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ADVANCE FOUNDATION ADVANCE FOUNDATION

ENGINEERING ENGINEERING
ASSOC. PROF. Ir. DR. RAMLI ASSOC. PROF. Ir. DR. RAMLI NAZIR NAZIR
SUCCESSFUL FOUNDATION
ENGINEERING FAILURE
Stage of Design Stage of Design Stage of Design Stage of Design
Normally there are 3 stages of design i.e Normally there are 3 stages of design i.e
1. 1. PRE DESIGN STAGE PRE DESIGN STAGE
2. 2. CONSTRUCTION STAGE CONSTRUCTION STAGE
3. 3. POST DESIGN STAGE POST DESIGN STAGE
PRE DESIGN STAGE PRE DESIGN STAGE PRE DESIGN STAGE PRE DESIGN STAGE
Accurate and reliable SI data is vital. Accurate and reliable SI data is vital.
Type of foundation use for the structure is based from the Type of foundation use for the structure is based from the
bb above. above.
An overall aspect and anticipation during construction has to be An overall aspect and anticipation during construction has to be
considered especially practical and economics consideration considered especially practical and economics consideration considered especially practical and economics consideration. considered especially practical and economics consideration.
During this stage, loading, foundation arrangement and location, During this stage, loading, foundation arrangement and location,
bearing capacity and other related practice has been identified bearing capacity and other related practice has been identified bearing capacity and other related practice has been identified. bearing capacity and other related practice has been identified.
Anticipation of the problem in foundation construction work Anticipation of the problem in foundation construction work
should be recognised and overcoming the problem should be should be recognised and overcoming the problem should be should be recognised and overcoming the problem should be should be recognised and overcoming the problem should be
readily available. readily available.
DESIGN ANALYSES DESIGN ANALYSES DESIGN ANALYSES DESIGN ANALYSES
Which one to use??? Which one to use???
 TOTAL STRESS ANALYSIS TOTAL STRESS ANALYSIS
Or Or
 EFFECTIVE STRESS ANALYSIS EFFECTIVE STRESS ANALYSIS
TOTAL STRESS ANALYSES TOTAL STRESS ANALYSES TOTAL STRESS ANALYSES TOTAL STRESS ANALYSES
This type of analysis uses the undrained shear strength of the This type of analysis uses the undrained shear strength of the
cohesive soil and also known as short term analysis. cohesive soil and also known as short term analysis.
Th d i d h h Th d i d h h b b i d f fi ld h b b i d f fi ld h The undrained shear strength, c The undrained shear strength, c
uu
can be obtained from field such can be obtained from field such
as vane shear and laboratory such as unconfined compression as vane shear and laboratory such as unconfined compression
test If the undrained shear strength is constant throughout the test If the undrained shear strength is constant throughout the test. If the undrained shear strength is constant throughout the test. If the undrained shear strength is constant throughout the
depth then c depth then c
uu
= c and = c and ||=0 =0
oo
. The use of unconsolidated . The use of unconsolidated
undrained triaxial compression test is also applicable provided undrained triaxial compression test is also applicable provided
that it is saturated plastic soil. that it is saturated plastic soil.
The groundwater does not have an effect in the use of total The groundwater does not have an effect in the use of total
stress parameters. stress parameters.
EFFECTIVE STRESS ANALYSIS EFFECTIVE STRESS ANALYSIS EFFECTIVE STRESS ANALYSIS EFFECTIVE STRESS ANALYSIS
This type of analysis uses the drained shear strength, c’ and This type of analysis uses the drained shear strength, c’ and ||’ of ’ of
the plastic soil. the plastic soil.
The drained shear strength could be obtained from triaxial The drained shear strength could be obtained from triaxial
i i h d i i h d compression test with pore pressure measurement tested on a compression test with pore pressure measurement tested on a
fully saturated specimen of the plastic soil. fully saturated specimen of the plastic soil.
Also known as long term analysis since the shear Also known as long term analysis since the shear induced pore induced pore Also known as long term analysis since the shear Also known as long term analysis since the shear--induced pore induced pore
water pressure (positive or negative) from the loading has water pressure (positive or negative) from the loading has
dissipated and the hydrostatic pore pressure conditions now dissipated and the hydrostatic pore pressure conditions now p y p p p y p p
prevail in the field. prevail in the field.
Thus the location of the water table is significant in considering Thus the location of the water table is significant in considering
in the analysis. in the analysis.
Governing Conditions (TSA and ESA) Governing Conditions (TSA and ESA)
Total stress analysis will provide a lower allowable bearing Total stress analysis will provide a lower allowable bearing
capacity for soft or very soft saturated plastic soils. capacity for soft or very soft saturated plastic soils.
Thi i d t th l d f f d ti th t ill lid t th Thi i d t th l d f f d ti th t ill lid t th This is due to the load from foundation that will consolidate the This is due to the load from foundation that will consolidate the
plastic soil leading to an increase in shear strength as time passes. plastic soil leading to an increase in shear strength as time passes.
For Effective stress analysis, the shear strength is higher for soft For Effective stress analysis, the shear strength is higher for soft For Effective stress analysis, the shear strength is higher for soft For Effective stress analysis, the shear strength is higher for soft
or very soft saturated plastic soils which will results in higher or very soft saturated plastic soils which will results in higher
bearing capacity. bearing capacity.
Effective stress analysis will provide lower bearing capacity for Effective stress analysis will provide lower bearing capacity for
very stiff or hard saturated plastic soils. very stiff or hard saturated plastic soils.
This is due to the dilation of plastic soil during undrained shear This is due to the dilation of plastic soil during undrained shear This is due to the dilation of plastic soil during undrained shear This is due to the dilation of plastic soil during undrained shear
deformation since the soil are usually heavily overconsolidated. deformation since the soil are usually heavily overconsolidated.
As the soil dilates it tends to develop negative pore pressure. As As the soil dilates it tends to develop negative pore pressure. As p g p p p g p p
these pressure dissipates with times the shear strength of the these pressure dissipates with times the shear strength of the
heavily overconsolidated plastic soil will decrease. This will lower heavily overconsolidated plastic soil will decrease. This will lower
the bearing capacity of the soil the bearing capacity of the soil the bearing capacity of the soil. the bearing capacity of the soil.
Firm to stiff saturated plastic soils are intermediate conditions. Firm to stiff saturated plastic soils are intermediate conditions. pp
The OCR and the tendency of the saturated plastics soilto The OCR and the tendency of the saturated plastics soilto
consolidate will determine whether the TSA or ESA provides the consolidate will determine whether the TSA or ESA provides the
lower bearing capacity. lower bearing capacity.
SITE INVESTIGATION SITE INVESTIGATION
INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION INTRODUCTION
AA process process of of site site exploration exploration consisting consisting of of boring, boring, sampling sampling and and
testing testing so so as as to to obtain obtain geotechnical geotechnical information information for for aa safe, safe,
practical practical and and economical economical geotechnical geotechnical evaluation evaluation and and design design practical practical and and economical economical geotechnical geotechnical evaluation evaluation and and design design..
Generally Generally it it is is an an exploration exploration or or discovery discovery of of the the ground ground Generally Generally it it is is an an exploration exploration or or discovery discovery of of the the ground ground
conditions conditions..
In In other other words words the the main main purpose purpose of of site site investigation investigation is is to to
determine determine within within practical practical limits, limits, the the depth, depth, thickness, thickness, extent extent and and determine determine within within practical practical limits, limits, the the depth, depth, thickness, thickness, extent extent and and
compositions compositions of of each each subsoil subsoil stratum, stratum, the the depth depth and and type type of of rock, rock,
the the depth depth and and composition composition of of ground ground water, water, the the strength, strength,
compressibility compressibility and and hydraulic hydraulic charactristics charactristics of of soil soil strata strata as as
required required by by geotechnical geotechnical engineers engineers..
THE IMPORTANCE OF SI THE IMPORTANCE OF SI THE IMPORTANCE OF SI THE IMPORTANCE OF SI
To study the general suitability of the site for an engineering To study the general suitability of the site for an engineering
project. (FEED Program) project. (FEED Program)-- FRONTIER EVALUATION FRONTIER EVALUATION
ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT. ENGINEERING DEVELOPMENT.
To enable a safe practical and economic design to be prepared To enable a safe practical and economic design to be prepared To enable a safe, practical and economic design to be prepared. To enable a safe, practical and economic design to be prepared.
T d t rmi th p ibl diffi lti th t m b t r d T d t rmi th p ibl diffi lti th t m b t r d To determine the possible difficulties that may be encountered To determine the possible difficulties that may be encountered
by a specific construction method. by a specific construction method.
To study the suitability of construction material (soil or rock). To study the suitability of construction material (soil or rock).
WHY S I ?????? WHY S I ?????? WHY S.I ?????? WHY S.I ??????
This is a part of geotechnical processes. This is a part of geotechnical processes.
Lack of geotechnical processes will lead to a: Lack of geotechnical processes will lead to a:- -
 Failures where many case histories are Failures where many case histories are
available. available.
 Significant delay and increase in construction Significant delay and increase in construction g y g y
costs when the design has to be revised or costs when the design has to be revised or
ammended. ammended.
Generally the elimination of the SI will not safe the cost of the Generally the elimination of the SI will not safe the cost of the Generally the elimination of the SI will not safe the cost of the Generally the elimination of the SI will not safe the cost of the
project thus it only comprises from only 0.1% to 5% of the project thus it only comprises from only 0.1% to 5% of the
project cost. project cost.
YOU HAVE TO PAY FOR THE S.I YOU HAVE TO PAY FOR THE S.I
WHETHER YOU LIKE IT OR NOT!! WHETHER YOU LIKE IT OR NOT!!
FACTORS INFLUENCING SELECTION OF FACTORS INFLUENCING SELECTION OF
SI METHODS SI METHODS
Geological nature of site. Geological nature of site.
Topographical Nature of the site Topographical Nature of the site
Type of information required Type of information required
Financial Constraint and Time Restriction. Financial Constraint and Time Restriction.
WORK PROCEDURE FOR SITE WORK PROCEDURE FOR SITE
INVESTIGATION INVESTIGATION
Desk study to collect all the relevant data and information Desk study to collect all the relevant data and information
Reconnaissance Reconnaissance
Planning program after reviewing the above. Planning program after reviewing the above. Planning program after reviewing the above. Planning program after reviewing the above.
Ground exploration: Boring, sampling and testing. Ground exploration: Boring, sampling and testing.
Laboratory testing Laboratory testing
P ti f SI t P ti f SI t Preparation of SI report Preparation of SI report
Design Design
Review during construction and monitoring. Review during construction and monitoring.
Fascilitating SI Program Fascilitating SI Program Fascilitating SI Program Fascilitating SI Program
Location Plan : Preferably in a scale of 1:60000 Location Plan : Preferably in a scale of 1:60000
Site Plan Site Plan
Other details such as loading condition, preliminary SI reports if Other details such as loading condition, preliminary SI reports if
any should be included. any should be included.
PLANNING OF SITE INVESTIGATION PLANNING OF SITE INVESTIGATION
WORKS WORKS
Surface Investigations Surface Investigations
 Site Site inspection inspection to to assess assess general general site site condition condition
if if there there is is any any anticipated anticipated problems problems that that might might
arise arise during during the the construction construction later later on on. .
 Usually Usually the the engineer engineer is is required required to to inspect inspect the the yy gg qq pp
site site to to appreciate appreciate actual actual site site and and ground ground
problems problems with with particular particular reference reference to to terrain, terrain, pp pp ,,
vegetation, vegetation, swamps, swamps, water water run run off, off,
stratigraphical stratigraphical formations formations where where they they are are g p g p yy
exposed exposed..
PLANNING SCOPE OF SITE PLANNING SCOPE OF SITE
INVESTIGATION INVESTIGATION
Select methods of SI base on principle and guidelines stipulated Select methods of SI base on principle and guidelines stipulated p p g p p p g p
in BS 5390. in BS 5390.
Important considerations are : terrain features and accessibility, Important considerations are : terrain features and accessibility, p y p y
geological conditions, types of sample and test required. geological conditions, types of sample and test required.
Estimate cost and time required. Estimate cost and time required.
Determine the number, depth and spacing of boreholes or other Determine the number, depth and spacing of boreholes or other
field tests including the location of test, procedures etc. field tests including the location of test, procedures etc.
Determine frequency and types of insitu testing and sampling in Determine frequency and types of insitu testing and sampling in
each borehole. each borehole.
Determine extent of supervision on testing and boring. Determine extent of supervision on testing and boring.
Prepare list of special precautions for the site investigation Prepare list of special precautions for the site investigation
i i if i i if supervisor at site, if any. supervisor at site, if any.
Prepare scheme of laboratory testing after analysis of borelogs. Prepare scheme of laboratory testing after analysis of borelogs.
ROLE OF SI IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN ROLE OF SI IN GEOTECHNICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN
• ENGINEERING PROPERTIES
• CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
SI
SOIL
PROPERTIES
• CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
• BASIC & INDEX PROPERTIES
INTERPRETATION
GROUND
• MASS PROPERTIES
• TYPICAL & GENERALISED
SUBSOIL PROFILE &
PROPERTIES OF TYPICAL
INTERPRETATION
JUDGEMENT
GROUND
CHARACTERIZATION
PROPERTIES OF TYPICAL
GEOLOGICAL FORMATIONS,
MAN MADE FILL etc..
• ENGINEERING GEOLOGY
MODELLING
GROUND
SOIL & ROCK MECHANICS
• EFFECTIVE STRESS THEORY
• SEEPAGE THEORY
CODE OF PRACTICES:-
• FOUNDATION BS 8004
•ANCHORS BS8081
•EARTHWORKS BS6031
PREDICTION
BEHAVIOUR
SEEPAGE THEORY
• STRESS DISTRIBUTION
• LATERAL PRESSURE
•BEARING CAPACITY
• COMPRESSIBILITY
•EARTHWORKS BS6031
•REINFORCED FILLS BS8006
•GEOGUIDES
DEFORMATION
DISPLACEMENT
ENGINEERING
INSTRUMENTATION FOR
PORE WATER PRESSURE
STABILITY
PERFORMANCE
• PORE WATER PRESSURE
• EARTH PRESSURE
• DISPLACEMENT(SURFACE & SUBSURFACE
• INTERNAL STRESSES
Method of Site Investigation Method of Site Investigation Method of Site Investigation Method of Site Investigation
JKR PROBE JKR PROBE
HAND AUGERING (HA) HAND AUGERING (HA)
MOTORISED HAND BORING (MHB) MOTORISED HAND BORING (MHB)
DEEP BORING (DB) DEEP BORING (DB)
TRIAL PITS AND PLATE BEARING TEST TRIAL PITS AND PLATE BEARING TEST
DEEP SOUNDING (DS) DEEP SOUNDING (DS)
INSITU VANE SHEAR TEST (IVST) INSITU VANE SHEAR TEST (IVST)
STANDARD PENETRATION TEST (SPT) STANDARD PENETRATION TEST (SPT)
PRESSUREMETER TEST PRESSUREMETER TEST
GROUND WATER INVESTIGATION GROUND WATER INVESTIGATION
ROCK CORING ROCK CORING
JKR PROBE JKR PROBE JKR PROBE JKR PROBE
Simple and cheap dynamic penetrometer test used to check the Simple and cheap dynamic penetrometer test used to check the
consistency of subsoil. consistency of subsoil.
D l b JKR i 1970 d l i k i h M ki h D l b JKR i 1970 d l i k i h M ki h Develop by JKR in 1970 and always mistaken with Mackintosh Develop by JKR in 1970 and always mistaken with Mackintosh
Probe. Probe.
The cone is driven directly into the soil by driving a 5kg hammer The cone is driven directly into the soil by driving a 5kg hammer The cone is driven directly into the soil by driving a 5kg hammer The cone is driven directly into the soil by driving a 5kg hammer
at a height of 280mm through free fall. at a height of 280mm through free fall.
The results are recorded in a number of blows per 300mm The results are recorded in a number of blows per 300mm The results are recorded in a number of blows per 300mm The results are recorded in a number of blows per 300mm
penetration. penetration.
Maximum penetration is about 12m or 400 blows/300mm Maximum penetration is about 12m or 400 blows/300mm Maximum penetration is about 12m or 400 blows/300mm Maximum penetration is about 12m or 400 blows/300mm
whichever arrives first. whichever arrives first.
The probe is unable to penetrate into medium strength soil and The probe is unable to penetrate into medium strength soil and p p g p p g
gravelly ground. gravelly ground.
ERRORS ASSOCIATED WITH JKR PROBE ERRORS ASSOCIATED WITH JKR PROBE ERRORS ASSOCIATED WITH JKR PROBE ERRORS ASSOCIATED WITH JKR PROBE
Human errors : Human errors :- -
 Drop height less than 280mm resulting in higher blow counts Drop height less than 280mm resulting in higher blow counts  Drop height less than 280mm resulting in higher blow counts Drop height less than 280mm resulting in higher blow counts
 Applying force to hammer resulting in less blow counts. Applying force to hammer resulting in less blow counts.
 Penetration depth not marked correctly Penetration depth not marked correctly
 Wrong counting. Wrong counting.
Instrumental error : Instrumental error :--
 Driving bend rod deformed Driving bend rod deformed  Driving bend rod deformed Driving bend rod deformed
 Stopper blow lost of damage Stopper blow lost of damage
 Worn out threads on coupling and driving rods. Worn out threads on coupling and driving rods.
JKR probe result can be used for shallow footing designs if the JKR probe result can be used for shallow footing designs if the
lt i t t lt i t t results are consistent. results are consistent.
HAND AUGERING HAND AUGERING HAND AUGERING HAND AUGERING
Simple boring by hand with periodic removal of soil samples. Simple boring by hand with periodic removal of soil samples.
Normally no casing is used. Normally no casing is used.
Usually used in soft to stiff cohesive soils or sandy silty soil Usually used in soft to stiff cohesive soils or sandy silty soil
above water table. above water table.
D h i li i d b 5 d h di f h b h l i D h i li i d b 5 d h di f h b h l i Depth is limited about 5m and the diameter of the borehole is Depth is limited about 5m and the diameter of the borehole is
about 100mm. about 100mm.
HA i r f l t t th il mpl f r il l ifi ti HA i r f l t t th il mpl f r il l ifi ti HA is very useful to get the soil sample for soil classification HA is very useful to get the soil sample for soil classification
tests and ground water observation. tests and ground water observation.
For sandy soil with high water table the uncased bored shaft will For sandy soil with high water table the uncased bored shaft will For sandy soil with high water table, the uncased bored shaft will For sandy soil with high water table, the uncased bored shaft will
collapse and boiling may be noted even for a short exposure collapse and boiling may be noted even for a short exposure
(indicating shallow foundation is not practical) (indicating shallow foundation is not practical) ( g p ) ( g p )
MOTORISED HAND BORING MOTORISED HAND BORING MOTORISED HAND BORING MOTORISED HAND BORING
Commonly called wash boring consists of tripod with block and Commonly called wash boring consists of tripod with block and
tackle or motor driven winch. tackle or motor driven winch.
Th b h l i d d b h i hil i i d d Th b h l i d d b h i hil i i d d The borehole is advanced by chopping while twisting rods and The borehole is advanced by chopping while twisting rods and
washing with pump washing with pump--circulated water. circulated water.
Simple easily portable and can be used in all types of soils except Simple easily portable and can be used in all types of soils except Simple, easily portable and can be used in all types of soils except Simple, easily portable and can be used in all types of soils except
those containing big boulders. those containing big boulders.
Progress is slow when encountering very stiff/dense material Progress is slow when encountering very stiff/dense material Progress is slow when encountering very stiff/dense material Progress is slow when encountering very stiff/dense material
especially when deeper than 10m. especially when deeper than 10m.
Adopted easily at locations where access is difficult. Adopted easily at locations where access is difficult. Adopted easily at locations where access is difficult. Adopted easily at locations where access is difficult.
Normally casing is used and depth of boring is about 20m. Normally casing is used and depth of boring is about 20m.
DEEP BORING DEEP BORING
Also refer as rotary drilling. Also refer as rotary drilling.
Basic component including drilling machine, drilling rods, casing, Basic component including drilling machine, drilling rods, casing,
bits and sampling tools. bits and sampling tools.
Basic field test sets are SPT sets, vane shear set, Menard Basic field test sets are SPT sets, vane shear set, Menard
pressuremeter, etc. pressuremeter, etc.
Borehole is advance by power rotation of drilling bit and Borehole is advance by power rotation of drilling bit and
l f i b h i l i l f i b h i l i removal of cuttings by the circulating water. removal of cuttings by the circulating water.
Drilled rod are presented by hydraulic pressure. Drilled rod are presented by hydraulic pressure.
Wh k d b ld d i bl di d Wh k d b ld d i bl di d Whenever rock and boulders are encountered, suitable diamond Whenever rock and boulders are encountered, suitable diamond
bits or tungsten carbide bits are to be used. bits or tungsten carbide bits are to be used.
Casing needed to be sed and changing in strata are indicated b Casing needed to be sed and changing in strata are indicated b Casing needed to be used and changing in strata are indicated by Casing needed to be used and changing in strata are indicated by
changing in the rate of advancing of borehole action of drilling changing in the rate of advancing of borehole action of drilling
rods and visual examination of cuttings in drilling fluid. rods and visual examination of cuttings in drilling fluid. g g g g
This is the most expensive soil investigation method but yet a This is the most expensive soil investigation method but yet a
comprehensive type. comprehensive type.
ROTARY WASH BORING
TRIAL PITS AND PLATE BEARING TEST TRIAL PITS AND PLATE BEARING TEST TRIAL PITS AND PLATE BEARING TEST TRIAL PITS AND PLATE BEARING TEST
Depth is usually about 5m and the side of open cuts need to be Depth is usually about 5m and the side of open cuts need to be
braced. braced.
F i l i i f il i h i l F i l i i f il i h i l For easy visual examination of soil strata in their natural For easy visual examination of soil strata in their natural
conditions. conditions.
Usually carried out at site where shallow foundation is feasible Usually carried out at site where shallow foundation is feasible Usually carried out at site where shallow foundation is feasible Usually carried out at site where shallow foundation is feasible
and design pressure is high. and design pressure is high.
Trial pit is also preferable to boring in cohesive soils and soft Trial pit is also preferable to boring in cohesive soils and soft Trial pit is also preferable to boring in cohesive soils and soft Trial pit is also preferable to boring in cohesive soils and soft
rocks above water table or cohesive soils containing considerable rocks above water table or cohesive soils containing considerable
amount of boulders or cobbles. amount of boulders or cobbles.
It is also used to locate buried pipes and services. It is also used to locate buried pipes and services.
Vertical plate bearing is usually carried out in trial pit to Vertical plate bearing is usually carried out in trial pit to
determine the shear strength and deformation characteristics of determine the shear strength and deformation characteristics of
soil/rock beneath the loaded plate. soil/rock beneath the loaded plate.
Useful in weathered rock, highly fractured rock, hardcore fill or Useful in weathered rock, highly fractured rock, hardcore fill or
soils containing considerable amount of gravel and cobbles soils containing considerable amount of gravel and cobbles soils containing considerable amount of gravel and cobbles soils containing considerable amount of gravel and cobbles
where other test procedure are difficult or impossible to apply. where other test procedure are difficult or impossible to apply.
Square and circular plate is used to load in order to obtain the Square and circular plate is used to load in order to obtain the
load load--settlement curve. settlement curve. load load settlement curve. settlement curve.
Results should be used with caution in clayey soils where depth if Results should be used with caution in clayey soils where depth if Results should be used with caution in clayey soils where depth if Results should be used with caution in clayey soils where depth if
influence is limited by virtue of limited plate size. influence is limited by virtue of limited plate size.
In absence of additional penetrometer tests like SPT and JKR In absence of additional penetrometer tests like SPT and JKR
Probes, the test can be misleading. Probes, the test can be misleading.
DEEP SOUNDING DEEP SOUNDING
Refers to static dutch cone penetrometer. Refers to static dutch cone penetrometer.
Consists of essentially a penetrometer having an apex 60 Consists of essentially a penetrometer having an apex 60
oo
and and Consists of essentially a penetrometer having an apex 60 Consists of essentially a penetrometer having an apex 60 and and
the end area of 10cm the end area of 10cm
22
..
Comparatively a fast economical and simple method and very Comparatively a fast economical and simple method and very p y p y p y p y
useful in coastal alluvial and thick deposits of weak to moderately useful in coastal alluvial and thick deposits of weak to moderately
strong soils. strong soils.
Deep soundaing cannot penetrate very dense soils with gravel or Deep soundaing cannot penetrate very dense soils with gravel or
soft rocks. soft rocks.
It does not reveal soil types but by Schmertmann method it can It does not reveal soil types but by Schmertmann method it can
correlate the type of soils. correlate the type of soils.
bl l d d l d d d bl l d d l d d d In permeable soils, deep sounding results give drained condition In permeable soils, deep sounding results give drained condition
strength while in clays, it measures undrained strength of the strength while in clays, it measures undrained strength of the
soils soils soils. soils.
ii l i i l i i l f l l f l Cone Resistance Cone Resistance
CC
kd kd
(kg/cm (kg/cm
22
))
Relative Density Relative Density
DD
rr
(%) (%)
Angle of Internal Angle of Internal
Friction, Friction, ||
oo
< 20 < 20 < 20 < 20 25 25 - - 30 30
20 20 - - 40 40 20 20 - - 40 40 30 30 - - 35 35
40 40 - - 120 120 40 40 – – 60 60 35 35 - - 40 40
20 20 200 200 60 60 80 80 00 120 120 -- 200 200 60 60 - - 80 80 40 40 - - 45 45
> 200 > 200 > 80 > 80 45 45 > 200 > 200 > 80 > 80 45 45
In cohesionless soil: In cohesionless soil: In cohesionless soil: In cohesionless soil:--
ff = C = C
kd kd
/200 /200 if C if C
kd kd
>= 20MPa >= 20MPa ff
ss
CC
kd kd
/200 /200 if C if C
kd kd
> 20MPa > 20MPa
ff
ss
= C = C
kd kd
/150 /150 if C if C
kd kd
<= 10MPa <= 10MPa
In cohesion soil: In cohesion soil:--
ff
ss
= C = C
kd kd
/15 /15 for soft soils for soft soils
ff
ss
= C = C
kd kd
/36.6 /36.6 for stiff soils for stiff soils
Ratio Ratio of of C C
kd kd
/c /c
uu
is is about about 16 16,, where where c c
uu
is is an an undrained undrained strength strength..
IN SITU VANE SHEAR TEST IN SITU VANE SHEAR TEST IN SITU VANE SHEAR TEST IN SITU VANE SHEAR TEST
Used to determine the undrained cohesion of clay in field Used to determine the undrained cohesion of clay in field
conditions which are generally difficult to simulate in the lab. conditions which are generally difficult to simulate in the lab.
B i ll i f h f bl d d h ill i B i ll i f h f bl d d h ill i Basically consists of the four bladed vane that will penetrate into Basically consists of the four bladed vane that will penetrate into
the undisturbed soil and rotated at a constant rate between 6 the undisturbed soil and rotated at a constant rate between 6
oo
to to
12 12
oo
/ min / min 12 12 / min. / min.
The results are reliable for saturated clayey soil without gravel or The results are reliable for saturated clayey soil without gravel or
coarse sands. coarse sands.
For very soft to stiff clay (c For very soft to stiff clay (c
uu
< 50kPa) the blade size should be < 50kPa) the blade size should be
75mm wide by 150mm long. 75mm wide by 150mm long. y g y g
For stronger soil (c For stronger soil (c
uu
between 50 and 100 kPa) the blade size between 50 and 100 kPa) the blade size
should be 50mm to 100mm long. should be 50mm to 100mm long.
STANDARD PENETRATION TEST (SPT) STANDARD PENETRATION TEST (SPT) STANDARD PENETRATION TEST (SPT) STANDARD PENETRATION TEST (SPT)
This a dynamic field test usually carried out in boreholes. This a dynamic field test usually carried out in boreholes.
Test consists of driving a standard split barrel sampler 50.8mm Test consists of driving a standard split barrel sampler 50.8mm
in diameter. in diameter.
The SPT is read from a 65kg drop hammer fall at a vertical The SPT is read from a 65kg drop hammer fall at a vertical
h i ht f 75 m h i ht f 75 m height of 75cm. height of 75cm.
Th l i d i l f 45 i h il d h Th l i d i l f 45 i h il d h The sampler is driven to a total of 45cm into the soil and the The sampler is driven to a total of 45cm into the soil and the
number of blows recorded for the last 30cm of penetration number of blows recorded for the last 30cm of penetration
(SPT N (SPT N--value) value) (SPT, N (SPT, N value) value)
Numbers of BH POSITION and Depth Numbers of BH POSITION and Depth Numbers of BH, POSITION and Depth Numbers of BH, POSITION and Depth
STANDARD PENETRATION TEST VALUE STANDARD PENETRATION TEST VALUE
FOR DESIGN FOR DESIGN
D l d i 1927 d l h l h d d i l b i D l d i 1927 d l h l h d d i l b i Developed in 1927 and currently the most popular method and economical means to obtain Developed in 1927 and currently the most popular method and economical means to obtain
subsurface information. subsurface information.
Currently 85% Currently 85% - - 90% of usage in conventional foundation design. 90% of usage in conventional foundation design.
T t i t f T t i t f Test consist of : Test consist of :- -
 Driving the split barrel sample at a distance of 460mm into the soil at the bottom of boring. Driving the split barrel sample at a distance of 460mm into the soil at the bottom of boring.
 Counting the number of blows to drive sample at last two 150mm distances to obtain N Counting the number of blows to drive sample at last two 150mm distances to obtain N
value value
 Using 63.5kg driving mass falling free from a height of 760mm. Using 63.5kg driving mass falling free from a height of 760mm.
The boring log shows refusal and the test is halted if: The boring log shows refusal and the test is halted if:- -
 50 blows are required for any 150mm increment 50 blows are required for any 150mm increment
 100 blows are obtained to drive the required 300mm 100 blows are obtained to drive the required 300mm
 10 successive blows produce no advance. 10 successive blows produce no advance.
When full test depth cannot be obtained, boring log will show a When full test depth cannot be obtained, boring log will show a
ratio as 70/100 or 50/100 indicating that 70 or 50 blows resulted in ratio as 70/100 or 50/100 indicating that 70 or 50 blows resulted in ratio as 70/100 or 50/100 indicating that 70 or 50 blows resulted in ratio as 70/100 or 50/100 indicating that 70 or 50 blows resulted in
a penetration of 100mm. a penetration of 100mm.
The blow count is directly related to the driving energy: The blow count is directly related to the driving energy:-- The blow count is directly related to the driving energy: The blow count is directly related to the driving energy:
W 1
mv
2
1
E
2
2
=
gh 2 v
v
g
W
2
1
=
=
Substituting both equation: Substituting both equation: Substituting both equation: Substituting both equation:--
Wh
gh 2
g
W
2
1
E
=
=
W= weight of mass or hammer
H = height of fall
For standard test: For standard test:--
E = 63.5 x 9.81 x 0.762 E = 63.5 x 9.81 x 0.762
= 474 5 475 kJ = 474 5 475 kJ
K d S l ( 1982) f d h h l i h l b 30% K d S l ( 1982) f d h h l i h l b 30% Kovac and Salomone ( 1982) found that the actual energy impact to the sampler range about 30% to Kovac and Salomone ( 1982) found that the actual energy impact to the sampler range about 30% to
80% while Riggs (1983) obtained energy input from 70% to 100% 80% while Riggs (1983) obtained energy input from 70% to 100%
The discrepancies arises from: The discrepancies arises from:- -
 Equipment from different manufacturers Equipment from different manufacturers  Equipment from different manufacturers Equipment from different manufacturers
 Driving hammer configuration Driving hammer configuration
 Usage of liner inside the barrel Usage of liner inside the barrel
 Overburden pressure Overburden pressure pp
 Length of drill rod Length of drill rod
Therefore SPT can be standardised to some energy ratio E Therefore SPT can be standardised to some energy ratio E
rr
such that: such that:--
EE
rr
= (Actual hammer energy to sampler (E = (Actual hammer energy to sampler (E
aa
)/ Input Energy (E)) x 100 )/ Input Energy (E)) x 100
Energy input of 70% is normally use since observation is close to Energy input of 70% is normally use since observation is close to
the actual energy ratio ( the actual energy ratio (EE
rr
))
Th f h d d bl N’ Th f h d d bl N’ i f N i f N Therefore the standard blow count N’ Therefore the standard blow count N’
70 70
is measure from N as is measure from N as
follows: follows:
N’ N’
70 70
= C = C
NN
x N x x N x qq
11
x x qq
22
xx qq
33
xx qq
44
Where Where qq
i i
= adjustment factor from table = adjustment factor from table
N’ N’ Adj d N Adj d N N’ N’
70 70
= Adjusted N = Adjusted N
CC
NN
= Adjustment for effective overburden pressure = Adjustment for effective overburden pressure
' p
76 . 95
C
o
N =
p
o
in kPa
Note that larger Note that larger E E
rr
decrease the blow count nearly linearly decrease the blow count nearly linearly
i.e i.e E E
r45 r45
gives N=20 gives N=20
EE
r90 r90
gives N = 10 gives N = 10
With E With E
00
gives N = 13 gives N = 13 With E With E
r70 r70
gives N 13 gives N 13
Energy ratio x blow count should be constant thus : Energy ratio x blow count should be constant thus :- -
1 r
2 2 r 1 1 r
xN
E
2 N
xN E xN E =
Say E Say E
r1 r1
= 70 thus gives N = 70 thus gives N
22
= (70/E = (70/E
r2 r2
)xN )xN
11
1
2 r
xN
E
2 N =
Say N Say N
22
for E for E
r45 r45
= 20 = E = 20 = E
r2 r2
We obtain N We obtain N
11
= 13 = 13
If we convert N If we convert N
70 70
to N to N
60 60
than N2 = N60 = (70/60)x13 = 15 than N2 = N60 = (70/60)x13 = 15
Using the equation we can readily convert any energy ratio to any other base. Using the equation we can readily convert any energy ratio to any other base.
SPT CORRELATIONS SPT CORRELATIONS SPT CORRELATIONS SPT CORRELATIONS
It can be used in correlation for unit weight It can be used in correlation for unit weight,¸ , ,¸ , relative density, relative density,
DD
rr
, angle of internal friction angle , angle of internal friction angle ||, undrained compressive , undrained compressive
strength q strength q bearing capacity and stress bearing capacity and stress strain modulus strain modulus strength, q strength, q
uu
, bearing capacity and stress , bearing capacity and stress--strain modulus. strain modulus.
Angle of internal friction: Angle of internal friction:--
Base from Japanese Railway Standard: Base from Japanese Railway Standard:
20 N 5 . 4 70 + = |
Base from Japanese Railway Standard: Base from Japanese Railway Standard:
Relative Density Relative Density
B fr m M rh f(1957) B fr m M rh f(1957)
o
2
r
70
' p 288 . 0 32
D
' N
+ =
Base from Meyerhof(1957) : Base from Meyerhof(1957) :
where p’ where p’
oo
is in kPa is in kPa
F OCR > 1 Sk h f ll i dj h F OCR > 1 Sk h f ll i dj h
o OCR
70
' p BC A
' N
+ =
For OCR > 1 Skempton suggest the following adjustment has For OCR > 1 Skempton suggest the following adjustment has
been made: been made:--
o OCR
2
r
p BC A
D
+
Where A range between 15 to 54 Where A range between 15 to 54
B range between 0 306 to 0 204 B range between 0 306 to 0 204 B range between 0.306 to 0.204 B range between 0.306 to 0.204
And And
onc
OCR
' p
C =
And And
oOCR ' p
C
For C For C
OCR OCR
=1 it relates to normally consolidated clay =1 it relates to normally consolidated clay
r D
o
15
o
28 + = |
Thus Meyerhof estimate: Thus Meyerhof estimate:- -
A correlation for N versus q A correlation for N versus q
uu
in general form of: in general form of:--
qq
uu
= kN = kN
Wh k d b i d d Wh k d b i d d Where k tend to be site dependant. Where k tend to be site dependant.
However k = 12 has been used i.e for N’ However k = 12 has been used i.e for N’
70 70
= 10, q = 10, q
uu
= 120kPa = 120kPa
DESIGN N DESIGN N values values DESIGN N DESIGN N--values values
Relationship between Angle of Internal Friction and N-Value
(Sandy Soil)
SPT (Standard Penetration Test)
Hammer Type Hammer Type
SPT SPT
N-SPT = Total No. of Blows for spoon sampler to penetrate at a
c (t/m2) = 2/3 N
N SPT Total No. of Blows for spoon sampler to penetrate at a
depth of 30cm
Relationship between Cohesion and N-Value (Cohesive soil)
2/3 N 2/3 N
Variables that influence SPT results Variables that influence SPT results Variables that influence SPT results Variables that influence SPT results
Dented or Dented or detorned detorned driving shoes driving shoes
Driving Sampler above base of casing Driving Sampler above base of casing
Inadequate cleaning of borehole Inadequate cleaning of borehole
Inadequate supervision or observation Inadequate supervision or observation
 Carelessness in blow counting Carelessness in blow counting
 Penetration depth not marked clearly Penetration depth not marked clearly
 Sampler frequently impeded by coarse gravel or cobbles causing a Sampler frequently impeded by coarse gravel or cobbles causing a p q y p y g g p q y p y g g
sudden increase in blow counts. Observe rate of penetration and sudden increase in blow counts. Observe rate of penetration and
sample recovered. Indicate this in bore log. sample recovered. Indicate this in bore log.
 Always keep boreholes full of water or Always keep boreholes full of water or bentonite bentonite solution to solution to minimise minimise Always keep boreholes full of water or Always keep boreholes full of water or bentonite bentonite solution to solution to minimise minimise
quick or boiling condition especially in sandy strata at great depth. quick or boiling condition especially in sandy strata at great depth.
 Ensure hammer does not strike dolly eccentrically. Ensure hammer does not strike dolly eccentrically.
 Use standard drilling rod or bigger if depths exceed 50m Use standard drilling rod or bigger if depths exceed 50m  Use standard drilling rod or bigger if depths exceed 50m Use standard drilling rod or bigger if depths exceed 50m
 Use standard hammer with guide rod. Use standard hammer with guide rod.
DESIGN N DESIGN N values values DESIGN N DESIGN N--values values
Current practise is to use an average N but in the zone of Current practise is to use an average N but in the zone of
majoring stress. majoring stress.
S d f d i S d f d i h f i i f b 1/2B h f i i f b 1/2B Spread foundation Spread foundation –– the zone of interest is from about 1/2B to the zone of interest is from about 1/2B to
2B below the base of footing. 2B below the base of footing.
¿
=
i
a
z . N
N
¿
=
i
av
z
N
For pile foundations, there may be merit in the simple average of For pile foundations, there may be merit in the simple average of
blow count N for any stratum unless it is very thick blow count N for any stratum unless it is very thick blow count N for any stratum unless it is very thick. blow count N for any stratum unless it is very thick.
It may be better to subdivide the thick stratum into several strata It may be better to subdivide the thick stratum into several strata
and average the N count for each division. and average the N count for each division. and average the N count for each division. and average the N count for each division.
Average corrected N’ Average corrected N’
70 70
can be computed and then average. can be computed and then average.
Empirical Design Value for Pile Empirical Design Value for Pile Empirical Design Value for Pile Empirical Design Value for Pile
Pile Location Pile Location Skin Resistance (kN) Skin Resistance (kN) End Bearing (kN) End Bearing (kN) ( ) ( ) g ( ) g ( )
Sand Sand 3 N 3 N
av av
AA
ss
400 N 400 N
bb
AA
bb
Silt Silt 2.5 N 2.5 N
av av
AA
ss 300 N 300 N
bb
AA
bb
Clay Clay 2 N 2 N AA 100 N 100 N
bb
AA
bb
Clay Clay 2 N 2 N
av av
AA
ss
100 N 100 N
bb
AA
bb
PRESSUREMETER TEST PRESSUREMETER TEST PRESSUREMETER TEST PRESSUREMETER TEST
Using Menard Using Menard Pressuremeter Pressuremeter test to carry out in a borehole by test to carry out in a borehole by
appl ing press re appl ing press re applying pressure. applying pressure.
For For undrained undrained condition, the pressure is maintained for a minute condition, the pressure is maintained for a minute
or two or two or two. or two.
The probe pressure, in applied step, is increased The probe pressure, in applied step, is increased untill untill limit limit
pressure P pressure P
11
.. pressure P pressure P
11
..
For cohesive soil in For cohesive soil in undrained undrained condition: condition:-- For cohesive soil in For cohesive soil in undrained undrained condition: condition:
PP = P = P ++ nc nc where n = 4 to 5 generally where n = 4 to 5 generally PP
11
= P = P
oo
+ + nc nc
uu
, where n = 4 to 5 generally , where n = 4 to 5 generally
cc
uu
= (P = (P
11
–– PP
oo
)/10 + 2.5 (kg/cm )/10 + 2.5 (kg/cm
22
))
For For cohesionless cohesionless soil: soil: For For cohesionless cohesionless soil: soil:--
PP
11
= P = P
oo
NN
22
where N = tan where N = tan
22
(45 + (45 + ||/2) /2)
GROUND WATER INVESTIGATION GROUND WATER INVESTIGATION
Parameters of importance in groundwater investigation are: Parameters of importance in groundwater investigation are:
 Existence of water table; normal perched or artisan. Existence of water table; normal perched or artisan.
 Exact GWT and lower limit of Exact GWT and lower limit of perhed perhed ground water ground water Exact GWT and lower limit of Exact GWT and lower limit of perhed perhed ground water ground water
 Thickness of strata and the Thickness of strata and the piezometric piezometric level of artisan groundwater. level of artisan groundwater.
 Variation of these characteristics over the site and with time Variation of these characteristics over the site and with time
 The chemical composition of groundwater. The chemical composition of groundwater.  The chemical composition of groundwater. The chemical composition of groundwater.
Precaution taken while collecting water samples: Precaution taken while collecting water samples:
 Avoid taking water sample from borehole where Avoid taking water sample from borehole where bentonite bentonite slurry has bee used slurry has bee used  Avoid taking water sample from borehole where Avoid taking water sample from borehole where bentonite bentonite slurry has bee used. slurry has bee used.
 If possible collect the water before addition of water to borehole. If possible collect the water before addition of water to borehole.
 Make sure the subsoil water is not contaminated by rain water or surface water. Make sure the subsoil water is not contaminated by rain water or surface water.
 It is a good It is a good practise practise to lower the water in the borehole by about half a meter to lower the water in the borehole by about half a meter  It is a good It is a good practise practise to lower the water in the borehole by about half a meter, to lower the water in the borehole by about half a meter,
and then allowing to rise and then allowing to rise ti ti its original position and collect the water sample. its original position and collect the water sample.
 Water sample shall be stored in airtight and clean container. Water sample shall be stored in airtight and clean container.
 Test on water samples shall be carried out at the earliest Test on water samples shall be carried out at the earliest  Test on water samples shall be carried out at the earliest. Test on water samples shall be carried out at the earliest.
ROCK CORING ROCK CORING ROCK CORING ROCK CORING
To determine the soundness of rock. To determine the soundness of rock.
 Sound Sound rock rock :: Rock Rock which which ring ring when when struck struck with with a a pick pick or or bar bar.. Does Does not not integrate integrate
after after exposure exposure to to air air or or water, water, breaks breaks with with aa sharp, sharp, fresh fresh fracture, fracture, in in which which
cracks cracks are are unweathered unweathered and and less less than than 33mm mm wide wide and and generally generally not not closer closer than than
11m m apart apart.. Core Core recovery recovery is is normally normally 85 85% %. .
dd kk Ch Ch ff dd kk bb hh kk bb 66 dd  Medium Medium rock rock :: Characteristic Characteristic as as for for sound sound rock rock but but the the cracks cracks maybe maybe 66mm mm wide wide
and and slightly slightly weathered, weathered, generally generally no no closer closer than than 60 60cm cm.. Core Core recovery recovery is is 50 50% % or or
more more..
 Intermediate Intermediate rock rock :: Give Give dull dull sound sound when when hit hit by by pick pick or or bar bar.. Does Does not not integrate integrate
after after exposure exposure to to air air or or water water.. Broken Broken pieces pieces may may show show weathered weathered faces faces..
Fractures Fractures up up to to 25 25mm mm wide wide and and space space no no closer closer than than 30 30cm cm.. Core Core recovery recovery a u a u up up oo 55 dd a d a d pa pa oo oo aa 30 30 oo o y o y
generally generally is is 35 35% % or or greater greater..
 Soft rock : Any rock which flakes on exposure to air or water. Give a very dull Soft rock : Any rock which flakes on exposure to air or water. Give a very dull
sound when struck with pick or bar. Core recovery generally is less than 35% or sound when struck with pick or bar. Core recovery generally is less than 35% or
greater but SPT more than 50. greater but SPT more than 50.
Description of rock (BS 5930). Description of rock (BS 5930).
 Colour Colour
 Grain size ( Tab. 9) Grain size ( Tab. 9)
 Texture and structure Texture and structure
 State of weathering State of weathering
 Rock Name (in capital : Tab. 9) Rock Name (in capital : Tab. 9)
 Strength Strength
 Others. Others.
RQD RQD
RQD(%) RQD(%) Soundness of Rock Soundness of Rock
90 90 - - 100 100 Excellent Excellent
75 75 - - 90 90 Good Good
50 50 - - 75 75 Fair Fair
25 25 - - 50 50 Poor Poor
< 25 < 25 Very Poor Very Poor
Strength of Rock Materials Strength of Rock Materials Strength of Rock Materials Strength of Rock Materials
TT U i i l C i St th (MN/ U i i l C i St th (MN/
22
)) Term Term Uniaxial Compressive Strength (MN/m Uniaxial Compressive Strength (MN/m
22
))
Very Weak Very Weak < 1.25 < 1.25
Weak Weak 1.25 1.25 – – 5.0 5.0
M d t l W k M d t l W k 5 0 5 0 12 5 12 5
Depending on moisture , Depending on moisture ,
anisotrophy and test anisotrophy and test
procedure procedure
Moderately Weak Moderately Weak 5.0 5.0 – – 12.5 12.5
Moderately Strong Moderately Strong 12.5 12.5 – – 50.0 50.0
Strong Strong 50 50 - - 100 100
Very Strong Very Strong 100 100 200 200 Very Strong Very Strong 100 100 -- 200 200
Extremely strong Extremely strong > 200 > 200
SOIL SAMPLING TECHNIQUE SOIL SAMPLING TECHNIQUE SOIL SAMPLING TECHNIQUE SOIL SAMPLING TECHNIQUE
2 TYPES OF SAMPLE : 2 TYPES OF SAMPLE :--
U di t b d U di t b d TT d t i d t i ti ti hh t th t th tt  Undisturbed Undisturbed :: To To determine determine properties properties such such as as strength strength parameters, parameters,
consolidation, consolidation, permeability permeability and and parameters parameters which which need need to to observed observed as as per per site site
condition condition. .
 Disturbed Disturbed :: Do Do determine determine physical physical properties properties such such as as grain grain size, size, colour colour,, texture, texture,
compaction compaction properties, properties, remoulded remoulded properties properties and and for for testing testing etc etc..
DISTURBED SAMPLE DISTURBED SAMPLE DISTURBED SAMPLE DISTURBED SAMPLE
Causes of samples disturbance : Causes of samples disturbance :--
 From boring processes From boring processes g p g p
 Driving the sampling tools Driving the sampling tools
 Withdraw of sampling tools Withdraw of sampling tools
 The relief of stresses in the soil The relief of stresses in the soil
Methods to reduce disturbance : Methods to reduce disturbance :--
 By fixing extension pieces at each end of the sampling tube. By fixing extension pieces at each end of the sampling tube.  By fixing extension pieces at each end of the sampling tube. By fixing extension pieces at each end of the sampling tube.
 For soft sensitive soil use piston sampler For soft sensitive soil use piston sampler
 Sealed sample to reduce moisture losses. Sealed sample to reduce moisture losses.
 Sample identification Sample identification..
UNDISTURBED SAMPLE UNDISTURBED SAMPLE UNDISTURBED SAMPLE UNDISTURBED SAMPLE
The The amount amount of of sample sample disturbance disturbance depends depends on on several several factors factors as as
follows follows::- -
Sh f tti d Sh f tti d  Shape of cutting edge Shape of cutting edge
 Area of container relative to area of soil. Area of container relative to area of soil.
AA
rr
=( D =( D
oo
22
–– D D
ii
22
) / D ) / D
ii
22
Ar < 0.01 Ar < 0.01
 Friction Friction between between soil soil and and inside inside of of tube tube wall wall This This will will compressed compressed the the  Friction Friction between between soil soil and and inside inside of of tube tube wall wall.. This This will will compressed compressed the the
recover recover length length and and make make it it less less than than push push length length. .
A measure of disturbance is called a recovery ratio A measure of disturbance is called a recovery ratio
LL
rr
= Length Recovered / Length Pushed = Length Recovered / Length Pushed
LL
rr
< 1.0 < 1.0 - - soil in compression soil in compression
LL
rr
> 1.0 > 1.0 - - soil in expansion soil in expansion
If L If L
rr
not equal to 1.0 not equal to 1.0 - - sample are disturbed sample are disturbed
Soil character itself. If the soil is highly sensitive, insitu testing Soil character itself. If the soil is highly sensitive, insitu testing
will be dominant. will be dominant.
FIELD IDENTIFICATION AND FIELD IDENTIFICATION AND
DESCRIPTION OF SOIL DESCRIPTION OF SOIL
Soil descriptions are made from washed and disturbed samples Soil descriptions are made from washed and disturbed samples
recovered from the boreholes. recovered from the boreholes.
The soil name is based on particle size distribution and plasticity, The soil name is based on particle size distribution and plasticity,
which can be readily estimated and measured at the laboratory which can be readily estimated and measured at the laboratory which can be readily estimated and measured at the laboratory. which can be readily estimated and measured at the laboratory.
According to BS 5930, soil samples are described with each element of According to BS 5930, soil samples are described with each element of
the descriptions having a fixed position within the overall description: the descriptions having a fixed position within the overall description:--
 a) a) Consistency (cohesive) or RD (non cohesive) Consistency (cohesive) or RD (non cohesive)
 b) b) Fabric and Fissuring, if distinguishable Fabric and Fissuring, if distinguishable )) g, g g, g
 c) c) Colour Colour
 d) d) Subsidiary constituent Subsidiary constituent
 e) e) Angularity or grading of principal soil type (for coarse grained soil) Angularity or grading of principal soil type (for coarse grained soil) e) e) Angularity or grading of principal soil type (for coarse grained soil) Angularity or grading of principal soil type (for coarse grained soil)
 f) f) Principal soil type (in capital letter) Principal soil type (in capital letter)
 g) g) More detailed comments on constituents or fabric. More detailed comments on constituents or fabric.
EG. EG.
Very Stiff (a) Very Stiff (a) Dark Grey (c) Dark Grey (c) CLAY (f) CLAY (f) Very Stiff (a) Very Stiff (a) Dark Grey (c) Dark Grey (c) CLAY (f) CLAY (f)
Dense (a) Brown (c) Dense (a) Brown (c) Fine to Coarse (e) Fine to Coarse (e) Angular (e) GRAVEL (f) Angular (e) GRAVEL (f)
Very Stiff (a) Greenish blue (c) Sandy (d) CLAY (f) With some rounded gravel (g) Very Stiff (a) Greenish blue (c) Sandy (d) CLAY (f) With some rounded gravel (g)
When soils are When soils are desribed desribed at field, it is important to learn how to at field, it is important to learn how to
di ti i h b t l d h i il th b i f di ti i h b t l d h i il th b i f distinguish between clay and non cohesive soils on the basis of distinguish between clay and non cohesive soils on the basis of
estimated engineering estimated engineering behaviour behaviour. (10% of clay can impart an . (10% of clay can impart an
essentially cohesive essentially cohesive behaviour behaviour.. Eg Eg.. essentially cohesive essentially cohesive behaviour behaviour. . Eg Eg..
 A soil containing 50% of silt, 30% of clay and 20% of sand is described as A soil containing 50% of silt, 30% of clay and 20% of sand is described as
sandy sandy silty silty CLAY because the soil behaves more like a clay. CLAY because the soil behaves more like a clay.
 Clayey SAND Clayey SAND –– not cohesive, but contains clay not cohesive, but contains clay
 Very clayey SAND or Very sandy CLAY Very clayey SAND or Very sandy CLAY –– borderline borderline
 Sandy CLAY Sandy CLAY – – cohesive, but sand may be the major constituents by weight. cohesive, but sand may be the major constituents by weight.
The following description should be used when giving more The following description should be used when giving more
detailed comments on constituents of soils : detailed comments on constituents of soils :- -
Desc iption Desc iption %b t of total soil %b t of total soil Description Description % by wt. of total soil % by wt. of total soil
….with traces of ………… ….with traces of ………… 10 10
……….with a little of ……………… ……….with a little of ……………… 10 10 - - 20 20
…………….with some …………….. …………….with some …………….. 20 20 - - 35 35
………….and…………. ………….and…………. 35 35 - - 50 50
The following should be used when describing subsidiary The following should be used when describing subsidiary
components of soils: components of soils:- -
Descriptive Descriptive Subsidiary Component by Weight Subsidiary Component by Weight
Term Term
Sand and Sand and
Gravel Mixes Gravel Mixes
Coarse Soil Coarse Soil
Containing Containing
Fine Soil Fine Soil
Containing Containing Gravel Mixes Gravel Mixes Containing Containing
Fines Fines
Containing Containing
Coarse Particles Coarse Particles
None None 00 00 35 % 35 % None None 00 00 35 % 35 %
Slightly Slightly 5% 5% 5 % 5 % Not Used Not Used g y g y
Subsidiary Subsidiary
Adjective Adjective
5 5 – – 20 % 20 % 5 5 – – 15 % 15 % 35 35 – – 65 % 65 %
Very Very 20 % 20 % 15 15 – – 35 % 35 % Not Used Not Used
GEOTECHNICAL REPORT GUIDELINE
•Table of Contents Table of Contents
•Executive Summary. Brief to the point summary not exceeding one page of
findings and design recommendations g g
•Terms of Reference. Outline terms of reference and scope, identify requesting
source. Find out geotechnical requirements from the project manager, structural
engineer or the geometric designer at the beginning of the assignment and keep
track of changing requirements thus terms of reference.
•Background information/ review of existing data. Provide site description.
Describe, topography and geology (in terms of engineering significance and
engineering properties), seismic ground motion data, lab data, groundwater and
d i i f ti P id l ti N ti l T hi S i 1 50 000 drainage information. Provide location map, National Topographic Series 1:50,000
map reference, e.g. 92B/12, Longitude and Latitude, Universal Transverse Mercator
coordinates if possible. Provide plan profile where applicable, site history if available.
Site investigation. Describe what is needed in light of existing information, provide specific rationale for the
scope and methods of site investigation to make it possible for reviewers to assess the adequacy of the p g p q y
investigation. Describe what was carried out. Show location of test holes or pits or geophysical lines if any.
Include field observations at the site, soils and existing conditions.
Laboratory testing List the tests done and present the results using standard format Laboratory testing. List the tests done and present the results using standard format.
Evaluation and analysis. Discussion of the site investigation and laboratory test results and their implications
on the proposed facility or the stability of the site investigated. The seismic assessment should be provided. p p y y g p
Describe analyses performed, assumptions, parameters and methods used (use two methods for analyzing
slope stability or calculating bearing capacities where practical). Provide foundation or slope design
information in terms of both static and dynamic (seismic) design if required and state what safety factors are
in place. Provide anticipated range of settlement for foundations and fills and FOS of fill. Apply your field p p g pp y y
observation of the site conditions and existing foundations if any, on your choice of foundation type.
Sand and Gravel Sources/ Disposal Areas. Provide legal description, status (Crown, lease, etc.). Describe
i l d d l d i d i l i d j d i i D ib potential sand and gravel sources, tested or estimated material properties and projected quantities. Describe
investigation methodology. Provide recommendations on waste or surplus material disposal areas.
•Design Recommendations including the Design of Pavement Structures •Design Recommendations , including the Design of Pavement Structures.
Point out possible foundation and construction difficulties, effects on the existing
adjacent structures and suggest methods of overcoming these difficulties recommend adjacent structures and suggest methods of overcoming these difficulties, recommend
the preferred type of foundation, describe why and suggest possible alternatives
(value engineering) where possible. Refer to findings of field investigation, lab test
findings and analyses results Point out that the geotechnical engineer should be findings and analyses results. Point out that the geotechnical engineer should be
given appropriate opportunity to review the geotechnical aspects of the completed
design prior to construction.
• Discuss predicted effects of the recommended work on the environment
(water quality, etc.). Provide recommendations on mitigation measures.
Provide specifications and special provisions for construction contract. Provide cost
estimates for the recommended work.
• Literature References
Provide a list of references used in the preparation of the report.
• Appendices: • Appendices:
Correspondence Soils & rock core logs (make sure standard disclaimers are
included with the logs in contract drawings) test hole location plan design profile included with the logs in contract drawings), test hole location plan, design profile
for new roads, pit development plan, drawings, plan & profile, photos.
• Quality control of work: • Quality control of work:
Reports must be signed and stamped both by the author and the reviewer. It is the
responsibility of the author and the reviewer to determine the appropriateness and responsibility of the author and the reviewer to determine the appropriateness and
accuracy of input data and the correctness of the computed results. Use of
computer programs does not free the Professional Engineer or the Professional
Geoscientist from this responsibility. p y
SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY SUMMARY
Surface Investigation Surface Investigation
 Site inspection of existing earth structure, slabs and foundation nearby. Site inspection of existing earth structure, slabs and foundation nearby.
 Study Topographical, geological, hydrological map, data. Etc. Study Topographical, geological, hydrological map, data. Etc.
 Study Soil data report nearby projects Study Soil data report nearby projects  Study Soil data, report nearby projects. Study Soil data, report nearby projects.
Sub surface Investigation Sub surface Investigation
 Test Pits Test Pits
 Sampling and Lab Test Sampling and Lab Test  Sampling and Lab Test Sampling and Lab Test
 Log Log
 Insitu Insitu Testing Testing
B i T t B i T t  Boring Test Boring Test
 Rotary boring Rotary boring
 Percussion boring Percussion boring
 Log Log
 Lab Test Lab Test
 Sounding Tests Sounding Tests
 JKR Probing JKR Probing
 Dutch Cone Dutch Cone Penetrometer Penetrometer
 Hand Hand Augering Augering
 Log Log
 Sampling Sampling p g p g
 Lab Test Lab Test
Scope Scope of of site site investigation investigation works works when when planned planned by by different different engineers engineers tend tend to to be be varied varied because because pp gg pp yy gg
there there are are an an infinite infinite number number of of conditions conditions to to be be met met and and the the process process of of planning planning also also leaves leaves many many
areas areas where where individual individual judgement judgement and and experiences experiences must must be be applied applied..
It It is is also also impossible impossible to to attempt attempt to to provide provide an an exhaustive exhaustive step step by by step step guidelines guidelines applicable applicable to to all all
possible possible cases cases..
It should be realised that there is a possibility that any site It should be realised that there is a possibility that any site p y y p y y
investigation may leave some area unexplored or overlooked. investigation may leave some area unexplored or overlooked.
The main risk in foundation design is the uncertainty involving The main risk in foundation design is the uncertainty involving
in predicting soil conditions which may change with in predicting soil conditions which may change with
ii environment. environment.
More site investigation will reduce the margin of uncertainty but More site investigation will reduce the margin of uncertainty but
the time and cost requirement will be exorbitant. the time and cost requirement will be exorbitant.
Therefore the extent and the cost of SI should be such that risk Therefore the extent and the cost of SI should be such that risk
is at an established acceptable level to the designer and also is at an established acceptable level to the designer and also is at an established acceptable level to the designer and also is at an established acceptable level to the designer and also
comply to the accepted code of practise. comply to the accepted code of practise.
CONSTRUCTION STAGE CONSTRUCTION STAGE CONSTRUCTION STAGE CONSTRUCTION STAGE
Engineers should allow or apt with changes during construction Engineers should allow or apt with changes during construction
of foundation at site. of foundation at site.
Al i d i d b i h d h h Al i d i d b i h d h h Alternative design need to be in hand whenever there are Alternative design need to be in hand whenever there are
changes during this stage. changes during this stage.
At this stage a critical fast and accurate decision need to be done At this stage a critical fast and accurate decision need to be done At this stage a critical, fast and accurate decision need to be done At this stage a critical, fast and accurate decision need to be done
as the delay in making decision will hold or retarding the process as the delay in making decision will hold or retarding the process
of construction. of construction.
This is a stage where foundation engineers are really tested in This is a stage where foundation engineers are really tested in
their knowledge integrity. their knowledge integrity. g g y g g y
This is also a stage where reliability of SI data is known. This is also a stage where reliability of SI data is known.
POST DESIGN STAGE POST DESIGN STAGE POST DESIGN STAGE POST DESIGN STAGE
To validate the design, load test need to be carried out. The To validate the design, load test need to be carried out. The
designer may choose to have them conducted either before or designer may choose to have them conducted either before or
after the bids are taken after the bids are taken after the bids are taken. after the bids are taken.
The first alternative permits development or revision of design The first alternative permits development or revision of design
and specifications to fit the actual conditions and specifications to fit the actual conditions and specifications to fit the actual conditions. and specifications to fit the actual conditions.
The second saves expenses on mobilisation but may lead to delay The second saves expenses on mobilisation but may lead to delay
if the results is unsatisfactorily. if the results is unsatisfactorily. yy
PILE LOAD TEST AND PILE LOAD TEST AND
INTERPRETATION INTERPRETATION
LOAD TEST LOAD TEST LOAD TEST LOAD TEST
To ensure the pile workability before and after construction. It is To ensure the pile workability before and after construction. It is
also as a method to determine settlement and ensuring that it also as a method to determine settlement and ensuring that it
does not exceed allowable limit. does not exceed allowable limit.
Failure of load test according to JKR specification: Failure of load test according to JKR specification:--
id l l d i l d d 6 5 id l l d i l d d 6 5 1. 1. Residual settlement at design load exceed 6.5mm Residual settlement at design load exceed 6.5mm
2. 2. Total settlement at design load exceed 12.5mm Total settlement at design load exceed 12.5mm
3. 3. Total settlement exceed 38mm or 10% of pile diameter or width Total settlement exceed 38mm or 10% of pile diameter or width
whichever is lower under twice design load. whichever is lower under twice design load.
M h d f h ll b f JKR S ifi i M h d f h ll b f JKR S ifi i Methods of statement shall be refer to JKR Specification or Methods of statement shall be refer to JKR Specification or
BS8004. BS8004.
Pile in granular soil are often tested 24 to 48 hrs when load Pile in granular soil are often tested 24 to 48 hrs when load Pile in granular soil are often tested 24 to 48 hrs when load Pile in granular soil are often tested 24 to 48 hrs when load
arrangement have been made. arrangement have been made.
The time lapse is sufficient for excess pore water pressure to The time lapse is sufficient for excess pore water pressure to
di i t di i t dissipates. dissipates.
Pile in cohesive soils should be tested after sufficient lapse for Pile in cohesive soils should be tested after sufficient lapse for
excess pore water pressure to dissipates excess pore water pressure to dissipates excess pore water pressure to dissipates. excess pore water pressure to dissipates.
This time lapse is commonly in the order of 30 to 90 days giving This time lapse is commonly in the order of 30 to 90 days giving
also some additional strength gain from thixotropic effects also some additional strength gain from thixotropic effects also some additional strength gain from thixotropic effects. also some additional strength gain from thixotropic effects.
LOAD
5
m
m
5
m
m
6
.
5
1
2
.
5
e
m
e
n
t
DL
3
8
m
m
s
e
t
t
l
e
2DL 2DL
From point O to ‘a’ the capacity is based on the skin resistance plus any small point contribution. From point O to ‘a’ the capacity is based on the skin resistance plus any small point contribution.
From point ‘a’ to ‘b’ the load capacity is the sum of the limiting skin resistance plus the point From point ‘a’ to ‘b’ the load capacity is the sum of the limiting skin resistance plus the point p p y g p p p p y g p p
capacity. capacity.
From point ‘b’ the curves becomes vertical as the ultimate point capacity is reached. Often the vertical From point ‘b’ the curves becomes vertical as the ultimate point capacity is reached. Often the vertical
asymptote is anticipated and the test terminated before a vertical curve branch is established. asymptote is anticipated and the test terminated before a vertical curve branch is established.
250k 1600 250 1350kN 250k
N
1600-250 = 1350kN
STARTING POINT OF FOUNDATION STARTING POINT OF FOUNDATION
DESIGN DESIGN
Following steps are the minimum requirement for designing a Following steps are the minimum requirement for designing a
foundation. foundation.
L h i d h i i f h l d L h i d h i i f h l d 1. 1. Locate the site and the position of the load Locate the site and the position of the load
2. 2. Physical inspect the site for any geological or other evidence Physical inspect the site for any geological or other evidence
that may indicate potential design problems that may indicate potential design problems that may indicate potential design problems that may indicate potential design problems
3. 3. Establish the field exploration program for design parameters Establish the field exploration program for design parameters
D t rmi r d i p r m t r b i t r ti f D t rmi r d i p r m t r b i t r ti f 4. 4. Determine necessary design parameters base on integration of Determine necessary design parameters base on integration of
test data, scientific principles and engineering judgement. test data, scientific principles and engineering judgement.
55 Design the foundation using the latter and it should be Design the foundation using the latter and it should be 5. 5. Design the foundation using the latter and it should be Design the foundation using the latter and it should be
economical and be able to be built by the available construction economical and be able to be built by the available construction
personnel. personnel. pp
GENERAL REQUIREMENT GENERAL REQUIREMENT GENERAL REQUIREMENT GENERAL REQUIREMENT
TWO MOST IMPORTANT QUESTION FOR DESIGNER!!! TWO MOST IMPORTANT QUESTION FOR DESIGNER!!!
WHAT LOADS ARE TO BE SUPPORTED. WHAT LOADS ARE TO BE SUPPORTED.
HOW FAR MAY THE FOUNDATION SETTLE IN HOW FAR MAY THE FOUNDATION SETTLE IN
RESPONSE TO THESE LOAD. RESPONSE TO THESE LOAD.
Generally the proper design requires the following: Generally the proper design requires the following:- -
1. 1. Determine the building purpose, probable service life Determine the building purpose, probable service life
l di f f i il fil i h d l di f f i il fil i h d loading, type of framing, soil profile, construction methods loading, type of framing, soil profile, construction methods
and construction cost. and construction cost.
22 Determine the client owner and client needs Determine the client owner and client needs 2. 2. Determine the client owner and client needs. Determine the client owner and client needs.
3. 3. Making the design, but ensuring that it does not successively Making the design, but ensuring that it does not successively
degrade the environment and provide a margin of safety degrade the environment and provide a margin of safety degrade the environment and provide a margin of safety degrade the environment and provide a margin of safety
that produces a tolerable risk level to all parties, the public, that produces a tolerable risk level to all parties, the public,
the owner and the engineer. the owner and the engineer. gg
ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATION IN ADDITIONAL CONSIDERATION IN
FOUNDATION DESIGN FOUNDATION DESIGN
Adequate depth Adequate depth
Depth of foundation to be below seasonal change Depth of foundation to be below seasonal change
Considering problematic soil Considering problematic soil
Compressive strength consideration Compressive strength consideration
Protection of foundation against natural causes Protection of foundation against natural causes
Sustainable to changes Sustainable to changes
Buildable or limitation. Buildable or limitation.
Apt to local environment standard. Apt to local environment standard.
CHOICE OF FOUNDATION TYPE CHOICE OF FOUNDATION TYPE CHOICE OF FOUNDATION TYPE CHOICE OF FOUNDATION TYPE
Based from Neoh C.A, the choice of the foundation designs are Based from Neoh C.A, the choice of the foundation designs are
considered from: considered from:
L d l L d l 1. 1. Loads per column Loads per column
2. 2. Bearing type either end or skin Bearing type either end or skin
B i l B i l 3. 3. Bearing layer Bearing layer
4. 4. Type of Intermediate layer Type of Intermediate layer
5. 5. Location of water level. Location of water level.
Assess Foundation Base
A G d
PROCEDURE FOR THE
CHOICE OF FOUNDATION
TYPE FOR A SITE
Assess Ground
Conditions and Type of
Structures
NO
YES
Are pile
necessary
Choose
Shallow
Foundation
Types
Technical
Considerations
NO
Types
for Different Pile
Types:-
1. Ground Condition
2. Loading
Condition
Assess construction programme for each
suitable pile type and rank them based Condition
3. Environmental
Considerations
4. Site and Plant
Considerations
suitable pile type and rank them based
on program consideration
Make overall ranking of each pile type
5. Safety
List all technically feasible pile types
and rank them in order of suitability
Make overall ranking of each pile type
based on technical, cost and
programme considerations
and rank them in order of suitability
based on technical consideration.
Assess cost of each suitable pile type and
Submit individual and overall rankings of each pile
type to client and make recommendation on most
suitable pile type.
Assess cost of each suitable pile type and
rank them based on cost consideration.