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INTRODUCTION OF PAKISTAN ORDNANCE FACTORY WAH CANTT

Electrical Engineering is the application of power, power distribution, and power control concepts
to plant operation. It deals with the engineering, design, selection and application of electrical equipment hardware for the powering of plant processes and units. Electrical Engineering performs power studies, defines systems and specifies major electrical equipment. On the other hand, The Electrical Design groups function is to convert the engineering data into construction deliverables. It also specifies the non-engineered items known as Electrical bulks. These include cables, cable trays, junction boxes and all other items required to complete the Electrical systems.

Introduction
The present day electrical power system is ac i.e. Electric power is generated, transmitted and distributed in the form of Alternating current. The electric power is produce at the power station, which are located at favorable places, generally quite away from the consumers. It is delivered to the consumer through a large network of transmission and distribution. At many place in the line of power system, it may be desirable and necessary to change some characteristic (e.g. Voltage, ac to de, frequency p.f. etc.) of electric supply. This is accomplished by suitable apparatus called sub-station for example, generation voltage (11kv or 6.6kv) at the power station is stepped up to high voltage (Say 220kv to 132kv) for transmission of electric power. Similarly near the consumers localities, the voltage may have to be stepped down to utilization level. This job is again accomplished by suitable apparatus called sub-station.

Definition of sub-station:The assembly of apparatus used to change some characteristics (e.g. Voltage al to de freq. p.f. etc) of electric supply is called sub-station.

Functions of a Substation:
1 - Supply of required electrical power. 2 - Maximum possible coverage of the supply network. 3 - Maximum security of supply. 4 - Shortest possible fault-duration. 5 - Optimum efficiency of plants and the network. 6 - Supply of electrical power within targeted frequency limits (49.5 Hz and50.5 Hz). 7 - Supply of electrical power within specified voltage limits. 8 - Supply of electrical energy to the consumers at the lowest cost.

Equipment Used in a Sub-Station


The equipment required for a transformer Sub-Station depends upon the type of Sub-Station, Service requirement and the degree of protection desired. TIF Sub-Station has the following major equipments.

1) Bus - bar:When a no. of lines operating at the same voltage have to be directly connected electrically, bus-bar are used, it is made up of copper or aluminum bars (generally of rectangular X-Section) and operate at constant voltage. Fig. Shows the arrangement of Duplicate bus-bar, generally it consist of two bus-bars a main bus-bar and spare bus-bar. The incoming and outgoing lines can be connected to either b/b. With the help of a bus-bar coupler, which consist of a circuit breaker and isolator. However, in case of repair of main bus-bar or fault accusing on it, the continuity of supply to the circuit can be maintain by transforming it to the spare bus-bar for voltage exceeding 33KV,Duplicate bus-bar is frequently used.

2) Insulators:The insulator serves two purposes. They support the conductor (or bus bar) and confine the current to the conductor. The most commonly used material for the manufactures of insulators is porcelain. There are several type of insulator (i.e. pine type, suspension type etc.) and there used in Sub-Station will depend upon the service requirement. Types of insulators are as follows: i) Pin type ii) Suspension type iii) Strain iv) Shackle v) Stay

i) Pin type. Ii) Suspension type. Iii) Shackle. Iv) Strain. v) Stay

3) Isolating Switches:In Sub-Station, it is often desired to disconnect a part of the system for general maintenance and repairs. This is accomplished by an isolating switch or isolator. An isolator is essentially a kniff Switch and is design to often open a circuit under no load, in other words, isolator Switches are operate only when the line is which they are connected carry no load. For example, consider that the isolator are connected on both side of a cut breaker, if the isolators are to be opened, the C.B. must be opened first.

4) Instrument Transformer:The line in Sub-Station operates at high voltage and carries current of thousands of amperes. The measuring instrument and protective devices are designed for low voltage (generally 110V) and current (about 5A). Therefore, they will not work satisfactory if mounted directly on the power lines. This difficulty is overcome by installing Instrument transformer, on the power lines. There are two types of instrument transformer.

i) Current Transformer:A current transformer is essentially a step-down transformer which steps-down the current in a known ratio, the primary of this transformer consist of one or more turn of thick wire connected in series with the line, the secondary consist of thick wire connected in series with line having large number of turn of fine wire and provides for measuring instrument, and relay a current which is a constant faction of the current in the line.

ii) Voltage Transformer:It is essentially a step - down transformer and step down the voltage in known ratio. The primary of these transformer consist of large number of turn of fine wire connected across the line. The secondary way consist of a few turns and provides for measuring instruments and relay a voltage which is known fraction of the line voltage.

5) Metering and Indicating Instrument:There are several metering and indicating Instrument (e.g. Ammeters, Volt-meters, energy meter etc.) installed in a Sub-Station to maintain which over the circuit quantities. The instrument transformer is invariably used with them for satisfactory operation.

6) Miscellaneous equipment:In addition to above, there may be following equipment in a Sub-Station. i)Fuses. ii) Carrier-current equipment. iii) Sub-Station auxiliary supplies.

7) Protective relay: A protective relay is a device that detects the fault and initiates the operation of the C.B. to isolate the defective element from the rest of the system. The relay detects the abnormal condition in the electrical circuit by constantly measuring the electrical quantities, which are different under normal and fault condition. The electrical quantities which may change under fault condition are voltage, current, frequency and phase angle. Having detected the fault, the relay operates to close the trip circuit of C.B.

8) Circuit breaker:A circuit breaker is equipment, which can open or close a circuit under normal as well as fault condition. It is so designed that it can be operated manually under normal conditions and automatically under fault condition. For the latter operation a relayed is used with a C.B. generally bulk oil C.B. are used for voltage up to 66 KV while for high voltage low oil & SF6 C.B. are used. For still higher voltage, air blast vacuum or SF6 cut breaker are used.

The process of fault clearing has the following sequence: 1- Fault Occurs. As the fault occurs, the fault impedance being low, the currents increase and the relay gets actuated. The moving part of the relay move because of the increase in the operating torque. The relay takes some time to close its contacts. 2- Relay contacts close the trip circuit of the Circuit Breaker closes and trip coil is energized. 3- - The operating mechanism starts operating for the opening operation. The Circuit Breaker contacts separate. 4- Arc is drawn between the breaker contacts. The arc is extinguished in the Circuit Breaker by suitable techniques. The current reaches final zero as the arc is extinguished and does not restrict again. The Trip-Circuit is shown below:

The types of the Circuit Breaker are as follows:


The type of the Circuit Breaker is usually identified according to the medium of arc extinction. The classification of the Circuit Breakers based on the medium of arc extinction is as follows: (1) Air breaks Circuit Breaker. (2) Oil Circuit Breaker (tank type of bulk oil) (3) Minimum oil Circuit Breaker. (4) Air blast Circuit Breaker. (5) Vacuum Circuit Breaker. (6) Sulphur hexafluoride Circuit Breaker. (Single pressure or Double Pressure).

9) Power Transformer:Transformer as a static electrical device, involving no continuously moving parts, used in electric power systems to transfer power between circuits through the use of electromagnetic induction. The term power transformer is used to refer to those transformers used between the generator and the distribution circuits, and these are usually rated at 500 kVA and above. Power systems typically consist of a large number of generation locations, distribution points, and interconnections within the system. The complexity of the system leads to avariety of transmission and distribution voltages. Power transformers must be used at each of these points where there is a transition between voltage levels. Power transformers are selected based on the application, with the emphasis toward custom design being more apparent the larger the unit. Power transformers are available for step-up operation, primarily used at the generator and referred to as generator step-up (GSU)transformers, and for step-down operation, mainly used to feed distribution circuits. Power transformers are available as single-phase or three-phase apparatus. Transformer is a vital link in a power system which has made possible the power generated at low voltages (6600 to 22000 volts) to be stepped up to extra high voltages for transmission over long distances and then transformed to low voltages for utilization at proper load centers. This flux induces an electro-motive force in the secondary winding too. When load is connected across these winding, current flows in the secondary circuit. This produces a demagnetizing effect, to counter balance this the primary winding draws more current from the supply so that
IpNp=IsNs

CONSTRUCTION a)- Transformer Core


Construction in which the iron circuit is surrounded by windings and forms a low reluctance path for the magnetic flux set up by the voltage impressed on the primary

The core of shell type is shown Fig.(2), Fig.(3), Fig.(4), and Fig.(5), in which The winding is surrounded by the iron Circuit Consisting of two or more paths through which the flux divides. This arrangement affords somewhat Better protection to coils under short circuit conditions.

b)- Windings:
The windings consist of the current-carrying conductors wound around the sections of the core, and these must be properly insulated, supported, and cooled to with stand operational and test conditions. The terms winding and coil are used interchangeably in this discussion. Copper and aluminum are the primary materials used as conductors in power-transformer windings. While aluminum is lighter and generally less expensive than copper, a larger cross section of aluminum conductor must be used to carry a current with similar performance as copper. Copper has higher mechanical strength and is used almost exclusively in all but the smaller size ranges, where aluminum conductors may be perfectly acceptable. In cases where extreme forces are encountered, materials such as silver-bearing copper can be used for even greater strength. The conductors used in power transformers are typically stranded with a rectangular cross section, although some transformers at the lowest ratings may use sheet or foil conductors. Multiple strands can be wound in parallel and joined together at the ends of the winding, in which case it
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is necessary to transpose the strands at various points through out the winding to prevent circulating currents around the loop(s) created by joining the strands at the ends. Individual strands may be subjected to differences in the flux field due to their respective positions within the winding, which create differences in voltages between the strand sand drive circulating currents through the conductor loops. Proper transposition of the strands cancels out these voltage differences and eliminates or greatly reduces the circulating currents. A variation of this technique, involving many rectangular conductor strands combined into a cable, is called continuously transposed cable (CTC).

c) -Tank:
The tank has two main parts: a The tank is manufactured by forming and welding steel plate to be used as a container for holding the core and coil assembly together with insulating oil. The base and the shroud, over which a cover is sometimes bolted. These parts are manufactured in steel plates assembled together via weld beads. The tank is provided internally with devices usually made of wood for fixing the magnetic circuit and the windings. In addition, the tank is designed to withstand a total vacuum during the treatment process. Sealing between the base and shroud is provided by weld beads. The other openings are sealed with oil-resistant synthetic rubber joints, whose compression is limited by steel stops. Finally the tank is designed to withstand the application of the internal over pressure specified, without permanent deformation

d)-Conservator:
The tank is equipped with an expansion reservoir (conservator) which allows for the expansion of the oil during operation. The conservator is designed to hold a total vacuum and may be equipped with a rubber membrane preventing direct contact between the oil and the air.

e)-The dehydrating breather:


The dehydrating breather is provided at the entrance of the conservator of oil immersed equipment such as Transformers and reactors. The conservator governs the breathing action of the oil system on forming to the temperature change of the equipment, and the dehydrating breather removes the moisture and dust in the air inhaled and prevents the deterioration of the Transformer oil due to moisture absorption. Construction and Operation See Fig.. The dehydrating breather uses silica gel as the desiccating Agent and is provided with an oil pot at the bottom to filtrate the inhaled air.

Fig. Dehydrating breather

f)-Bushing:
Having manufactured various types of bushings ranging from 6kV-class to800kV-class, Toshiba has accumulated many years of splendid actual results in their operation. Plain-type Bushing Applicable to 24 kV-classes or below, this type of bushing is available in a standard series up to 25,000A rated current. Consisting of a single porcelain tube through which passes a central conductor, this bushing is of simplified construction and small mounting dimensions; especially,
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this type proves to be advantageous when used as an opening of equipment to be placed in a bus 24 KV Bushing Oil-impregnated, Paper-insulated Condenser Bushing Fig. 800 KV bushing

g)-Temperature Measuring Device:


Liquid Temperature Indicator (like BM SERIES Type) is used to measure oil temperature as a standard practice. With its temperature detector installed on the tank cover and with its indicating part installed at any position easy to observe on the front of the Transformer, the dial temperature detector is used to measure maximum oil temperature. The indicating part, provided with an alarm contact and a maximum temperature pointer, is of airtight construction with moisture absorbed contained therein; thus, there is no possibility of the glass interior collecting moisture whereby it would be difficult to observe the indicator Fig. (30&31).Further, during remote measurement and recording of the oil temperatures, on request a search coil can be installed which is fine copper wire wound on nabob in used to measure temperature through changes in its resistance. Winding Temperature Indicator Relay (BM SERIES). The winding temperature indicator relay is a conventional oil temperature indicator supplemented with an electrical heating element. The relay measures the temperature of the hottest part of the Transformer winding. If specified, the relay can be fitted with a precision potentiometer with the same characteristics as the search coil for remote indication.

PARALLEL OPERATION OF THREE-PHASETRANSFORMERS:


Ideal parallel operation between Transformers occurs when there are no circulating currents on open circuit, and the load division between the Transformers is proportional to their kVA ratings. These requirements necessitate that any - two or more three phase Transformers, which are desired to be operated in parallel, should possess: 1) The same no load ratio of transformation; 2) The same percentage impedance; 3) The same resistance to reactance ratio; 4) The same polarity; 5) The same phase rotation; 6) The same inherent phase-angle displacement between primary and secondary terminals. The above conditions are characteristic of all three phase Transformers whether two winding or three winding. With three winding Transformers, however, the following additional requirement must also be satisfied before the Transformers can be designed suitable for parallel operation. 7) The same power ratio between the corresponding windings. The first four conditions need no explanation being the same as in single phase Transformers. The fifth condition of phase rotation is also a simple requirement. It assumes that the standard direction of phase rotation is anticlockwise. In case of any difference in the phase rotation it can be set right by simply interchanging two leads either on primary or secondary. It is the intention here to discuss the last two i.e., sixth and seventh conditions in detail

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INTERNSHIP REPORT OF ELECTRICAL DISTRIBUTION DEPARTMENT(ED) PERIOD OF TRAINING-4 DAYS SUBMITTED BY: NUSRAT ABBAS MALIK

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