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Fetish, Recognition, Revolution by James T. Siegel Review by: Rosalind Morris Indonesia, No. 67 (Apr., 1999), pp.

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Suchdismissals onlyrepeata falseSimmelian not radicalism premise. significance. Grammatology. too as and. uncommon that with and precision the extentto which post-structuralism demands and facilitatesa consistency.a to rebuff thespuriousaxiologythatanthropology chosento inherit has magnificent from the that would opposenotonlyhistory fashion. to graspas OfGrammatology3-is it demonstrates. notes. post-structuralism "in" to it and an (whether or "out")is partoftheattempt contain nullify by suggesting Thatwhichcan go outoffashion no historical has To ephemeral quality.And it is similarly and in rooted thephilosophical of announces to project post-structuralism.And itis in abouttheworkings fetishism theconstitution modernity. in "Foreword. Siegel. Derrida. James Siegel'sbook. This astonishing texthas the promiseforanthropology that Kittler's DiscourseNetworks forliterary has criticism media studies. concerns relationships It the betweenthe emergence of the of and Melayuas a "linguafranca.1 book." formation a new kindofauthorial subject. Networks.It is workings desirein the space betweencolonizers abouttheplace ofmoney and commerce. In merely fantasy. University 1 Friedrich Discourse trans.modernity which of of in a theforce nationalism of would survive and indeedthwart moreradicalpossibility the ofrevolution.according Wellbery. of post-structuralism yetto be actualized assertsthatthe profound has radicality within institutions American the of criticism. is. Siegel'spreface readersthatthe book is indebtedto JacquesDerrida. Revolution-a book almostas difficult Recognition. Revolution.most notablyGeorge McT.JacquesLacan. and and philosophy. literary Such a foreword well introduce T. University Rosalind Morris In his "Foreword"to the Englishtranslation Friedrich of Kittler's monumental David Wellbery chastises certain a in Networks. might Recognition. University 2 David Wellbery.Revolution. and but GeorgSimmel: axiology also experience representation. thought thattheeffort render to rather as something fashion of acerbically. Givenitsobjects. the Indonesianrevolution. anthropology Revolution a book aboutthehistory force languagein is and of Fetish. beingprecisely fashionable Whatis so marvelous aboutFetish.Fetish. at thesame time. the of and colonizedindividuals.275pages. Princeton: Princeton JamesT.1990)."2 contrast. is de rigeur dismissworkwritten it to undertheir influence as and. withthe immediate Siegel'sbookdemands comparison other"classics" of the field. in manycircles.1976). Fetish. beingno longerin fashion.Discourse tendency American to as merely He criticism dismisspost-structuralist out-dated fashion. to but they "wish-fulfillment he are.1997.vii. Michael Indonesia 67 (April 1999) . Press. is is claims to say thatpost-structuralismno longerfashionable to say thatits first wereexcessive. 3 Jacques trans. Metteer withChrisCullens(Stanford: Stanford Kittler. p. companions anthropology. Gayatri John Of Chakravorty Spivak(Baltimore: Hopkins Press. and Martin Thesearenotaltogether common intellectual in Heidegger.Recognition." Discourse Networks. It politicallyengaged and empiricallygrounded anthropology. Recognition. thecirculation signs. Kahin's Nationalism and Press. and of rumor. in short.

and that seems to be the case in the writingof In Indonesia'srevolutionary a Revolution. Anderson's Java a Time Revolution. magicofdissemination-turned-dissimulation whichitis not. freedom bornin themoment thatthe who suffer effects thatdislocation coloniallaw comes to bear on individuals the of between substanceand appearance which is the resultof commodification. possibility Thisis notbecause he has abandonedthe"real. and through kind of communication-at-alanguage form bothitsliterary itseconomicdimensions) and distancethatthecommodity (in permitted.164 RosalindMorris in and R.one can surmise thegenesisofthisargument the relationships betweenmoney.and historical transformation in lies of of The fetishism. Press. will quickly become mandatory readingforall scholarsof both Indonesianand other(failed) movements. Siegel. recognition produces says annulling sametime.theother foreignness specter haunting Siegelseemsto come from Marx'sobservation "Ideas .ofcourse. moreparticularly. (New York: Manuscripts 1844. 167-8. revolutionary in The materials whichSiegelreadsthecauses."6 a something the whichSiegelreminds nonetheless us to requires lookofanother becomefelt the by who possessesit is themagicofthefetish.. ina Time Revolution R. Java of University 6 KarlMarx.Its first sourcecan be foundin The and Marxdescribes Economic Philosophic Manuscripts 1844. that about Thoughhe does notciteit. Publishers. Cornell (Ithaca: 1972). Unviersity 4 GeorgeMcT. .1952).novels. theseearliermonuments. 5 Benedict O'G. as Siegel is perhapsless cynicalthanMarx about thenatureof such freedom it in thecontext commodity of relations. of wereproducedin and through he believesthatthesubjects Indonesian modernity in the and. The of and risks itat the thefetish appearances. wherea process generalization of suchmagictakesin thecolonial inbotheconomic linguistic and forms producing possibility a certain was the kindof of for It a freedom colonialsubjects. and departsfrom.wherein of money'sability one's actualcapacities one's appearance: "transform insert gap between a and to to all and intotheircontrary. International pp. Recognition. Anderson.language. effects revolutionary and of in Indonesiaare unusualones foranthropologists: essays. whichboth leans upon. rather.letters. is. is concerned one withtheform that Siegel milieuofIndonesia." Marxian For. ironically. "specter of Siegel'sre-reading Marx'searlytreatment commodity Marx"thathauntsthisbook is.traces. Fetish. "cultural in becausehe wantstofind because but.. DirkJ. he holds fastto Marx'ssingular But emerges thatit is notin a parallel between the insight moneyand languagethatone discovers but in the analogy that would link money with "the magic of the commodity oflanguage.book history. first that have tobe translated oftheir out mother and therefore the analogy that tongueinto a foreign tonguein orderto circulate" betweenmoneyand languageexistsonlyinsofar thelatter understood mean as is to Nationalism Revolution Indonesia and in (Ithaca: Cornell Press.Kahin.5 of a It maybe thecase thattwo decades mustpass before new classiccan be added to the canon of so-named texts." to turn"each [ofone's own] powers into my incapacities Thismagic.Struik of 1964)."nor and otherliterary productions. doubled.TheEconomic Philosophical and ed. in Revolution Indonesia4 Benedict O'G. any case. meaning" literary production.

supposedlycapable (p. gestures Sucha "sharedlinguistic milieu"(p." language that a traverses differences is therefore all and of totaltranslation. "Als ik eens Nederlander was" intoMelayu. is and bornoftheaspiration universal to linguafranca. And it is the factof thisstructure constitutes that both the historical and for to ground thelegitimating argument Siegel'sattention literature: In suchan age oftranslation. that thisstructure "hearing of outsideofsocialidentity" Indeed. been one that fantasizesthe possibilityof total commensurability or movesin theoppositedirection. of the "lingua franca. but theyare the ones who claim for to givereaders theworld.forthe Siegelsuggests in failureof revolution Indonesia. language. accounts. by the part of the speaker:"The 'I' of the lingua francais not fullyinhabitedby its of speaker.Siegel extends Marx's own nonetheless. a readingofMohammedBakir's todiscussthecorollary sucha universal of the prosody. of about thehistory Melayu is. p. is .Siegelargues constitutes definitive the attribute themass mediated of that audience. whileacknowledging any that Siegel translatability. It therefore. Penguin.as "Djika Saya Nederlander.in thecase form. Both and thestructuralist to translation. of for necessary The first of of argument the textconcernsthe emergence a modernauthorial For in themoment thatthewriter subjectivity. is a freedom characterized thenon-identity of ultimately by that and therealization difference that (boththe"difference" Marxpositedas subjects of theinternal betweenuse-valueand exchangevalue. contradiction thecommodity and thetemporally deferred dimension identified Derrida'sterm diffrrance) of is the by condition possibility revolution. 163. precisely thatthismisunderstanding in translation. Nicolaus(Harmondsworth: Grundrisse. francais important because throughit one imagines otheridentitiesand can. not .an attribute is in from political the moment which inseparable globalliteratures begantobe translated into Melayu. Recognition. within text when'I' speakfrom the and embody the communicative there political are effects. trans.thisarticleterrified Dutchbecause it suggestedthattheywere being the "over-heard" and thattheirwords were producingunintended consequences. imagined thoughts theDutchwere. Siegel." whichis defined substitutability a lackofidentity and on pronoun. Martin 1973).. response thisobservation of course. however. not merelythatit 26) Whatis significant the ideal of a universal but thatit achievesits statusas figures impossible language." whichis imaginedto be "language itself. Melayuin particular.7 thebourgeois has.. beingoverheard peoplewho. in and by the lingua franca.The of secret however. themedium communication thedistant of with worldthrough workings money." According to Siegel. recognized. 25) takeson a particular he says. generated conclusion to make the "foreignness language" the source of a complex but of It unrealizedfreedom. werenotfully identified withthesubject positionofthe listener. largepart. by as usersofthelinguafranca. in its power to compel a 7 KarlMarx. mentally replacecolonialmasters.In an effort recoverthe radicality to thatwas. 'I' ofthelingua The poweroflanguage. the of Authorsare not merelythe producersof texts.Revolution 165 Fetish.thiskindofsubjectivity appears ofa giventext to thereaderto produceforthema sharedtemporal location."(p. namely development ofa first an "I.in thetranslation SoewardiSoerjaningrat's famousarticle. payment theaccessthey thisinaugural via Siegel movesfrom argument. 31) The consequences such an unstablepronominal positionis first of he claims.

Just value realizesitself thecommodity onlyin the of withdesire-in moment itsexchange(and is annihilated so thefigure Njai of use). him. thepost-scriptus history surrounding will as a so dense and conflicted discourse thaton fetishism perhapsbe a bitirksome trained theAnglo-American in traditions citational of Even forthosereaders practice.1990). .like Metz. Njai Dasima is theone "who embodieswhatpasses between. Dasima is associatedforSiegelwitha logicof"supplementarity. operates to book and in itsrelationships thesocialcontext itsinscription. ifhe readsthecategory theauthor terms bothtextual But of in of and so thesupplement forSiegelboth withinthe extra/inter-textual relations. whomSiegelis arguing. pp. thesensethat makes visible a quality of the originalwhich was not visible until it had been bothdrawson. ChristianMetz's understanding photography an inherently of as fetishistic device whichincites viewersto imaginea space beyondthe frame the of and serveas an inadequatesubstitution for photograph. completion." that Withacidicforeboding. and appearance. 63) She movesalongthevector theDutchman's of desirefor satisfaction the"Indonesian" and as in woman's desireformoney.theradicalpotential the and of the corollary dissolution hierarchically of organizedand displaced subject." of concept thebook. endlessly recirculating in therelationship and a certain betweensurface associatedwithexchange instability The ofa who is. Metz.Thisornamentation for is. to thenmakethephotograph For that"beyond. is annulledby the "fetish modernity." TheCritical Image. Like the improbableassignationof definitions "language" to of Chapter 2 status intellectual of footnote in Chapter One.theprofundity his departure In obscuredby thishabitof relegating to argumentation a footnote. then to of Thisis nota successstory because. capacity displaceor fissure strange resides. and overturns. fetishism occursin a footnote overviewof otherconceptsof (note 33) to actually Three." The central of with"fetish appearances. one might say. the occasionally toengagetheliteratures histories of one forgives becauseitpermits this and end."8 Siegel. fromthe start.nonetheless. 71) He does not." figures crisis She a and of representation. termthatis variously of a unifiedpower. infamous substitute/simulacrum "wife" not one. Siegel tells us that the photographwas intended to the in a it "ornament" book. wanttoknowwith themostgenerous reader mayoccasionally of from thesesof bothFreud and Marx is the Indeed. in The idea of the fetishis addressed first a series of discussions about the tale of Njai Dasima.thenotionof replaced of is to "the fetish modernity" perhapsthemostdifficult graspand it comes to the The onlyapproximation an historical of readerin a processof gradualdisclosure.166 RosalindMorris its to thatits political subjects overhearing.according Siegel. or."(p. 73) Thisobservation (p. 36-7) force he remarks "Thisis nota successstory." (p.translated. 155-64. believe thatphotography is 8 Christian and in ed.thephotograph attached thebook as an indexofthat is to which lies "outside."Photography Fetish. thebenefits everywhere And are palpable.(pp. CarolSquiers(San Francisco: Bay Press. of In a stunning abouttheuse ofthephotograph an earlypublication in of argument The Storyof Njai Dasima. becomestheobjectaroundwhomthere swirlsdistrust an and therelationships between surface and theauthenticity concerning anxiety appearance oftheoriginal. Siegel Indonesia muchmoredirectly. supplemented. a character who is.

beendevotedto understanding differences and course. much with otherFrankfurt that the between Tirtho's anxiousefforts to however. Thus. force.in discussing articles aboutphotography. of reduced"9-and thepossibility a critical Siegel's claim that Tirtho's writingsrest on an understanding the photographas being both a of of and a "condensation whatis knownand said" (p.Revolution 167 Fetish."whichpermits the false idealizationof a "photographic" which is blind precisely seeing engage of because it is incapableof seeingbeyondthesurfaces things. 102-3. . But The claimis thrilling. 47-61."10 despitethefactthat sense This "disincarnation whichrevealsa genetic his that ofthestrange shares proximity themassmediamakespossibleevenat a distance School writers.adequately 9 Siegfried in MassOrnament: Weimar ThomasY. him to For Siegel. Richard Noonday. Mass:Harvard 1995[1927]).That forceemergesin the momentthat transformative epistemologically to when forexample.. and especiallyWalterBenjamin. Thus does Siegel conclude. maybe legitimately it one feelscompelled ask whether is precisely camera.Siegfried and imagistichistory."(p.on the otherside of the year thatTirtho Kracauerwas positing muchmorefamousopposition his between world. and with introduction Thomas Levin(Cambridge. Becausethephotograph was Javanese to containthetruth its original.(p. ofsilkcan hide thefact and appearance In can more. Y.but sees in both technologies capacity to a relatively to And he attributes that capacity a politicallyand manufacture appearances. thereader discomfited here. is not thata successful of but a photograph precisely a resemblance itsreferent rather essence. Howard(New York: ReflectionsPhotography. that permitsthe mobilityfromwhich the photographderives its magic or the as the newspaper. "Photography" The Essays. as Siegel discernsherea use of thephotograph image. between the aspiration to a total photographichistory mimesis-what he called the "general of inventory a naturethatcannotbe further of assessment truth. 10RolandBarthes.In thiscontext.. Press. to the even ifonlyas a figure.thesetwo collapse intotheunityof "thecamera. of of We can observe herethedegreetowhich servesas Siegel'sinvocation technology A oriented a foilfora moreontologically has. 86) of reproduction appearances schoolanalysesthanon theBarthesian to restless on Frankfurt belief seems. a parallelbetweenthe Tirtho's Siegel posits journalistic camera and the lingua franca.it seems.the whenit is accompanied thedemandforan agencythat becomesrepressive force by can claimknowledge whatis hidden. thesame to in ran his storiesabout photography (1927). Lucida: on Camera trans. juxtaposition of the could be deemed an presumed offense. Siegel's analysis.Indeed. as a of it condensation essences. pp."Tirtho'sphotographic image is condensed 86) language. felicitous convergence Siegelfinds desireto exploit magicthatcomesto the its contain powerand Barthes photography's forehere.thatis to say. maybe helpful recallthat. appearancescannotbe trusted revealan original that is merely it cotton thatone sees in a film.to mymind. considerable body oftheory the between film photography.61. book does not. trans. Levin Kracauer. ed.1991[1990]). Thoughhe suggests much. by University pp.It is. more fetishistic than film. 85) Tirtho. Recognition.therefore. was worried about the of because theypermitted imagesin newspapersettings juxtaposition photographic noblesand soup cans to sitnextto each other. of project.the identity.thatcotton appear to be moresilkthansilkitself.

namelythatit is the relationships and thataccountforthe mass publication." Siegelis able to demonstrate theattempt actualizethiscommandmentof forms thatappearedin magazinesforexample. But.the "weldingof appearanceto language. is in of increasing powerand function thecolonialpoliceforce tobe understood terms and identity in to between ofthedemandforthem securetherelationship appearance wherea linguafranca made itpossiblefor has to crosstheotherwise a context people identification."closed down" the revolutionary potentialof literature linking"desire by and imaginationto identity"and particularly.168 Rosalind Morris betweenphotography and statewhat it reveals. Individuals who dressedlikeDutchpeople linesofnational sacrosanct stories and in actuality. Siegel and of "fetish modernity" learnsthepleasureand possibility believing of thathe can in at thatemerges therelationships become anything all.However. defer argument Siegel'sbroader recognition In like and aboutswindlers thieves. meansthatpeople discovered of By appearances.led to a new understanding on and theresponse that to of he a fetishization appearances. could signify than that moreand differently they thepossibility they intended and to oftheir achievethetransformation selvesin theeyesofothers. Thisconstitutes thereby forSiegel.thecamera between language convergence particular to the that"has thecapacity recontextualize. nonetheless. .thedemandofthemassculture was. thesubject recognition and of in The arguments substantiation arguments Section are Two." who could move between can attention myself to bothappearance through languagesand positions. nationalidentity. this. betweenthephotograph thenewspaper. but he is interested less in the prohibitions of the colonial order than in the imaginary possibilities that were actually facilitatedby colonial encounter.Siegel (p. powerand givesto ititsfullpolitical by findsthestory a youngman who overcomes of the Mas MarcoKartodikromo.this possibility and in would need fuller articulation be convincing.possibilities that. stories Berita. newspaper.It needs therecognition others. to aboutthedemandfor that nonetheless. of play of and the of constitutes secondsection Siegel'sbook. thenexplainsthat. call others' "I" He becausethelaw responds and utterance.in theend. thatthe newspapermerelycomes as a supplementto mobilize a mightrespond thatwas bornwiththe camerabut not actualizedthere.Siegel pays respectto these analyses.Siegelextends premise his thata third is thesourceofone's subjects person In own fetishistic significance.theimitation commoditized in. negatively. learns a thatthistransformative is actually power. were. possibility a thatsomehowescapes the subjectsof different prohibitionsof the colonial law which would have forbiddenone to become what one of appeared to be if thatappearance was scandalously transgressive one's putatively proper place. Soenda the comeswithphotography. however." relativelymore easily apprehendedthan those of the "Fetish" section.""I.to "Becomewhatyou industry that to are. (p. It is a possibility between culturalbackgrounds. rather.in Tirtho's suspectedofdissimulation. in centered inter-ethnic on the relations (thosebetweenIndonesian discussing literature studentsand Dutch people in Holland and those betweendifferently ethnicized in Java). itis stillwanting the to argument text. effort thepartofthepolice. 104) (p. Student Hidjau." 85) It is."Recognition. and image.especially when that crossing entailed sexual relations. 102) Much has been writtenabout the extrememeasures taken in Indonesia to preventthe crossingof culturaland nationalboundaries. To focus too narrowlyon the camera and the problemof juxtapositionis.It is not. and is.Here. as Adorno once said.

who mustdie to makethe Revolution. reactionary in in the erroneous thatcharacters the eminently assumption popular Sino-Malay thattotaltranslation possible. (p. permitting romance becametheidiomin whichnationalist sentiment founditsmostdeeply petty felt narratives. They are of nottheobject a thematized itis in his resistance Indeed. it becomes possible to anticipate. she comprehendhow radical a notion the "trace" mightbe. in of of made manifest theimage. is also whyother like like This scholars. in Muchoftherest thebookmaps thehistory whichStudent of Hidjau's encounter into the repressive with an imaginary freedom converted is pursuitof a national that would merelysubstitutefor Dutch hegemonyby containingand identity and muchpathosin this the logicofhierarchy unity. Siegelfinds reproducing latter's that a processwhichhe suggestsis born in the existential homesickness process. point.rather thanthe as. the path thatSiegel will at thathe willhave to follow. thispointin the book. thetime By accompanies he ofH. modernity quitesimply. there manyoccasions. on operations thelevel of textual although practice.there no ofAtjeh (DjeumpaAtjeh. Siegel intothenovels about brokendesireand eros at the providesus withgreatinsight boundariesof ethnic readersto understand how it was that community. and to scrutinizeits myself.Onlybad translation. becamea mere WarofIndependence. Theywill notbe disappointed. simply ideological critique. of the death-knell revolution. the to to suchthematizations Siegelcan permit stories workforus as they that might havefor their readers. is as wishes forhis reader to experience of his own writing thoughSiegel something of of theorists-in orderthat practice-anexperience beinghaunted thetraces other by the from fetishism wouldidentify that imageand origin. within therealization one has a foreign that element oneself.But thesefactsare not disguisedin Fetish. Sitti Saniah. that and and communists weretobecome youths thevictims an authoritarian whoseviolences of state have knownfewlimits. 143) It is associated with an understanding of (p. forSiegel. of This manifests itself understanding eruption thenew and thedifferent. Recognition.Revolution 169 Fetish. how different would be it Whatof theseinterlocuters? hearsDerrida'sdiscourse "supplementarity" One on the and Lacan's understanding of throughout book. After we knowthattheIndonesian revolution follow. will Feminist criticics wantSiegelto be morecategorical narratological in identifying womenas themereinstruments masculine of national formation subject and in stating thatit is female like characters. one feels Recognition. M.Butin his prosestyle. are whenreadingFetish. myself. says. Freud'snotionof theuncanny formation be felt can between and behindthelines.it is to that a testimony thesuccessofSiegel'sargument therestofthebook is notsimply narration that of but it to and toilluminate how the denouement that continues explore in course of history Indonesiawas determined the forms representation of that by of moments: theworkings languageand itsrelationships to dominated by subsequent other of This technologies transmission. novelsmake. that Revolution. are probablygoing to read the book as literature.namely is especially of oftheconcept "love"and "cinta. save thatthequalitiesof theoriginalare difference betweenimageand appearance. scholars. all." seento cause deathor other is catastrophe. Whateverelse one may have wanted of the discussionof romancenovels. of thedomestication theforeign 158). Recognition. is whatmakesthebook so valuableforother who are notIndonesianists.Flower is 1928).This "victory thefetish appearance"is. Zainuddin'snovel. in likea diviner searchof theghostly interlocuters It whomSiegel is engaging. is it subject . Yet.

000co-residents betrayed man.inwhich womanmarvels at herhusband'sdoubledexistence thetrust elicits and he from boththerakyat the and Dutch: is The Humanity stillpure.are generally numerous followed summary by by quotations. herhusband. Kadungora. logics surfaces of speech throughassociative linkages that will have to be pursued and retrospectively without guarantee. of the the question purity."copying" it were. citing following enigmatic passage. 191) in people ofKadungora. Siegeldescribes writing an of thefearthatpeople experience when theybelieve their names to be explanation and this as control. a the for playedin "educating" masses(rakyat) independence. marking bookas theenactment perform important specifications texts of thanthereflection deconstructionist rather reading.inwriting. Princeton 1983[1843]). the He gestureof Freudian(dream)interpretation. reducing butnotsuperficially. The Recognition. whichreiterate without thecontent thecitation. physician. although whileappearing be their to he in of collaborator.herhusband. in of Revolution. the of She describes miraculousness thefact he was tricking Dutch the that.. citational and the ofhis own authorial logicand therepetitive an of this labor. they (p. The of readingitself.and the regarding money. a jest to be enjoyedbut not as Indeed. Hong University . Kierkegaard's specters. well as a certain copying. he understands explanatory circulating beyondtheir gesture the of Soewardiinaugurated." whichSiegelinterrogates writings variousindividuals the that to submitted a contestmarkingthe thirtieth of of anniversary the proclamation One submission comesfrom womanwho. literally. certain to of of is hereunderstood be thecondition possibility literature. was notturned by theinhabitants his in thefactthatnotone of the of their district. ambition achievement.She finds proof solidarity this her as 31. 11SerenKierkegaard. 190)And he focuses on veryapotheosis theprocessthat (p. thewoman'sremarks therelationship between thepeople.11 accountsof the storiesand novels from which he practice in of "fetish appearance" of unfold thetext a strange as derives notion modernity's his a as witheach itself kindofre-writing.trans. Thereare manysuchgestures specification Fetish. achievesthestatus authorship. in and ed. A briefexample of this tacticcomes fromChapterEight. citation The of is statements. (Princeton: Press. does Siegelperform classic a on Thus treated itssurface. is bothappropriate performative to of that of ofthenotion authorship Siegeldevelopsat thebeginning thebook.Thinkof thewages whichtherakyat paid directly! on appreciationof the Dutch towardFather's[the husband's] influence the had fullconfidence father.170 RosalindMorris and Kafkawho seem to be themostnaughtily and obtusely Kierkegaard persistent notionof repetition. HowardV. mosttranslated Siegel.instead. "Repetition" Fear Trembling/Repetition.wherehe in into in the himself thetext theveryactof that moment whicha copyist states copies of A as he alienation. Independent spacing.. and Edna H. a describes role the independence."Collaborationand in CautiousRebellion. resists hermeneutic gesturethat would seek a correspondingly and meaningforany utterance singleand originary willmanifest in thatunconscious themselves thetransformed assumes.in whicha space inscribes the of This and effort specify content thereferent. seemsto inform takentoo earnestly Siegel'sapproachto the exceptin itsobservation.

It their that "'The people' pay wages and itindicates purity. be thecurrency their A the [Duke worksto date (excluding evenmorerecent NewCriminal inIndonesia Type . read the fact. gift gesture that understands of antecedents thoseorganized monetary Instead. In the context the Indonesian particular historically ethnographically even as it held open the communication he could prevent revolution. they not him. respect. gift. notthathe discerns relationship of (Levibetweenthesign and money." is. as cancellation deferral. One mightsay. however.itis thisforce. is led to be believe. respect. rather. appreciate of take it. says.thefunctionaries of It the work. force languageand ofcommunication.'and 'functionary. an opportunity. cannot oriented Siegel's of Thisis themosthistorically of cancellation."' Siegel's between thatensuresa difference Yet. opposed to talk. Siegel identifies the transmitting such mediated And again and again. could becometheinstrument therevolution's possibility traversing It and into conversion something repressive. This as a sourceofcontamination. payment wages the'people."nota successstory.myemphasis) the of from strange thanthisin extracting juxtaposition Siegel will go even further in thiscontext. 191.Theywould have ceased tobe functionaries.Her is circulating onlyin definedcircumstances. 191). to be associated vengeance likely in in thatit mustbe understood He communication. is. signification whichmoney. the spreading wordofwho one really (p.thethreat therevolution remarking goes stillfurther. of far as the theorization money goes. one But'thepeople' pay as a signoftheir Precisely.Thosewho do not But had did who wishtobe hisenemy. be used to prohibit as as withgifting exchange.Revolution 171 Fetish. as he says.currency of It of distance. the seems to overturn previousone and it announcesits own subsequentstatement "But. hierarchical.the point is history. Again at that itself across the space of mass-mediation. money purity "a It a as "does not function payment. point." relationships in of The progression Siegel'sreading thepassagejustcitedis rather breath-taking. Siegel linguistic of for that. could and itdid. of content" "semantic He bothin itsreachand itsrapidity. ofmoney one understand. Siegelfollows: moredeeply: do nottalk."(p. rakyat. As unitary. Here. Theypay. goes beyondtheseeming the statement (and its broader context)to find evidence of a complex logic of of all in and socialrelations precedethesubjects language. tokenof theiresteem.and they talk.He does not repeatthetruisms structuralist nor Straussianor Foucaultian)analysis and findabsolute contingency. no longerstandas a substitute thelinguafranca. at that of residedin thefeeling proximity one experienced communicating a through of the and again. distance. They appreciate. the to do forthesamereasonthey notreport camat theDutch. is. then.that moneyhas lost its for can dimension.which moneyas gift.theypay wages to mark that appreciationor theydo not appreciate. substance be an irreversible Thiswould be thereflex to of dislocation value from to oneswho imagine economies be themere ofless accomplished readers. understands. indicates. an isomorphic is The therevolution. they in would have had difficulty continuing their their "Without wages. circulateswithoutlimit. then. is as can by moneycan be contained fetishism.he findspeople resisting heartof revolution. people ofthisclass." role differentiating withtheword. one sees the solidarity the rakyat.One cannot will nor will knowin advanceifrevolutions succeed. continued of and ways.finally.is. by It communication. Siegel exchange. Recognition. short. conclusion that."He thenprobestheremark their is. a and moneyin thewoman'swriting.

216) K does place aftersuch recognition 12Footnote 274. makesclearhis affection theplay of initials a means of engagingthe for as preface of and of itself." This time. thence. the of formed whena certain linguistic power became evidentwhen it seemed to summonauthority it. witha repetition thetext." "for remarks nameofthismanis withheld. thereby someelements givesthemup formorecareful.thedoubtis notwithout University merit."Siegeluses thisnotion passwordin a complexkindofjest. He is nottheoutcome thepathofnationalism have traced.1998])and itsinsistence uponhistoricizationnowhere University of thanin thistreatment money. of to at who confesses hurling grenades theDutchis "K. Indeed.p. 216) in K anotherpossibility power of non-identity. "fetish modernity. writing It is in thediscussionofK (on page 216) thatSiegelslips betweenthe "fetish of and the "fetishof modernism. K" scenariowithin These "K"s remainsimilarly blind to the logic of thatsystemto which theyare on nonetheless call..if it is a modernity" errorand. passagebegins. The "With thefetish modernity of K. forexample. Butone surmises thatSiegelis too knowing writer have bya to and so one wants to pursue it further.A summary a of and difference. otherdifferences. first of to But the he reflect thestory: confesses killing. the passed thisresonancehimself. as thereare so manyin thelatter sectionof thebook (for typographical Princeton whichfact Pressoughtto apologize). Take. movement the often becomevisiblebecause ofa failedrepetition. differences scrutiny. writings theuse of upon of the "passwords. 216) And he against remarksthatthe "full appropriationof the forceof language perhaps could only take awakened awareness of linguisticpower. has been set aside. themovement But finds reasonlaterin thetextand turns (it seems) to its out have beenmorethanaccidental. thereare otherrepetitions. Siegel achievesthisanalysis achieves purpose-in Kierkegaard's its sense." (p. showsthat thefetish modernism nottheonlyway to independence." of was Modernism would have defeated modernityif it could have recognized the power of language as the inherent the lingua francaas itbecame a nationallanguage." (p.172 RosalindMorris is morevisible Press. 1. passagecontinues.. repetition of leads to a So.12 reasonsare at leasttwo-fold.to achieve the power of whata Dutchman be The "K imagining might thinking."One wonders. is describing another a contestant. Siegel "modernity" his to of man who recounts submission slogansand his killing Dutch soldiers.The willbecomeclear. and "K" or "Joseph of TheTrialand TheCastle." One might by-pass-as mere resonance between narrator theconfession. initially. "won no prize" but he "represents In Siegel'stext. beyondthis. reasonsthat Siegelin a The The reasonconcerns contents the footnote." (p. moreexciting..citing own self-representation a singleletter with while invoking idea of the the writer's as and whathe describes thefailure literature of cryptogram usingit to slidebetween The nameofthewriter in Indonesiaand thehighmodernist literature FranzKafka. thus. and and text estranges But and Indeed. problem alphabetization. moves between betweenparagraphstoward the book's end where Siegel finally and "modernism. . writer the who imagined himself a Dutchman as as only to disavow identification a Dutchmanand. carries his the of coincidence-the who out for rolein theIndonesian without understanding larger ever the struggle independence whichhe works." of we Insteadhe is alignedwithSoewardi.

namely use ofthefirst-person autobiographical that violenceis thenpairedwiththefreedom The lunacyof thisman's inexhaustible and in excess of. in notoffer comparison for thator a madman. dolly anotherchild." in theoriginal) one ofher who is re-Christened mother. produced in And and sublimated transposed reading.believing soundedoff after other!" thatshe has becomethe objects "Who can compete?"(p. foreignness submit to to itself themen. who exhibitsthe mark of Kafka's epistolaryand in a pronoun thethird person.despitetheinsistent AnantaToer. It is was in prisonas a counter-revolutionary. and acts out the same strategy. the . 235). though He and notjust a modern. has manwho." They posit they and yet with the promiseof possessionof it. Siegel. He In theend. modernist.a dissociatedfrom. writing. a man as gives a to to beholden slogansand thepoweroftheforeign: revolutionary subject the utterly of a time the hand. two radios and a gramophone." "Nightand day these three one the And Dolly. man Ironically called MNT. a Freudian thisis what Siegel findsin Pramoedya'swork.he us thetwo possibilities separatelives. Pramoedyatellsof In writing about a brother this and people who investforeignness-in case bothJapaneseness Dutchness-with in tonational "a signification excessofwhat fetishistic categories powerby attributing "theforeign foreign as therefore would mean to Dutchor Japanese. might fathers persuadessix menthatthey extractsfromthem supportfor the child who is "50 percent"hers." (p."thatSiegel concludeshis discussionof K and remarks in violenceinstead. to It that has beenattempting theorize Fetish.On theone hand.we have K.Because he did not succumbto the with Dutchhierarchy Indonesian which nationalist merely replaced hierarchy.is also here. lucid:Pramoedya has remained In the last sectionof thebook.asks herself. 244-5)In thisstory." whichwas written 1948 in "Flunky PramoedyaAnantaToer's shortstory. ratherthan K. a tale ofgenealogical whilePramoedya in and for and abjection thecolonialcontext.Instead. 235).Revolution 173 Fetish. might perhapshave becomea writer.Siegeldoes Either anyonelikeArtaud. Gradually. program. saysSiegel. and sisternamed Sobi and Inah. Dolly gives birthto of her name.we have a man mourning end power of language.all degeneration in Revolution. such awarenesswould have made hima properly nothave such awareness. Rodinah. was suggestedby the birthof an "I" forever speaker. and is Pramoedya botha revolutionary a writer. and a one manin whomhe finds thwarted possibility in madnessthat kepthima prisoner his own home.On theother in it a satisfaction killing. subject. whenhe couldfind enough is thislatter figure. is also thematized theobjectsof desireand thesignsof power that + Sobi's the typified "flunky maid" seek: namely"two radios and a phonograph. thatK's in the "Epilogue. also givesus theworkof the ofbothrevolution literature. she and however. "Dolly" (Poppi by be whenshe becomespregnant and tuans. he Recognition. attempting avertrecognition. becomesdisenchanted.Siegel providesa fulltranslation analysisof and + Maid. it exemplifies. might."Noteventhetworadiosand thegramophone understood" cause ofherillness(p.A violence to fetishism. this one named Inah. whenshedies. The profits in houseinsideofwhichwere: obtained thismanner permit Dollyto "builda masonry The storycontinues. Recognition. and of whom thetwinpossibilities literature madnesswould be united.though.to thecolonialmasters whomtheslavishservants attaches in It themselves. produceartor literature. Siegelgivesus morethanviolence.

Siegel remarks if does nothing notdemonstrate the between languages. longerobeying but likeany automaton (and anylong-playing record). degeneration. the confuse names forthings. witha certain aboutSiegel'smovement. saysSiegel." the use of the "+" sign both evokes and ridiculesthe fantasyof total ." (p." One wants him to pause and which Pramoedya's characters in "soundedoff after one the consider moment whichtheradiosand thegramophones in withthem. former commands. theirony et insteadof"divide Dollybecomeslikea "realdoll. Pramoedya insinuatesthat is and the something foreign to be foundat home. It is foreign (dare technology. comesback. which makes K of TheCastlea man who is always "on call. sergeant") of makeshim And itis histelling thestory. dissimulation of are beingonlya rank("native Althoughtheorigins thegenealogy lost. the survivorof a human death. says Siegel." textrepeatsthe recurring content a foreign of languagebecomemeresounds: "yua apprehended imperfectly alwees in mai haat.Pramoedyagrantstechnology statusof the lingua whichone hearsold sounds from far as it. something cannot held back." And in so doing. says Siegel. The radiosand thegramophone like thetelephone."She hears"divideand surrender" to becomesa narrative corruption of and And theeffort writea genealogy impera. Telephone-Contamination. and which renders her ethicallyand politicallyimpotent. Neighborhoods theReal:PhilosophyDiacritics 1989." the of ironizedfetish Pramoedya's text: would have pursuedmorecompletely other In tooquickly theinstruments itself. be of that as something added. such. slip his One can therefore curiosity persist And one can wish thathe from to betweenrepetitions.13 131am indebted heretoAvital Ronell's "TheWorst of essay. she does not." "Flunky + Maid. 251) The real irony thatin thetitle. words in which the His of recognition. And it unitary putatively in It comesbackat bestonlyambiguously thevoiceofthenarrator.Dollyexperiences dislocation herbodyand mind." rather thanreproduction.1.The story commensurability a betweenlanguages. again and again. In writing storyof inevitable absolute incommensurability which would have overcomesthe fetish.that Pramoedya which exceeds the individual and the spokespersonof a positionforsomething voice of speakers. "upset[s] attempting words of Sobi." 235) The "worldkeeps turning. franca. Siegel describes it is thatthrough are that away. of lies in its unsettling thetitle. tellsthestory.Thus does he escape nationalism for of substitution Indonesian inequality Dutchinequity. "modernity" "modernism. the story. myopinion." even beforehe instrument the of knows what summons him.there of at the beginning the accountof originsand not a person's identity. however.She dies and the standsas cause and are Here a technology radios and gramophone dumbfounded. Siegeldiscovers Pramoedya's The characters withwhichhe narrates story.rather." "mental thelatter's (p.Just the other!"And the moment whichDolly's heart"reverberated" the of the no she before dies. Pramoedya it. technology the foreign one say the mass media) which seduces Dolly.174 RosalindMorris in own philosophy theforeign an authorial in of jest."What has been effacedcomes back. Siegelpasses by through technology "hear the foreign.Pramoedya "hearstheforeign" as to contain foreignness recognizing by attempted to domesticate and thereby theverypossibility without it. 1.

articulates leaves a remainder and thatthe Siegel the primary principlethatall assimilation of is of The acknowledgment thatremainder theprerequisite literature. And one can surmise. But when Siegel concludeshis book by suggesting thedesireforunity that whichunderlines fetish modernity the of thefailure theIndonesian of it is difficult disagree. loss ofpropernamesin "Flunky+ Maid" sharesmuch K. rifles. is difficult want this.likeMNT. as do it. and social) thatresultedfromthatviolence. Recognition.a material. suicidesare those people who still operate according to the dualism of meaning and The at meaninglessness."din." Eastern in Western (New York:Carroll Skies and Graf. it When Pramoedyaends "Flunky+ Maid" by describing as a simple story. Had he pursued this secret have wantedto draw out the lineage(whichis also one of corruption). the gramophoneis a far bettermetaphorfor the transmission whichconveysthe factof transmission thanthe camera.thatthisis how one repays his debt and takeshis revengeon Conrad's "Karain. names cannot supporta of Bildung.to want it to have It to becomingone withtheir happened morethanit did (and it happeneda lot). fantasy a unifiedIndonesianculture(a fantasy cultural has been all too complicit) a muchgreater violence." But thesetwo categories not exhaustall possibilities.have 14Kittler. has indeedidentified suchan impulsein Kafka. of de Modernist writers theEuropeanfin siecle have attempted inscribe to the might and sound ofthattransmission themselves writing into machines. Pramoedyaputs and madnessstandas the other. latter also describes thosewho. violenceutterly in repressed thetheme parkwithwhichSiegelopens his book. to The transparency. notes. namely the autonomization and even the Friedrich Kittler (in sense)ofthebodyvis-a-vis technologization Heidegger's language. 15Joseph A "Karain: Memory. . the desire to possess and containthatwhich comes fromoutside. and to eatingand defecation. Siegel instruments. anthropology performed The deaths (intellectual. p. story.pp. thereby achieving what Pramoedya only describes.which. explains many other fine Indonesianists (many of them influenced by Siegel) have the of with which demonstrated. Bothrevolution recurrent Under the possibilities. sound of thegramophone itself never is and certainly as repressible not as absolutely repressible is thelens.as so to revolution.are thosewho have abandoned such oppositionsfor another.that between communication and. might "Bare and dismembered well have been Siegel writing."15 exile's colonialstory the in which a gramophone also stands as figureof modernity's of fetish."14 Difference hereas surely a scratch the continuous as on history erupts of the surface vinylenters sound ofthemusicbeingplayed.Revolution 175 Fetish. as Siegel suggests. 341. Siegelmight differences between and modernism more than movement his between terms modernity What began with the camera should perhaps have ended with the permits. have fusedwiththeir rubric.For. gramophone. least in Kittler's analysis. of withKafka'sstories K and Joseph Thoughthequotecomesfrom it Kittler. well as Artaudand thesurrealists.Thisresidue as Siegelhimself central Pramoedya's to is. modernists. though Siegeldoes not. Conrad. Discourse Networks.For in the end. 129-60. Skies.Pramoedya's characters whichforeign are overtaken theinstruments voices speak and offer their by through seductions. 1990).in its exaltstheillusionofflawless assimilation naturalism. whenhe remarks thatthosewho reducing everything the of kill he for perceive tediousness thisprocessmustsurely themselves. as the And.

they but again.' park. probably 16Siegelcites of Pemberton's account thetheme See from John Indonesia.2 Beyond . For this. otherSoutheastAsianistsand social of and of be anthropologists-to nothing historians theorists modernism-must say And in the wake of this book. it will be impossible to dismiss postgrateful. are allowed to hauntonce Recognition. Revolution.not only Indonesianists. anthropology apoliticalfashion." 241-262. "Recollections 'Beautiful Public Culture (1994): thePostmodern).176 RosalindMorris In also been effaced.16 Fetish. as structuralist Those who fearits radicality will. however. (Somewhere 6. wantto dustoff someolderfetishes.