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Unit I -Introduction To Embedded Systems

Contents:Definition and classification – Overview of processors and hardware units in an embedded system – Software embedded into the system – Exemplary embedded systems – Embedded systems on a chip (SOC) and the use of VLSI designed circuits. 1. Definitions: Embedded System 1. ―An embedded system is a system that has software embedded into computer-hardware, which makes a system dedicated for an application(s) or specific part of an application or product or part of a larger system.‖ 2. ―An embedded system is one that has dedicated purpose software embedded in computer hardware.‖ – Present Book 3. ―It is a dedicated computer based system for an application(s) or product. It may be an independent system or a part of large system. Its software usually embeds into a ROM (Read Only Memory) or flash.‖ 4. It is any device that includes a programmable computer but is not itself intended to be a general purpose computer.‖ –Wayne Wolf 5. Embedded Systems are the electronic systems that contain a microprocessor or a microcontroller, but we do not think of them as computers– the computer is hidden or embedded in the system.‖ – Todd D. Morton. Embedded system’s three main components are 1. Embeds hardware to give computer like functionalities 2. Embeds main application software generally into flash or ROM. The application software which performs concurrently the number of tasks. 3. Embeds a real time operating system (RTOS), which supervises the application software tasks running on the hardware and organizes the accesses to system resources according to priorities and timing constraints of tasks in the system.

4.2. 3. 3. interrupt. say. data transfer instructions. assembler and cross assembler specific to uc/ processor ―C‖ is usually used. Small scale embedded system Single 8/16 bit microcontroller with little hardware and software complexities Board level design. or jump to another set of instructions or call to another routine or sleep or reset. 2. Classification of embedded system 1. Sophisticated embedded system Scalable processors/ configurable processors/ programmable logic arrays Enormous hardware and software complexities Part of the system functions is designed in hardware and remaining design in software Development tools used depend on the processor used (Compiler or retargetable compiler is developed) Embedded C / HDL 3. Source code engineering tool. Debugger and IDE. Codes are compiled and executable codes are then appropriately located in the system memory.   Program Flow and data path Control Unit (CU) —includes a fetch unit for fetching instructions from the memory Execution Unit (EU) —includes circuits for arithmetic and logical unit (ALU). halt. Simulator. 5. Battery operated Main programming tools: editor. For an embedded system while choosing the processor the various factors to be considered are as following: Processor Instructions in the Instruction set Processor ability to solve the complex algorithms used in meeting the deadlines for their processing Maximum bits in operand (8 or 16 or 32) in a single arithmetic or logical operation Internal and External bus-widths in the data-path Clock frequency in MHz and processing speed (measured in MIPS or MFLOPS) 1. Medium scale embedded system Single or few 16/32 bit microcontrollers/DSPs/ RISCs High hardware and software complexities Main programming tools: RTOS. Overview of Processors A processor has essentially 2 parts. ―C‖ is usually used. . 2. and for instructions for a program control task.

Types of Processors used in Embedded System 1. RISC core microprocessor is used when intensive computations are to be performed. 4. Embedded processor c. 2. Note: a microprocessor is used when large embedded software is to be located in the external memory chips.3. Application Specific System Processor (ASSP) 6. Application Specific Instruction Set Processor (ASIP) ASIP is a processor with instruction set designed for specific applications on a VLSI chip. Media processor a. Microcontroller b. Digital signal processor d. Microprocessor b. 3. Mutlicore processors or multiprocessors 1.1. GPP may be a a. Embedded processor 2. Microprocessor: A microprocessor is a single VLSI chip that has a CPU and may also have some other additional units that aid in faster processing of instructions. . General purpose microprocessor (GPP) GPP is general purpose processor with instruction set designed not for specific applications. General purpose microprocessor (GPP) Application Specific Instruction Set Processor (ASIP) Single purpose processors as additional processors GPP or ASIP cores integrated into either an ASIC or VLSI circuit or FPGA core integrated with processor units in a VLSI chip 5. ASIP may be a a.

b. Microcontroller .

the microprocessor and microcontrollers are not sufficient. HDTV and DSP modem. Exemplary applications are in image processing.c. medium and large scale embedded system d. A DSP has the following characteristics:  Provides fast. A microcontroller or microprocessor which is specially designed to have the following capabilities then it is called as Embedded processor. video. Stream 1: ARM family 7 and ARM family 9 Stream 2: Intel family i960 Stream 3: AMD family 29050 Figure 1. discrete-time. A typical DSP unit has 16x32 MAC units. Atomic ALU operations and thus no shared data problem 3. RISC core for fast. Fast context switching resulting in lower latencies of the tasks in complex real time applications 2. precise and intensive calculations and for complex real time applications. more precise and intensive calculations by the embedded software. 1. Digital signal processor (DSP) The DSP as a GPP is a single chip VLSI unit. A DSP is an essential unit of an embedded system for a large number of applications needing processing of signals. Embedded Processor For fast. multimedia. signal processing instructions such as DCT/ IDCT  VLIW processing capabilities  Processes SIMD (single instruction multiple data) instructions faster . audio. Important embedded processor chips for embedded systems are shown below. It possesses the computational capabilities of a micro processor and also has a MAC unit.3 commonly used microcontrollers in small.

7. Single purpose processors as additional processors Single purpose processors used in embedded system for various applications. Some of them are given below. Phillips Media Processor 1x00 series for Processing Streaming and Data Networks and Image. Video and Speech: PNX 1300. Multiprocessor or Multi-core processors Multiprocessor system for Real time performance in a video-conference system Embedded firewall cum router High-end cell phone . PNX 1500 (2002) 4.e. Media processor Processing signals for communication media (transport through media) Ex : TI DSP TMS320DM310 or Trimedia. ASSPs in embedded systems Typically a set top box processor or mpeg video-processor or network application processor or mobile application processor.          Co processor Graphics processor Pixel processor Encryption/ decryption engine DCT/IDCT processor Protocol Stack processor Network Processor Accelerator CODEC 5. GPP or ASIP cores GPP or ASIP cores integrated into either an ASIC or VLSI circuit or FPGA core integrated with processor units in a VLSI chip 6.

the brain of the ES. an ECG LCD display-cum-recorder. Automatic Chocolate Vending Machine. a blood.for examples. vi. DAC and ADC. and CNC machine. Motor controls Systems . Final machine implementable software for a product Coding of software in machine codes Software in processor specific assembly language Software in the high level language Software for device drivers and device management using an OS Software design for scheduling multiple tasks and devices using an RTOS Software tools in designing of an embedded system 6. Exemplary embedded systems Embedded systems have very diversified applications. bridge. Keypad/ Keyboard. . iv. a CRT display controller. A few select application areas of ES are Telecom. robot. a LAN controller. administration and maintenance router (IOAMR) in a distributed network. a keyboard controller. Missiles and Satellites. v. a laser printer-controller.A few examples of medium scale embedded system applications are as follows: Computer networking systems .. pulse dialer/modem/Transceiver. Serial port cards. Multitasking Toys. RTC and Timers. buses and IO interfaces.4. ii. and a patient monitor system service. Bio-medical systems . resistance and frequency. motor. linking and interfacing buses and units. The various software types that may be embedded in the system are given below. Digital Consumer electronics and Automotive. Keyboard controller. and gateway . vii. Microcontroller. iii. A. the automotive applications like such as a close loop engine control. Electronic data acquisition and supervisory control system. GBIP link. Stepper motor controllers for a robotics system. clocking unit. a dynamic ride control. hub. a DRAM controller. Memories. router. CD drive or Hard Disk drive controller.(i) Intelligent operation. there are numerous application systems. B. Hardware units in an Embedded System Different hardware units used to built an embedded system include power source unit. LED and LCD. Fax or photocopy or printer or scanner machine. Interrupt Handlers. Point of sales terminals. a DMA controller. a printer-controller. switch. and an anti-lock braking system monitor. Digital camera.c. Remote (controller) of TV. Software embedded into the system The software is the most important aspect.. current.for example.For Internet appliances. a disk drive controller. Peripheral controllers. Telephone with memory.for examples. front-end processor in a server. display and other sophisticated features. Spectrum analyzer. A few examples of small scale embedded system applications are as follows: Mobile phone. Washing or cooking system. an accurate control of speed and position of d. Computer Networking.cell recorder cum analyzer.based single or multi-display digital panel meter for voltage. IO devices. Robots. i. Smart Cards. 5.

and (ii) Mail Client card to store e-mail and personal addresses and to smartly connect to a modem or server . A personal information manager using frame buffers in hand. and a FAX transceiver with or without a graphic accelerator. Embedded Interface and Networking systems using high speed (400 MHz plus) and ultra high speed (10 Gbps) and large bandwidth: . a numeric pager.held devices. TCP/IP and UDP protocols C. processors and software. for examples. single-chip mobile phone. The system then connects to a remote server for Internet or e-mail or to remote computer at an ASP (application Service Provider). Pattern Recognizer. LANs. Embedded systems on a chip (SOC) and the use of VLSI designed circuits Recently ES are being designed on a single silicon chip called as SOC. a cellular phone.for examples.[Application of thin. Embedded systems for Video. A system that connects a pocket PC to the automobile driver mobile phone and a wireless receiver. Bank ATM and Credit card transactions Signal Tracking Systems .clients is accesses to a data center from a number of nodes.for examples. such as for a mobile-communication a SIM card. . Image Filtering.Embedded Firewall / Router using ARM7/multi-processor with two Ethernet interfaces and interfaces support to for PPP. SOC Embeds: • Multiple processors. Interactive video. Communication systems.Gigabit rate encryption rate products 7. for example. WANs (Wide Area Networks). Mobile computer. real time video and speech or multimedia processing systems. broadband IPv6 (Internet Protocol version 6) Internet and other products.A few examples of medium scale embedded system applications are as follows: Mobile Smart Phones and Computing systems. Speech Processing and Video Processing. Thin Client to provide the disk-less nodes with the remote boot capability. Security products and High-speed Network security. a cable TV terminal. • Logic and analog units . SANs (Storage Area Networks). switches and gateways.Banking systems . or in an Internet Laboratory accesses to the Internet leased line through a remote Server].Routers. • memories. Image Processing. • multiple standard source solutions (IP Cores). Embedded systems for wireless LAN and convergent technology devices. music system and Video Games. an automatic signal tracker and a target tracker. Entertainment systems . SoC is a system on a VLSI chip that has all needed analog as well as digital circuits.such as video game.

Exemplary ARM9 applications are setup boxes. Embedding an ASIP Processor with instruction set designed for specific application on a VLSI chip For example. iii. ii. Examples are ARM7 and ARM9. cable modems and wireless devices such as mobile handsets. DSP. IO. ARM provides CISC functionality with RISC architecture at the core. media. IPs in SoC IP –a standard source solution for synthesizing a higher-level component by configuring a core of VLSI circuit or FPGA core available as an Intellectual Property called (IP). iv. network or other domain specific processor Embedding a Multi-processor or Dual Core using General Purpose Processors (GPP) A GPP can be embedded on a VLSI chip. Embedding a Microprocessor General Purpose Processor (GPP) microprocessor can be embedded on a VSLI chip. microcontroller.Use of VLSI Designed circuits i. .

Wireless 802.16 interfaces FPGA Core Each cell has several inputs and outputs. One might have to pay royalty for every chip shipped.5 Gbps] .    v. All cells interconnect like an array (matrix). It is an FPGA with 125136 Logic Cells along with the Four IBM PowerPC processors [Exemplary Application: System with a Data Encryption Engine at 1. USB port controller. Designer or designing company holds the copyright for the synthesized design of a higher-level component for gate-level implementation of an IP. A concept is using FPGA (Field Programmable Gate Arrays) core along with single or multiple processors. full design for implementing Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) or File Transfer Protocol (FTP) to transmit a web page or file on Internet.11or 802. Bluetooth. Example is XC2VP125 system.    An IP may provide a design for adaptive filtering of a signal. GPS interface. An embedded system may incorporate several IPs. Each interconnection is programmable through the associated memory RAM in a FPGA programming tool.High Level Components with gate level sophistication circuit much above level of counters and registers.