You are on page 1of 12

7/24/2011

GATE2007

Forging
BySKMondal

In opendie forging, a disc of diameter 200 mm and height 60 mm is compressed without any barreling effect. The final diameter of the disc is 400 mm. The true strain is 1.986 1.686 (a) 1 986 (b) 1 686 (c) 1.386 (d) 0.602 Ans. (c)

GATE1994
Match 4 correct pairs between List I and List II for the questions List I gives a number of processes and List II gives a number of products List I List II (a) Investment casting ( ) I t t ti 1. Turbine rotors T bi t (b) Die casting 2. Turbine blades (c) Centrifugal casting 3. Connecting rods (d) Drop forging 4. Galvanized iron pipe (e) Extrusion 5. Cast iron pipes (f) Shell moulding 6. Carburettor body Ans. (a) 2, (b) 6, (c) 5, (d) 3

GATE1998
List I (A) Aluminium brake shoe (1) (B) Plastic water bottle (2) (C) Stainless steel cups (3) (D) Soft drink can (aluminium) (4) (5) (6) Ans. (A) 3, (B) 2, (C) 1, (D) 5 List II Deep drawing Blow moulding Sand casting Centrifugal casting Impact extrusion Upset forging

IES2008
Which one of the following is correct? Malleability is the property by which a metal or alloy can be plastically deformed by applying (a) Tensile stress (b) Bending stress (c) Shear stress (d) Compressive stress Ans. (d)

IES 2006
Assertion (A): Forging dies are provided with taper or draft angles on vertical surfaces. Reason (R): It facilitates complete filling of die cavity and favourable grain flow. (a) Both ( ) B th A and R are i di id ll t d individually true and R i th d is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (c)

7/24/2011

IES 2005
Consider the following statements: Forging reduces the grain size of the metal, which results in a decrease in strength and toughness. Forged components can be provided with thin sections, without reducing the strength. ti ith t d i th t th Which of the statements given above is/are correct? (a) Only 1 (b) Only 2 (c) Both 1 and 2 (d) Neither 1 nor 2 Ans. (b)

IES 1996
Which one of the following is an advantage of forging? (a) Good surface finish (b) Low tooling cost (c) Close tolerance (d) Improved physical property Ans. (d)

IES 1993
Which one of the following manufacturing processes requires the provision of gutters? (a) Closed die forging (b) Centrifugal casting (c) Investment casting (d) Impact extrusion Ans. (a)

IES 1997
Assertion (A): In drop forging besides the provision for flash, provision is also to be made in the forging die for additional space called gutter. Reason (R): The gutter helps to restrict the outward flow of metal thereby helping to fill thin ribs and bases in the upper die. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is not the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true [Ans. (c)]

IES 2004
Match List I (Different systems) with List II (Associated terminology) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: List I List II A. Riveted J Joints 1. Nipping pp g B. Welded joints 2. Angular movement C. Leaf springs 3. Fullering D. Knuckle joints 4. Fusion A B C D A B C D (a) 3 2 1 4 (b) 1 2 3 4 (c) 1 4 3 2 (d) 3 4 1 2 Ans. (d)

IES 2003
A forging method for reducing the diameter of a bar and in the process making it longer is termed as (a) Fullering (b) Punching (c) Upsetting (d) Extruding Ans. (a)

7/24/2011

IES 2002
Consider the following steps involved in hammer forging a connecting rod from bar stock: 1. Blocking 2. Trimming 3. Finishing 4. Fullering 5. Edging Which of the following is the correct sequence of operations? (a) 1, 4, 3, 2 and 5 (b) 4, 5, 1, 3 and 2 (c) 5, 4, 3, 2 and 1 (d) 5, 1, 4, 2 and 3 [Ans. (b)]

IES 1999
Consider the following operations involved in forging a hexagonal bolt from a round bar stock, whose diameter is equal to the bolt diameter: 1. Flattening 2. Upsetting 3. S Swaging 4. Cambering i C b i The correct sequence of these operations is (a) 1, 2, 3, 4 (b) 2, 3, 4, 1 (c) 2, 1, 3, 4 (d) 3, 2, 1, 4 Ans. (a)

IES 2003
Consider the following steps in forging a connecting rod from the bar stock: 1. Blocking 2. Trimming 3. Finishing 4. Edging Select the correct sequence of these operations using the codes given below: Codes: (a) 1234 (b) 2341 (c) 3412 (d) 4132 Ans. (d)

IES 2005
The process of removing the burrs or flash from a forged component in drop forging is called: (a) Swaging (b) Perforating (c) Trimming (d) Fettling Ans. (c)

IES2011
Which of the following processes belong to forging operation ? 1. Fullering 2. Swaging 3. Welding (a) 1 and 2 only (b) 2 and 3 only (c) 1 and 3 only (b) 1, 2 and 3 only [Ans. (a)]

IES 2008
The balls of the ball bearings are manufactured from steel rods. The operations involved are: 1. Ground 2. Hot forged on hammers 3. Heat treated 4. Polished What is the correct sequence of the above operations from start? (a) 3241 (b) 3214 (c) 2314 (d) 2341 Ans. (None) Correct sequence is 2 1 3 4

7/24/2011

IES 2001
Intheforgingoperation,fullering isdoneto (a) Drawoutthematerial (b) Bendthematerial (c) Upsetthematerial (d) Extrudingthematerial Ans.(a)

Video

IES2011
Consider the following statements : 1. Any metal will require some time to undergo complete plastic deformation particularly if deforming metal has to fill cavities and corners of small radii. 2. For larger work piece of metals that can retain toughness at forging temperature it is preferable to use forge press rather than forge hammer. (a) 1 and 2 are correct and 2 is the reason for 1 (b) 1 and 2 are correct and 1 is the reason for 2 (c) 1 and 2 are correct but unrelated (d) 1 only correct [Ans. (b)]

IES 1998
The bending force required for Vbending, U bending and Edgebending will be in the ratio of (a) 1 : 2 : 0.5 (b) 2: 1 : 0.5 (c) 1: 2 : 1 (d) 1: 1 : 1 Ans. (a)

IES 2005
Match List I (Type of Forging) with List II (Operation) and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists: List I List II A. Drop Forging 1. Metal is gripped in the dies and pressure is applied on the heated end i li d h h d d B. Press Forging 2. Squeezing action C. Upset Forging 3. Metal is placed between rollers and pushed D. Roll Forging 4. Repeated hammer blows [Ans. (c)] A B C D A B C D (a) 4 1 2 3 (b) 3 2 1 4 (c) 4 2 1 3 (d) 3 1 2 4

IES 2008
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the code given below the lists: ListI (Forging Technique) ListII (Process) A. Smith Forging 1. Material is only upset to get the desired shape B. Drop Forging 2. Carried out manually open dies C. Press Forging 3. Done in closed impression dies by hammers in blows D. Machine Forging 4. Done in closed impression dies by continuous squeezing force Code: A B C D (a) 2 3 4 1 (b) 4 3 2 1 (c) 2 1 4 3 (d) 4 1 2 3

Ans. (a)

7/24/2011

IES 1998
Which one of the following processes is most commonly used for the forging of bolt heads of hexagonal shape? (a) Closed die drop forging (b) Open die upset forging O di tf i (c) Close die press forging (d) Open die progressive forging Ans. (b)

IES 1994
In drop forging, forging is done by dropping (a) The work piece at high velocity (b) The hammer at high velocity. (c) The die with hammer at high velocity (d) a weight on hammer to produce the requisite impact. Ans. (c)

IES 2009
Match ListI with ListII and select the correct answer using the code given below the Lists: ListI ListII (Article) (Processing Method) A. Disposable coffee cups 1. Rotomoulding B. Large water tanks g 2. Expandable bead moulding p g C. Plastic sheets 3. Thermoforming D. Cushion pads 4. Blow moulding 5. Calendaring Code: (a) A B C D (b) A B C D 3 5 1 2 4 5 1 2 (c) A B C D (d) A B C D 4 3 3 1 3 1 5 2 Ans. (d)

IAS 2001
Match List I (Forging operations) with List II (Descriptions) and select the correct answer using the codes given below the Lists: List I List II A. Flattening 1. Thickness is reduced continuously at different sections along length B. Drawing 2. Metal is displaced away from centre, reducing thickness in middle and increasing length C. Fullering 3. Rod is pulled through a die D. Wire drawing 4. Pressure a workpiece between two flat dies Codes: A B C D A B C D (a) 3 2 1 4 (b) 4 1 2 3 (c) 3 1 2 4 (d) 4 2 1 3 Ans. (b)

IAS 2000
Drop forging is used to produce (a) Small components (b) Large components (c) Identical Components in large numbers (d) Mediumsize components Ans. (a)

IAS 1998
The forging defect due to hindrance to smooth flow of metal in the component called 'Lap' occurs because (a) The corner radius provided is too large (b) Th corner radius provided i t small The di id d is too ll (c) Draft is not provided (d) The shrinkage allowance is inadequate Ans. (b)

7/24/2011

IAS1996
Compound die performs (a) Two or more operations at one station in one stroke (b) Two or more operations at different stations in one stroke (c) Only one operations and that too at one work station (d) Two operations at two different work stations in the same stroke Ans. (a)

IAS 2002
Considerthefollowingstatementsrelatedto forging: 1. Flashisexcessmaterialaddedtostockwhichflows aroundpartingline. 2. Fl hh l i filli fthi ib db Flashhelpsinfillingofthinribsandbossesinupper i die. 3. Amountofflashdependsuponforgingforce. Whichoftheabovestatementsarecorrect? (a) 1,2and3 (b) 1and2 (c) 1and3 (d) 2and3 [Ans.(b)]

Assertion (A) : Hot tears occur during forging because of inclusions in the blank material Reason (R) : Bonding between the inclusions and the parent material is through physical and chemical bonding. (a) Both A and R are individually true and R is the correct explanation of A (b) Both A and R are individually true but R is NOT the correct explanation of A (c) A is true but R is false (d) A is false but R is true Ans. (c)

IES2011

IES 2006 Conventional


A certain disc of lead of radius 150 mm and thickness 50 mm is reduced to a thickness of 25 mm by open die forging. If the coefficient of friction between the job and die is 0.25, determine the maximum forging force. The average shear yield stress of lead can be taken as 4 N/mm2. [10 Marks]

IES 2007Conventional
A cylinder of height 60 mm and diameter 100 mm is forged at room temperature between two flat dies. Find the die load at the end of compression to a height 30 mm, using slab method of analysis. The yield strength of the work material is given as 120 N/mm2 and the coefficient of friction is 0.05. Assume that volume is constant after deformation. There is no sticking. Also find mean die pressure. [20Marks]

Analysis of Forging

( x + dx ) Bh x Bh 2xdx B = 0
dx 2x =0 dx h

Fig. Open die forging

For Sliding Friction


x = p dx 2p =0 ..........eqn A dx h Assuming x and p as principal stresses, and taking Trescas yield theory; we have for plan strain, or
1 3 = 0 = 2k x + p = 0

p being compressive

d x dp = dx dx from eq n A dp 2 = dx p h int egrating

2 x +C h Now at x = L, x = 0, ( stress free suface ) ,so we have log e p = p = 0 or log e ( 0 ) = 2 L +C h 2 or C = log e 0 + L h p 2 log e = (L x ) 0 h or p = 0e or
2 ( L x ) /h

p p 2 L x /h = =e ( ) 2k 0
2 ( L x ) /h

x = 0 p = 0 1 e

Distribution of p and i

pmax = 0e p 2k max

2 L h

1 + 2

L h
2 L h

As h decreases, p will increase for the same value of p is directly proportional to . Now total forging load

( x )max = 0 1 e
L

pt = 2B pdx
0

Average pressure ( pa ) =

pt 1 = pdx 2BL L 0

2 L 0 h 1 + e h L 2 2L is small then, As if h pa pa h 2L 42L2 = = + 1 1+ 0 2k 2L h 2h2 L = 1 + h

pa =

Sticking Friction
When there is a condition of sticking friction, the work piece material does not slide along the die face and actually becomes a part of the die face and there is sub surface flow of metal. The frictional shear stress at the die interface cannot be more than the yield shear stress of the material. So, for sticking friction x = k = 0 (Tresca condition) 2 d x 0 or =0 dx h dp 0 =0 dx h or p = 0 x + c h Now usually the sliding friction exists near the edges of the work piece (x = L), where the pressure is low, but at some distance nearer to the centre line, sticking fiction may exist. Let sticking occurs at x = xs, where. s = p = 0 2

0 = 0e2 (L xs )/h 2 1 h or x S = L log e 2 2 at x = x S ,p = pS now pS = C = pS + 0 .x S + C h

0 .x S h 0 ( xS x ) h

In the sticking region p = pS +

pS = 0e2(L xs )/h

Hot Forging
STICKING FRICTION IS HIGH and sticking regime extends over the whole interface, for this situation. x = k = 0 2 now x + p = o

or dx = dp hdp 2kdx = 0 int regrating dp x = +c 2k h Now at x = L, p = 2k = 0 (Since x = 0)


c=1+

L h

p L = 1 + (L x ) 2k h L p = 1 + (at centre x = 0) or h 2k max Average pressure will be L pa = 2k 1 + 2h


Note: The value of co-efficient of friction at sticking condition; = 0.5 Tresca yield condition = 0.577 for Von-mises yield condition.

Axi-symmetric forging
dr 2 =0 dr h = p = Z (where p = Z ) dr 2Z + =0 dr h Now using Von-Misess yield condition,

22 = ( 1 2 ) + ( 2 3 ) + ( 3 1 ) 0
2 2 2 2

Taking r , and z as principal stress,we ge t 22 = ( r z ) + ( z ) + ( r ) 0 and = r 22 = 2 ( r z ) 0 or dr = dp dp 2r = p h or log e p = 2r +C h At outer surface r = R, r = 0, p = Z = 0 2r h


2 2

or 0 = r z = r + p

C = log e 0 + p log e 0

2 (R r ) = h
2

or p = 0 e h

(R r )
R

Average pressure will be, pa =

2prdr
0

R 2
2

h 2R 2R h = 0 1 e 2 R h maximum pressure ( pmax ) = 0 e


2 R h

Sticking Friction
When sticking friction occurs over a portion of the disc, the problem can be analyzed on the same lines as for plane strain forging. Thus, sticking radius will be given as, 1 h RS = R log e 2 2

1 h log e 2 3 Pressure at the sticking radius, p S = 0e2 (R Rs )/h =R 0 ( RS R ) h Pressure at the centre R = 0 pC = pS + 0 .R S h p = pS +
In the sticking region,

For Hot Forging


=k

d r 2 =0 dr h dr 2k =0 dr h dr = dp 2k .r + c h r = R, r = 0 and p = 0 or p = or c = 0 + p = 0 + 0 .R h

0 (R r ) h p Rr =1+ 2k h R pmax = 2k 1 + h R pa = 2k 1 + 2h

Example-1: A piece of lead 25 mm 25 mm 150 mm having a yield stress of 7N/mm2 is to be pressed between flat dies a size of approximately 6.25mm 100 mm 150 mm, = 0.25. Determine pressure distribution and the total forging load. Solution: Final Dimension h = 6.25mm, 2R = 100mm
1 h log e 2 2

Sticking radius, R S = R

6.25 1 = 41.34mm log e 0.5 0.25 2 It is clear that on the major portion of piece, Sticking conditions exist, in the sliding portion p = 0e2 (L x )/h 41.34 < x < 50 = 50 = 0e2 (R r )/h At r= R i.e. outer surface p = 0 At r = Rs,
p = 0 e
0.58.66 1 6.25

= 2 0 0 ( RS R ) h = 20 + 0 ( 41.34 R ) 6.25

In the sticking region, p = pS +

At the centre, R = 0 p = 2 0 + 0.16 0 41.34 = 8.61 0

Forging load per unit width =

1 1007.61 0 2 =380.5 0

Total forging load = 380.5 0 150 = 380.57 150 = 399.5 kN Example-2: A strip of lead with initial dimension 24 mm 14 mm 150 mm is forged between two flat dies to a final size 6 mm 96 mm 150 mm. If the co-efficient of friction = 0.25. Determine the maximum forging force. The average yield stress of lead in tension 7 N/mm2. Solution; Final dimensions: h = 6mm, 2R = 96mm Sticking radius, R S = R

1 h log e 2 2

6 1 log e 2 0.25 2 0.5 = 39.68mm It is clear that on the major portion of piece, sticking conditions exist. In the sliding portion p = 0e2 (L x )/h = 48 = 0e2 (R r )/h At r = k i.e. outer surface p = 0
pS = 0e
20.5( 48 39.68 ) /6

=2 0

0 ( RS R ) R = 20 + 0 ( 39.68 R ) 6 at R = 0 p = pS + pmax = 20 + 6.610 = 8.610


Forging load per unit width =

1 96 7.61 0 2 =365.28 0

Total forging load = 365.28 0 150 = 383.5 kN