand day these three one the And Dolly. Recognition. he Recognition. He In theend. attempting avertrecognition." in theoriginal) one ofher who is re-Christened mother. writing.Revolution 173 Fetish. and sisternamed Sobi and Inah.A violence to fetishism. two radios and a gramophone. modernist. was suggestedby the birthof an "I" forever speaker. is also thematized theobjectsof desireand thesignsof power that + Sobi's the typified "flunky maid" seek: namely"two radios and a phonograph. produced in And and sublimated transposed reading. "Dolly" (Poppi by be whenshe becomespregnant and tuans. 235).a dissociatedfrom. Dolly gives birthto of her name. such awarenesswould have made hima properly nothave such awareness.asks herself. becomesdisenchanted.Siegeldoes Either anyonelikeArtaud. namely use ofthefirst-person autobiographical that violenceis thenpairedwiththefreedom The lunacyof thisman's inexhaustible and in excess of. ratherthan K.though.On theother in it a satisfaction killing. to It that has beenattempting theorize Fetish. in notoffer comparison for thator a madman. man Ironically called MNT.we have a man mourning end power of language.On theone hand. Pramoedyatellsof In writing about a brother this and people who investforeignness-in case bothJapaneseness Dutchness-with in tonational "a signification excessofwhat fetishistic categories powerby attributing "theforeign foreign as therefore would mean to Dutchor Japanese. the .Because he did not succumbto the with Dutchhierarchy Indonesian which nationalist merely replaced hierarchy. though He and notjust a modern. dolly anotherchild. and is Pramoedya botha revolutionary a writer.
The story commensurability a betweenlanguages. and which renders her ethicallyand politicallyimpotent.13 131am indebted heretoAvital Ronell's "TheWorst of essay. witha certain aboutSiegel'smovement. degeneration. sergeant") of makeshim And itis histelling thestory." "mental thelatter's (p. The radiosand thegramophone like thetelephone. such. saysSiegel. "modernity" "modernism." rather thanreproduction. theirony et insteadof"divide Dollybecomeslikea "realdoll. franca. longerobeying but likeany automaton (and anylong-playing record).Dollyexperiences dislocation herbodyand mind. And it unitary putatively in It comesbackat bestonlyambiguously thevoiceofthenarrator. Siegelpasses by through technology "hear the foreign. dissimulation of are beingonlya rank("native Althoughtheorigins thegenealogy lost. be of that as something added." textrepeatsthe recurring content a foreign of languagebecomemeresounds: "yua apprehended imperfectly alwees in mai haat. Neighborhoods theReal:PhilosophyDiacritics 1989. comesback. which makes K of TheCastlea man who is always "on call. says Siegel. 1.rather. Siegel describes it is thatthrough are that away." (p. In writing storyof inevitable absolute incommensurability which would have overcomesthe fetish." And in so doing. Pramoedya insinuatesthat is and the something foreign to be foundat home.Pramoedya "hearstheforeign" as to contain foreignness recognizing by attempted to domesticate and thereby theverypossibility without it." even beforehe instrument the of knows what summons him. words in which the His of recognition. Telephone-Contamination. former commands."She hears"divideand surrender" to becomesa narrative corruption of and And theeffort writea genealogy impera. tellsthestory. the confuse names forthings. Pramoedya it.174 RosalindMorris in own philosophy theforeign an authorial in of jest. says Siegel.Thus does he escape nationalism for of substitution Indonesian inequality Dutchinequity." the use of the "+" sign both evokes and ridiculesthe fantasyof total .that Pramoedya which exceeds the individual and the spokespersonof a positionforsomething voice of speakers. It is foreign (dare technology. myopinion." One wants him to pause and which Pramoedya's characters in "soundedoff after one the consider moment whichtheradiosand thegramophones in withthem. Siegeldiscovers Pramoedya's The characters withwhichhe narrates story. the story.Pramoedyagrantstechnology statusof the lingua whichone hearsold sounds from far as it."What has been effacedcomes back.She dies and the standsas cause and are Here a technology radios and gramophone dumbfounded. of lies in its unsettling thetitle." 235) The "worldkeeps turning. she does not. technology the foreign one say the mass media) which seduces Dolly.Just the other!"And the moment whichDolly's heart"reverberated" the of the no she before dies. 251) The real irony thatin thetitle. however. something cannot held back. the survivorof a human death.there of at the beginning the accountof originsand not a person's identity." the of ironizedfetish Pramoedya's text: would have pursuedmorecompletely other In tooquickly theinstruments itself. "upset[s] attempting words of Sobi. again and again. slip his One can therefore curiosity persist And one can wish thathe from to betweenrepetitions. Siegel remarks if does nothing notdemonstrate the between languages.1." "Flunky + Maid.
is difficult want this.have 14Kittler." But thesetwo categories not exhaustall possibilities. 1990). namely the autonomization and even the Friedrich Kittler (in sense)ofthebodyvis-a-vis technologization Heidegger's language.pp.For in the end.a material. loss ofpropernamesin "Flunky+ Maid" sharesmuch K. to The transparency. Pramoedyaputs and madnessstandas the other. But when Siegel concludeshis book by suggesting thedesireforunity that whichunderlines fetish modernity the of thefailure theIndonesian of it is difficult disagree. Had he pursued this secret have wantedto draw out the lineage(whichis also one of corruption). articulates leaves a remainder and thatthe Siegel the primary principlethatall assimilation of is of The acknowledgment thatremainder theprerequisite literature.Pramoedya's characters whichforeign are overtaken theinstruments voices speak and offer their by through seductions. fantasy a unifiedIndonesianculture(a fantasy cultural has been all too complicit) a muchgreater violence. 341. as do it. might "Bare and dismembered well have been Siegel writing. Siegel instruments. though Siegeldoes not." Eastern in Western (New York:Carroll Skies and Graf. latter also describes thosewho. Bothrevolution recurrent Under the possibilities. has indeedidentified suchan impulsein Kafka.that between communication and. gramophone. and social) thatresultedfromthatviolence. it When Pramoedyaends "Flunky+ Maid" by describing as a simple story."din. of withKafka'sstories K and Joseph Thoughthequotecomesfrom it Kittler."14 Difference hereas surely a scratch the continuous as on history erupts of the surface vinylenters sound ofthemusicbeingplayed.Revolution 175 Fetish. the desire to possess and containthatwhich comes fromoutside. have fusedwiththeir rubric. as Siegel suggests.Thisresidue as Siegelhimself central Pramoedya's to is. whenhe remarks thatthosewho reducing everything the of kill he for perceive tediousness thisprocessmustsurely themselves. names cannot supporta of Bildung. Skies.For. notes.likeMNT. And one can surmise. Recognition. modernists. the gramophoneis a far bettermetaphorfor the transmission whichconveysthe factof transmission thanthe camera. thereby achieving what Pramoedya only describes. . 15Joseph A "Karain: Memory. least in Kittler's analysis. violenceutterly in repressed thetheme parkwithwhichSiegelopens his book.as so to revolution.in its exaltstheillusionofflawless assimilation naturalism. 129-60.to want it to have It to becomingone withtheir happened morethanit did (and it happeneda lot). Conrad. suicidesare those people who still operate according to the dualism of meaning and The at meaninglessness. Siegelmight differences between and modernism more than movement his between terms modernity What began with the camera should perhaps have ended with the permits. Discourse Networks. sound of thegramophone itself never is and certainly as repressible not as absolutely repressible is thelens.which. as the And. of de Modernist writers theEuropeanfin siecle have attempted inscribe to the might and sound ofthattransmission themselves writing into machines. explains many other fine Indonesianists (many of them influenced by Siegel) have the of with which demonstrated. well as Artaudand thesurrealists. story. rifles. p. anthropology performed The deaths (intellectual."15 exile's colonialstory the in which a gramophone also stands as figureof modernity's of fetish.are thosewho have abandoned such oppositionsfor another. and to eatingand defecation.thatthisis how one repays his debt and takeshis revengeon Conrad's "Karain.
probably 16Siegelcites of Pemberton's account thetheme See from John Indonesia.' park.176 RosalindMorris In also been effaced. "Recollections 'Beautiful Public Culture (1994): thePostmodern). anthropology apoliticalfashion. wantto dustoff someolderfetishes. Revolution. For this.not only Indonesianists. are allowed to hauntonce Recognition. (Somewhere 6.2 Beyond . however. otherSoutheastAsianistsand social of and of be anthropologists-to nothing historians theorists modernism-must say And in the wake of this book. as structuralist Those who fearits radicality will. it will be impossible to dismiss postgrateful." 241-262. they but again.16 Fetish.